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International

Telecommunication

Union

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT


Measuring ICT for Social and Economic Development

You want to know the difference information and communication technologies make? Try to live without them

2006 ITU International Telecommunication Union Place des Nations CH-1211 Geneva Switzerland First printing March 2006 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the International Telecommunication Union. Denominations and classifications employed in this publication do not imply any opinion on the part of the International Telecommunication Union concerning the legal or other status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of any boundary. Where the designation country appears in this publication, it covers countries and territories.

ISBN 92-61-11451-2

FOREWORD
The 2006 ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report: Measuring ICT for Social and Economic Development has been specially prepared for the World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC) (Doha, Qatar 7-15 March 2006). This years report examines the specific issue of evaluating and measuring the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs). ITU has long been involved in measuring the availability of telecommunication/ICT infrastructure and has more recently begun to measure the use of ICTs. Its 2003 World Telecommunication Development Report highlighted the importance of agreeing upon a harmonized and globally relevant set of Access Indicators for the Information Society and ITUs contribution in terms of statistical information and analysis has been critical in understanding the digital divide. The importance of ICTs, and the way they are transforming the world, were confirmed with the decision to hold the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The resounding success of both phases of the Summit (December 2003 in Geneva and November 2005 in Tunis) further highlighted the relevance of the topic. The Summit attracted participants from more than 800 entities, including governments, international organizations, private sector companies and civil society organizations, to tackle the problem of the digital divide and to exploit the potential that ICTs hold. The final WSIS outcome documents the Tunis Commitment and the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society highlight the potential of ICTs in improving the socio-economic development of all human beings. They also point to the growing importance of the role of ICTs, not only as a medium of communication, but also as a development enabler, and as a tool for the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. Through this report, ITU is reaffirming its leading role in measuring the Information Society by addressing an area where little international data and even fewer indicators are available: the impact of ICTs on economic and social development. Besides responding to an obvious need to go beyond measuring the level of access and use of ICTs, this report is also a direct response to the WSIS request to track global progress in the use of ICTs to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. Together with the WSIS outcome documents, this report will provide an input to the WTDC and the Doha Action Plan. This new edition of the World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report will show that most work carried out in the area of impact measurement is still at a nascent stage, and often restricted to developed countries. Although there is a growing body of evidence that ICTs have a growing macro-economic impact an area where a number of countries have carried out studies it is not clear to what extent and how exactly ICTs have helped to reduce major development concerns, particularly those linked to the Millennium Development Goals, such as eradicating poverty and hunger, improving education and health care and ensuring environmental sustainability. The main objective of this report is to help measure the difference that ICTs are making. The report is in six chapters. The first provides an overview of global telecommunication/ ICT developments, with major trends in each region. It shows who actually has access to the Information Society. The second chapter puts the Information Society into context and describes the importance of measuring it. It highlights current efforts to overcome the statistical divide and the need to go beyond indicators on access to, and use of, ICTs. Chapter three looks at measuring the impact of the ICT sector on the economy, including a number of studies that have been carried out in this area. Chapter four looks at the broader economic impact of ICTs, for example on productivity and employment, both in the public and private sectors. Chapter five examines the issue of ICTs and social development, looks at concrete examples and case studies and proposes a scheme to identify possible indicators for measuring the impact of ICTs on the achievement of the MDGs. Chapter six summarizes the reports main findings. The report also contains the latest statistics on telecommunication/ICT developments in some 200 economies worldwide, such as the growth of broadband access and mobile telephony.

Yoshio UTSUMI Secretary-General International Telecommunication Union


iii

PREFACE
It is a pleasure to present this eighth edition of the World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report (WTDR). The report reflects the important role that ITUs Development Sector (ITU-D) has in collecting, harmonizing, and exchanging information in the area of ICT/telecommunication statistics. Information on digital opportunities and challenges in the ICT sector were an important foundation and focus of the recent World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, 2003 in Geneva and 2005 in Tunis). The Summit raised awareness of the importance of ICT/telecommunication statistics to understand countries progress towards becoming Information Societies. One outcome of the Summit has been the request for an extended focus on indicators for monitoring this progress, including impact indicators to track global progress in the use of ICTs to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals (Tunis Agenda for the Information Society, paragraph 113). This request has already been addressed, through the launch of the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, in June 2004. This multi-stakeholder partnership aims to further accommodate and develop the different initiatives regarding the availability and measurement of ICT indicators at national, regional and international levels. It provides an open framework for coordinating ongoing and future activities, and for developing a coherent and structured approach to advancing the development of ICT indicators globally, and in particular in developing countries. The Partnership includes the ITU, OECD, UNCTAD, UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the UN Regional Commissions (ECA, ECLAC, ESCAP, and ESCWA), Eurostat, the UN ICT Task Force (which is to be succeeded by its replacement in 2006) and the World Bank. In a very short period of time, the Partnership has made a number of achievements, including the development of a common set of core ICT indicators. These 42 core indicators, which were agreed upon in February 2005, reflect the key actors in the Information Society individuals, households, and enterprises. The list will guide countries in their data collection efforts and improve the availability of internationally comparable statistics on access to, and use of, ICTs. To truly understand the magnitude of the Information Society it is, however, necessary to go beyond measuring access to, and use of, ICTs. This is particularly true since ICTs are not an end in themselves. Instead, they have been recognized as an important tool for social and economic development. While there is little doubt that ICTs are generating social, economic, cultural and political changes, there is only limited quantifiable proof, and a lack of internationally available data, on the impact of ICTs. I am pleased to note that this report addresses this shortcoming by examining existing work in this area and by proposing a number of indicators that could help measure impact. Potential impact indicators are also proposed to measure the role that ICTs play in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which stand at the centre of the international development agenda. The report wraps up a busy 2005 for the ITU-D statistical group. In February 2005, it organized the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators meeting. This brought together telecommunication ministries and regulators and national statistical agencies to identify and define key indicators for tracking telecommunication/ICT markets and developments. The ITU-D and the Mexican Undersecretary of Communications jointly organized the Global Indicators Workshop on Community Access to ICTs, and identified a number of new indicators that will help measure community access. A number of WSIS statistical side events and an African regional workshop on monitoring the Information Society were also organized. Our staff also participated in statistical events throughout the year to share ongoing research on identifying indicators in various ICT areas. I am convinced that ICT policy-makers, operators, investors, researchers, statisticians, and international, regional and non-governmental organizations will find this report a vital toolkit for their work and activities. If the issues raised in this report initiate debate and encourage further the discussion on the impact of information and communication technologies, it will significantly advance the understanding of the Information Society around the world.

Hamadoun I. TOUR Director, Telecommunication Development Bureau International Telecommunication Union


v

The World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006 Measuring ICT for Social and Economic Development was prepared by a team of authors led by the Market, Economics, and Finance Unit (MEF) of the ITUs Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT). The main authors of the report are Vanessa Gray, Esperanza Magpantay, Herbert Thompson, John de Ridder, and Russell Southwood. Christopher Garbacz, Stephen Esselaar, and Tracy Cohen also contributed. Special thanks to Chan Keu (www.moncontactawashington.com) for drawing the picture of the cover. Nathalie Rollet coordinated the layout and production of the report and Jean-Jacques Mendez did the cover design. The Market, Economics, and Finance Unit would also like to thank ITU Member States and Sector Members, telecommunication operators, regulators and others that have provided data and other inputs to the report. We would further like to thank Scarlett Fondeur Gil and Susan Teltscher from UNCTAD and Marijana Lee and Ebrahim Al-Haddad from ITU for their insightful comments. Several meetings provided valuable input to the report. These included the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting and several meetings organized by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, such as the WSIS Thematic Meeting on Measuring the Information Society. The Global Indicators Workshop on Community Access to ICTs, the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meetings on MDG Indicators, and the Eurostat Working Group Meeting on Communication Statistics also provided some valuable input. The views expressed are those of the authors and may not necessarily reflect the opinions of the ITU or its Members.

vi

CONTENTS
FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................................. iii PREFACE........................................................................................................................................................ iv DATA NOTES ................................................................................................................................................. xi

1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT ........................................................ 1.1 Market structure .................................................................................................................................... 1.2 Fixed line network trends ...................................................................................................................... 1.3 Mobile keeps booming .......................................................................................................................... 1.4 Internet trends ....................................................................................................................................... 1.5 Telecommunication investment............................................................................................................. 1.6 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................

1 2 3 4 7 8 8

2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY ................................................................................. 11 2.1 The statistical divide ............................................................................................................................11 2.2 A step towards overcoming the statistical divide the core list of ICT indicators ............................ 12 2.3 Going beyond access and usage indicators: measuring the impact of ICTs ....................................... 19 2.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 20 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY .......................................... 3.1 ICTs, the economy, and certain measurement issues .......................................................................... 3.2 The impact of the ICT sector on the economy .................................................................................... 3.3 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTS ............................................................................. 4.1 Conceptual issues ................................................................................................................................ 4.2 ICTs and productivity .......................................................................................................................... 4.3 Private sector transformation .............................................................................................................. 4.4 Public sector transformation ............................................................................................................... 4.5 Surveys of the indirect impacts of ICTs .............................................................................................. 4.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 23 25 28 35 39 40 41 44 53 61 63

5. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF ICTS ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ......................................... 69 5.1. Defining social development............................................................................................................... 70 5.2 ICTs and social development .............................................................................................................. 71 5.3 The impact of ICTs on social development......................................................................................... 73 5.4 Measuring ICTs and social development ............................................................................................ 78 5.5 ICTs and the Millennium Development Goals: beyond the golden anecdote..................................... 81 5.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 84 6. CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 87

GLOSSARY, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................... 89 WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS ....................................................................... 93

vii

FIGURES
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 Overall, the digital divide is shrinking... ................................................................................................... 1 Worldwide competition ............................................................................................................................. 2 (Limited) fixed line growth ....................................................................................................................... 3 Mobile growth ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Mobile revenues on the rise ...................................................................................................................... 5 Where 3G stands (and where 3G subscribers stand) ................................................................................. 6 Internet growth .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Broadband ................................................................................................................................................. 8 Global telecommunication investment ...................................................................................................... 9 Stocktaking results of surveys on household access to, and use of, ICTs, 2003/2004............................ 13 Individual and household access and use ................................................................................................ 15 Internet use and e-commerce activity in the business sector .................................................................. 16 GDP and selected ICT growth ................................................................................................................. 23 GDP per capita and ICTs ......................................................................................................................... 24 Falling computer prices ........................................................................................................................... 27 Telecommunication service revenues on the rise .................................................................................... 29 Increasing telecommunication revenues ................................................................................................. 29 ICT employment ..................................................................................................................................... 31 ICT manufacturing companies benefits ................................................................................................. 32 Export and imports of ICT goods and services ....................................................................................... 33 The ICT market and the overall economy ............................................................................................... 34 More use of ICTs more productivity .................................................................................................... 42 ICTs contribution to economic growth .................................................................................................. 44 Spread of e-commerce and net impact of e-business in Canada ............................................................. 45 Major outsourcing economies ................................................................................................................. 48 The contribution of Indias outsourcing services to the IT sector and economy .................................... 49 Why people are prepared to spend so much on a (mobile) phone .......................................................... 52 How e-government saves time and money ............................................................................................. 54 How executives in Latin America see the benefits of ICTs .................................................................... 61 Time is money! How the Internet can help save both ............................................................................. 62 How to measure the impacts of ICTs on social development: inputs, outputs and outcomes ................ 80

TABLES
2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 Core list of ICT indicators ....................................................................................................................... 17 Defining the ICT sector: two different approaches ................................................................................. 26 Contribution of the ICT sector to industry and services in Ireland ......................................................... 30 Characteristics of the ICT manufacturing and service industries in EU25, 2001 ................................... 33 Eight goals, 18 targets, 48 indicators ...................................................................................................... 70 Concrete examples how ICTs impact the MDGs .................................................................................... 79 A scheme to develop and identify the impact of ICTs on the MDGs ..................................................... 82

viii

BOXES
2.1 2.2 2.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 The Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development ............................................................................. 12 How many people are covered by Public Internet Access Centres in Mexico?...................................... 14 WSIS: Our expectations are high! The promises the Information Society holds ................................... 20 You want to know the difference ICTs have made? Try to live without them: The difficulty of measuring General Purpose Technologies ................................................................... 40 The Wal-Mart Phenomenon: more than ICTs ......................................................................................... 41 Solows growth accounting theories to explain economic growth ......................................................... 42 Two B2C e-commerce champions: Amazon and eBay, from 1995-2005 ............................................... 46 British Telecoms experience with teleworking ...................................................................................... 50 Mobile makes business examples from Bangladesh, South Africa, and Nigeria ................................. 51 The definition of ICT skills ..................................................................................................................... 53 Australia measuring e-government and its impact ............................................................................... 55 ChileCompra: e-government for transparency and openness ................................................................. 57 Potential cost savings from telemedicine Australia ............................................................................. 58 The impact of ICTs on education ............................................................................................................ 59 The African Virtual University: reaching 24000 students ..................................................................... 60 Tsunami Training doctors to analyze disease information ................................................................... 69 Getting the message to those who can make a difference ....................................................................... 72 The MIT Open Courseware Initiative (OCW): free educational material for everyone (who is online) ...... 74 Tsunami: what ICTs can and cannot do .................................................................................................. 77

BOX FIGURES
4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.11 5.3 The transformation of Amazon and eBay ............................................................................................... 46 British Telecom savings through telework .............................................................................................. 50 GrameenPhones contribution to Bangladeshs economy ....................................................................... 51 Share of ICT-skilled employment in total employment, narrow and broad definition ........................... 53 Purpose of Internet use and savings made through e-government .......................................................... 55 More equal access to contracts ................................................................................................................ 57 Access to computers and its effect on students performance ................................................................. 59 The MIT Open Courseware Initiative ..................................................................................................... 74

BOX TABLES
2.2 Localities and population covered by Public Internet Access Centres (PIAC) in Mexico, 2004 (Indicator A10 of the Core List) .............................................................................................................. 14

ix

DATA NOTES

Country groupings A number of economic and regional groupings are used in the report. Economic groupings are based on Gross National Income (GNI) per capita classifications used by The World Bank. Economies are classified according to their 2004 GNI per capita in the following groups: Low income Economies with a GNI per capita of US$ 825 or less; Lower-middle income Economies with a GNI per capita of between US$ 826 and US$ 3255; Upper-middle income Economies with a GNI per capita of between US$ 3256 and US$ 10065; High income Economies with a GNI per capita of US$ 10066 or more. See the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators section for the income classification of specific economies. The classification developed and developing is also used in the report. Developed economies are classified as: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. All other economies are considered developing for the purposes of this report. The classification least developed countries (LDCs) is also employed. The LDCs are Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Yemen, and Zambia. The grouping Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is also used. Members include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. A number of regional groupings are used in the report. The main regional groupings are Africa, Asia, Americas, Europe and Oceania. Note that Pacific is also used in the report to refer to the Oceania region. See List of economies in the World Telecommunication/ ICT Indicators section for the primary regional classification of specific economies. The following subregional groupings are also used in the report: Arab region Arabic-speaking economies; Asia-Pacific refers to all economies in Asia east of, and including Iran, as well as Pacific Ocean economies; Central and Eastern Europe Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovak Republic, Slovenia and The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Commonwealth of Independent States 12 republics emerging from the former Soviet Union excluding the Baltic nations; Latin America and the Caribbean Central (including Mexico) and South America and the Caribbean; North America Generally, Canada and the United States although in some charts, Mexico is also included (if so, this is noted); Southern Europe Cyprus, Malta and Turkey; Western Europe refers to the member states of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

xi

Data notes Billion is one thousand million. Dollars are current United States dollars (US$) unless otherwise noted. If national currency values have been converted into US$, average annual exchange rates were used. Growth rates are based on current prices unless otherwise noted. Thousands are separated by an apostrophe (1000). Totals may not always add up due to rounding. Additional definitions are provided in the technical notes of the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators.

Note that data in some charts and tables referring to the same item may not be consistent and may also differ from the tables shown in the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators section. This can happen because of revisions to data that occurred after sections of the report were written as well as different estimation techniques and/or exchange rates. These variations tend to be insignificant in their impact on the analysis and conclusions drawn in the report. Finally it should be noted that the data generally refer to fiscal years as reported by countries.

xii

CHAPTER 1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

1.

STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

By the end of 2004, the telecommunication industry had experienced continuous growth, as well as rapid progress in policy and technology development, resulting in an increasingly competitive and networked world. It is true and encouraging that overall, the digital divide has been reduced. ITU statistics show that over the last ten years, the digital divide between the developing

and the developed countries has been shrinking in terms of fixed telephone lines, mobile subscribers and Internet users. Phenomenal growth rates in the mobile sector particularly, have been able to reduce the gap that separates the developed from the developing countries from 27 in 1994, to 4 in 2004. The fixed line gap has been reduced from 11 to 4 during the same period (Figure 1.1).

Figure: 1.1: Overall, the digital divide is shrinking...


Mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, 1994-2004 (left) and fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants, 1994-2004 (right)

100 80 60

Mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants


77

100

Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants Developed Developing World 56 57 57 56 54

80 60 49 40

Developed Developing World


The digital 35 divide in 1994: 27 25
8 5 1 0 2 0 13 3 1 18 4 1 5 2 8 3

70 65 58 50

40 20 0

The digital divide in 2004: 4


16 5 8 19 11 23 14

28 19

20

12

55 The digital The digital divide in divide in 2004: 4 1994: 11 15 16 17 18 18 12 12 13 14 14 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 6 7 0 01 02 03 04

54 50 52 54

19 13

0 1994 95 96 97 98 99

1994 95 96 97 98 99

01 02 03 04

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database. Note: In these charts, the digital divide is calculated by dividing the penetration rates in the developed world by the penetration rate in the developing world. Penetration rates are rounded, whereas the digital divide is calculated based on actual numbers. For this reason, the digital divide results do not always correspond to the figures indicated in the graph. For example: Fixed line penetration in 1994 in the developed world was 48.8, compared to 4.4 in the developing world, which means the digital divide (48.8/4.4) was 11, and not 12, as the rounded penetration rates (49 versus 4) might suggest.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

However, with the proliferation of new technologies, there is a concern that a solution to the lingering problem of uneven distribution of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) across the world will continue to be elusive. Indeed, the level of development in ICT access and use in the world is still divided among different social and economic criteria. 1.1 Market structure Two critical factors contributing to growth in the industry over the years are privatization and competition, which have shown to increase market responsiveness to high demand for ICTs, bring down prices and optimize the entrepreneurial skills needed

to increase innovative service deployment. By the end of 2005, competition was evident in 87 percent of the global cellular markets and 93 percent of the worlds Internet markets. Basic services remained the least competitive sector, with just 61 percent of the global markets open to competition (Figure 1.2 top charts and bottom left). Globally, Europe leads as the region with the highest degree of liberalization and competition in its telecommunication sector. Competition is the norm with 82 percent competition in the basic service markets and 96 percent in cellular mobile market. Europe is the only region with 100 percent competition in its Internet market.

Figure 1.2: Worldwide competition


Level of competition in the fixed line, mobile cellular and Internet markets, by region, 2005 (top left and right and bottom left) and privatization of incumbent operators, by region, 2004 (bottom right)

Basic services, 2005 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Africa Americas AsiaArab Europe World Pacific States Monopoly Competition
51% 49% 61% 39% 59% 41% 34% 18% 66% 82%

Cellular mobile services, 2005 120% 100%


61%
93%

Monopoly Competition
87% 76% 79% 96% 87%

80% 60% 40% 20% 0%


8%

39%

24%

21% 13% 4% 13%

Africa Americas AsiaArab Europe World Pacific States

Internet services, 2005 100% 80% 60% 40%


24% 93% 96% 76% 100% 93%

Privatization of incumbent operators, 2004 90% 77% 74% 70% 53% 50% 30% 43% 42%

92%

Monopoly Competition

20% 0%

8%

7%

4%

7% 0%

Africa Americas AsiaArab Europe World Pacific States

10% Europe Americas Asia&CIS Pacific Arab States Africa

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Regulatory Database.

CHAPTER 1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

In the Arab States, more and more countries are opening up their cellular mobile services to competition. With today 87 percent of the mobile market competitive, the region has a higher degree of competition than Asia-Pacific and the Americas (Figure 1.2, top right). In basic telephone services, monopoly operators are frequent, and two-thirds (66 percent) of basic markets are not open to competition. Competition in the Internet Service Provider (ISP) sector has been introduced in 76 percent of the regions market (Figure 1.2, bottom right). Private investment and participation in what was formerly a government-controlled national telecom operator is again most evident in the European markets, where 77 percent of carriers are privatized. This compares to 74 percent in the Americas, 53 percent in Asia Pacific, 43 percent in the Arab States, and 42 percent in Africa (Figure 1.2, bottom right). 1.2 Fixed line network trends The overall trend of fixed line growth over the period 1994-2004 is one of relatively slow growth, particularly compared to other ICTs. Globally, fixed lines have grown by an average of 5.1 percent a year since 1994 and growth has stood clearly below the world average in the Americas and Europe (Figure 1.3, left). In a number of countries, including Canada, France, Italy and the United States, the number of

fixed telephone lines has actually been decreasing over the last few years. Limited growth is to some extent linked to the fact that some countries have reached saturation levels. Regional comparisons clearly show that high penetration levels are matched with low growth rates, whereas low-penetration regions such as Asia and Africa show above-average growth rates. Although higher growth rates in the developing regions have to some extent narrowed the digital divide in fixed lines, a comparison of 2004 penetration levels shows that major differences remain. Both Europe and the Americas, where penetration levels stood at 41 and 34 percent, respectively, are far ahead of Asia (14 percent) and still have more than ten times the penetration level of Africa (three percent, Figure 1.3, right). Several challenging trends in the past years have contributed to this overall stagnant development in the fixed line market. Most dominant among them is the phenomenal growth of the mobile cellular sector, which has opened up the way for fixed-to-mobile substitution (FMS). FMS may take different forms, is not always clearly measurable (unless through household surveys), and interpretations and predictions about its scale and impact vary. Although the relatively stable number of fixed lines in the developed world suggests that few users are actually cutting the cord, a recent EU commissioned survey

Figure 1.3: (Limited) fixed line growth


Fixed telephone line growth rates (left) and fixed telephone line penetration (right) by region over the period of 1994-2004

16%

Growth rates in fixed telephone lines, 1994-2004

Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants, 1994-2004 50 Europe Oceania

12%

11.5%

40
Penetration, %

8% 5.1% 4% 2.0%

30 20 10 0 1994 1996 1998 2000


Asia World

Americas

6.1%

2.5%
1.1%

Africa

0% Americas Europe World Africa Asia Oceania

2002

2004

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

suggests that some new European users are going straight to mobile. According to the 2004 survey an increasing number of households have one or more mobile phones without owning any fixed line: while the average of households without any fixed line is 15%, this proportion reaches 33% in Finland and Portugal.1 FMS seems to be an even greater issue in the low and lower-income regions, where much higher mobile growth rates show that the mobile phone has become the number one voice communication technology. Other factors threatening fixed line operators revenues are the entry of cable and Television (TV) companies into the telephony and broadband market, as well as the Voice over Internet

Protocol (VoIP) market.2 Since VoIP requires large amounts of bandwidth, it only provides a threat in regions where broadband penetration is significant. 1.3 Mobile keeps booming In contrast to the slow fixed line growth, the mobile cellular sector has shown phenomenal growth over the past five years, with the number of mobile cellular subscribers still increasing rapidly today (Figure 1.4, top left). There have been more mobile subscribers than fixed telephone lines since 2002, and by the end of 2004, the world counted some 1.8 billion mobile cellular subscribers, or 28 percent of the worlds

Figure 1.4: Mobile growth


Mobile cellular penetration rates, by region, 1999-2004 (top left) and distribution of mobile subscribers, by region, 1994-2004 (top right); effective teledensity (fixed or mobile penetration rate, whichever is higher) compared to GDP per capita, 2004 (bottom left) and prepaid mobile cellular subscribers as a percentage of total mobile subscribers, by region, 2004 (bottom right)
Mobile penetration rates, by region, 1999-2004 80 100% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1999 Africa 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 World Asia 20% 0% 1994 Americas: 21% Africa: 4% 2000 2002 2004 Oceania Americas 60% 40% Asia: 41 % Europe 80% Europe: 33% Distribution of mobile subscribers, by region Oceania: 1%

1996

1998

Teledensity

120

Effective teledensity (fixed or mobile penetration rate, whichever is higher) and GDP per capita, world

Prepaid mobile subscribers as % of total subscribers, 2004 Africa Europe 61.9 46.3 45.7 31.2 42.5 87.4

80

World
Countries with mobile > fixed Countries with fixed > mobile GDP per capita, US$

40

Oceania Asia Americas

20'000

40'000

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

CHAPTER 1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

population. This compares to 1.2 billion fixed telephone lines, and a penetration rate of 19 percent. More than 70 percent of mobile subscribers can be found in Asia and Europe, and in 2002, Asia overtook Europe as the region with the largest share of mobile subscribers in the world (Figure 1.4, top right). By the end of 2004, the overwhelming majority (166) of countries in the world had more mobile than fixed subscribers (Figure 1.4, bottom left). While there is an obvious link between a countrys income level (as measured by its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita) and its teledensity, the status of economic development does not seem to have an impact on the ratio of fixed to mobile subscribers. Both Cambodia and Finland were amongst the first countries in the world to have more mobile than fixed subscribers. Todays group of countries where fixed lines still outnumber mobile subscribers includes such countries as Canada, Egypt and Ethiopia. The main reasons for mobile growth have been the introduction of prepaid services, rapid network deployment, and a highly competitive environment. Indeed, the sector is marked by more competition than any other sector (Figure 1.2, top right). Prepaid has become the predominant payment method in the developing countries and the choice of nearly every second mobile subscribers in the world (Figure 1.4, bottom right). Prepaid services, which in Africa make

up almost 90 percent of the entire market, allow operators to reduce risks and offer services to clients that may not qualify for a monthly subscription. They also offer subscribers better control of their telecommunication spending. The rapid rise of mobile cellular into an alternative platform for voice communications is also attributed to the drop in prices for mobile services, subsidized handsets in a number of countries, and the introduction of a wide range of additional services, particularly short message services (SMS). Certainly the technologys intrinsic appeal for mobility and personal identity have further contributed to its success. Multimedia messaging service (MMS), and mobile Internet still represent only a very small share of the mobile market and SMS continues to make up the lions share of mobile data revenues. There are some signs that non-SMS data services in more mature markets are growing.3 All of these factors have resulted in increasingly large gains from the mobile market as a proportion of total revenues for operators. This is true for the majority of economies and illustrated by the increasing share that mobile revenues represent (Figure 1.5, left). While competition has contributed much to the reduction of mobile tariffs as well as to the reduction of Average Revenues Per User (ARPU) (Figure 1.5,

Figure 1.5: Mobile revenues on the rise


Distribution of telecommunication services revenue, 1994-2004 (left), and average wireless ARPU by region, second quarter 2004 and 2005 (right)

Telecommunication service revenues, world, 1994-2004 100% Other 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1994 Fixed telephone Mobile

Average wireless ARPU by region, US$ 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


Africa Asia- E.Europe M. East W. Europe US&Canada Global Pacific L.America

Q2 2004 Q2 2005

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database (left) and ITU adapted from Telegeography (right). Note: Left chart: Fixed telephone includes revenues from installation, subscription and local, trunk and international call charges for fixed telephone service. Mobile includes revenues from the provision of all types of mobile communication services such cellular, private trunked radio and radio paging. Other includes revenues from leased circuits, data communications, telex, telegraph and other telecom-related revenue.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

right)4 in every region of the world, mobile operators have largely compensated by expanding their number of subscribers. While on average almost one in three of the worlds citizens is a mobile subscriber, there are major regional differences. Indeed, despite the rapid growth in all of the worlds regions and particularly in the developing countries, major differences in penetration levels persist. In 2004, Europes mobile penetration rate stood at 71 percent, almost twice the penetration rate of the Americas (43 percent), and nearly four times the penetration rate of Asia (19 percent). Europe had almost eight times the penetration rate of Africa, where less than one out of ten people subscribe to a mobile service (Figure 1.4, top left). These figures certainly highlight that access to, and use of, mobile services remain unevenly distributed between regions and countries. At the same time, they highlight potential market opportunities and new customers for operators. 1.3.1 Mobile data Third generation (3G) services, which allow higher transmission speeds and enhanced data services, have been offered by a number of operators since 2001.5 By February 2006, 75 of the worlds economies were offering commercial 3G services and the total number of reported subscribers accessing 3G technologies was 236 million (Figure 1.6, left).6 While 3G technologies promise a wide range of innovative applications for users and a new source of revenues for operators, they

are unlikely to make a dramatic change for the worlds poorest in the next couple of years. The majority of low-income countries have not yet deployed Third Generation services and the distribution of 3G subscribers worldwide highlights this 3G divide. Given the nascent state and low revenues of 3G services in most developed countries, operators seem unsure about the potential and opportunities of 3G in developing markets and have been reluctant to invest in this sector. In contrast to its leading position in (second generation) mobile network availability and subscriber rates, Europe is not a leader in the area of 3G. At the end of 2004, ninety-three percent of the worlds 160 million 3G subscribers were in Asia and the Americas. Only a fraction of subscribers are located in Oceania and Africa (Figure 1.6, right). More than a regional divide, the 3G market still really separates a few advanced countries from the rest of the world. At the end of 2004, the United States (49.5 million), the Republic of Korea (27.5 million) and Japan (25.7 million) alone had over 100 million 3G subscribers, two thirds of the worldwide total at that time. There are a number of reasons for late 3G deployments. Governments are still contemplating on how to properly manage the spectrum allocation; and market players and investors are deliberating investment options, user demand and profitability for 3G services.

Figure 1.6: Where 3G stands (and where 3G subscribers stand)


Distribution of 3G operators, subscribers, devices and countries offering commercial 3G services, February 2006 (left) and distribution of the 160 million 3G subscribers at the end of 2004, by region (right)

The status of 3G, February 2006


900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

837 168.9 million CDMA2000 1X 21.9 million CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 44.7 million WCDMA

Total number of 3G subscribers at the end of 2004: 160 million AsiaWCDMA: 8.5% Europe: 5.5%

Distribution of 3G subscribers, by region, 2004

Asia-CDMA 2000 1x: 40.1%

175 3G operators

236 75 3G subscribers (million) 3G devices 3G countries

Oceania: 1.1% Africa: 0.2%

Americas: 44.6%

Source: ITU adapted from 3GToday.com.

CHAPTER 1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

1.4 Internet trends Figure 1.7: Internet growth The Internet, a communication platform riding on network access technologies such as fixed line, mobile cellular, wireless terrestrial and satellite, has increasingly gained widespread recognition as a knowledge infrastructure. By end 2004, there were an estimated 840 million Internet users in the world, representing 13.2 percent of the total population. Practically every country in the world is now online. The highest penetration rates were found in Europe and the Americas, where almost one third of the population was online. While in a number of countries more than 50 percent of the population is using the Internet, an average of 2.6 percent of Africans are online. Penetration rates in Asia-Pacific vary widely from over 60 percent in countries such as the Republic of Korea, Australia, and New Zealand to less than five percent in a number of countries, including Bangladesh and Laos. At an average of some eight percent, Asia-Pacific lies below the world average (Figure 1.7, top). 1.4.1 Broadband on the rise Broadband technologies bring significant improvements in terms of increased capacity and speed. Besides drastically improving the users online experience, high-speed access opens the door to a number of applications, such as downloading and exchanging music, images, and video files. The introduction of high-speed Internet access has also changed governments visions on how the Internet can provide a platform for enhancing their countries future social and economic development. Broadband can also provide public services, such as e-government or e-learning, and open up new possibilities and markets to businesses. The growth of the Internet and new applications are driving demand for access at higher speeds and more and more countries are moving from dial-up Internet access to broadband. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is the most popularly deployed platform, followed by cable modems, fixed-wireless, and wireless Local Area Networks (LANs). The price for high-speed access has played an important role in take-up. Both inter-modal and platform-based competition and/or inter-operator competition have helped to substantially bring down broadband prices and increase deployment. A number of advanced wireless technologies and techniques that provide a platform for high-speed data access using Internet Protocol (IP) are also used to expand broadband access. Viable last mile broadband technologies, such as Wi-fi7 have been used to offer public broadband access (hotspots) at airports, hotels, restaurants and other public
Internet penetration by region, 2004 (top) and top 20 economies in terms of broadband penetration, 2004 (bottom)

Internet penetration by region, 2004

40 31.1

Percentage

30 20 10 0

28.2

13.2 8.1 2.6 Americas Europe World Asia Africa

Broadband penetration by technology, top 20 economies worldwide, 2004

Korea (Rep.) Hong Kong, China Netherlands Denmark Iceland Canada Taiwan, China Switzerland Belgium Finland Japan Norway Israel Sweden Liechtenstein United States United Kingdom Singapore France Austria 5

24.8 22.0 19.8 19.1 18.8 22.0 16.5 16.4 15.6

Total penetration rate

15.3 broadband 15.3 14.9 14.0 13.7 13.7 12.9 11.9 11.9 11.2 10.0

DSL Cable Other

10

15

20

25

30

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 1.8: Broadband


Distribution of broadband subscribers by region, 2004

Broadband subscribers by region, 2004

Europe 27.7%

Asia 41.0%

and additions to existing installations, reached its peak, at over US$ 260 billion in 2000. Annual telecom investment dropped sharply after the burst of the Internet bubble in 2000, to just over US$ 200 billion in 2002. Investments actually increased just three years after the crash and stood at around US$ 190 billion by the end of 2004. (Figure 1.9, left). Investment figures must also be seen in light of technological innovations and competition in the wholesale market, which have significantly reduced prices and allowed operators to buy more for less. A regional comparison of ICT investment highlights that in 2004, Asia was home to the highest share of telecommunication investment. This reflects the leading position of a number of Asian economies in the newer ICT sectors, including 3G and broadband, as well as the major changes that have been taking place in Chinas telecommunication sector. Chinas telecommunication investment alone stood at US$ 27 billion in 2004, almost 15 percent of the worlds total. Europe and the Americas make up 33 and 23 percent of the worlds telecommunication investment, while four percent is invested in Africa (Figure 1.9, right). Four percent is low compared to the continents population size (fourteen percent of the worlds population lives in Africa). However, it is an encouraging level in light of the continents current share of ICTs/telecommunications. It is certain that Africas telecommunication story is a mobile one. The sector, in which Africa has the highest share of the worlds market, is the mobile sector, where Africa represents four percent of the worlds total (Figure 1.4, right). In the broadband sector, for example, 0.1percent of the total subscribers are located in Africa (Figure 1.8). Under these circumstances, four percent of the worlds total telecommunication investment actually seems relatively high and might be an indication that higher investment levels will expand ICT/telecommunication infrastructure and access in the near future. 1.6 Conclusion This overview suggests that while the digital divide keeps shrinking, the world continues to be separated by major differences and disparities in terms of ICT levels. High growth rates in some areas, and particularly the mobile sector, are not sufficient to bring digital opportunities to all and many developing countries risk falling behind, particularly in terms of Internet access and newer technologies such as 3G and broadband.

Oceania 0.8%

Americas 30.5%

Africa 0.1%

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

places. A number of cities, and even countries, have announced plans to go entirely wireless and provide highspeed access to every one of its citizens.8 Wireless technologies, and particularly WiMAX,9 which promises to provide high-speed connectivity over a range of up to 50 km, are hoped to help fill infrastructure gaps in rural and underserved areas. The continued evolution and enhancement of 3G technologies, such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), which was recently adopted by the GSM community, equally holds great promises. By 2004, broadband Internet subscribers represented approximately 2.5 percent of the worlds population, and 38 percent of all Internet subscribers worldwide.10 Figure 1.7 (bottom) shows the top 20 economies with the highest broadband penetration rates. This top-twenty list includes 12 European economies, five Asian economies, and Canada, the USA, and Israel. The vast majority of todays broadband users are in the developed world and globally, Asia, Europe and the Americas represent no less than 99 percent of all broadband subscribers. Africa is home to a fraction of all broadband subscribers, and many African countries have not yet launched high-speed Internet services (Figure 1.8). 1.5 Telecommunication investment Global telecommunication investment, which includes expenditure on initial telecommunication installations

CHAPTER 1. STATUS OF TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT

Figure 1.9: Global telecommunication investment


Global telecommunication investment, in US$ billion, from 1994-2004 (left) and share of telecommunication investment by region, 2004 (right)

Global telecommunication investment, US$ billion, 1994-2004 300

Share of telecommunication investment, by region, 2004

Asia 37%
200

Oceania 3% Europe 33% Americas 23% Africa 4%

100

0 1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database. Note: According to the ITU (WTI), telecommunication investment is defined as: the expenditure associated with acquiring the ownership of property (including intellectual and non-tangible property such as computer software) and plant. These include expenditure on initial installations and on additions to existing installations where the usage is expected to be over an extended period of time. Note that this applies to telecom services which are available to the public, and excludes investment in telecom software or equipment for private use. It should be noted that some national telecommunication authorities, from which ITU collects data, fail to compile and include telecommunication investments made by foreign companies and investors that operate within a country. Also, note that the data of the growing number of new market entrants are not always reflected in national statistics.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Notes
1

The survey, which was carried out for the European Commission, was based on a sample of 44219 respondents in 127 regions, being representative of the total population of the 15 pre-accession EU Member States by demographics and regions. The interviews were carried out between the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2004. European Union. Europes Information Society Newsroom. Household communications in the EU : Mobile penetration catches up with fixed lines, and broadband connections doubleSeptember 2004. See: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/newsroom/cf/itemlongdetail.cfm?item_id=1347. As VoIP is essentially a web-based voice-carrier technology, it offers significant price advantage over traditional fixed line voice due to the conversion of voice signals into data packets that run through the Internet connection. Thus, anyone with an existing Internet connection can make a call incurring very little additional costs, to anywhere in the world, with voice quality often similar to PSTN. Some fixed line operators have openly embraced VoIP as they find it an inevitable trend that they should join. Informa Telecoms & Media. Mobile Industry Outlook 2005/ 06. February 2005. See Telegeography. Newsroom. Quarterly Wireless ARPU Down Worldwide. October 2005, at: http://www.telegeography.com/press/releases/2005-10-19.php. The two main competing cellular mobile technologies GSM and CDMA each have generation upgrade paths to enhance their operations to 3G capabilities and to provide high-speed data transmission. The GSM technology, a second-generation (2G) technology, starts with GPRS (2.5G) and then EDGE (2.75G) technologies before their current offering of the third generation technology (3G) in the form of WCDMA. The data transmission for WCDMA reaches the maximum of 2MB per second when fully implemented. For the CDMA standard, the third generation CDMA2000-1X technology can deliver speed up to 144kbps, and with the added feature of EV-DO (Evolution Data Only) enhances the transmission to the speed of 2.4 Mbps. See 3G Today Newsletter, February 2006. Vol. 3. Issue 1. Wi-fi is a standard of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications. Davis, M.Wi-fi cities spark hotspot debate. BBC Online. October 2005, at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4351400.stm and Entire island of Mauritius gets wireless broadband.Afrol News. January 2005, at: http://www.afrol.com/articles/15217 and Resistance is Futile Municipal Broadband Will Take Off. Cellular News. January 2006, at: http://www.cellular-news.com/story/15841.php. Fixed wireless standard IEEE 802.16 that allows for long-range wireless communication at theoretically 70 Mbit/s over 50 km. ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

10

10

CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

2.

MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

In November 2005, the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) took place in Tunis, Tunisia. The fact that the United Nations decided to hold this Summit illustrates the increasing importance attached to information and communication technologies (ICTs). It demonstrates the pervasiveness of these technologies, as well as the recognition that ICTs are having a profound impact on peoples lives. Besides putting the spotlight on the Information Society, the WSIS also highlighted the need to measure it. As the world moves towards a global information economy and Information Society, countries are becoming increasingly aware of the central importance of providing their population with access to ICTs, a prerequisite to participating in the Information Society. Much attention over the last few years has therefore been on measuring the spread and distribution of information and communication technologies. Both the Geneva Plan of Action (GPA) and the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (TAIS) affirm the need for more comprehensive and reliable statistical information to track the digital divide. Appropriate indicators and benchmarking, including community connectivity indicators, should clarify the magnitude of the digital divide, in both its domestic and international dimensions, and keep it under regular assessment.1 Access indicators for the Information Society was also the topic of the ITUs last (2003) World Telecommunication Development Report (WTDR).2 The report provided an important step towards identifying relevant indicators for measuring the extent to which countries and communities worldwide have genuine access to those information technologies that

the Information Society is based on. It further provided an inventory of existing national and international efforts to measure ICT access, identified challenges to tracking the digital divide, and highlighted the need to agree on a set of global and internationally comparable ICT indicators. The majority of indicators suggested in the 2003 WTDR have since been integrated in the core list of indicators adopted by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (Box 2.1). As the United Nations agency in charge of telecommunications, ITU has been tracking access to telecommunications and ICTs for many years. Its World Telecommunication Indicators (WTI) database provides important information on the spread and distribution of ICTs and has helped to track ICT developments over time. 2.1 The statistical divide As demonstrated in the previous chapter, the spread and distribution of ICTs on a global level is usually measured in terms of per capita (or penetration) levels. This does not mean that per capita measurements are necessarily the best way of measuring ICT access and use. They are, rather, the easiest way of measurement. Most ICT service providers compile administrative records for operational and billing purposes and it is a simple mathematical exercise to divide the number of ICT devices or services by the population to derive a per capita indicator. While per capita measures are convenient and useful for comparing general statistics across countries, they can be misleading. They do not reflect the distribution of services and devices, for example, between rural and urban areas. Per capita
11

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

measurements can also be distorted because of demographic differences. For example, some countries with large family sizes may be as well off in terms of household telephone penetration as countries that, on a per capita basis, have more telephone lines.3 A more precise measurement of access than per capita indicators and one that helps determine universal service levels is the penetration per 100 households. Another important way of measuring the possibility to participate in the Information Society is community access indicators. These revolve around the availability of shared services and facilities and are particularly important in developing countries, where household penetration levels remain very low. To go beyond administrative data and to collect data on household and community access, countries need to carry out representative household and individual surveys. Indeed, surveys that collect information on households and individuals access to and use of ICTs (such as household ICT surveys)4 are able to produce very valuable information in analyzing the Information Society. While surveys are therefore imperative to analyzing the real potential of and barriers to the Information Society, few developing countries carry out ICT related surveys. Hardly any do so on a regular basis. Add to this

the problem of comparability since data sets between different countries are usually not based on the same definitions and methodology or lack transparency, clarity and timeliness and the Information Society is not only challenged by the digital divide but also by the statistical divide. Todays lack of comprehensive, timely and comparable data is a major barrier to analyzing the status and progress of Information Societies, identifying reliable targets and adapting policies. 2.2 A step towards overcoming the statistical divide the core list of ICT indicators To help overcome the existing statistical divide, and to improve the availability, quality and comparability of statistical information to analyze the Information Society, a number of key stakeholders including several UN agencies and regional organizations launched the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (Box 2.1). This multi-stakeholder initiative currently represents the most comprehensive effort to develop, collect and disseminate globally relevant indicators to measure the Information Society. One of the first initiatives undertaken by the Partnership was to assess the global status of ICT

Box 2.1: The Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development


partnership activities by providing expertise and advice to NSOs from developing countries as well as in the transfer of knowledge in areas such as methodologies and survey programs. Its core objectives are:

The striking absence of comparable data on ICTs in developing countries, and the resulting difficulties in carrying out meaningful assessments of the Information Society and its impact on development, have prompted a number of stakeholders to take action in this regard. Formally launched at UNCTAD XI in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in June 2004, the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development aims to accommodate and develop further the different initiatives regarding the availability and measurement of ICT indicators at the national, regional and international levels. It provides an open framework for coordinating ongoing and future activities, and for developing a coherent and structured approach to advancing the development of ICT indicators globally, and in particular in developing countries. It includes the ITU, the OECD, Eurostat, UNCTAD, UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), four UN Regional Commissions (ECA, ECLAC, ESCAP, and ESCWA), the UN ICT Task Force (which is to be succeeded by its replacement in 2006) and the World Bank. Some National Statistical Offices (NSOs) from advanced countries are also invited to contribute to the

To achieve a common set of core ICT indicators, to be harmonized and agreed upon internationally, that constitutes the basis for a database on ICT statistics. This core list, which was agreed upon in February 2005, includes a total of 42 indicators and reflects the key actors in the Information Society individuals, households, and enterprises (Table 2.1) It is likely to be expanded over time to cover more sectors (health, government, education), as well as impact indicators. To enhance the capacities of national statistical offices in developing countries and build competence to develop statistical compilation programmes on the Information Society, based on internationally agreed upon indicators. To develop a global database on ICT indicators and to make it available on the Internet.

For more information on the Partnership, visit: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/.

12

CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

indicators. To understand the statistical divide and know what kind of information countries have been collecting to measure the Information Society, its members carried out the a global stocktaking exercise on ICT indicators. The exercise was based on a harmonized questionnaire that was sent to the national statistical agencies of 179 countries in Africa, AsiaPacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Of those countries, 85 returned the questionnaire, a response rate of 47 percent. The metadata questionnaire did not ask for concrete statistics on the penetration, use or impact of ICT in the participant countries, but rather focused on the institutional and technical systems established for collecting ICT statistics in general. Secondly the questionnaire requested data on the availability of a concrete set of ICT indicators. The results of this report have been published in the report Measuring ICT: The Global Status of ICT Indicators.5 Although there are major regional differences with regard to the response rate and the availability of ICT information on household, individual and business information on ICT access and use, a number of points can be highlighted (Figure 2.1, left and right):6 The large majority of countries have information on the availability of basic ICT equipment in

households, including TV (80 percent) and fixed telephone lines (84 percent). Some 75 percent of responding countries have information on newer ICTs, including the mobile phone (73 percent), and personal computers (PCs, 76 percent). There are major regional differences, though, and Africa particularly lags behind. 55 percent of responding countries collect information on the presence of household Internet access. 20-30 percent of responding countries collect information on more detailed household use of ICTs, including the method and location of Internet access, and the frequency of use. Only a fraction of countries collect information on household value and type of e-commerce. In the business sector, basic ICT access indicators are collected by less than 50 percent of responding countries. Thirty-one percent collect information on the presence of a web site. 15-24 percent of responding countries collect information on business type of Internet connection, their ICT investment value, and the services that the Internet is used for.

Figure 2.1: Stocktaking results of surveys on household access to, and use of, ICTs, 2003/2004
Percentage of NSOs collecting data on the availability of various ICTs in households, world, 2004 (left) and percentage of NSOs collecting data on the the use of the Internet/PC, world, 2004 (right)

Percentage of NSOs collecting data on the availability of various ICTs in households, world, 2004
Electricity Fixed tel. TV Computer Mobile phone Radio Africa: 84%, OECD: 4% Internet Africa: 26%, OECD: 89% 54 70 63 55 60 73 Incl. OECD Excl. OECD 68 88 69 84 79 80 79 76

Percentage of NSOs collecting data on the use of the Internet/PC, world, 2004
Purposes of W. Asia: 40%, OECD: 75% Internet use Frequency of LAC: 35% Internet use Purposes of PC use Activities the Internet is used for

40 28 40 26

22 24 23

Incl. OECD Excl. OECD 36 37 38

Location of LAC: 35%, OECD: 82% Internet use 23 Methods of W. Asia: 10%, OECD: 86% access

23

Source: ITU adapted from Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Note: While the survey was carried out in 178 NSOs across the world, percentages are based on the response of those 88 NSOs (and 28 OECD member countries) that responded. OECD data refer to 2003. LAC: Latin America & Caribbean.

13

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Box 2.2: How many people are covered by Public Internet Access Centres in Mexico?
An important part of the governments e-Mexico initiative is the installation of community access centres, which allow the public to access the Internet. By 2006, the government plans to install some 10000 Public Internet Access Centres (PIACs), primarily in schools, libraries, health centres, post offices and government buildings. By 2004, the government had installed public Internet Access Centres in 2374 localities (covering almost 64 million Mexicans, over 75 percent of the population). Together with the private access centres, this has allowed the government to provide Internet access to two percent of the countries localities (cities, towns, villages) and over 75 percent of the total population (Box Table 2.2).

Box Table 2.2: Localities and population covered by Public Internet Access Centres (PIAC) in Mexico, 2004 (Indicator A10 of the Core List)
PIAC coverage** Locality* by number of inhabitants Number Population of localities Governmental Private Total Percentage

Localities Total Urban (>2500) Rural (<2500) 199369 97483412 3041 72759822 2374 1531 843

Population Localities 63599999 62672725 927274 3041 3041 N/A

Population Localities N/A 72759822 N/A 3884 3041 843

Population Localities Population 73687096 72759822 927274 1.95% 100% 0.43% 75.59% 100% 3.75%

196328 24723590

Source: ITU adapted from Mexican Secretara de Comunicaciones y Transportes Subsecretara de Comunicaciones. Note: * Locality refers to towns, cities, and villages. ** There can be overlap between private and government PIACs so that the total number of localities and the total number of people covered by a PIAC does not have to be the sum of governmental and private PIACs.

Less than 15 percent collect information on more detailed use, including business barriers to Internet use, value of Internet purchases, and the share of employees using the Internet. The results highlight that the emphasis of household/ individual and business surveys lies in the availability of ICT equipment and services. Very little information is available on ICT use and in the area of e-commerce. 2.2.1 Indicators on infrastructure and access Based on the results of this stocktaking exercise and existing questionnaires and surveys in developing and developed countries, the Partnership has identified a core list of ICT indicators (Table 2.1). This list includes ICT infrastructure, access, and use indicators for individuals, households and businesses, as well as some ICT sector and trade indicators. In general, the ICT infrastructure and access indicators (A1-A12) are widely available for a large number of countries and have been collected by ITU for years (WTI, Table 19). The most recent indicator that was added to the ITUs list of indicators only a few years ago is on the percentage of localities with public Internet Access
14

Centres (PIACs) by number of inhabitants. Few countries today collect information on public Internet access, despite the low level of household availability of ICTs and the great importance that public access has in bringing people in developing countries online. One exception is Mexico, which has made major efforts not only to enhance nation-wide access to ICTs by expanding public access but also to measure its progress (Box 2.2). 2.2.2 Indicators on household and individual access and use A number of countries already collect data relevant to the household and individual indicators: indicators HH1HH13 (WTI, Table 20). The first five indicators in this section (HH1-HH5) refer to household access to ICTs (radio, TV, computer and mobile and fixed telephones) and are collected by some developed and developing countries, sometimes as part of the national census, and sometimes through household surveys. All five indicators are being collected by ITU. The most popularly collected indicators in developing countries have been those on radio and TV. While some countries collect data on household access

CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

to a telephone, the distinction between the mobile and the fixed telephone is rare. This limits data comparability and policy analysis. Many developed countries, and mainly OECD member countries, have started collecting PC data, as well as household access to the Internet (HH7) but few collect all of these indicators regularly (Figure 2.2, top left). More and more developed countries have also started collecting information on the frequency and type of Internet access, particularly to find out the penetration level of broadband technologies, which are seen as crucial for a country to become an Information Society (Figure 2.2, bottom right).

This trend also reflects the move toward collecting some more qualitative information on how citizens use the Internet. All of these indicators remain usage indicators and do not actually provide any information on the impact that use is having. Usage indicators, such as the type of activities that individuals carry out over the Internet, are collected on a regional level by Eurostat, but also by a number or other countries, including the Republic of Korea (Figure 2.2, top right). ITU has also been able to collect data on the proportion of individuals with use of a mobile telephone from a number of

Figure 2.2: Individual and household access and use


Individual and household use of, and access to, ICTs in Spain and the Slovak Republic, 2004/2005(core indicator HH1HH8, top left) and Internet activities undertaken by individuals in the last 12 months, in Ireland and the Republic of Korea (core indicator HH 10, top right); proportion of individuals with use of a mobile phone for selected economies, 2004/2005 (Extended core indicator HH 11, bottom left) and proportion of households with access to the Internet, by type of access, 2005 (extended core HH 12, bottom right)

Core list of indicators: HH1-HH8 Households (HH) with radio


100

What do you use the Internet for? Getting information


100

Spain Slovak Rep. HH with TV

Ireland Rep. Korea Communicating

75

Individual Internet use

75 50

Leisure
50

25

25

HH with Internet

HH with fixed telephone

E-gov.

Ordering goods/ services Internet banking/financial services

Individual computer use HH with computer

HH with mobile

Education/learning

Bulgaria*

Denmark

Czech Rep.

Proportion of individuals with use of a mobile telephone, %, 2004/2005 Finland Czech Rep. 76 Austria 79 Korea (Rep.) 70 Trinid. & Tob. 60 Mexico 40 Dom. Rep. 57 Germany 68 Thailand 28 Malaysia 50 Israel 81 Botswana 25 0 25 50 75

Proportion of households with access to the Internet by type of access, 2005

93

100 80 60 40 20 0
Norway Sweden Poland* Finland Mexico Austria Turkey

Broadband Narrowband

100

*2004 data

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

countries that have carried out surveys (Figure 2.2, bottom left). 2.2.3 Indicators on the business and trade sectors While ITU has been collecting global ICT data for individuals and households, data on ICT use by businesses, the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods is under the main responsibility of UNCTAD, the UN Conference on Trade and Development. The core indicators for businesses focus on the access to and use of ICTs by enterprises but also include two indicators (B7 and B8) on e-commerce. While Eurostat and OECD member countries provide data for most core business indicators, limited information is available for only some 20 other (non-OECD, nonEurostat) economies (See Annex 1 for an overview of the available data).7 Although data on the use of ICTs by businesses are available for a number of developing countries (as, for example for Kazakhstan, Figure 2.3, left) information on e-commerce is very limited and only some developing countries covered by the UNCTAD e-business survey were able to provide information on enterprises receiving and placing orders over the Internet (Figure 2.3, right). Data on the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods (core indicators ICT1 ICT2) are scarce, particularly for

developed countries. According to UNCTADs 2005 Information Economy Report ..very little internationally comparable data are available on the ICT sector in developing countries. Similarly, comparable data on international trade in ICT services suffer from a lack of an internationally agreed upon definition of ICT trade in services. By contrast, data on international trade in goods are collected at national borders by most countries and compiled in the UN Comtrade database.8 The core list of indicators does not yet include any other sectors, such as the health, education, or the government sector, mainly because less progress in the development of appropriate indicators has been made in these areas. There is plenty of scope, however, to improve and expand the core list and add new policy-relevant statistical indicators as experience is gained. To help guide countries in the preparation and collection of the data for the core list of indicators, the Partnership has provided model household and business questions and other reference material. Countries are invited to use and adapt these to fit their national policy requirements. The core list of indicators is expected to substantially improve international data availability over the next few years by guiding national telecommunication agencies, government policy makers and national statistical

Figure 2.3: Internet use and e-commerce activity in the business sector
Proportion of businesses using the Internet, by number of employees in Kazakhstan, 2004 (left) and percentage of enterprises placing and receiving orders over the Internet, selected economies, 2003 (right)

Proportion of businesses using the Internet, by number of employees, Kazakhstan, 2004 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1-9 10-49 All 50-249 >250 21.3 37.3 32.9 47.2 63.2

Enterprises placing and receiving orders over the Internet, (%) 2003
Singapore Trinidad&Tobago Morocco Russia Hong Kong, China Macao, China Bulgaria Philippines Romania Chile Thailand

Placing orders Receiving orders

10

20

30

40

Source: ITU adapted from UNCTAD, Information Economy Report 2005. Note: Right chart: Data for Thailand, Morocco and Hong Kong, China refer to 2004. Data for the Philippines refer to 2002.

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CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

Table 2.1: Core list of ICT indicators

CORE INDICATORS ON ICT INFRASTRUCTURE AND ACCESS Basic core A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants Mobile cellular subscribers per 100 inhabitants Computers per 100 inhabitants Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants International Internet bandwidth per inhabitant Percentage of population covered by mobile cellular telephony Internet access tariffs (20 hours per month), in US$, and as a percentage of per capita income Mobile cellular tariffs (100 minutes of use per month), in US$, and as a percentage of per capita income Percentage of localities with public Internet access centres (PIACs) by number of inhabitants (rural/urban)

Extended core A11 A12 Radio sets per 100 inhabitants Television sets per 100 inhabitants

CORE INDICATORS ON ACCESS TO, AND USE OF, ICT BY HOUSEHOLDS AND INDIVIDUALS Basic core HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 Proportion of households with a radio Proportion of households with a TV Proportion of households with a fixed line telephone Proportion of households with a mobile cellular telephone Proportion of households with a computer Proportion of individuals who used a computer (from any location) in the last 12 months Proportion of households with Internet access at home Proportion of individuals who used the Internet (from any location) in the last 12 months Location of individual use of the Internet in the last 12 months: (a) at home; (b) at work; (c) place of education; (d) at another persons home; (e) community Internet access facility (specific denomination depends on national practices); (f) commercial Internet access facility (specific denomination depends on national practices); and (g) others

HH10 Internet activities undertaken by individuals in the last 12 months Getting information: (a) about goods or services; (b) related to health or health services; (c) from government organizations/public authorities via websites or email; and (d) other information or general Web browsing Communicating Purchasing or ordering goods or services Internet banking Education or learning activities Dealing with government organizations/public authorities Leisure activities: (a) playing/downloading video or computer games; (b) downloading movies, music or software; (c) reading/downloading electronic books, newspapers or magazines; and (d) other leisure activities Extended core HH11 Proportion of individuals with use of a mobile telephone HH12 Proportion of households with access to the Internet by type of access: Categories should allow an aggregation to narrowband and broadband, where broadband excludes slower speed technologies, such as dial-up modem, ISDN and most 2G mobile phone access. Broadband will usually have an advertised download speed of at least 256 kbit/s. HH13 Frequency of individual access to the Internet in the last 12 months (from any location): (a) at least once a day; (b) at least once a week but not every day; (c) at least once a month but not every week; and (d) less than once a month.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Table 2.1: Core list of ICT indicators (contd)


CORE INDICATORS ON ACCESS TO, AND USE OF, ICT BY HOUSEHOLDS AND INDIVIDUALS (CONTD) Reference indicator HHR1 Proportion of households with electricity CORE INDICATORS ON USE OF ICT BY BUSINESSES Basic core B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Proportion of businesses using computers Proportion of employees using computers Proportion of businesses using the Internet Proportion of employees using the Internet Proportion of businesses with a Web presence Proportion of businesses with an intranet Proportion of businesses receiving orders over the Internet Proportion of businesses placing orders over the Internet

Extended core B9 Proportion of businesses using the Internet by type of access: Categories should allow an aggregation to narrowband and broadband, where broadband excludes slower speed technologies, such as dial-up modem, ISDN and most 2G mobile phone access. Broadband will usually have an advertised download speed of at least 256 kbit/s. Proportion of businesses with a Local Area Network (LAN) Proportion of businesses with an extranet Proportion of businesses using the Internet by type of activity Sending and receiving email Getting information: (a) about goods or services; (b) from government organizations/ public authorities via websites or email; and (c) other information searches or research activities Performing Internet banking or accessing other financial services Dealing with government organizations/public authorities Providing customer services Delivering products online CORE INDICATORS ON THE ICT SECTOR AND TRADE IN ICT GOODS Basic core ICT1 ICT2 ICT3 ICT4 Proportion of total business sector workforce involved in the ICT sector Value added in the ICT sector (as a percentage of total business sector value added) ICT goods imports as a percentage of total imports ICT goods exports as a percentage of total exports

B10 B11 B12

Source: Core ICT Indicators, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/material/CoreICTIndicators.pdf.

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CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

offices in their ICT data collection efforts. If its name is any indication, the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development has a great interest in eventually expanding the core list of indicators to include impact indicators. Access to, and use of, ICTs are certainly a fundamental step in creating the foundation for any Information Society but more research must be carried out to grasp the effects of ICTs. The identification of impact indicators will be an important step in understanding the difference ICTs make. 2.3 Going beyond access and usage indicators: measuring the impact of ICTs The fact that the United Nations decided to hold a World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) after holding World Summits on the environment, human rights and women highlights the significance of the topic. 9 Why is it that information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Information Society have received so much attention? Certainly, ICTs are not an end in themselves. Instead, the main reason ICTs are greeted so enthusiastically is the promises that information and communication technologies hold for social and economic development. The four documents, which were adopted during the WSIS process10 to outline the international communitys commitment and steps on how to establish and organize the Information Society, make this very clear through their reference to ICTs as a tool for social and economic development. It is obvious that the expectations for the potential and benefits of ICTs are high (Box 2.3). Despite the potential of ICTs to be an engine for economic growth and deliver innovative applications in government, commerce, education and health care, there is little quantifiable proof. Evidence remains largely anecdotal and the link between ICT deployment and development remains vague in many ways. While there is little doubt that ICTs are generating social, economic, cultural and political changes, it is difficult to quantify the impact of ICT and to separate their influence from those of other factors, such as governance or economic growth. The current lack of global and internationally comparable impact indicators further rules out the possibility of comparing countries and experiences to each other. Maybe some countries are doing much better in exploiting ICTs and adopting more effective policies than others. Although there is a growing body of evidence that ICTs have a real macro-economic impact an area where a number of countries have carried

out studies (see Chapter 3) it is not clear to what extent ICTs have helped to directly reduce major development concerns and particularly those of the Millennium Development Goals, such as poverty, hunger or sickness. There is obviously an increasing need to be able to understand, track and compare the impact that ICTs are having. In the long term, anecdotal evidence alone will not be sufficient to convince governments, development and donor agencies, and analysts of the advantages of ICTs. Indeed, one of the dangers in the recent enthusiasm about the role of ICTs in development is unrealistic expectations of significant short-term impact among donors and policy makersBut much of the impact is likely to take longer and be much more indirect.11 Some work in this direction has been undertaken by the UN ICT Task Force.12 In April 2003, the Task Force set up an informal working party, which was led by the Canadian government. Its main objective was to analyze the role of ICTs on the international development agenda and on the MDGs. While the working party drafted an initial discussion paper entitled Tools for Development: Using Information and communications technology to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals there has been no list of ICT 4D indicators.13 A first step towards measuring impact, will be an assessment of the existing evidence, projects and initiatives to measure ICT for development. In order to measure and compare the impact of ICTs on social and economic development, a common set of impact indicators need to be proposed, tested and agreed upon. Eventually, a number of impact indicators could be added to the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Developments core list of indicators. Given the current status of the discussion on impact indicators, this undertaking is most likely to take a number of years. The main objective of this report is therefore to draw the attention to the importance and the current lack of such indicators, to highlight some ongoing efforts to identify indicators, and to examine a number of possible impact indicators. These will include indicators to measure the importance of the ICT sector on the overall economy, but also indicators that could help us to understand the impact of ICTs on other sectors of the economy, including the government, the health sector and the educational sector. A separate section will analyze social development indicators and special attention will be given to the MDGs and the potential of ICTs to help achieve these goals.
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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Box 2.3: WSIS: Our expectations are high! The promises the Information Society holds
All four documents adopted during the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) clearly highlight the promises of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and accept the link between ICTs and social and economic development. The Geneva Declaration of Principles (DoP) and Plan of Action (PoA), and the Tunis Commitment (TC) and Tunis Agenda (TA) include over two dozen references that highlight how ICTs can help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), contribute to economic growth and productivity, create jobs, contribute to sustainable development and improve the quality of life. Some examples include: DoP, A2: Our challenge is to harness the potential of information and communication technology to promote the development goals of the Millennium Declaration, namely the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; achievement of universal primary education; promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women; reduction of child mortality; improvement of maternal health; to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and development of global partnerships for development for the attainment of a more peaceful, just and prosperous world. DoP, A9: We are aware that ICTs should be regarded as tools and not as an end in themselves. Under favourable conditions, these technologies can be a powerful instrument, increasing productivity, generating economic growth, job creation and employability and improving the quality of life of all. DoP, B41: the development of the Information Society is important for broadly-based economic growth in both developed and developing economies. PoA, C7/14: ICT applications can support sustainable development TA, 12: the growing importance of the role of ICTs, not only as a medium of communication, but also as a development enabler, and as a tool for the achievement of the internationally-agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. TA, 88: We reaffirm that it will be possible to succeed in our challenge of harnessing the potential of ICTs as a tool, at the service of development, to address the national and local development priorities, thereby further improving the socio- economic development of all human beings. TC 5: The Tunis Summit represents a unique opportunity to raise awareness of the benefits that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can bring to humanity and the manner in which they can transform peoples activities, interaction and lives and thus, increase confidence in the future. TC 15: ICTs can be used to promote economic growth and enterprise development

2.4 Conclusion To effectively measure countries progress towards becoming Information Societies, it is necessary to measure not only access to, but also, use of ICTs. Current challenges with regard to the availability, quality and comparability of statistical information to analyze the Information Society are the main source of todays statistical divide. A major step towards overcoming this divide has been the identification of the core list of ICT indicators, developed by the multi-

stakeholder Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. At the same time there is an urgent need to complement access and usage indicators with impact indicators. Despite the potential of ICTs to be an engine for social and economic development, there is limited quantifiable proof and even less internationally comparable data. The debate on the role of ICTs for development and their potential to reduce major development concerns (including those of the MDGs) calls for the identification of appropriate impact indicators.

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CHAPTER 2. MEASURING THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

Notes
1

WSIS Tunis Agenda for the Information Society, paragraph 113 and WSIS Geneva Plan of Action, paragraph 28b. ITU. World Telecommunication Development Report. Access Indicators for the Information Society. ITU. 2003. ITU. World Telecommunication Development Report. Access Indicators for the Information Society. ITU. 2003. For a discussion on surveys, survey vehicles and their methodologies, see the reference material provided by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Core ICT Indicators. 2005, at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/material/CoreICTIndicators.pdf. Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Measuring ICT: The global status of ICT indicators. 2004, at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/material/05-42742%20GLOBAL%20ICT.pdf. These highlights do not include OECD countries. UNCTAD launched an annual data collection exercise, starting with the E-Commerce and Development Report 2004, to compile e-business statistics from developing countries. On the basis of the Partnerships list of core ICT indicators, a selected group of developing countries were surveyed in 2005 regarding their e-business statistics. While data are still very limited, they give an initial indication on the adoption of ICTs by enterprises in developing countries. See: Information Economy Report. UNCTAD. October 2005, at: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ecommerce_en/edr05_en.htm. UNCTAD. Information Economy Report. October 2005, at: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ecommerce_en/edr05_en.htm. World Summits are one-time conferences organized by the UN to address pressing global issues. Beginning with the Earth Summit of 1992, the UN has organized a total of 10 summits, including the Human Rights Summit (1993), the Population Summit (1994), the Womens Summit (1995), and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002). Geneva Declaration of Principles, Geneva Plan of Action, Tunis Commitment, and the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society, at: www.itu.int/wsis. H.E. Hudson. From Rural Village to Global Village. Telecommunications for Development in the Information Age. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. January 2006. The UN ICT Task Force, which had its last meeting during the second phase of the WSIS in November 2005, was set up by the UN Secretary General in 2001. Its main objective was to provide overall leadership to the United Nations role in helping to formulate strategies for the development of information and communication technologies and putting those technologies at the service of development and, on the basis of consultations with all stakeholders and Member States, forging a strategic partnership between the United Nations system, private industry and financing trusts and foundations, donors, programme countries and other relevant stakeholders in accordance with relevant United Nations resolutions. See: http://www.unicttaskforce.org/about/. See some of the work undertaken by the UN ICT Task Force on ICT 4D indicators: http://www.unicttaskforce.org/perl/documents.pl?id=1478, and http://www.unicttaskforce.org/perl/showdoc.pl?area=mdgm.

10

11

12

13

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CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

3.

THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

The phenomenal growth in information and communication technologies (ICTs) has real implications for economic growth, in both developed and developing countries. An important component of the entire ICT sector, which deserves special recognition for its impact on the economy worldwide, is the telecommunication service sector. The telecommunication service sector, which includes services related to fixed and mobile telephony and the Internet, is growing rapidly in literally every

part of the world. As highlighted in Figure 3.1 (top left), access to telecommunication services (in terms of total telephone subscribers) has been growing at high speed, exceeding global economic growth over the last 20 years (as measured by GDP). This growth is being driven by both demand-side factors, such as the increasing popularity of mobile phones and the Internet, and by supply-side factors, such as regulatory reforms, falling costs and prices, and technological innovation. The astounding speed with which ICTs, and particularly the mobile phone and the Internet, are permeating every

Figure 3.1: GDP and selected ICT growth


Annual percentage change in world GDP and total telephone subscribers (fixed plus mobile), 1980-2004 (left) and profits of top ten telecommunication operators (by revenues), 1996-2004 (right)

Annual change, world, percentage 30 Total telephone subscribers GDP 20

Profits of top ten telecommunication operators, $US billion

46 33 25 26 38 23 2001 2002 23

10

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

2003 2004

0 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004

(31) (40)

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database (left) and ITU adapted from company reports (right).

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

country, exemplifies the worlds path towards a global Information Society. This Information Society continued to grow, despite the overall downturn in the ICT sector during the period 2000-2002. During the dot.com crash the number of total telephone subscribers kept growing at a minimum annual rate of 12 percent. Besides telecommunication users, the now largely privatized and competitive telecommunication services sector is reaping the benefits of growth. After several difficult (loss-making) years following the dot.com crash just after the turn of the century, operators have again started to make profits. In 2003 and 2004, the top ten operators achieved profits of around US$ 23 billion (Figure 3.1, right). A number of studies over the past several decades have analyzed the relationship between the rapid growth in ICT (particularly telecommunication services) and the resurgence of economic growth around the world. This debate has been nurtured by the fact that from a global perspective, there is an obvious link between a countrys level of GDP and telecommunication penetration levels. Figure 3.2 highlights the close link between GDP per capita and effective teledensity on the one hand (left) and GDP per capita and Internet penetration on the other hand. While the term link does not explain the correlation,

nor cause or effect of these two factors, it has often been suggested that ICT, or some or all of its components, could expand economic development and accelerate growth in low-income countries. It has also been suggested that in addition to any direct or indirect impacts on a countrys GDP growth, ICTs could help by increasing information flow leading to more open societies. The last several decades have not demonstrated an equal distribution of ICT invention, investment, production, access and use across countries. It is important, then, to understand what ICTs consists of, how they can impact an economy, and why cross-country experiences are so varied. In order to bring some understanding to the relationship between ICT and GDP growth, and its importance as a tool for development, several important questions about ICTs must be answered: 1. What does the term: information and communication technology refer to? What is the current definition of ICT (and economic growth) and what are its measurement problems? 2. How do ICTs or the main ICT sectors impact an economy? 3. Are there suggested indicators to better measure the ICT sectors impact on/importance for the economy?

Figure 3.2: GDP per capita and ICTs


GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in US$, 2003 compared to effective (fixed or mobile penetration, whatever is higher) teledensity, 2004 (left) and GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in US$, 2003 compared to Internet penetration rates, 2004 (right)

Effective (fixed or mobile) teledensity, 2004 120 120

Internet users per 100 inhabitants, 2004

80

80

40

40

0 0 10'000

GDP per capita, PPP, US$, 2003 20'000 30'000 40'000

0 0 10'000

GDP per capita, PPP, US$, 2003 20'000 30'000 40'000

Source: Effective teledensity and Internet penetration data are from ITU World Telecommunication Indicators (WTI) Database while GDP per capita at PPP (US$) data are from World Development Indicators 2005, World Bank.

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CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

3.1 ICTs, the economy, and certain measurement issues Any assessment of the macro-economic impact of ICTs must recognize the current status of ICT definition and measurement, determine the extent of the data limitations and assess how these problems may vary across countries. 3.1.1 The definition of ICT Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been defined in many different ways. According to the OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society, ICTs are defined as the product or service output that are ..limited to those industries that facilitate, by electronic means, the processing, transmission and display of information. 1 The rapid growth of these industries in many developed and in some developing countries, the rapid diffusion of ICT products and services worldwide, and the apparent relationship of ICT to economic growth is the driving force for the need to separate, classify and measure the equipment and services produced by these industries. Even with this general classification, defining ICTs is a complicated undertaking. Most nations have some method of classifying product industries, capital goods and services consistent with their national accounting methodology. The first major difficulty is that product and capital accounts are slow to change (taking decades to develop in the first place), whereas many assets (equipment) and services change rapidly, particularly if they are related to new technologies. The second obvious problem is that there are few if any international standards defining the assets or services that should be included with others in a particular descriptive category. Nonetheless, some economies have been able to evolve general categories of assets and services that most agree constitute ICTs. The current OECD definition of the ICT sector, which is based on the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Rev.3.1, is described in Table 3.1 (left). In general terms, this definition, which focuses on products and service characteristics, includes information technology manufacturing industries (for example: telecom equipment, media equipment and receivers, computers, electronics and business equipment), and information services (for example: computer and telecommunications services, and software consultancy and supply).

In individual countries, some measurements of ICT would be included in their respective capital equipment accounts, while others might be classified as Information Services. The US Bureau of Economic Analysiss definition of Information Processing Equipment and Software, for example, follows by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Some other countries in the Americas region also use this system as a basis for classification (Table 3.1, right). Unfortunately, the detailed classification of equipment and services varies somewhat between countries, leading to measures of ICTs that are not consistent. Accurate and consistent measures of ICTs are of critical importance, particularly to assess their impact on economic development. Considerable effort has been made by working groups (including OECD researchers, country agency representatives, ITU and the United Nations) to find a meaningful and useful international definition of ICT products and services to facilitate accurate measurement. Among the conceptual issues addressed along the way was the role of information content industries, such as film and media services. A broader definition of an Information Economy was devised that would include information content and avoid splitting industry output. Eventually it was decided to exclude radio and television activities from the definition of ICT, but to include the transmission activities. Other considerations discussed and reviewed focused on including or excluding some industries that were predominantly involved in nonICT production, or where some products lacked a clear definition. With the exception of the decision to create two accounts for the wholesale of computers and software, and for the wholesale of electronic and telecommunications equipment, the current OECD (2002) definition is as is in Table 3.1. (left). This definition is used by a number of countries, researchers, and other organizations, including Eurostat. ICTs have only recently reached a general consensus definition among the developed nations, where the perceived need for a coherent and common classification derived from research carried out to analyze the impact of the ICT sector. Little research has been carried out in developing nations. It is certainly important for countries carrying out future research to be aware of the discussions and results around definitional issues. Every countrys approach to classifying and
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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Table 3.1: Defining the ICT sector: two different approaches

OECD Definition of ICT Sectors with International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Codes: Manufacturing: 3000 3130 3210 3220 Manufacturing of office, accounting and computing machinery Manufacture of insulated wire and cable Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components Manufacture of television and radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy Manufacture of television and radio receivers, sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus and associated goods Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes, except industrial process control equipment

Example of US, Mexico and Canadas ICT Sectors based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Codes: Manufacturing: 3230 3332 3333 3341 3342 3344 3345 3346 3359 Printing and related support activities Industrial machinery manufacturing Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing Audio, video, and communications equipment manufacturing Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media Other electrical equipment and component manufacturing.

3230

3312

Services: 5150 7123 6420 7200 Wholesale of machinery, equipment and supplies Renting of office machinery and equipment (including computers) Telecommunications Computer and related activities (hardware consultancy, software consultancy and supply, data processing, database activities, maintenance and repairs of office, accounting and computing machinery, other)

Information (Less Content Industries): 5170 5180 5190 Telecommunications Internet service providers, web search portals, and data processing Other information services

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services: 5415 5416 5417 5419 Computer systems design and related services Management, scientific, and technical consulting services Scientific research and development services Other professional, scientific, and technical services

Source: OECD, 2002 (left) and NAICS example (right) derived from: US Census Bureau. North American Industry Classification System, 2002 update.

measuring ICT goods, services and industries will, however, depend on what kind of data are already being collected based on national accounts. To make existing and future research as comparable as possible, the key point is to clearly define and explain employed indicators, methodologies, and measurements. The difficulty in trying to compare ICT indicators (production, investment, and use) across countries starts with the definitional problems mentioned above. Investment spending is generally reported to a nations statistical accounts offices by businesses for well-

defined asset categories. However, information and communication technology equipment is relatively new and might end up in any classification, since no internationally agreed upon definition of what constitutes ICTs has been developed. This makes international comparisons difficult, not to mention studies of economic impact. However, the existing broad international agreements on what constitutes ICT goods and services and these could be a useful starting point. Other, more, subtle goods classification problems remain. For example, a workable definition of

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CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

information capital equipment might include business information technology (computers, computer-like equipment and peripherals), telecommunication equipment, and software. Most would agree that rental of this equipment would not constitute an investment based on how it is accounted for, even if it performs the same tasks. Similarly, other business investments, especially evident in modern manufacturing processes, clearly rely on processors and software, but are not themselves ICT equipment (ICT as an intermediate good). Therefore, it is quite possible that ICTs are underrepresented in ICT accounts, and its economic impact (in terms of its productive use) understated. There is no clear way yet to measure the extent of this problem, particularly in a cross-country comparison. Other differences exist between countries in accounting for or classifying software, ultimately affecting its valuation. There are two broad kinds of software produces: own-account (or in-house developed) software, and purchased software. Even among developed countries some firms will have either different methods of capitalizing in-house and purchased products, or fail to capitalize in-house software altogether. All of these issues should be addressed at the global level, for example, by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development.

Other measurement issues prices and quality adjustments It is well known that much of the rapid growth of ICTs globally is due to significant price declines for these products, particularly for computer equipment and software but also for semiconductors. According to the US Department of Commerces Bureau of Economic Analysis, computer prices have fallen by an average 19 percent annually, over the last 45 years, while Gross Domestic Product (GDP) prices have increased by an average of 3.6 percent over the same period (Figure 3.3).2 Computer prices declined by an average annual rate of 15.1 percent over the period 1989 through 1995, and by a remarkable 33.1 percent between 1995 and 2002, indicating greater price declines in recent years.3 Software and telecom equipment prices also declined in the range of about 4-6 percent annually in both periods (1989-1995 and 1995 2002).4 This occurred at the same time as the average prices for other consumer goods increased in developed countries at around 2-4 percent per year, and higher in many developing countries with inflation problems. The ICT price phenomenon is due largely to technological progress in the manufacturing industries, coupled with increased competition. Although declining prices make ICT investments attractive to firms, and allow countries to spend less and get more equipment and services at lower costs, it creates difficulties for accurate measurement of the level of ICT investment. In order to accurately measure the level of physical ICT investment (which has the economic impact), ICT expenditure data must be adjusted for changing prices. However, to correct for ICT price inflation or deflation, a sample of comparable product prices in different time periods must be taken. As time passes, rapid changes in technology make a sample of comparable ICT over time difficult. Not only will a sample of products become less representative of the product group it is supposed to represent, but the quality of the product group itself will change. Clear examples of this are the productive capability of a piece of software, or the processing power of a computer. There are different international efforts to develop measures that correct for this problem. Hedonic methods are one way to provide better measurements. Here, products are broken down into key characteristics of that technology, such as the processing rate of a computer, and unit prices are constructed for that characteristic. Other international adjustments are being tested that are based on assumptions that one country does it right and that international markets make this adjustment transferable to other countries. It is
27

3.1.2

Figure 3.3: Falling computer prices


While computer prices fell

US$
1000000

Computer prices
100000 10000 1000 100 10 1

Computer prices = -19.0% GDP prices = +3.6%

GDP prices

1959

1964

1969

1974 1979

1984

1989

1994

1999

2004

GDP price index and computer price index, BEA (5/26/05).

Source: ITU adapted from K. Stiroh, Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 2005.

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

unclear how many countries globally will be willing or able to construct such price indexes. 3.1.3 The definition of economic growth Economic growth is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real GDP.5 The contribution of an industry or a certain market, such as the ICT sector, may, however have other impacts on the economy, for example, through the creation of employment, which will be discussed in this chapter. Another question to address is whether GDP is the best indicator of economic growth and prosperity. Generally, GDP may not accurately reflect income distribution or quality of life. These issues are true in every country and also affect any development study that takes GDP as a basis. For example, overspending by government or government waste can increase GDP. Poverty may still increase in the face of economic growth and there is no adjustment for environmental damage associated with economic growth. There are numerous other examples. The probably strongest justification for using the GDP measurement is that it is the best one currently available. When employing and interpreting data these limits should, however, be kept in mind. To adjust for some of the problems with GDP measurement a more accurate measure has to be designed. 3.2 The impact of the ICT sector on the economy The impact of ICTs on the economy can be analyzed in several ways. The ICT-producing sectors create direct and indirect benefits in the countries where they are located. Direct impact can be seen in terms of revenue and employment generated by these industries. Investments in ICT goods can also create direct and indirect economic benefits. Direct benefits of investments apply where goods and services are produced domestically and used locally or exported. The industry sector approach (see Table 3.1 above for a definition of ICTs by sector) is one important way to explore the role of ICTs in economic growth. Essentially, this view focuses on the industries that produce ICT goods and services. These goods can be acquired (invested in) through international trade instead of local production, so investing firms and the ICT users can benefit from their availability. As with any form of industrial development, the presence and growth of industries producing ICT goods and services is clearly important to the growth of real GDP. Growth of these industries results directly in new jobs and revenue. The size of these direct benefits depends
28

on how large the ICT (goods and services) producing sectors are relative to the economy and how fast they have grown. International trade and the export of ICT goods and services may be important, especially in small economies that need access to larger markets. Indirect benefits, which go beyond the ICT producing sectors, are generated through the use of ICTs and are particularly important for countries that produce few ICT services and goods domestically. An important indirect economic impact through the use of ICTs is the increase of productivity. A business, for example, can decide to invest into ICTs based on its assessment of the benefits and costs of doing so. This decision to use ICT products and services will create indirect economic benefits in those sectors using ICT more intensively. The indirect impacts of ICTs are discussed in more detail in chapter four of this report. In terms of global coverage, most studies on the economic impact of ICTs focus on a limited number of industrialized countries and there are few studies that try to analyze or measure the impact of ICTs on the economies of developing nations. There are some exceptions, for example, India and Malaysia. These are countries where the ICTs sector has either made a significant contribution to the countrys economy (India) or where major efforts are made to promote an ICT industry (Malaysia). Often, however, data are limited to a specific ICT sector or business, or to a particular geographic area, such as Bangalore.6 Another reason for the scarcity of data on the ICT sector particularly the mobile and Internet sector is that these technologies are a relatively recent phenomenon to have reached large parts of the economy, exacerbated by the definition and measurement problems. Also, currently, the majority of ICT production of goods and services is concentrated in a limited number of developed countries and a few others, such as China, the Republic of Korea, and India, although ICT access and use is spreading rapidly in many countries. All of these are reasons why there are few studies that focus on the impact of telecommunications investments and services on the economies of developing countries as measured in terms of changes in GDP. 3.2.1 ICT services: the telecommunication sector The ICT services producing sector, comprised mainly of telecommunications and computer services, is larger in most countries than ICT manufacturing. It has also experienced rapid growth as a result of privatization and competition in the

CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

Figure 3.4: Telecommunication service revenues on the rise

Telecommunication service revenues, in US$ billion, 1994-2004 1'216 1'099 1'037

sectors for which valuable information exists for almost every country in the world, an important fact for the evaluation of its impact on the economy. ITU has collected global telecommunication statistics for many years and national data go back until the 1960s. This includes financial statistics such as revenues and investments as well as information on employment (telecommunication staff). Worldwide, the ITU estimates that telecommunication service revenues have more than doubled, from US$ 517 to US$ 1216 billion, between 1994 and 2004 (Figure 3.4). In China, telecommunication service revenues grew from US$ 25 billion in 1998 to US$ 64 billion in 2004. The Republic of Korea, Australia, and India all more than doubled their telecom service revenues over the same time period (Figure 3.5, left). At the same time, GDP has grown at much more modest rates. Since 1998, total telecommunication revenues have substantially increased as a percentage of GDP in Africa, Oceania and Asia, although Asias share has changed little since 2002. Revenues have remained stable in Europe and the Americas. Africa is the region where telecommunication service revenues as a percentage of GDP have grown fastest. Today, telecommunication service revenues represent almost five percent of GDP, compared to 4.5 percent in Oceania, 3.8 in Asia, 3.3 in Europe and 2.9 in the Americas (Figure 3.5, right). This highlights the importance of the telecommunication sector for the African economy.

1000 595 672 712 767

854

920

976

517 500

0 1994 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 2004

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

telecommunication industry, rapid technological progress, and growth of computer services in many countries. The telecommunication sector, as part of the ICT service sector,7 deserves special attention because of its effect on every country in the world. The telecommunication sector is also one of the ICT

Figure 3.5: Increasing telecommunication revenues


Total telecommunication revenues in selected countries, 1999-2004 (left) and telecommunication revenues as a percentage of GDP, by region, 1998-2004 (right)

Telecom service revenues in selected countries, US$ billion


70
Revenues (US$ billion)

Telecom service revenues as a percentage of GDP, 1998-2004 5% Africa

60 50 40 30 20 Australia 10 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 India China Korea, Rep.

4%

Oceania Asia Europe Americas

3%

2% 1998 2000 2002 2004

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

29

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

3.2.2 The ICT manufacturing sector The ICT manufacturing sector is relatively small in most countries, although it has expanded rapidly in others since the last half of the 1990s. As for the ICT services sector, one useful way of analyzing the impact of the ICT manufacturing sector on the overall economy is in terms of revenues, investments, and employment. ITU does not collect any ICT manufacturing data in these areas but a number of developed countries and regional organizations do. Ireland, for example, in its Information Society Statistics Report (2004), provides a clear breakdown

of employment and turnover (revenues) in the ICT services and manufacturing sector, compared to the rest of the economy (total industry and manufacturing) (Table 3.2). While the number of employees in the ICT manufacturing sector has actually decreased over the last three years, ICT employment in manufacturing industries still represents 13 percent of the total manufacturing industry. In comparison, employment in ICT services represented seven percent of all services employment.8 In 2002, total employment in the ICT sector added up to just over 82000, close to five percent of the countrys total labour force at that time.9 The European Union collects data to compile

Table 3.2: Contribution of the ICT sector to industry and services in Ireland

Unit ICT Total Number of enterprises Persons engaged Turnover Gross value added ICT Manufacturing Number of enterprises Persons engaged Turnover Gross value added ICT Services Number of enterprises Persons engaged Turnover Gross value added Total Industry Number of enterprises Persons engaged Turnover Gross value added Total Services Number of enterprises Persons engaged Turnover Gross value added Number Number EUR million EUR million Number Number EUR million EUR million Number Number EUR million EUR million Number Number EUR million EUR million Number Number EUR million EUR million

2000

2001

2002

2947 93722 50779 14259

4171 90713 51317 11183

4133 82060 49058 12183

244 46519 35315 8126

246 41993 34098 6814

233 33488 29449 5700

2703 47203 15464 6133

3925 48720 17219 4369

3900 48572 19609 6483

4873 268634 100296 33883

4870 264198 105720 35815

4996 253842 107683 39507

64832 560680 90726 24204

72305 616217 102489 25082

76312 668877 114544 30163

Source: Ireland Central Statistics Office. Information Society Statistics-Ireland 2004 Note: For an overview of the different components of the classifications (manufacturing, services, industry), see Appendix 3 of the Information Society Statistics Report, at http://www.cso.ie/releasespublications/documents/industry/2004/ictireland2004.pdf.

30

CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

Figure 3.6: ICT employment


Employment in ICT manufacturing as a percentage of total manufacturing employment, 2000-2002, selected countries (left) and share of ICT-related employment in total employment, 1995-2004 (right)

Employment in ICT manufacturing (as a percentage in total manufacturing) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0


Japan Korea (Rep.) USA EU15 Czech Hungary Poland Rep.

2000

2001

2002

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2


1.5

Share of ICT-skilled employment (%) in total employment: narrow definition of ICT skills

US EU15 Canada Australia


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1 0.5 0

Source: European Commission. Key Indicators of the Competitiveness of EUs ICT industry, 2005 (left) and OECD. Information Technology Outlook 2004 and key ICT indicators, 2004 (right). Note: Left chart is based on Groningen Growth and Development Centre, 60-Industry Database, at http://www.ggdc.net/. Right chart: the narrow definition of ICT-skilled employment refers to ICT specialists, who have the ability to develop, operate and maintain ICT systems. ICTs constitute the main part of their job they develop and put in place the ICT tools for others.

economic profiles as the one highlighted in Table 3.2 for all 25 EU member countries.10 Data on employment in the ICT manufacturing sector are also collected by OECD member countries. A comparison of different regions and countries highlights that employment in the ICT manufacturing sector (as a percentage of total manufacturing employment) varies, from about 4.5 percent in the Czech Republic, to as much as 14 percent in the Republic of Korea (Figure 3.6, left). Since the ICT manufacturing sector is relatively small in most OECD countries, its importance on economic activity remains limited. Finland and Ireland have the largest ICT manufacturing sectors, followed by the Republic of Korea. New Zealand, Spain and Australia, in contrast, have very small ICT manufacturing sectors.11 Industry performance A different approach to understanding the economic impact of the ICT manufacturing sector is through information on growth of revenues and employment in the specific international ICT businesses. In the manufacturing sector, revenue and employment data of some of the larger ICT manufacturers show impressive results.

Figure 3.7 illustrates revenue and employment growth of several key ICT companies, including major hardware and software companies. Intel is the worlds largest chip-maker and leading manufacturer of personal computers, networking, and communications products. In 2001, Dell became the worlds largest computer vendor in the world, toppling Compaq, who had been the market leader since the mid 1990s. Microsoft is the leading world provider of personal computer operating systems and component software. After the burst of the Internet bubble in 2000, these companies, as the ICT sector in general, faced several years of reduced investment and revenue growth. Since 2002, however, the sector has recovered and has been growing again. By 2004, revenues of Intel, Dell, and Microsoft had reached a high of between US$ 34 and US$ 41 billion. This is higher than some countries Gross Domestic Product, including GDP in Tunisia, which stood at US$ 28 billion in 2004 (Figure 3.7, left). The same companies have created many jobs worldwide, too. By 2004, Intel was employing 85000 people, more than the entire UN system (Figure 3.7, right).12 Trade in ICT goods Another useful way of examining the economic impact of the ICT sector is through the analysis of trade in ICT goods and services. Data on exports of ICT goods
31

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 3.7: ICT manufacturing companies benefits


Revenues of selected ICT businesses compared to Tunisias GDP, US$ billion, 1996-2004 (right) and number of employees of selected ICT businesses, 1996-2004 (right)
Revenues of selected ICT businesses (US$ billion) and Tunisia GDP (US$ billion) $45 $40 $35 $30 $25 $20 $15 $10 $5 $0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Microsoft Tunisia GDP Intel
90

Number of employees of selected ICT businesses

Dell

Thousands

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Intel

Microsoft
In comparison: In 2004 the entire UN System (IMF, Worldbank, ITU, WHO, ILO, UNICEF, UNDP and others) employed some 60'000 people worldwide.

Dell

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Source: ITU adapted from company annual reports and United Nations.

and services are important because they measure the strength and importance of a countrys ICT sector, its international competitiveness and the contribution of the sector to overall exports. Both the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) collect data on ICT imports and exports and their share in GDP. Within the OECD, the US clearly leads in both, exports and imports, although the countrys imports of ICT goods and services clearly exceed exports. This is also the case in the UK, France, Canada and Australia. The majority of EU countries, as well as Japan and the Republic of Korea have a higher level of exports than imports (Figure 3.8). To evaluate the importance of the ICT sector on the overall economy, it is useful to monitor the share of ICT exports in terms of total exports. In Ireland, for example, total exports of ICT products and services amounted to almost EUR 30 billion in 2002, representing 34 percent of all of Irelands exports.13 The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) collects data on exports in ICT goods for developed and developing countries and regions. According to the last Information Economy Report Trade in ICT goods continues to be highly concentrated: the top ten exporters account for 72 percent of global ICT exports, and the top ten importers for slightly less (66 percent of global ICT imports). Concentration is even higher in developing countries: the top ten developing country exporters amount for over 98 percent of all developing countries
32

exports in ICT goods. The top ten exporters in terms of market shares include a number of developing economies: China (at 11 percent just behind the number one USA), Hong Kong, China (6.9 percent), Taiwan, China (5.4 percent) and Malaysia (4.7 percent). Data comparability and regional estimates, however, are hampered by the fact that many developing countries do not provide data on trade in ICT goods.14 3.2.3 Overall importance of the ICT sector Ideally to evaluate the importance of the overall ICT sector it should be possible to compare countries in terms of their ICT services and manufacturing industries, both in terms of employment, revenues, investments, and imports/exports. A number of organizations and some countries collect and publish data on overall ICT turnover and employment.15 However, internationally comparable (national) indicators are scant and when data are not limited to highly industrialized countries, results are based on estimates. An indicator that is collected by the EU and OECD is the share of ICT-skilled employment in the total economy. An international comparison shows that at the end of 2003, overall ICT-related employment stood at just over three percent in the EU15 countries, compared to 3.7 percent in the USA and Australia and four percent in Canada (Figure 3.6, right). Data show that the share has been increasing over the years.16

CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

Figure 3.8: Export and imports of ICT goods and services


Exports and imports of ICT goods and services, 2004, US$ billion

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
N.Zealand Ireland Japan Sweden Canada Norway Hungary* Netherl.* Slovak Rep. Korea, Rep. Denmark Finland Germany Switzerland Australia Portugal Belgium Czech Rep. Luxemb. Mexico* Greece Iceland Italy France Austria Poland Turkey Spain* USA UK

Exports Imports

USA exports: 149'000 USA imports: 235'000 Japan exports: 124'000

Source: ITU adapted from OECD Key ICT Indicators. Note: * Data refer to 2003.

The European Union published employment and revenue data on ICT manufacturing and ICT services for 2001, when total ICT turnover added up to 1631 billion EUR (Table 3.3).17 The European Information Technology Observatory (EITO)18 publishes data on the overall ICT market. Similar to other sources, EITO data on the ICT market, which are provided in cooperation with IDC, 19 highlight the growing importance of the ICT sector and growth rates that lie well above GDP growth rates (Figure 3.9, top left). The European Unions ICT market value has

risen steadily since 2002; a market value of 614 billion EUR in 2005 represented 5.7 percent of the EUs GDP.20 EITO data also suggest that ICT growth is particularly important in developing parts of the world since the worlds average growth rates lie above those of the (highly developed) regions of Europe, the US and Japan (Figure 3.9, bottom left).21 A study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) shows similar results. Europes ICT sector represents 5.8 percent of GDP, compared to 6.3 percent in the United States. The same study also examines ICT investments as a share of

Table 3.3: Characteristics of the ICT manufacturing and service industries in EU25, 2001

ICT Manufacturing Value added (EUR million) 88720 Number of persons employed 1771160 Number of enterprises Turnover EUR million Value added (EUR million) 358564

ICT Services Number of persons employed 4989106 Number of enterprises Turnover EUR million

63608

398258

618638

1232842

Source: ITU adapted from Eurostat, New Cronos 2003.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 3.9: The ICT market and the overall economy


EU ICT and GDP growth, 2003-2006, in percent (top left) and total value and growth of the EU's ICT market, 2002-2006, in EUR billion (top left); ICT market annual growth by region, 2004-2006, in percent (bottom left) and ICT as a share of the economy and performance, in the USA and Europe, percent, data based on 2003-2005 research (bottom right)

EU ICT and GDP growth , 2003-2006, in %

The EU's ICT market 640 630 620


EUR 614 billion represents 5.7 percent of EUs GDP in 2005

632 3.4 614 597 2.9 2.8

4 3.5 3
percent

3.5

EUR billion

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

ICT GDP

610 600 590 580 570 560 550

2.5 2 1.5

572

577 Market value (EUR billion) Market growth (%) 2004 2005 2006

1 0.5 0

2003

2004

2005

2006

540 2002 2003

ICT market annual growth by region 2004-2006, in % 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 EU US


3.4 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.12.11.8 8.2

ICT as a share of the economy

2004

2005

2006

7.2 6.2

Europe
4.4 4.2 3.7

18 5.8 Investment share GDP share 29

4 4.2

United States

6.3

Japan

Rest of world

World

10

15 Percent

20

25

30

Source: Top charts and bottom left: ITU adapted from EITO. Bottom right: ITU adapted from UK Department of Trade and Industry. Note: Bottom right chart: Data are based on IMF 2004, OMahony and van Ark CD-Rom (2003) and Timmer, Ypma and van Ark (2003).

overall private investment and concludes that ICT is having a disproportionate impact in terms of investment and productivity growth relative to the size of the sector particularly in the US. This reflects the fact that ICT is diffusing throughout the economy, and offers high returns where the policy environment allows complementary investments in organizational change to be implemented successfully.22 In another EU document it is highlighted that within the EU, the countries that have a large ICT-producing sector and invest the highest levels in ICT research, like Ireland, Finland and Sweden, also have the highest

productivity growth rates.23 This highlights that ICT investment and productivity data are particularly valuable in analyzing the indirect impact of ICTs, which affect any ICT using country, independent of the size of the country's ICT sector itself. It is unclear, in how far the EITO and DTI data and other ICT data, including those published by Eurostat and OECD, are comparable. EITO definitions are based upon a set of definitions and methodologies agreed between the EITO Task Force and IDC, and upon the European Union standards for trade statistics.24

34

CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

3.3 Conclusion Existing data and studies suggest that the information and communication technology (ICT) sector has largely recovered since the burst of the Internet bubble in 2000. The sector is growing faster than overall GDP, and playing an increasingly important role in the overall economy in developed and developing countries. The telecommunication services industry, which in most countries is larger than the ICT manufacturing industry, has created considerable revenues. Particularly in developing regions, including in Africa, these represent a substantial (and growing) percentage of Gross Domestic Product. A number of countries, such as the Republic of Korea, Ireland, and China, have been able to create an important source of employment, revenues and investment by becoming major exporters of ICT goods and/or services.

Methodological challenges, including distinct classifications of the different ICT sub-sectors, make national analysis and international comparisons, particularly for developing countries, very difficult. Indicators that countries need to collect to measure the importance and progress of the ICT sector are the amount of investment, revenues, imports/exports of ICT goods and services and employment in the ICT (manufacturing and services) sector. This would also allow countries to measure the contribution of the ICT sector to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). To improve the availability and comparability of data, efforts need to be made to improve firm-level data through the use of internationally agreed classifications. Despite a real and overall growing direct impact of the ICT industry on the economy, it has been highlighted that the real potential for ICTs lies more in their use, and their ability to impact productivity of the wider economy, than in the ICT sector itself.

35

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Notes
1

OECD. Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society: Guide for Measuring the Information Society. Paris. 2005. K. Stiroh, Information Technology and Productivity in the New Economy. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, presented at the Washington Skills and Technology Conference. July 2005, at: http://depts.washington.edu/eprc/education/slides/stiroh.pdf. Jorgenson, D. Accounting for Growth in the Information Age in Handbook of Economic Growth. Aghion, P. and Durlauf, S. eds. Amsterdam, North-Holland. 2005. Based on pricing analysis by Dale Jorgensen, see: Information Technology and the US Economy. American Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 1. March 2001. This pricing analysis was amended with updated tables until 2003, at: http://post.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/jorgenson/papers/AEADAT200305182005.pdf. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the volume of goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. Malaysia, for example, has carried out an impact survey on the Mulitmedia Super Corridor, which analyzes the impact of the MSC in terms of employment, revenues, and exports. See: http://www.mdc.com.my/download/impactsurvey/MSCImp_Survey_2003.pdf. Refers to the classification used by the OECD, see Table 3.1, left. Government of Ireland 2004. Information Society Statistics-Ireland 2004. Central Statistics Office. Dublin. 2004. According to the Irish Central Statistics Office, there were some 1764000 persons employed in Ireland in 2002. European Commission. Key Indicators on the Competitiveness of EUs ICT Industry. 2005, at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/ict/key_indicators_v3.pdf. D. Pilat, F. Lee, and B. Van Ark. Production and Use of ICT: A Sectoral Perspective on Productivity Growth in the OECD Area. OECD Economic Studies. No 35, 2002, at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/34/22024038.pdf. For data on United Nations staff. See: www.un.org/geninfo/ir/ch6/ch6_txt.htm. ICT Ireland. Key Industry Statistics, at: http://www.ictireland.ie/Sectors/ict/ictDoclib4.nsf/vLookupHTML/Key_Industry_Statistics?OpenDocument. UNCTAD. Information Economy Report. October 2005. Two countries that have published data on overall ICT revenues are Canada (see: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/56-508-X/56-508-XIE2003001.pdf) and Australia (see: http://www.dcita.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/10451/Overview_of_the_Australian_ICT_Industry_02-03.pdf). OECD. ICT and Economic Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries, Industries and Firms. Paris. 2003. Eurostat. New Cronos. 2003, at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/ict/key_indicators_v3.pdf. European Information Technology Observatory (EITO), at: http://www.eito.org/about.html. IDC, at: http://www.idc.com/. EU 25 GDP obtained from Eurostat. It is not clear, however, how EITO and IDC compile regional data, given the lack of ICT market statistics for the majority of developing countries.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

36

CHAPTER 3. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF THE ICT SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY


22

UK Department of Trade and Industry. i2010 Responding to the Challenge. September 2005. i2010 A European Information Society for growth and employment. EU Press Release. Brussels, 1 June 2005, at: http://europe.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/05/ 184&type=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en. The ICT market refers to information technology (the combined industries of hardware for office machines, data processing equipment, data communications equipment, software and services) and telecommunications (carrier services, end-users communications equipment, PBX, key systems and circuit switching equipment, cellular mobile radio infrastructure, transmission and other datacom and network equipment). Source: EITO.

23

24

37

CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

4.

THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

The growth of the ICT sector is having a real and positive effect on the worlds economy. The extent of the direct impact of the ICT sector will depend on the sectors share and proportional growth in the overall economy. With the exception of major ICT producing countries, such as the US, China, and the Republic of Korea, the growth of the ICT production and services industry is likely to have a limited direct impact on the economy. Instead, the key economic impact of the spread and use of ICTs is indirect, by transforming the way individuals, businesses and other parts of the society work, buy and interact. The beneficial impact of ICTs on productivity which can help reduce poverty is of particular interest as ICT diffusion levels across all countries rise. ICT has had, and will continue to have, significant economic implications. Businesses are transforming their supply and demand chains, as well as their internal organisation to fully exploit ICT. Governments are restructuring their internal functions and the way they deliver services and generally interact with citizens and businesses. People are modifying their consumption and spending patterns, as well as their behaviour. In the process, nearly every economic variable of interest is affected.1 (OECD) The common factor in the described impact of ICTs on businesses, governments, households and society at large is usually change (transformation, restructuring, behaviour modification). The implication is that ICT induced change results in economic growth and an increase in productivity, for businesses but also of individuals. The positive impact

will therefore cut across any sector of the economy that uses ICTs and can help achieve economic development, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): There are indeed close links between the goals contained in the Millennium Declaration and the development potential of ICTsICT can also support the achievement of many, if not all, MDGs. The eradication of extreme poverty (Goal 1), for example, will to a large extent depend on the achievement of sustained economic growth, which can be facilitated by the contribution of ICTs to economic growth and of ICT investments to development and job creation. ICTs can support the development of primary education (Goal 2) by broadening the availability of quality educational material and enhancing the effectiveness of educational administration and policy.... 2 (UNCTAD) There is general agreement that ICTs re-shape the way we live (and work, communicate...). The evidence for the impacts remains scattered and often the product of complex, and at times controversial analysis, though. It should also be highlighted that for obvious reasons the impact of ICTs has been analyzed mainly in countries and sectors where access and usage levels are high enough to make an obvious change. Countries and the public and private sectors need to reach a certain level of ICT penetration to take advantage of ICTs. While the necessary level of penetration is certainly open to debate, it is obvious that the lack of critical mass will limit the effects of ICTs. The following sections highlight another very important
39

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

point: many of the areas and applications that have been linked to positive impacts (gains in productivity in the economy and businesses, reduction of costs and time through e-commerce, beneficial impacts of egovernments, e-education etc.), are closely associated to broadband uptake. High-speed Internet access and the development and use of new applications have played an important role in countries progress towards becoming Information Societies and reaping its benefits. This highlights the importance of developing countries not only to continue their efforts to increase overall ICT access and usage levels but also to make broadband deployment a priority. 4.1 Conceptual issues There are a number of conceptual issues that need to be addressed in developing indicators to measure the indirect impact of ICTs on the economy, that is, the impact outside the ICT sector itself. 4.1.1 Correlation is not causation Correlation is not sufficient to infer causation. Debate raged over whether telephone penetration caused economic development or reflected it. A similar conundrum might now be said to exist for the link between ICTs and economic development. The twoway causality between total telephone penetration and economic growth can be taken into account using complex econometric methods.3 Some studies in developing countries have tried to show how increased telecommunication investment and higher penetration levels would impact economic growth and lead to higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP).4 Similar to the link made between GDP growth and ICT

penetration, links have been established between a companys size and its level of ICT use.5 Research has shown that larger businesses tend to have higher ICT levels. While it intuitively seems more reasonable to suggest that larger firms can afford ICT (than to suggest that ICTs increase a firms size) this example illustrates the problem of causation or effect and cause. The use of ICTs may well increase a firms size or reduce its costs, or both. Theoretical models provide not only the bridge between correlation and causation but also the framework for identifying relevant data. This example would suggest that more micro-level indicators and data would be needed to understand the underlying factors. 4.1.2 The elusiveness of the impacts of ICTs One way of understanding the difficulty of measuring the impact that ICTs have, is to imagine the impact that electricity has had on the economy and society. As with ICTs, there is no denying that electricity has had important impacts on individuals, businesses and society at large but its measurement is elusive. Part of the difficulty is that both ICTs and electricity are enabling or General Purpose Technologies (Box 4.1), which means their use and their impacts are ubiquitous yet difficult to measure because they are mainly indirect. It is not electricity or ICTs as such that make the (bulk) impact on economy and society but how they are used to transform organization, processes and behaviours. While ICTs allow for new process and management innovations and generate large productivity gains, they are not effective, nor can they be analyzed, in isolation. Instead, ICTs make a change only in conjunction with

Box 4.1: You want to know the difference ICTs have made? Try to live without them: The difficulty of measuring General Purpose Technologies
Like electrical power before it, ICTs have been recognized as a General Purpose Technology (GPT) that transforms economic relations, enhances productivity and creates new services and markets. GPTs have the following three characteristics: Pervasiveness: GPTs spread to most sectors. This suggests that impacts should be measured at a higher level than the firm or disaggregated sectors. Higher levels of aggregation internalise the externalities or spill-over impacts that arise at low levels of aggregation. Improvement: GPTs get better over time and, hence, should keep lowering the costs of its users. In fact, one of the problems associated with the study of ICTs is that they are constantly evolving. Apart from making quality adjustments for improvements in current technology, new technologies will emerge. ICTs are a moving target. Innovation spawning: GPTs make it easier to invent and produce new products or processes. That is, they allow us not only to do things better but to do better things. New possibilities are created and specialization raises productivity.

Source: ITU adapted from Bresnahan T. and Trajtenberg M. (1995) General Purpose Technologies: Engines of Growth? Journal of Econometrics, Special Issue January 1995, Vol 65, No.1.

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.2: The Wal-Mart Phenomenon: more than ICTs


Macro-economic research, as well as firm-level data, confirms that ICT investment and higher infrastructure and usage levels alone are not sufficient to produce tangible benefits. This has been described as the Wal-Mart phenomenon and refers to Wal-Marts (the worlds largest retailer) enormous productivity gap, which it was able to develop over its competitors in the industry by combining managerial with technological innovations. While there was a large technological component, the key factors were managerial innovations. It highlights that ICTs have the largest beneficial impact in conjunction with other changes, including a new set of ICT skills/training, structural changes within business models and the economy, and institutional and regulatory adjustments.

Source: R. Solow (2001) Information Technology and the Recent Productivity Boom in the US http://web.mit.edu/cmi-videos/solow/text.html.

other factors, and particularly as numerous studies have suggested require a new set of skills. ICT investment and higher infrastructure levels alone are not sufficient and a lack of complementary skills will limit the use and benefits of new technologies. Different surveys of SMEs in Central and Latin America confirm that technical know-how and skills were crucial for the successful adoption of ICTs.6 The effectiveness of ICTs depends upon how ably they are implemented. As noted above, much of the research finds that ICTs are not effective unless other changes also occur. This has also been described as the Wal-Mart phenomenon (Box 4.2), which highlights that it was not technology alone that accounted for the US productivity growth at the end of the last century. Much of the technology used had existed for a while, but it was the managements use of the technologies to re-engineer processes that made the real difference. 4.1.3 International comparisons Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been recognized as an important tool to improve productivity. Much attention has been focused on understanding why economic growth rates differ across countries and in how far ICTs account for these differences. Ultimately, of course, policy makers in governments and industries are interested to know how to improve their economys (or companys) performance. There are a number of difficulties in explaining the impact of ICTs on economic growth using international data. This includes the lack of harmonized and comparable data (for example, on ICT investment or productivity growth). 4.2 ICTs and productivity Most studies analyzing the effect of ICTs on the economy (outside the ICT sector itself) center around

productivity effects and look at business level evidence. One such study, carried out by the UKs Office for National Statistics, showed that for businesses it paid to invest in computers and software and to encourage employees to use PCs and the Internet since the most productive firms are those that employ a high share of labour with frequent access to ICT. According to the study, manufacturing companies in the UK achieve an extra 2.2 percent in productivity for each additional 10 percent of employees using computers.7 Extra productivity rose even more in newer firms and the study also showed that Internet use brought even higher productivity effects than computer use (Figure 4.1). Many studies on the impacts of ICTs on productivity and economic growth are now based on the growth accounting framework pioneered by Solow (Box 4.3).8 The framework is used to explain how investment improves labour productivity through capital deepening (increased capital per worker) and other less obvious ways, which are collectively described as multi factor productivity (MFP). In developed countries, considerable resources and creativity have been devoted to applying this framework at the whole economy, sector and firm levels. As part of this effort, the EU is creating a database on measures of economic growth, productivity, employment creation, capital formation and technological change at the industry level for all European Union member states from 1970 onwards.9 Acknowledging the potential of information and communication technologies, the EU has made ICTs a priority for economic growth. According to a recently released Information Society strategy, ICTs are a powerful driver for economy-wide productivity, growth and jobs and are arguably Europes best-

41

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 4.1: More use of ICTs more productivity


ICT equipped labour share and labour productivity in manufacturing (left) and services (right) sector, UK, 2003

ICT equipped labour share and labour productivity in manufacturing, UK, 2003 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Value added per employee, GBP thousand
Value added per employee, GBP thousand

ICT equipped labour share and labour productivity in services, UK, 2003

Employees using computer

Employees using Internet

Employees using computer Employees using Internet

Less than 25%

25-49%

50-74%

75% and over

Less than 25%

25-49%

50-74%

75% and over

Source: ITU adapted from UK Office for National Statistics, 2005. Note: The figures reported (value added per employee) are unweighted sample averages.

bet investment for the future. A quarter of the EUs GDP growth and 40% of our productivity growth are due to ICT.10 The OECD, too, has large collections of data and carries out studies on productivity growth.11

A comparative study analyzing the productivity gains from ICTs in the United States on the one hand and Europe on the other hand confirms that ICT has an impact on growth through a surge in ICT investment, strong productivity effects from ICT-producing

Box 4.3: Solows growth accounting theories to explain economic growth


Growth accounting methods are typically used to measure an economys overall level of productivity. That technique attributes growth in gross domestic product to increases in physical inputs, such as capital and labour, and advances or improvements in production technology. The growth-accounting theory pioneered by Robert Solow is simple in structure, and depicts the fundamental mechanics of growth underlying the complex interactions of a modern economy. Its main pillars are: the total stock of capital (for example, buildings and machinery) available (K) the size of the labour force (L) the technology available, for example inventions, production and management techniques (Multi-Factor Productivity, MFP) This approach assumes perfectly competitive markets and constant returns to scale in production. The first permits labour (L) and capital (K) inputs to be added as each are paid their marginal product. The second means that returns to inputs should sum to the value of output (Y). With this framework, there is an unexplained gap (called Multi-Factor Productivity, MFP), between output growth and the weighted increase in labour and capital inputs. MFP = Y a*K (1-a)*L (where these variables are measured as growth rates) MFP, Multi-Factor Productivity is also known as the Solow residual or as technological progress since the residual in the growth accounting equation is commonly equated with technological change. Equivalently, since labour productivity (LP) growth is obtained by simply subtracting L from Y, LP = (K/L) + MFP (where the growth in the capital/labour ratio is capital deepening) MFP represents all the increase in output that cannot be accounted for by an increase in any other input. It is sometimes said that MFP is a measure of our ignorance in that any productivity increase that cannot be attributed to a growth in an input factor is added in with MFP. This also means that MFP can pick up increases in productivity due to process innovations or efficiencies generated by organizational changes. Despite its limitations, growth accounting generally remains the starting point for the analysis of economic growth.

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

industries and a more productive use of ICT in the rest of the economy.12 However, much lower levels of productivity growth through ICTs in European countries suggest that the benefits of ICTs depend on a number of factors, including a markets regulatory framework and the ability of countries to develop skills and transform their organizational environment. This finding is particularly important for developing countries since it highlights that ICTs by themselves are not necessarily sufficient to produce productivity gains. Firm level research in the UK, which analyzes the impacts of IT investment and use on UK firms performance confirms that the bulk of the evidence from firm level, micro-economic studies is that IT does have an economically and statistically significant impact on productivity but this varies dramatically between firms: having the right organisation helps greatly in making the most of ICT.13 This study includes research on investment in hardware and software, the use of e-commerce, electronic businesses processes, and use of the Internet and computers by employees. A comprehensive recent study comparing the time periods 1989-1995 with 1995-200314 uses separate measures of ICT investment, non-ICT investment, and several measures of labour, to determine the correlation between changes in ICT investment levels and GDP growth. According to this study, the group that benefited the most from ICTs was the G7,15 where almost one third (27 percent) of the GDP growth that occurred from 1995-2003 was due to ICT investment. However, in major developing and transition countries (countries adopting a market orientation), ICT capital played a smaller (although increasing) role. SubSaharan Africa shows similar economic impact from ICT capital growth over time about ten percent while most other groups showed a greater impact in the later period. Latin America jumped considerably from the first time period to the second (Figure 4.2). Similar results are highlighted in a recent study that confirms that ICTs have a significant impact on economic growth. The study, which analyzes 50 major ICT-spending countries, highlights that ICT contribution to economic growth is a global phenomenon, which is evident not only in developed economies but also in developing ones.16 However, key determinants why ICT contribution to growth varies include educational levels, institutional quality, and openness of the economy. Whole economy productivity studies suffer from problems measuring output in the non-market sector (eg. government services) so that better results from the

growth accounting approach are found at the industry and firm levels. According to a 2004 OECD report, Studies with firm-level data often find the strongest evidence for economic impacts of ICT. Firm-level data also point to factors influencing the impacts of ICT that cannot be observed at the aggregate level. For example, the role of ICT in helping firms gain market share can only be examined with firmlevel data, as can the role of organisational change. Moreover, firm-level analysis may help in distinguishing the impact of ICT from that of other, often firm-specific, sources of growth.17 Nine of the 12 studies in the OECDs report are based on firm-level data and were carried out by researchers in individual member countries. Most of these focus on a single country, but some also include a comparative perspective. Information on the economic effect of ICTs on developing countries is scarce although some research has been carried out in transition economies. A recent study analyzing eight transition economies in Central and Easter Europe highlights that ICT had a large contribution to GDP and labour productivity growth in CEE countries.18 The 2004 study shows that the new EU member countries have been successful in using ICTs to increase their income levels relative to the other EU member states. Spillover effects, which are more difficult to measure, have further helped theses countries to catchup to its western neighbours. However, similar to studies in developing countries, a major conclusion is that ICT will not be productively utilized without changes in the structure, organization and business models of firms and without improvement in ICT skills of the labour force, nor without institutional or regulatory changes. It is currently difficult to replicate the growth accounting framework for many developing countries since it requires detailed enterprise data. This includes investments in, and use of, ICTs, data on the enabling resources that have led to the effective use of ICTs, measures of performance of these enterprises, the cost of ICTs, productivity growth in the ICT-producing sector, changes in the patterns of occupations and skill requirements demanded of the labour force and general data on the shifts of employment patterns related to changes in production processes. The data and analysis required to undertake growth accounting are generally collected and carried out by national statistical agencies and includes Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, labour productivity (output per worker and per hour) and data on multi factor
43

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 4.2: ICTs contribution to economic growth


ICT capitals contribution to economic growth, in percent, by region, 1989-1995 and 1995-2003

ICT capital's contribution to economic growth


30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% World (110) G7 Developing Asia (16) Latin America (19) N. Africa Eastern SubEurope (14) Saharan and Middle Africa (28) East (11) China India US Percent ICT: 1989-1995 Percent ICT: 1995-2003

Source: ITU adapted from Jorgenson and Vu , 2005.

productivity (MFP). The International Labour Organization (ILO) publishes data on labour productivity for the majority of countries although data issues remain and international comparisons are difficult.19 Since estimating MFP requires strong assumptions about scale economies and perfect competition (as highlighted in Box 4.3) as well as data on investment and labour inputs, few developing countries are currently producing information on MFP. Data on capital services are usually derived from, rather than collected by, statistical agencies. These are often based on academic exercises and therefore exist only for a limited number of countries. On the enterprise level, it would be important to analyze the correlation between ICT use/investment and financial performance.20 While this measure promises to reveal some insightful information, it can be obtained only through detailed firm-level data, including ICT investment and productivity growth. There are a number of reasons that suggest that developing countries have not been able to fully reap the benefits of ICTs, or that the impact of ICTs are difficult to measure. There is a substantial time lag between ICT investments, diffusion and adoption on the one hand and the moment benefits appear in the productivity and growth figures and data can be compiled on the other hand. This is illustrated by a recent study that measures the economic impact of broadband on economic activity, including employment and wages in the US economy. The study, which was published towards the end of 2005, is based on 1998-2002 (community-level) data. It concludes

that communities in which mass-market broadband was available by December 1999 experienced more rapid growth in (1) employment, (2) the number of businesses overall, and (3) businesses in IT-intensive sectors.21 While the report presents an important contribution to the debate on how ICTs enhance economic growth and performance, it highlights the difficulty of studying such a rapidly changing sector as the ICT sector. It is obvious that broadband penetration levels and their impact on the economy have significantly changed over the last five years. It is also certain that countries need to reach a certain level of ICT penetration to take advantage of its impact. While it is unclear what kind of ICT level countries need to attain, the lack of critical mass will keep benefits minimal. Finally, the failure to adopt organizational, regulatory and market environments will equally limit the potential of ICTs. 4.3 Private sector transformation A less theory-dependent approach, which does not rely on econometric analysis, is to map how ICTs are transforming economic relationships and processes in the private sector. While ICTs have had many different impacts across countries worldwide, the transformation of economic relationships and processes is particularly visible on a large scale in those countries and areas that have the highest ICT penetration levels. The spread of broadband also seems to have a particularly important role in certain areas, for example for the emergence of e-commerce, and teleworking.

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Figure 4.3: Spread of e-commerce and net impact of e-business in Canada


Value of online sales, CAN$ billion, and percentage of enterprises that use the Internet to buy goods or services, public and private sector, Canada, 2000-20004 (left) and identified savings (in percent) made by e-business solutions in SMEs, Canada, 2002 (right)

E-commerce uptake in Canada 30 25 20


Thousands

77
Total value of Internet sales (CAN$ billion) Percentage of enterprises that use the Internet to buy goods or services (public sector) Percentage of enterprises that use the Internet to buy goods or services (private sector)

80 28 70 60
Percentage

Identified savings (in %) made by e-business solutions in SMEs, Canada, 2002

65

69

10 8 6 4 2 0
Revenue gain Average saving Average saving in cost of goods in sales, general sold and administrative costs

9.5 7 7.5

15 10 5 0

32 11

37

19

43

50 40 30 20 10 0

6 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Source: ITU adapted from Statistics Canada (left) and Canadian e-Business Initiative (right) (CeBI, 2002).

4.3.1 E-Commerce Internationally, the measurement of e-commerce is still in its initial stage. There are clear indications that in countries with relatively high ICT levels, B2B (business to business) and B2C (business to consumer) transactions are taking up an increasing market share. The 2004 e-commerce survey of business by the UK Office for National Statistics showed that the value of Internet sales rose by 81 percent between 2003 and 2004, by when Internet sales accounted for about 3.4 percent of the total value of sales by businesses in the non-financial sector. By 2004, 6.7 percent of businesses reported selling online. At this point, e-commerce is used primarily to improve supply chains in business to business (B2B, placing orders) relationships. Online sales to businesses represented 75 percent of total online sales and B2B transactions dominate, with over 35 percent of businesses purchasing online.22 The dominance of B2B is true in other countries, too. In Canada, combined private and public sector online sales rose to over CAN$ 28 billion in 2004 from CAN$ 19 billion in 2003, an increase of almost 50 percent (Figure 4.3, left). Eleven percent of total online sales are accounted for the by the retail sector, representing 0.8 percent of all retail sales. Statistics Canada attributes the relatively slower growth of B2C to a lower level in the trust relationship between

retailers and customers than between firms, household concerns about credit card security (note also that B2B may use extranets rather than the public Internet) and relatively smaller economic benefits compared with firms use of online transactions.23 Another Canadian study found that SMEs, while generally lagging behind in Internet uptake, have the greatest potential for productivity gains through ecommerce.24 On the basis of a survey with around 2000 SMEs, it found that there are substantial financial benefits in using e-business solutions. Those firms using e-business solutions were able to increase revenues by an average of seven percent. At the same time e-business solutions allowed companies to decrease the costs of goods sold by 9.5 percent while reducing sales and administrative costs by 7.5 percent (Figure 4.3, right). In the UK, two different studies also showed that cost reduction was the major benefit of ICT adoption by businesses by cutting internal administration costs, improving price transparency and reducing search costs. Productivity was also gained by ICTs speeding up purchasing processes. The UK Office for National Statistics showed that the group with the highest valueadded per employee is that which uses e-commerce for buying. The fact that those that buy only have the largest gains, suggests that buyers benefit from

45

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Box 4.4: Two B2C e-commerce champions: Amazon and eBay, from 1995-2005
A few things have changed since Amazon started selling books over the Internet in 1995, including the design of its website (compare Box Figure 4.4, top left and top right). The Seattlebased company has transformed from a simple book seller to one of the worlds biggest online retailers (and a Fortune 500 company). Today, Amazon sells into over 200 countries, just about anything from books, videos, food, clothes, electronics, health care products and toys, to garden equipment. Most items are new, some refurbished and some used. Customers can bid in auctions, or make immediate purchases, and many do. While the companys first eight years produced no net profits, net sales have steadily increased, from US$ 148 million in 1997 to US$ 8.5 billion in 2005 (Box Figure 4.4, bottom left). By the time the company finally recorded its first annual profit ever in 2003 and gained investors trust, customers had long been convinced and online shopping had reached the masses. On December 12th, 2005, the company recorded a record sale of 3.6 million items ordered in one single day, that is 41 items per second. The most expensive item a pair of diamond earrings sold for US$ 94000. To cater to its international clientele and different cultures, the Amazon web site exists in eight different (country/language) versions, including one for France, Germany, Spanish-speaking countries, China and Japan. A similar success story is recorded by eBay, the worlds largest online auction site, that sells literally everything. Launched in the same year as Amazon (1995), the company had more than 180 million registered members by 2005, and millions of items listed on its site. Buyers have the option to purchase items in an auction-style format or to buy at a fixed price. Ebay has local sites in close to 25 countries and a presence in Latin America, through MercadoLibre.com. By the end of 2005, gross merchandise volume had grown to over US$ 44 billion (Box Figure 4.4, bottom right), around 50 percent of which was generated outside the US. The success of eBay and Amazon is partially based on the network effect (as their population of users grew, it attracted more sellers, and so on), coupled with easy payment options, which enable any user with an e-mail address to send and receive online payments.

Box Figure 4.4: The transformation of Amazon and eBay


Amazon.com web sites in 1995 (top left) and in 2006 (top right); Amazon net sales 1997-2005, US$ billion (bottom left) and eBay gross merchandise volume, 1998-2005, US$ billion (bottom right)

9 1
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1 0.6 1.6 2.8

5 9
8.5 6.9 5.3 3.9

0 2

6 0

Amazon net sales, 1997-2005, US$ billion

Sales (US$ billion)

3.1

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Source: ITU adapted from Amazon and eBay Annual Reports and company press releases.

46

CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

better price transparency, which allows them to buy at lower cost. This is at least partially at the expense of those selling.25 To work towards a harmonized set of e-business indicators and survey methodologies, the Enterprise Directorate-General (part of the European Commission) launched the e-Business W@tch. This sectoral business observatory monitors and assesses the maturity and impact of e-business in different sectors of the European economy. It has carried out a number of impact studies and developed e-business indicators, including a Handbook on ICT Indicators.26 However, e-business statistics still suffer from a lack of adequate impact indicators and surveys and data concentrate on ICT infrastructure and use. Two recognised world leaders in the development of B2C e-commerce who have gained the trust of millions of consumers are Amazon and eBay (Box 4.4). The success of Amazon and eBay highlights the potential of e-commerce, which allows customers to buy at any time, from home, at work and without having to physically go anywhere. As other companies develop secure processes and gain the trust of customers, B2C e-commerce will certainly become significant in other sectors, too. Traditional bricks and mortar stores like Wal-Mart and Tesco (a UK supermarket store) are finding that the Internet complements their business. The biggest stores have most to gain from online sales for a number of reasons. They have the economies of scale to rate well in price comparisons, enjoy a trust or brand image, can take advantage of testing marketing products online and have ubiquitous physical presence to offer pick-up-in-store.27 The Amazon and eBay story, however, suggest that the e-commerce market is also open to entirely new market entrants. An important factor for the uptake and success of online commerce is broadband. Early attempts to do any ecommerce transaction over dial-up connections were often slow and no cheaper than just using the phone. With always-on broadband connections, that has changed so there is a close link between e-commerce activities and broadband penetration rates. Information on e-commerce is very limited and only some developing countries covered by the UNCTAD e-business survey were able to provide information on enterprises receiving and placing orders over the Internet (Figure 2.3, right). In many developing countries, particularly tourist destinations, local tourist providers are the heaviest

users of e-commerce and use the Internet to market their services. While many of these web sites attract tourists and allow them to make their reservation online, few sites actually allow for online payment. Business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce has been slow to develop because of concerns about authentication and security of transactions. Other impediments include the lack of credit cards and convenient payment methods, legal issues, and the lack of broadband. Innovative applications, however, including mobile-enabled commerce (m-commerce), can deal with these barriers and help developing countries address service gaps. In the Philippines, for example, where financial services and formal banking are limited in rural areas, people can transfer money over the mobile network. Mobile users can transfer cash or airtime credits to other user and make payments remotely.28 There is currently no focus on monitoring, for example, the percentage increase in goods ordered online. The current difficulties in determining, collecting and comparing data on the value of e/m-commerce (or m-commerce) in developed countries highlights the nascent state of measuring the impact of e-commerce. Data on e-commerce transactions are not currently included in the Partnership for Measuring ICT for Developments core list of indicators, nor are they requested in UNCTADs annual e-business survey (for developing countries).29 4.3.2 Offshore Outsourcing30 Companies are increasingly using the information capabilities of ICT to support outsourcing of different business activities. The globalisation of production, and the emergence of international production systems reflects the responses of multinational firms to technological change, policy and trade liberalization and increased competition. In many cases, production is now characterised by a high degree of specialisation along the value chain, with standardization supporting high levels of specialisation and outsourcing. More and more, labour-intensive manufacturing and services activities are shifting to contract suppliers in Asia, while Western Europe and the United States retain the high-end, knowledge intensive stages of the value chain, such as research and product development.31 China has become the worlds leading exporter of ICT products partly as a result of outsourcing. The main difference between outsourcing and international trade more generally is that outsourcing
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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 4.4: Major outsourcing economies


Imports of business services as a percent of GDP in the US, UK, India and China, 1983-2003 (left) and business, computer and information services as a share of countries GDP in selected countries, 2003 (right)

Source: IMF.

involves the slicing up of the production chain. So rather than relocating the whole production of a good to another country, the home country where the business is located keeps performing those parts that it has comparative advantage and relocates the others abroad. It engages in international trade by importing inputs and/or services and exporting final goods. This phenomenon is not in itself new. Outsourcing of material inputs dates back many decades. What is relatively more novel is that this kind of trade is now also in service areas, which in the past were seen as non-tradable. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) recently published some preliminary results from a study that highlights that service outsourcing is positively associated with productivity. Negative effects on employment actually disappear because substitution effects away from labor are offset by increased demand in other industries.32 To date, there are no official data measuring the extent of offshoring so it is necessary to use indirect measures such as data on trade in services (value of exports in total sales). The IMF, for example, uses balance of payment data on the value of exports of ICT related services to analyze the economic impact of offshoring in different countries. It is interesting that offshore havens such as China and India actually export large parts of their business services (Figure 4.4, left chart). Small economies also often outsource more business,
48

computer and information services as a share of their GDP (Figure 4.4, right).33 A possible (proxy) indicator to measure the impact of offshoring could be the value of ICT goods and services exported (and imported) as a percentage of GDP. While this is an indicator that is specific to the ICT industry (as discussed in chapter 3), countries could also track the employment in and revenues from IT-enabled services, which would go beyond the ICT sector itself. IT-enabled services include data processing services and call centers and are also refered to as business process outsourcing (BPO). This would help measure the indirect impact that ICTs have made on a countrys economy. In India, for example, the IT-enabled services sector (BPO) is expected to produce a total of US$ 7.2 billion in revenues by 2006. US$ 6.3 billion or almost 90 percent of these revenues are from exports. Revenues from the IT-enabled services sector represent 25 percent of all revenues from the IT software and services industry (Figure 4.5, left). In addition, Indias National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) estimates that by 2006, IT-enabled outsourcing services will employ 409000 Indians, almost half of those working in the entire IT Services and Software industry (Figure 4.5 right).34 4.3.3 Teleworking Outsourcing moves jobs while teleworking moves people. Or, rather, ICTs enable people to work without

CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Figure 4.5: The contribution of Indias outsourcing services to the IT sector and economy
Information Technology (IT) industry revenues by sector, India, 2004-2006, US$ billion (left) and employment in the IT industry by sector, India, 2004-2006, in thousands of employees (right)

IT industry revenues by sector, India 2004-2006, US$ billion


IT/engineering service, software, R&D exports IT/engineering service, software, R&D domestic IT-enabled sector-BPO exports (outsourcing) IT-enabled sector-BPO domestic (outsourcing)

Employment in the IT industry, India, by sector, 2004-2006, (in thousands)


IT/engineering service, software, R&D IT-enabled sector-BPO (outsourcing)

20 15 10 5 0

500

17.1

Thousands

400 300 200 100 296 216

390 316

413 409

13.1 9.8 3.5 3.1 0.3


2004 2005 6.3

4.3 4.6 0.6

5.2

0.9
2006

0 2004 2005 2006

Source: ITU adapted from National Association of Software and Service Companies. Note: BPO refers to Business Process Outsourcing.

leaving home. Broadband communication links are particularly important in making teleworking a viable alternative to working in the office, so teleworking is most likely to be found in countries where broadband penetration levels are high.35 There are now many examples of the beneficial impacts of teleworking and a number of countries have acknowledged the public benefits of having people work from at home. According to the Australian Telework Advisory Committee (ATAC), benefits include improved business efficiencies and cost savings, economic opportunities for regional industry, improved work/life balance for Australian workers, and reduced congestion and environmental impacts.36 Several companies have reported striking improvements in labour productivity, which is linked to improved worker satisfaction. This leads to other business performance benefits, too. A 2004 international survey of commuters, for example, found that teleworkers were 67 percent more likely to be loyal to their employers.37 Since costs of staff turnover have been estimated to represent up to 150 400 percent of an employees annual salary38 this is a clear advantage. Another survey also found that over 30 percent of respondents claimed to prefer the option of teleworking over a higher salary.39 Significant savings arise from reducing accommodation and car parking costs. About

25 percent of IBMs 320000 workers worldwide telecommute from home offices, saving the company US$ 700 million in real estate costs.40 Since 1998, AT&T has reduced its office space costs by 50 percent through telework, saving it US$ 500 million.41 Of Nortels 13000 teleworkers, 4000 no longer need dedicated office space, enabling the company to save US$ 20 million annually on real estate.42 British Telecom (BT) estimates that telework has allowed the company to save a total of GBP 60 million per year (Box 4.5). Another clear benefit is time saved. A report for the UK Home Office estimated the net public loss to the UK economy of commuter time wasted in congested traffic at GBP 20 billion43 and during 2002, the average US commuter lost nearly two full days (46 hours) stuck in congested traffic. 44 Since commuting means road congestion and pollution, teleworking has become a key component of the Australian Governments National Greenhouse Strategys Greenhouse Gas Abatement Program aimed at improving air quality.45 While some jobs lend themselves to teleworking better than others, in 2004, the Canadian Telework Association (CTA) estimated that 65 percent of jobs would be amenable to telework, primarily for occupations in professional and knowledge-intensive sectors.46
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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Box 4.5: British Telecoms experience with teleworking


By early 2006, 11000 of the 100000 employees at British Telecom were working from home. These teleworkers each save the company accommodation costs of approximately GBP 6000 per annum, have an increased productivity rate between 15 percent and 31 percent, and each average only three days sick leave per annum against an industry average of 12 days (Box Figure 4.5). Based on these changes alone, British Telecom estimates that ICT enabled telework allows the company to save over GBP 60 million per year. In addition, BT also has 70000 flexible (nomadic or occasional home based) workers, which helps the company to make efficiency savings by cutting down on travel costs. In 2001, BT estimated that it had saved GBP ten million on fuel (12m litres of fuel saved) through the use of tele/video conferencing. Obviously, there are also environmental benefits. More money is saved in terms of staff retention. According to BT, it has a 98 percent return rate after maternity leave (compared to the national average of just under 75 percent) because of its teleworking program. Based on the fact that on average BT has 2000 women pregnant a year, and an average replacement cost of GBP 10000 per person, this saves BT another GBP two million every year. Finally, BTs teleworkers also report that they are seven percent happier than their office-based colleagues and several have turned down other job offers to retain the flexibility of teleworking.47

Box Figure 4.5: British Telecom savings through telework


Telework saves British Telecom accommodation costs, increases productivity and saves time and money lost to sick leave

How telework saves British Telecom time and money 25 20 20 15 10 5 0 Accomodation cost saved per teleworker, per annum (in thousands of GBP) Increased productivity (%) Sick days per annum for teleworkers Sick days per annum, industry average 6 3 12

Source: ITU adapted from British Telecom and Broadband Stakeholder Group (BSG, 2004).

4.3.4

ICTs create new and remodel old business opportunities Mobile business Over the last five years, mobile phones have been the outstanding ICT platform in terms of growth and impact on society, particularly in the developing world. Apart from the anecdotal evidence about how mobile phones have created business opportunities particularly in low-income countries (Box 4.6), there is an emerging literature examining the link between the use of mobile phones and economic growth in developing countries.48 In economic terms, mobiles have spawned new content and equipment industries to serve the booming

mobile sector and its users. Since in developing countries mobiles are substitutes for fixed lines while in developed countries they are usually complements, the latter group experiences a much higher growth dividend. One study finds the impact of mobile telephony on economic growth may be twice as large in developing countries compared to developed countries since mobiles are not just a different/ complementary way of communication but have opened up entirely new communication means.51 In other words, mobile phones can do for underserved areas what fixed telephone lines did in many other regions and countries years ago: widen markets, create better information flow, lower transaction costs, and substitute for costly physical transport.

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.6: Mobile makes business examples from Bangladesh, South Africa, and Nigeria
One of the most popularly cited mobile business success stories is that of GrameenPhone, taking place in Bangladesh. Based on the concept that good development is good business, the mobile operator, which first launched its services in Bangladesh in 1997, has done a fair job at combining social and economic development. Through its low pricing strategy, the company was able to increase competition, quickly bring down prices in the telecommunication sector and help increase mobile penetration from 0.3 percent in 1997 to over six percent by the end of 2005. Besides connecting previously remote and unconnected areas, the companys Village Phone (VP) Program has allowed mainly low-income women in rural areas to borrow enough money to buy a handset, a subscription and cover incidental expenses so as to start their own pay phone service. The idea of the VP Program, which is implemented by Grameen Telecom (GTC) in cooperation with Grameen Bank, the international micro-credit lending institution is simple: Once the women have received training about the technical operations and tariffs, they are set to start up their own business. The average earning of a Village Phone operator is about BDT 5000 per month, which is more than twice the countrys per capita income. Besides providing the rural population with access to telecom services and enhancing the social status of women, GrameenPhone has had a major macroeconomic impact and created new employment opportunities. In addition to employing over 1000 people, the company has created more than 100000 jobs, including for dealers, agents, contractors, suppliers, and Village Phone operators. GrameenPhone is also one of Bangladeshs largest private sector investors, as well as one of largest taxpayers in the country (Box Figure 4.6). In South Africa, Vodafones associate company, Vodacom, supplies community phones in phone shops run by local businesses under franchise. Vodacom provides business training and support to franchisees to help them make their business a success. Around 5000 community phone shops have been established, either housed in customised shipping containers or, for example, as part of spaza shops (small grocery stores in the country). Apart from providing access to telecommunications for people who cannot afford their own phone, phone shops are also bringing additional benefits. More than 20000 jobs have been created and the shops help attract many other businesses, boosting local economies. In addition, the franchise system adopted by Vodacom is helping to empower women, with around 40 percent of franchises held by women.49 In Nigeria, Africas most populated country, the telecommunication industry, and particularly the mobile industry, has been recognized as the fastest growing employer of labour. The telecommunication regulator (NCC) estimated that in March 2004 alone, the telecom sector created 5000 new jobs directly and primarily due to the growth in the mobile sector. In the same month, it was estimated that the spin-offs in new businesses dealerships, retail outlets for GSM handsets and accessories, and one-man phone booth operations created no less than 400000 new jobs.50

Box Figure 4.6: GrameenPhones contribution to Bangladeshs economy

Grameen Phone's contribution to the government's budget 14'000 12'000 Bangladesh's GDP in 2003: 3'000'000 million BDT 0.4% of GDP 11'525

Million BDT

10'000 8'000 6'000 4'000 2'000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 521 386 747 1'593 3'180 5'288 7'214

Source: GrameenPhone. Note: BDT refers to Bangladeshs currency (Taka).

Estimating the economic impacts of mobiles presents many of the same problems as trying to explain the impact of telephone penetration on economic growth (two-way causality operates). A recent study on the impact of mobile telephony in developing countries concludes that Investment in telecoms generates a growth dividend because the spread of telecommunications reduces costs of interaction, expands market boundaries, and enormously expands information flows.52 Referring to a 2001 study by Roeller and Waverman, which concluded that in the OECD the spread of modern fixed-line telecommunication networks alone was responsible

for one third of output growth between 1970 and 1990, this study shows that mobile could have the same impact as fixed lines had in developed countries in the 1970s and 1980s. There are a number of other studies that argue that the use of mobile phones can improve revenue yields, for example by farmers and fishermen. Most of these are anecdotal and impacts (for example in terms of increased revenues) remain difficult to track. A recent study that looked at the value of ICTs from the users perspective highlights the value of the telephone by comparing households spending on the phone to their
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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 4.6: Why people are prepared to spend so much on a (mobile) phone
Monthly expenditure on a household phone as a percentage of household income, in selected Sub-Saharan countries, 2004 (left), and savings (in terms of time and money) made through the use of the mobile phone (according to the surveyed population) in South Africa and Tanzania, 2005 (right)

Expenditure on household phone, 2004, $US


6.8% 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 South Africa Namibia Botswana Ethopia Zambia Tanzania 103 109 36 69 406 42 355 18 310 1'505 10.7% 1'018 3.8% 944
Monthly expenditure on household phone as a percentage of household income

Monthly expenditure on household phone Monthly household income

Time and money saved through the mobile phone, 2005 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 South Africa Tanzania
Large saving in travel time Large saving in travel cost

67 58 52

65

17.0%

11.7%

5.9%

Source: ITU adapted from researchICTafrica.net (left) and ITU adapted from Vodafone (right).

income in ten Sub-Saharan countries. The survey showed that people are prepared to spend relatively large amounts of their income on telecommunications.53 In Namibia, Ethiopia, and Zambia, for example, households spend more than ten percent of their monthly household income on the phone. Households in South Africa and Tanzania spend 6.8 and 5.9 percent, respectively (Figure 4.6, left). This compares to an estimated three percent in most developed countries. The fact that in developing countries the expenditure on telecommunications takes a greater share of household income than in developed countries, suggests that people value access greatly and are prepared to pay proportionally more. This is equally true for the average rural household, where incomes are particularly low. Research suggests that lowincome households are prepared to spend relatively large amounts of their revenue on telecommunications because it helps them save money in other areas. The value of mobile phones is particularly great because other forms of communication (such as postal systems, roads and fixed-line phones) are often poor. Mobiles provide a point of contact and enable users to participate in the economic system. A survey carried out in South Africa and Tanzania, for example, showed that mobile phones help save money and time. In Tanzania, two thirds of the surveyed population

reported large saving in travel time and travel costs (Figure 4.6, right). The same study produced evidence that mobiles improve relationships with friends and family and help small businesses operate more effectively. In South Africa, 62 percent of small businesses affirmed that they had increased their profits as a result of the mobile phone and 85 percent of those surveyed in Tanzania said they had more contact and better relationships with family and friends as a result of mobile phones. Mobile phones are also instrumental for job hunters, not only because they help them obtain information and apply for a job, but also because it provides a means of being contacted by potential employers.54 Not surprisingly, the economically active 25-45 age-group is the one with the highest use of mobile phones. The mobiles sector has also been credited with creating new businesses, large amounts of revenue (including for governments), and increased employment, including through business spin-offs (Box 4.6, see the example from Nigeria). ICT employment and skills ICTs are increasingly transforming the economy but capturing their importance and impacts is not always straightforward. The OECD has developed a (two measurement) ICT-skilled employment approach to

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.7: The definition of ICT skills


While there is currently no commonly adopted definition of ICT skills, there are ongoing efforts to characterize the various types of ICT skills, for example through the European e- Skills Forum (2004). It is important to bear in mind that while the term skills refers to a set of capabilities, it may have different meanings for an employer or a jobseeker. Three categories of ICT competencies are distinguished.56 1. ICT specialists, who have the ability to develop, operate and maintain ICT systems. ICTs constitute the main part of their job they develop and put in place the ICT tools for others. 2. Advanced users: competent users of advanced, and often sector-specific, software tools. ICTs are not the main job but a tool. 3. Basic users: competent users of generic tools (e.g. Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint) needed for the Information Society, e-government and working life. Here too, ICTs are a tool, not the main job. The OECD has used this definition to compare member countries. The first category (only) is used for the narrow measure of ICT-skilled employment, and the sum of all three categories is used for the broad measure of ICT-skilled employment. Based on the narrow measure of ICT skills, ICT skilled employment as a percentage of total employment today lies between three and four percent in the developed regions and countries analyzed. Using the broad definition of ICT skills, around one fifth of all employment is ICT-skill based. While the share has been decreasing slightly in the US, it is on the rise in the EU. These data highlight the spread of ICTs in the economy and point to the importance of ICT skills and training.

Box Figure 4.7: Share of ICT-skilled employment in total employment, narrow and broad definition
Share of ICT-skilled employment in total employment, based on a narrow definition of ICT skills (left) and a broad definition of ICT skills (right), selected OECD countries and the EU (15), 1995-2003

Share of ICT-skilled employment in total employment, narrow definition of ICT skills 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 23 22.5 22 21.5
Percent

Share of ICT-skilled employment in total employment, broad definition of ICT skills

Percent

21 20.5 20 19.5 19 18.5 US EU15 Australia

US EU15 Canada Australia 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Source: ITU adapted from OECD, Key ICT indicators.

analyze the impact of ICTs on the economy. Using occupational data, a narrow measure captures ICT specialists. A broad measure includes those people who use ICTs intensively in order to do their work (both basic and advanced intensive users), as well as the specialists (Box 4.7). The objective is to understand the employment in occupations that use ICTs to various degrees, across all industries, not just the ICT sector itself. Besides presenting a new approach to capturing the impact of ICTs in the economy, this approach is also important for policy purposes since it highlights the need for general and specialized ICT skills and training.55

4.4 Public sector transformation The use of ICTs is also transforming the business of government, both in the front office (ie interaction with the public) and the back office (internal government processes). While it is not always easy to measure the impact of ICTs in the area of government, health and education, the repercussions that information and communication technologies are having in these sectors are real and need to be analyzed. Similar to the private sector, existing studies and data in the public sector highlight the importance of high-speed Internet access in providing value-added applications and services.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Figure 4.7: How e-government saves time and money


Average time saved per e-government transaction, in minutes, EU, 2004 (left) and actual and potential savings through online usage of VAT service, EU, 2004 (right)

minutes

80 70 60

Average time saved (in minutes) per transaction, by service, EU 2004

Actual and potential savings (in Euros) through online usage of VAT service, EU, 2004
350 300

Millions of Euros

50 40 30 20 10
Application for building permission Birth and marriage certificates Enrolment in higher education Income taxes Health related services Registration of a new company

250 200 150 100 50 0

Maximum level: potential saving if the service is provided in all EU countries and used by 70% of businesses Leading level: potential saving if the service is provided in all EU countries and used by 50% of businesses

330

230

Social security benefits

Car registration

30 Current level Leading level Maximum level

Source: ITU adapted from European Union, User Satisfaction and Usage Survey of e-government services, 2004. Note: VAT refers to Value Added Tax.

4.4.1 E-government As with the impact of ICTs in the private sector, the usefulness of ICTs in achieving productivity and other benefits in the front and back offices of e-government depends upon re-engineering the internal structures and processes of government rather than on simply moving services online. According to a 2004 EU back-office study,57 ICTs may deliver 20 percent of a given e-government saving, while the remaining 80 percent is provided by the redesign and automation of back-end processes and functions. There are a number of impacts that can be identified with regard to e-government:58 1. Improved quality of information and information flow The provision of online and electronic information and the direct input of data in electronic format by public services improve information flows externally and internally. Furthermore, the shared use of information and databases made possible by electronic networks improve the speed and quality of data supply. Government agencies can communicate and exchange information easily through electronic means and a number of new communication channels have opened up between governments and its citizens (email, online information etc.).

2. Reduction of process time The digitization of public services can significantly reduce the time it takes to process and deliver a service, therefore saving precious time for both public administrations and their customers. Because data can be submitted electronically by customers and shared between different organizations, service information can be reviewed online in real time. Furthermore, the availability of electronic data (from customers and other organizations) makes it possible to automate key steps of the decisionmaking and service delivery process, and in some cases to fully e-enable them. In 2005, a EUcommissioned survey confirmed that e-government services were producing real benefits for EU citizens and businesses namely in terms of saving time and gaining flexibility. Covering nearly 50000 users, the survey focused on six specific services: reporting personal income tax returns, reporting business Value Added Tax (VAT) returns, registering a new business, submitting a proposal for a public tender, searching a public library catalogue, and enrolling in higher education. According to the survey results, 90 percent of users were satisfied with the quality of the available online services and over 60 percent were very satisfied. Online income tax declarations already save European taxpayers an estimated seven million hours per year. When generally available and

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.8: Australia measuring e-government and its impact


Australia consistently ranks high in terms of international egovernment benchmarking reports and surveys. To foster the efficient and effective use of information and communication technology by Australian government departments and agencies, the government set up the Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO). AGIMO, which falls under the Department of Finance and Administration, works with agencies to develop standards to integrate services across agencies and promotes improved government services through technical interoperability and business processes. Careful monitoring is a key factor to Australias successful implementation of e-government. E-government monitoring was first introduced to track if all appropriate government services were online, as stipulated in the 1997 Government Online strategy. The progress towards this goal was measured by so-called pulse reports surveys to monitor agencies progress towards the 2001 deadline. Once the goal was met (on time), the government produced the Better Services, Better Government (also referred to as e-government) strategy. The key was to go beyond providing online services and to add value by optimising user satisfaction and by making services more responsive. To monitor progress on how agencies are meeting the egovernment agenda, AGIMO has set up regular review mechanisms, identified key performance indicators and developed an appropriate evaluation framework and benchmarks. This include the provision of the Demand and Value Assessment Methodology through which government agencies assess the value and need for specific online service as well as the 2003 E-government Benefits Study, which provides information on the demand for, and value and benefits of e-government services.62 The study highlighted that more and more businesses were making use of e-government services, with demand expected to grow by more than 30 percent a year. By 2002/03 over 80 percent of Internet users were also users of e-government services. Findings showed, for example, that non-government online users indicated a strong preference for using the Internet to support a variety of business and personal needsThese included email, banking and bill paying, shopping, access to news, and from this the report concluded that There is clear evidence that non-government online users are conducting Internet transactions for various business and private reasons that agency business managers might capitalise upon when extending and broadening the scope of government online programs (Box Figure 4.8, left). The report further analyzed barriers to e-government take-up and calculated costs/benefit ratios for government agencies providing e-government services, as well as cost savings by consumers, including businesses (Box Figure 4.8, right). Social benefits were measured (through surveys) in terms of service improvements, community skills and knowledge, and new business or work opportunities. In June 2005, AGIMO released the first in a series of planned annual reports in a longitudinal study, Australians Use of and Satisfaction with E-Government Services. The initial study was commissioned to establish a baseline understanding of Australias uptake of e-government services, satisfaction with e-government services, and barriers to e-government use. The report also shows the level of peoples satisfaction with those services together with their preferences and expectations. It focuses on citizens use of government services provided via various channels to access three levels of government in Australia, and concentrates on citizens rather than businesses.

Box Figure 4.8: Purpose of Internet use and savings made through e-government
Purposes of use of the Internet by people who do not make use of e-government services (left) and business savings, in AU$, through the use of e-government services (right), 2002/2003, Australia

Use of the Internet by non-government online users, 2002/2003


Business related matters Book travel Employment search Access sports, news, weather Shopping Banking & bill paying Email

Business savings (as stated by businesses) through e-government services by range of cost saving, 2002/2003 $+100 $50-$99 $25-$29 $10-$24 Less than $10

21 29 38 54 58 64

= Potential e-government users!

14% 33% 12%

16%
99

25%
120

20

40

60

80

100

Source: ITU adapted from NOIE/DMR Consulting. E-government Benefits Study. April 2003. Note: Right chart: the currency $ refers to Australian dollar.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

widely used in all member states, such e-services could save over 100 million hours each year. Compared to the same transaction completed offline, the average online transaction saves 69 minutes for citizens and 61 minutes for businesses (Figure 4.7, left).59 3. Reduction of administrative burdens The use of ICTs in the provision of public services makes it possible to significantly reduce the administrative burden for citizens and businesses that use these services, as well as for the organizations that deliver them. The availability, sharing and re-use of electronic data, the digitisation of key processes and the elimination of unnecessary steps, accompanied by adequate organizational change, can provide a major contribution to the reduction of unnecessary administrative burden. 4. Cost reduction E-government enables public sector bodies to increase their service processing and delivery capabilities, while requiring less time and fewer personnel. Leaner process design, the automation of parts of the service delivery process and the use of electronic communication with customers can lead to significant cost. In 2003, the Australia government published the 2003 E-government Benefits Study, which provides information on the demand for, and value and benefits of e-government services The report further analyzed barriers to e-government take-up and calculated costs/benefit ratios for government agencies providing e-government services, as well as cost savings by consumers, including businesses (Box Figure 4.8, right). The study concluded that by 2003, 24 of the 38 government online programs surveyed were achieving cost reductions through a combination of direct savings, lower cost of delivery, and improved internal or business processes. Participating agencies were expecting reductions in costs of about AU$ 100 million from 24 e-government programs.60 Similar findings were made in the EU. In 2004, the European Union estimated that online VAT declarations were saving businesses some 30 million EUR. If maximum take-up was achieved, this could translate into annual savings of EUR 330 million across the EU. A more realistic scenario (referred to as leading level), under which 50 percent of all businesses in all countries would be using the service, would save the companies 230 million EUR (Figure 4.7, right).61

5. Improved service level A major benefit of e-government is the improved service level, more precisely in terms of increased flexibility (24/7 availability, multi-channel delivery, etc.) and transparency (availability of more detailed and complete information about the service), but also of increased time available and capabilities for custom-made services. This includes easier and faster processing of standard cases or tasks, and the possibility to customize electronic service delivery. Letting customers serve themselves through self-service electronic counters allows governments to increase service quality by reducing waiting times, and offering round the clock access and more specialized services. It also significantly reduces customer service costs. 6. Increased efficiency and transparency The changes made possible by e-government, such as the improved information supply and service levels, help to increase efficiency of public service delivery. Tasks and costs can be more efficiently distributed, both within and between public sector bodies, and processes can be streamlined to make better use of available re-sources and increase delivery capabilities. Egovernment allows the public sector to automate many routine interactions with citizens and businesses and back-office processes, eliminating paperwork and reducing processing costs, such as sorting, mailing, and printing. Following the private sector, government bodies are in the early phases of using technology to better integrate and automate their supply chains (sourcing, purchase orders, and logistics). Making information and processes public also increases efficiency and transparency by allowing citizens to check on government business. The Chilean governments online procurement system has not only greatly increased efficiency, but also made the system more transparent and open and allowed micro, small and medium-sized enterprises to increase their business opportunities (Box 4.9). 7. Increased customer satisfaction By raising service levels, reducing processing and delivery time, and making public services more responsive and customer-focused, e-government makes it possible to increase customer satisfaction. Although this increase is difficult to quantify, it can be measured through high usage figures, a decreasing number of enquiries or complaints, and through user surveys, such as the one carried out in the EU (Figure 4.9, left).

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.9: ChileCompra: e-government for transparency and openness


Launched in 2000, the Chilean governments online procurement system, ChileCompra (www.chilecompra.cl), has made the governments business more transparent, at lower cost. While the ChileCompra service is largely free, an independent study in 2004 found that the system had saved the government US$ 70 million, including through savings in notices in publications, and increased efficiency. The system has become obligatory for all ministries, central government public services, state enterprises and regional agencies and a total of 883 public entities are part of the procurement system. In 2005, ChileCompra published over 430000 business opportunities, worth US$ 2.8 billion. The system has enlisted 164000 potential providers, of which almost 40000 have been contracted by the government. ChileCompra has contributed to transparency by giving citizen access to the details of contracts for goods or services procured by the public sector. Any Chilean can learn about, follow up, and verify the proper use of procurement and contracting processes involving public resources. The system also has a distinct advantage for the private sector since it provides an equal opportunity to all companies to obtain contracts. The numbers speak for themselves: while in the overall Chilean economy 80 percent of all business sales are generated by large companies (and only three percent by micro companies and 17 percent by small and medium enterprises), ChileCompras distribution is very different. In 2005, 53 percent of sales went to large companies, 35 percent went to small and medium enterprises, and 12 percent were signed by micro enterprises (Box Figure 4.9).

Box Figure 4.9: More equal access to contracts


Business sales, by size of business, Chile, 2005

Business sales by size of business, Chile, 2005


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Large Medium Small Micro

Country average

ChileCompra

Source: ITU adapted from ChileCompra.

A number of other methods have been developed in recent years to assess the benefits of public investment in ICTs:63 The US General Services Administration (GSA) suggests impact areas include reduced cost, improved service to constituents, economic development, reduced redundancy and fostering democratic principles.64 The European Commissions IDA programme introduced a methodology called the IDA Value of Investment (VOI) which focuses not only on the traditional return on investment (ROI) analysis but also on qualitative benefits, such as increased availability and quality of services, better decisionmaking process, and increased level of staff and user satisfaction.65 Research company Gartner has introduced the concept of Public Value of IT (PVIT) to measure how IT-related investments in the public sector contribute over time to improved constituent service levels, operational efficiency and political return.66

Consultancy Deloitte proposed the concept of Citizen Advantage to measure the financial benefits of e-government projects not only for government, but also for businesses and citizens.67 It notes that by e-enabling and streamlining activities, such as permitting, licensing and reporting, governments can significantly ease regulatory compliance burdens for businesses and entrepreneurs, which in turn helps fuel economic competitiveness. 4.4.2 E-health As recognised by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the provision of health services are crucial elements in a countrys development and essential in the public sectors efforts to establish long-term economic stability and social well-being. ICTs have a potentially important role in improving the efficiency with which health services can be delivered. ICTs are increasingly facilitating a two-way information exchange in healthcare and provide isolated communities and officials with access to the latest health information and treatment. Particularly basic ICT applications (such as email exchanges between

57

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

Box 4.10: Potential cost savings from telemedicine Australia


There are many potential advantages of telemedicine, for health care workers, administrations and health care customers. The Australian governments National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) carried out a cost-benefit analysis for the use of telemedicine. The study estimates the net economic benefit accruing to Australia from the deployment of broadband to major Australian hospitals currently without broadband at AU$ 190 million over ten years. This is derived from a hybrid cost benefit analysis because some of the benefits of improved health services that are difficult to measure in monetary terms (such as increased life expectancy or a reduction in pain) are not taken into consideration. While the major benefits are linked to saving time and money, other benefits include increased efficiency through organizational changes and improved treatments. These include: 69 1. Reductions in the costs of patient movement, including the costs of ambulances, aircrafts. Such savings are likely to depend on the distance between the patient and the specialist and the mode of transport; 2. Reductions in the costs of moving staff, including direct costs of travel, accommodation and subsistence for specialist staff; 3. Reductions of the opportunity costs of the time spent by specialist staff in travelling, which would be more effectively spent working in their profession; 4. Savings through not undertaking laboratory tests, which might be deemed unnecessary as a result of a telemedicine consultation; 5. Savings from the increased use of highly skilled medical staff at a specialist centre; 6. Savings due to better scheduling of patient diagnosis and treatment; 7. Savings due to patients receiving more effective treatments and recovering more quickly as a consequence; and 8. Reduced costs of travel for patients, including the direct costs and the opportunity costs of time spent travelling.

Source: NOIE.

health care staff) and administrative use of ICTs, for example to computerize patient information systems, have had an strong impact on the health care system in both developed and developing countries. More sophisticated ICT health applications such as telemedicine have been slower to take off in developing countries mainly because telemedicine projects often include the transmission of video and other data-intensive material, which work best with broadband Internet access, a commodity that remains very limited in many developing countries. However, a number of telemedicine initiatives have been successful in providing advanced diagnostic methods and treatment to areas that currently have little access, overcoming geographical distances, and reducing travel time and costs from remote areas to hospitals.68 Sophisticated telemedicine applications and the infrastructure that supports them often require a high degree of technical support. Countries that have started to invest into the necessary infrastructure and training are increasingly eager to measure the concrete impacts that new technologies have made, usually in the form of cost-benefit analysis (Box 4.10). Anecdotal evidence from the impact of ICTs on the health of people living in developing countries
58

provides a strong argument for the potential of ICTs. The issue is further discussed in Chapter five, in the context of the Millennium Development Goals. 4.4.3 Education

An example of the high expectations placed on the use of ICTs in education is the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project, which is based on the development of low-cost laptops for school children. The first working prototype of the US$ 100 laptop was presented by the MIT Media lab in November 2005, at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The computers, which will be used in schools in Brazil, Thailand, Egypt and Nigeria from early 2006 on, are expected to improve education by allowing children, and particularly those in developing countries, to access information, and through independent interaction and exploration.70 Access to an ever-increasing amount of information and research and training material has provided students and learners across the world with completely new opportunities. The openness of the Internet and related communication tools, including email, blogs, chat rooms and discussion forums, have transformed the way people learn. One example of the benefits of these new networks is the MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT

CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Box 4.11: The impact of ICTs on education


Several studies have been carried out to analyze if the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) helps to transform teaching and learning processes in a positive way. Improvements could come in various forms, for example, by helping students to learn faster, promoting their creativity, or simply by making studying and teaching more fun. While some analysis, such as that carried out by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency, has found a positive relationship between ICT use and educational attainment, others insist that the link has not been proven. In the meantime, the debate continues and particularly countries that have invested a considerable amount of money on connecting schools and integrating ICTs into the educational system, are eager to understand if ICT users actually learn any better. This is especially true since more and more students worldwide have access to ICTs. As part of the 2003 survey of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developments (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), students were asked about their familiarity with ICTs (mainly computer use). The results show that over 80 percent of students in the OECD countries have access to a computer, either at home, at school or at other places. Although students access to a computer is lower in developing countries, the study showed that more than half of all students in the Slovak Republic, Uruguay, Turkey, and Tunisia had access to a computer, either at home, at school or at another location (Box Figure 4.11, left). The same study75 demonstrates that computer users do perform better. According to the study, which is carried out amongst 15-year olds, students who still have only limited access to computers performed below the OECD average in PISA 2003. The difference is the greatest between those that have Internet access at home and those that do not. On average in OECD countries, students with home Internet access achieve a mean score of 514 score points in the mathematics test, which is one of the areas that students are compared in. Those without computers score only 453 points. This is a substantial difference in terms of mathematics proficiency, equal to one full proficiency level on PISAs sixlevel proficiency scale for mathematics. Students who do have a computer at home perform on average at Level 3; those without perform at Level 2. Although differences vary, the same phenomenon applies to the developing countries that participated in the study, including Russia, Thailand, Uruguay and Tunisia (Box Figure 4.11, right). Evidence for this link remains strong, even after taking into account socio-economic differences that affect students performance. While this study makes an important contribution to the debate on the positive effect of ICTs, few countries have developed assessment tools to fully capture the effects of how ICTs change the way students and teachers study and learn.

Box Figure 4.11: Access to computers and its effect on students performance
Percentage of students reporting that there is a computer available for them to use at home, at school or other places, in percent, OECD countries and PISA partner countries, 2003 (left) and the availability of a computer and student performance on the PISA mathematics scale*, 2003, OECD average and selected PISA partner countries (right)

Percentage of students reporting that there is a computer available for them to use at home, school or other places, 2003
Home School Other places Percentage of students UK Tunisia Turkey Uruguay Russia Slovak Rep. Mexico Rep. of Korea Italy Japan Ireland Latvia 60 40 20 100 80 Denmark Liechtenstein Australia Canada

Availability of a computer and student performance on the PISA mathematics scale, 2003
OECD average Russia Thailand Uruguay Tunisia

514
500

506
480 453

New Zealand Portugal Iceland Hungary Sweden Finland US Austria

Performance score points

385
400
359

368

356

300

200

100 0 Computer available to use at home Computer available to use at school Computer not available to use at school Computer not available to use at home

Poland Thailand Belgium Serbia Germany Czech Republic Greece Switzerland

Source: ITU adapted from OECD PISA 2003. Note : * The higher the score on the scale, the better the performance.

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Box 4.12: The African Virtual University: reaching 24000 students


Created in 1997, the African Virtual University (AVU) today has over 57 Learning Centers in 27 African countries of Anglophone, Francophone and Portuguese-speaking Africa. Its aim is to increase access to tertiary and continuing education, improve the quality of education by tapping the best resources in Africa and worldwide, improve connectivity in learning centres and host universities, and provide training in engineering, computer science, business and journalism. Professors from universities in Australia and the US, too, deliver classes in a studio classroom. Lectures are then beamed by satellite to AVUs learning centres all across Africa, staffed by moderators who
Source: AVU.

guide students through the materials. During class, students can interact with the faculty using phone lines, fax or email. For those universities which have adequate technological infrastructure, the satellite transmissions are supplemented by the use of Internet, CD-ROMs and DVDs. AVU uses international bids to identify the most appropriate, learner-centred quality programmes for its students. The programmes are reviewed by African experts in order to ensure that they respond to learner needs. Since its inception, more than 24000 students have completed courses, and over 3500 professionals have attended executive and management seminars.

OCW) project. The large-scale, web-based electronic publishing initiative provides free, searchable access to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)s course materials for educators, students, and selflearners around the world. By the end of 2005, 1250 courses were available online (Box 5.3). There are other ways through which ICTs can make a difference in education and providing access to information and training material is only one of them. At the organizational level, ICTs can bring about major changes to traditional methods of educational planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. Because computers are fast, accurate and consistent, they are a tremendous asset to administrations. Information networks and electronic data storage, too, can help schools improve communication and efficiency by doing more in less time. A number of studies in developed countries have shown that the use of computers in education can provide significant benefits. Much of the rhetoric and rationale for using ICTs to benefit education has focused on their potential for bringing about changes in the teaching-learning paradigm, although studies show mixed results (Box 4.11). The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been involved in analyzing how ICTs can serve educational goals and enrich learning and teaching processes. This includes the integration and application of ICTs into education processes, the potential of ICTs to provide cheaper and better education for more students, including through distance education.71 UNESCO has also noted the need to develop impact indicators: Indicators are needed to show the relationships

between technology use and educational reforms, empowerment of teachers, changes in teaching and learning processes, and student learning. There is also a need to show that education should be seen as using technology not only as an end in itself, but as a means to promote creativity, empowerment and equality and produce efficient learners and problem solvers.72 Despite the recognition that performance indicators to monitor the effects of ICTs are needed, little progress has been made in identifying ways of measuring the difference that ICTs make in education.73 Most ICT indicators in the educational sector focus on infrastructure and use, and look at, for example, computer-student ratios,the number of schools connected to the Internet, the use of ICTs in the curriculum and the level of computer skills of school personnel. Some exceptions exist. In South Africa, surveys have analyzed how well students enjoy ICTrelated activities and how the use of computers has improved learning and attitudes. In Malaysia, the Smart School project has tried to assess the impact of ICTs by looking at decreased drop-out rates and recorded achievement gains in those schools that use ICTs. Most impact indicators focus on the perceived change that the use of ICTs have made, by teachers and by students. Apart from the developed regions of the world, most research has been carried out in Asia-Pacific.74 Finally, ICTs have created distance education. Education through the Internet has become a real option in developed countries and is significantly changing the way people learn. A recent US survey of more than 1000 colleges and universities revealed that by 2005, more than three out of five institutions were complementing their face-to-face undergraduate (63 percent) or graduate (65 percent) level courses by online courses. The number of

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CHAPTER 4. THE INDIRECT ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ICTs

Figure 4.8: How executives in Latin America see the benefits of ICTs
Percentage of business executives surveyed that believe that using the Internet has made their company (left) and themselves (right) more productive, selected countries in Latin America, 2003

Source: Attitudes of Latin America Business Leaders regarding the Internet. 2003 Internet Survey. Cisco Systems. 2003.

online students is increasing at a much faster rate than the overall number of higher education students and online enrollment increased from 1.98 million in 2003 to 2.35 million in 2004. 76 In the UK, the Open Universitys (OU) supported open learning, also known as distance learning, today caters to some 150000 undergraduate and more than 30000 postgraduate students that interact with the OU online from home. It employs various new media for teaching but it is the massive exploitation of the Internet that has made the OU one of the worlds leading e-universities. The OU has also been ranked one of the UKs top universities. 77 Given the shortage of educational institutions and teachers in many developing countries, distance education could have a substantial impact on providing training and education, for example in the area of teachers training. UNESCO estimates that an additional 15-35 million educated and trained teachers will be needed over the next decade if all countries are to achieve the MDG of universal primary education by 2015.78 ICTbased distance training can help overcome the shortage of primary school teachers by accelerating instruction. ICTs can also supplement primary school teaching, thereby helping to overcome shortages. While the extent of the impact of distance education is not known, there are a number of educational institutions providing

distance education in developing countries, including the University of the South Pacific (USP, at http:// www.usp.ac.fj/) and the African Virtual University (AVU, Box 4.12). 4.5 Surveys of the indirect impacts of ICTs An alternative way of measuring the impact of ICTs is by asking those concerned. Although this approach based on perception surveys does not guarantee clear objectivity, nor comparability between countries, it may complement more quantitative models and provide input to further research. Existing surveys suggest that users certainly seem to believe in the beneficial impacts of ICT. Some of the existing surveys of ICT adoption and usage ask respondents to comment on the impacts of ICTs on their respective organizations. For example, in the UK, the Institute of Directors carried out a survey on the perceived benefits of high-speed Internet access and found that broadband is good for business. According to 84 percent of respondents, broadband has increased productivity and 61 and 64 percent said broadband had delivered cost savings and increased profits, respectively.79 Similar enthusiasm has been found in Latin America, where the large majority of business
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Figure 4.9: Time is money! How the Internet can help save both
EU survey results on citizens experienced benefits with e-government service, 2005 (left) and percentage of survey respondents in Australia who agree that the Internet saved time and money, 2000 (right)

Citizens' experienced benefits with e-government services, 2005, EU


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Save time More in control Better help More and better info Faster servcie/reply No advantage Gain flexibility Save money

Percentage of survey respondents who agree that the Internet saves time and money, Australia, 2000 80 70 60

Percent

Percent

50 40 30 20 10 0

Average estimated amount saved per week: AU$ 95 Average estimated amount saved per week: AU$ 30

Save time

Save money

Source: ITU adapted from EU (left) and ITU adapted from Australian Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts (DCITA) (right).

executives agree that the use of the Internet has greatly improved their companys productivity (Figure 4.8, left). Most executives also see their own productivity increased through the use of the Internet. In Argentina and Brazil, for example, 76 percent and 98 percent of managers respectively agree that using the Internet has made them personally more productive at work (Figure 4.8, right). In the European Union (EU), over 90 percent of government services are online and by 2004, over 50 percent of all businesses and citizens used the Internet to access public authorities websites. To evaluate the impact of these services, the EU carried out a User Satisfaction and Usage Survey.80 According to this 2004 survey, online services help citizens and businesses save time and give them more flexibility. On average, users save one hour of their time per online transaction but that is not all. Other benefits of e-government included faster services and replies, more and better information, control, save money, and better help. Only eight percent of e-government users said there were no advantages (Figure 4.9, left).

In Australia, as early as in 2000 (by when 37 percent of Australian households were online) a survey was carried out to quantify the impacts of the Internet in terms of financial benefits.81 Interviews with more than 300 households with Internet access showed that 39 percent of those households identified the Internet as delivering direct money savings. According to the study people found it hard to put a dollar value on the benefits of home Internet access. They didnt always realise that some of the things they used the Internet for not only saved time, but also saved money, such as travel costs. The average direct monetary benefit, where identified, was $30 a week per household.82 However, the vast majority (73 percent) said they saved time by using the Internet. The average time saved for these households was four hours a week, which was valued at an average of AU$ 95 a week. Besides highlighting the difficulty in quantifying the value of Internet access, the study concludes that there are many non-monetary impacts, such as improved communication with others and getting easier, quicker and more convenient access to information.

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4.6 Conclusion The most obvious way of analyzing the indirect impact of ICTs on the overall economy is in terms of its ability to raise productivity. Different macro-economic and firm-level studies confirm high potential productivity gains from ICTs but highlight that the benefits of ICTs depend on a number of other factors. ICTs make the greatest change in conjunction with other changes, including a new set of ICT skills, structural changes within business models and institutional and regulatory adjustments within the economy. Besides increasing productivity, ICTs are transforming economic relationships and processes in the private and public sectors. Positive impacts have been observed and measured across developed and developing countries and different sectors. Just as ecommerce and teleworking allow companies to reduce costs and increase revenues, e-government has the potential to save money, increase efficiency and raise transparency in the public sector. A sector that has had a particularly strong impact in developing countries is the mobile sector, particularly since mobile phones are not just a different or complementary way of communication but have opened up entirely new communication means in many parts of the developing world. The mobile boom has not just created new jobs and revenues but also contributed to economic growth by widening markets, creating better information flow, lowering transaction costs, and substituting for costly physical transport. Apart from the impact of the mobile sector, the transformation of economic relationships and processes is particularly visible on a large scale in those countries and areas that have the highest Internet penetration levels. The spread of broadband seems to have a particularly important role in certain areas, including for the emergence of e-commerce, teleworking, and e-education and e-health. Much of the current effort to measure the impact of ICTs on productivity is based on the growth accounting framework. This impact can be measured at the firm, sector or economy level with data on the volume of output, labour (preferably total man-hours) and capital services (which requires investment data and price deflators). The indirect impact of ICTs contributes to multi-factor productivity (MFP) growth. Without using the growth accounting framework, insights into the impact of ICTs on labour productivity (volume of output per worker or man-hour) can be

obtained by comparing existing measures of ICT adoption and use with labour productivity. At the firm or programme (using ICTs in rural medical care) level, it would also be useful to track changes in processes and employment skills that accompany the introduction of ICTs. A number of other areas have been highlighted that lend themselves to impact measurements: Companies could study the impact of e-commerce uptake by measuring the increase in revenues, and the decrease in (sales and administrative) costs. Apart from measuring the value of exported ICT goods and services (an indicator linked to the ICT industry itself), countries also need to track employment in and revenues from IT-enabled services (for example call centres) and particularly those that are exported. Companies and governments that have introduced teleworking could measure its effect in terms of the reduced costs (for accommodation, parking etc), saved time (particularly for commuting), and reduction of sick leave. Environmental impacts and productivity gains are other major impacts that have been linked to telework and could be subject to surveys and studies. The most obvious (and quantifiable) e-government impacts are the reduction of (administrative) cost for governments and the time saved for users (citizens and businesses). Other positive effects that are more difficult to measure, usually in the form of specific case studies, include an increase in transparency and efficiency. The number of students studying online could be a potential indicator that would help governments understand in how far e-education (and particularly distance learning) is contributing to the educational sector. These points cover only a limited number of areas in which ICTs are having an indirect economic impact. They highlight not only the difficulty of quantifying the impact of ICTs, but also some of the successful endeavours by governments, organizations, and the private sector. It is obvious that both administrative data and case studies and sector-specific surveys need to be carried out to understand the impact of ICTs.

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Notes
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OECD. Guide to Measuring the Information Society. November 2005, at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/41/12/36177203.pdf. UNCTAD. Information Economy Report. October 2005, at: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ecommerce_en/edr05_en.htm. Roller, H. and Waverman, L. Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Development: A Simultaneous Approach. American Economic Review. April 2001. See, for example, Sridhar, K.S. and Sridhar, V. Telecom Infrastructure and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Countries. Institute for Development Economics Research. December 2004, at: http://62.237.131.18/conference/conference-2005-3/conference-2005-3-papers/Sridhar & Sridhar.pdf. OECD. The Economic Impact of ICT. Paris. 2004. Fundacin CAATEC. The Central American MSMEs and the Information and Communication Technologies: An empirical study o-n the impact of ICTs adoption o-n MSMEs performance. Costa Rica. 2005. See also: UNCTAD. E-Commerce and Development Report. 2004. S. Farooqui. Information and Communication Technology use and productivity. Office of National Statistics. Economic Trends 625. December 2005, at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/economic_trends/ET625_Farooqui.pdf. Solow, R. Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function. Review of Economics and Statistics. 1957. See EU KLEMS project, at: www.euklems.net. EU. i2010 A European Information Society for growth and employment. Press Release. Brussels. June 2005, at: http://europe.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/05/ 184&type=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en. OECD. Compendium of Productivity Indicators, at: http://www.oecd.org/statistics/productivity. Ark, B. and Inklaar, R. Catching Up or Getting Stuck? Europes Troubles to Exploit ICTs Productivity Potential. Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen. September 2005, at: http://www.ggdc.net/pub/online/gd79(online).pdf. Sadun R. and van Reenen J. Information technology and productivity: It aint what you do, its the way that you do I.T. EDS Discussion paper No.002. London School of Economics. October 2005, at: http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/EDSInnovationResearchProgramme/pdf/EDSdp002.pdf. Jorgenson, D., and K. Vu. Information Technology and the World Economy. Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Vol. 107, Issue 4. December 2005. The Group of 7 (G7) refers to the following countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Vu K. Measuring the Impact of ICT Investments on Economic Growth. Harvard Kennedy School of Government. 2005, at: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/cbg/ptep/khuongvu/Key%20paper.pdf. OECD. The Economic Impacts of ICT: Measurement, Evidence and Implications. March 2004. Piatkowski M. The Impact of ICT on Growth in Transition Economies. Transformation, Integration and Globalization and Economic Research. TIGER Working Paper Series. Warsaw, July 2004, at: http://www.tiger.edu.pl/publikacje/TWPNo59.pdf.

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ILO. Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM). 2005, at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/kilm/indicators.htm#kilm18. Suggested indicator by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Measuring a Knowledge-based Economy and Society An Australian Framework. Cat. No. 1375. Lehr, Osorio, Gillet (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Sirbu (Carnegie Mellon Univeristy). Measuring Broadbands Economic Impact. Paper presented at the 33rd Research Conference on Communication, Information, and Internet Policy (TPRC). September 2005 (Revised as of October 2005). UK Office for National Statistics. ICT Activity of UK businesses, 2004. February 2006, at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_economy/ecommerce_report_2004.pdf. Statistics Canada. Electronic commerce and technology. The Daily. April 2005, at: http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/050420/d050420b.htm. Canadian e-Business Initiative (CeBI). Net Impact Study Canada: The SME Experience. A preliminary report. 2002, at: http://cebi.ca/Public/Team1/Docs/net_impact.pdf. Booz, Allen, Hamilton. Business in the Information Age. International Benchmarking Study 2003. DTI. 2003, at: http://www.dti.gov.uk/about/psa/assets/dti-2003_main_report.pdf European Commission, Enterprise & Industry Directorate General. E-business W@tch. A Guide to ICT Usage Indicators. July 2005, at: http://www.ebusiness-watch.org/resources/documents/TR01_Indicators_2005_web.pdf. The Economist. Clicks, bricks and bargains. December 3rd, 2005. Cellular news. Mobile Phones Replace Cash in Developing Nations. 22 February 2006. UNCTAD. Information Economy Report. October 2005, at: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ecommerce_en/edr05_en.htm. While outsourcing is an arrangement in which one company provides services for another company that could also be or usually have been provided in-house, offshore outsourcing implies that services are provided by companies located in a different country. European Commission. E-business Watch. ICT and e-business in the Electrical Machinery and Electronics Sector. 2003, at: http://www.ebusiness-watch.org/resources/electronics/SR11-II_Electronics.pdf. Amiti, M. and Wei, S. Service Outsourcing, Productivity and Employment: Evidence from the US. IMF. August 2005. Preliminary Results, at: http://www.usitc.gov/ind_econ_ana/research_ana/seminars/USoutsourcing_Amiti_Wei_22august05.pdf. M. Amiti and S. Wei. Demystifying Outsourcing. The numbers do not support the hype over job losses. Finance and Development. IMF. December 2004, at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2004/12/pdf/amiti.pdf. National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM). Indian IT-ITES Sector To Exceed USD 36 Billion in FY 2006. Press Release. February 09, 2006, at: http://www.nasscom.org/artdisplay.asp?Art_id=4989. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in the US reimburses most of the cost of broadband for employees if they work from home. See: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/om/telecommuting/broadband.htm. See CTA examples and also the DCITA paper for the Australian Telework Advisory Committee Telework for Employees and Businesses: Maximising the Economic and Social Benefits of Flexible Working Practices. 2005, at: http://www.dcita.gov.au/__data/assets/file/25252/ATAC_Paper_1.rtf. The survey was carried out in New York and London. See: www.netilla.com/pressRelease/release_83.htm.

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National Office for the Information Economy. Broadband Teleworking. 2003, at: www.dcita.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/21055/Broadband-Teleworking.pdf. Information Technology Association of America. e-Data Telecom: Positively Broadband Campaign Releases E-Work Survey Results. July 2002, at: www.itaa.org/isec/pubs/e20027-01.pdf. See Canadian Telework Association, at: http://www.ivc.ca/costbenefits.htm. See Canadian Telework Association, at: http://www.ivc.ca/part11.html. Telework New Zealand. Telework Saves Thousands. 2004, at: http://www.telework.co.nz/Space.htm. See Flexibility. Telecommuting 2000: The Costs of Congestion and Commuting, at: http://www.flexibility.co.uk/telecommuting2000/tc2002.htm. Kistner, T. Network World Magazine. 13 September 2004. Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO). National Greenhouse Strategy: 2000 Progress Report, at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/government/ngs/pubs/progress_report2000.pdf. See Canadian Telework Association. US Telework Scene Stats and Facts, at: http://www.ivc.ca/studies/us.html. British Telecom and Broadband Stakeholder Group (BSG). The Impact of Broadband-Enabled ICT, Content, Applications and Services on the UK Economy and Society to 2010. 2004, at: http://www.broadbanduk.org/news/ news_pdfs/Sept%202004/BSG_Phase_2_BB_Impact_BackgroundPaper_Sept04(1).pdf. Waverman, L. Meschi, M. and M, Fuss. The impact of telecoms on economic growth in developing countries, in Vodaphone Policy Paper Series: March 2005. Torero, M; Chowdhury, S. and Bedi, A. Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis. Mimeo, 2002; and Sridhar, K.S. and Sridhar, V. Telecom Infrastructure and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Countries. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (New Delhi, India) Working Paper No. 14, 2004. Waverman L., Meschi M. and Fuss M. The impact of telecoms on economic growth in developing countries, in: Africa: Thee Impact of Mobile Phones. Vodaphone Policy Paper Series. Number 2. March 2005, at: www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf Akwani, O. Telecom Operators Creating New Employment in Nigeria. IMDiversity. January 2006, at: http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/global/news/TelecomNigeria.asp. Waverman L, Meschi M. and M, Fuss. The impact of telecoms on economic growth in developing countries. Vodaphone Policy Paper Series. Number 2. March 2005, at: http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2005/450/ L%20Waverman-%20Telecoms%20Growth%20in%20Dev.%20Countries.pdf. Waverman, L. Meschi, M. and Fuss, M. The Impact of Telecoms on Economic Growth in Developing Countries. Vodaphone Policy Paper Series. Number 2. March 2005, at: http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2005/450/ L%20Waverman-%20Telecoms%20Growth%20in%20Dev.%20Countries.pdf. Research ICT Africa. Towards an African e-index. Household and Individual ICT access and usage across 10 African countries. 2005, at: http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/Toward2.pdf. Vodafone. Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones. Moving the debate forward. The Vodafone Policy Paper Series. Number 3. March 2005. See: http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf. OECD Working Party on the Information Economy. New Perspectives on ICT Skills and Employment. April 2005, at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/35/34769393.pdf. OECD Working Party on the Information Economy. New Perspectives on ICT Skills and Employment. April 2005, at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/35/34769393.pdf.

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Reorganisation of government back-offices for better electronic public services. Report to the European Commission. February 2004, at: http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3587/5713. Many studies have been carried out to analyse the impact of e-government. See for example: European Public Administration Network. Does e-government pay off? 2004, at: http://www.eupan.org/?option=documents&section=details&id=19 and Deloitte Research, 2003, Cutting fat, adding muscle, http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/research/0,2310,sid%3D5601&cid%3D21475,00.html. European Union. User Satisfaction and Usage Survey of e-government services. December 2004, at: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/activities/egovernment_research/doc/top_of_the_web_report_2004.pdf. Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO). E-government Benefit Study. 2003, at: http://www.agimo.gov.au/publications/2003/03/e-govt_benefits_study. European Union. User Satisfaction and Usage Survey of e-government services. December 2004, at: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/activities/egovernment_research/doc/top_of_the_web_report_2004.pdf. For another study, see: E-government brings real benefits to EU citizens and businesses, finds new survey. eGovernment News.18 January 2005, at: http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3791/330. Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO). E-government Benefit Study. 2003, at: http://www.agimo.gov.au/publications/2003/03/e-govt_benefits_study. EU The impact of e-government on competitiveness, growth and jobs, IDABC eGovernment Observatory Background Research Paper. 2005, at: http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=19230. GSA. High Payoff in Electronic Government. 2003, at: http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/contentView.do?contentId=10293&contentType=GSA_DOCUMENT. IDA. Value of Investment Method, European Commission. 2003, at: http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=1596. Gartner. Traditional ROI Measures Will Fail in Government, Research Note. 9 July 2003, at: http://www3.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?doc_cd=116131. Deloitte Research. Citizen Advantage: Enhancing Economic Competitiveness Through e-Government. 2003, at: http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/research/0,1015,sid%253D2230%2526cid%253D26333,00.html. See, for example, the Tygerberg Childrens Hospital and Rotary Telemedicine Project in South Africa (http://www.bridges.org/iicd_casestudies/tygerberg_telemedicine/index.html), the Robib Telemedicine clinic in Cambodia (http://www.camnet.com.kh/cambodiaschools/villageleap/telemedicine_robib.htm) and the Apollo Telemedicine Networking Foundation in India (http://www.telemedicineindia.com/). NOIE. The Economic Impact of an Accelerated Rollout of Broadband in Hospitals. Report provided by Access Economics. 2003, at: http://www.dcita.gov.au/ie/research_and_statistics/ the_economic_impact_of_an_accelerated_rollout_of_broadband_to_hospitals. MIT. Annan presents prototype $100 laptop at World Summit on Information Society. News Office. 16 November 2005, at: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2005/laptop-1116.html. The UNESCO Dakar Framework for Action, which was launched in April 2000, identified the use of new information and communication technologies as one of the main strategies for achieving the EFA (Education for All) goals. See UNESCOs Education and ICT Portal, at: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpURL_ID=2929&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201&URL_PAGINATION=30.html. UNESCO. Measuring the Impact of ICT Use in Education. August 2002, at: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3434&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Indeed, according to InfoDev, there is currently not enough data to support the believe that ICTs have a positive impact on education. See: http://www.infodev.org/files/1152_file_KnowledgeMap_ICTsEducation_impact.pdf.

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See UNESCO Bangkok. Using indicators to assess impact of ICT in education, at: http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=894. OECD. Are students ready for a technology-rich world. What PISA Studies Tell Us. January 2006. The Sloan Consortium. Growing by Degree. Online education in the United States. 2005, at: http://www.sloan-c.org/resources/growing_by_degrees.pdf. See Open University, at: http://www.open.ac.uk/about/ou/. UN ICT Task Force. Innovation and Investment: Information and Communication Technologies and the Millennium Development Goals. 2005, at: http://www.unicttaskforce.org/perl/documents.pl?id=1519. Institute of Directors. Broadband: its impact on British Business. IoD Policy Paper. 2004, at: http://press.iod.com/gfx/uploads/pres_13092005154955.pdf. Study prepared by Rambll Management for the European Commission. User Satisfaction and Usage Survey of eGovernment services. 2004. See: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/activities/egovernment_research/doc/top_of_the_web_report_2004.pdf. Australian Government. Department of Communications, IT and the Arts (DCITA). See: http://www.dcita.gov.au/ie/community_connectivity/save@home/table_of_contents/save@folder/summary. $30 refers to AU$ 30 (Australian dollar).

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5.

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF ICTs ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

It is widely accepted by policy makers, politicians, industry and citizens alike that information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a critical role not only in economic but also social development. There are growing examples of ICTs being used to address social development goals. These are as various as monitoring food security in Africa, using geo-spatial mapping to identify food-insecure communities in Cambodia, providing informal education in Mexico, enhancing teacher training in Tanzania, and identifying and reporting disease incidences during the Tsunami (Box 5.1). Most visibly, disasters both man-made and natural are being recorded and disaster management is facilitated and improved by these new technologies. Within hours of the bombings on the London underground on 7 July 2005, news networks were flooded with images collected by individuals using the camera and video

functions on their mobile phones. Yet, the 2004 Tsunami illustrates the very uneven ways in which technology is being used: technology has the potential to achieve many things but it is people that make choices about whether and how, they are made use of (Box 5.4). Examples from different countries and experiences highlight the positive effects that ICTs have on peoples lives, individually and collectively. Some countries have attempted to measure this effect. There are many ways in which ICTs can change peoples lives and it would be impossible to cover all of them. While quantifying ICTs for social development is not a simple matter, due to variances in country contexts, economic conditions and social situations, some indicators as a means of quantifying the effect of ICTs on social development in general and on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, Table 5.1) in particular will be proposed.

Box 5.1: Tsunami Training doctors to analyze disease information


The devastating Tsunami affecting Southeast Asia in December 2004 severely impacted the state of Tamilnadu, located on the southeast coast of India. To contain and reduce escalating disease incidence during the postTsunami relief effort, health officials needed a phone and web-based surveillance network that allowed them to easily access and analyze disease information in real-time. In May 2005, Tamilnadu Health Watch was launched in the four worst affected Tsunami districts in Tamilnadu: Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Kancheepuram, and Kanyakumari. Health Watch allows health workers, even
Source: Voxiva.

in remote areas, to immediately report disease incidence data to health officials. In turn, health managers can quickly analyze information about suspected cases, share technical information and resources, and initiate an informed response. By linking Primary Health Centers with district health experts and program managers, activities can be coordinated more effectively and resources (e.g., supplies, technical personnel, and transport) can be allocated more efficiently. During the implementation, more than 300 doctors from Primary Health Centers were trained, using bilingual manuals and interactive sessions.

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5.1. Defining social development While there are various approaches to defining social development based on different contexts, definitions tend to converge around the concept of improving the well-being of a countrys citizens, promoting higher standards of living, employment and conditions of economic and social progress through social policy and economic and political initiatives. Following the 1995 United Nations (UN) Copenhagen Summit, social development within the United Nations broadly encompasses four elements: poverty eradication and employment,

inter-governmental support service and implementation, socio-economic policy and development management and social integration. Guiding the work of the United Nations and other development institutions is the belief that eradicating poverty and improving the well-being of people everywhere are necessary steps in creating conditions for lasting world peace. The UNs Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) express eight social development priorities: eradicating poverty and hunger; achieving universal primary education; promoting gender equality and empowering women; reducing child mortality;

Table 5.1: Eight goals, 18 targets, 48 indicators


Millennium Development Goals and targets

Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Targets 1. 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and program and reverse the loss of environmental resources Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water Have achieved, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

7. Ensure environmental sustainability

8. Develop a global partnership for development

12-17.Separate targets for developing trading and financial systems, addressing the special needs of LDCs, SIDS and land-locked countries, debt sustainability, youth employment, and providing affordable drugs 18. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

For a list of the 48 indicators see the Millennium Indicators Database at: http://millenniumindicators.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_goals.asp. ITU is in charge of tracking three indicators to measure target 18: total number of telephone subscribers per 100 population, personal computers per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population. Source: UN.

Note:

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improving maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and developing a global partnership for development (Table 5.1). Recognizing the potential impact that ICTs can have, the last target (18 of Goal 8) of the MDGs specifically addresses the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication. ITU is in charge of tracking target 18, which is done through the following indicators: total number of telephone subscribers per 100 population, personal computers per 100 population, and Internet users per 100 population. Four of the eight MDG goals are health-related. The task of defining and tracking social development has not proved easy. A number of international bodies have collected data on social development over many years but the concepts, definitions and methodology underlying indicators vary, sometimes significantly, from country to country and over time within countries.1 Furthermore, there are a considerable number of proposed indicators (nearly 100 in the case of the World Bank)2 and the reporting of the data (even where accurate) often are outdated, and thus fail to easily form a guide to current action. Although there are sometimes swift social changes, trends are usually only observed many years later and it takes even longer to evaluate the impact of these changes. 5.2 ICTs and social development According to a report by the UN ICT Task Force published in 2005, The intersection of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) forms a critical nexus for the future of sustainable human development and poverty eradication.3 The potential of ICTs to achieve the MDGs were equally identified during the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (in section 12), for example, recognizes the growing importance of the role of ICTs, not only as a medium of communication, but also as a development enabler, and as a tool for the achievement of the internationally-agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. In order to understand the potential and actual impact of ICTs on social development (as it is expressed through the MDGs), it is important to touch on the often complex interplay between economic and social forces that shape changes in any country. Social development goals were created in part because of a

broader dissatisfaction with headline economic indicators. There was a perceived need to go beyond a countrys economic wealth and know something about the overall health of a nation and the well-being of its citizens. As circumstances change, so must indicators. But there is nearly always a time lag between major changes (like the impact of technology diffusion) and an agreement on what might be useful to know about the changes that have occurred. Therefore, though there has been a great deal of data compiled about the diffusion of different technologies, there has been far less work on the impact they have had on peoples lives in the developing world. Quantitative data are almost non-existing. The data that exist, indicate that ICTs have made a major change in developed and developing parts of the world. In Africa, the mobile phone has changed a number of patterns of behaviour and in so doing has begun to have an impact on social development. However, until recently there have been few studies of what that social impact has been. Social and economic factors blend together in sometimes unpredictable ways. Prior to it occurring, few would have believed that those with low incomes would have devoted a relatively high proportion of their revenues to communicating with a mobile. The value of the mobile phone is highlighted in a recent study that was carried out in ten Sub-Saharan countries. While high costs remain the main barrier to making phone calls in every country surveyed, people are prepared to spend relatively large amounts of their income on telecommunications. In Namibia, Ethiopia, and Zambia, for example, households spend more than ten percent of their monthly household income on the phone. This compares to an estimated three percent in most developed countries.4 The fact that in developing countries expenditure on telecommunications makes up proportionally more of household income than in developed countries suggests that people value access greatly. Research suggests that low-income households are prepared to spend relatively large amounts of their revenue on telecommunications because it helps them save money in other areas. The value of mobile phones is particularly great because other forms of communication (such as postal systems, roads and fixed-line phones) are often poor. Mobiles provide a point of contact and enable users to participate in the economic system. A survey carried out in South Africa
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and Tanzania, for example, showed that mobile phones helped save money and time. In Tanzania, two thirds of the surveyed population recorded large saving in travel time and cost. The same study5 produced evidence that mobiles improve relationships with friends and family. Eighty-five percent of those surveyed in Tanzania said they had more contact and better relationships with family and friends as a result of mobile phones. Mobile phones were also instrumental for job hunters, not only because they helped them obtain information and apply for a job, but also because it was a means of being contacted by potential employers. The study concludes that mobiles were facilitating participation in social networks, helping to maintain both strong and weak links, including participation in community group activity. They were thus enabling people to invest in and draw on social capital.6 The use of ICTs cannot be viewed in isolation from the social context. One of the impacts of ICTs is the ability to exchange ideas and information more quickly with far fewer barriers than previously existed. Indeed this might be said to be one of the founding assumptions of ICTs success in a large number of very different countries. 5.2.1 Defining connectivity and issues it raises for social development Connectivity, through for example, phone lines and wireless connections binds together different technologies in ways that make their impact greater than the sum of their parts. Different pieces of technology (a cell phone, a hand-held computer, a PC) can be linked together to exchange information and ideas. As the conditions in developing countries are markedly different from those in the developed world,7 the manner in which ICTs are used also often differ. There is no one size fits all set of responses. Low literacy levels and the lack of income to purchase devices with which to obtain connectivity, means that the power of connectivity has to be used in ways that respond to local conditions. This may vary from the simple use of a voice-based system using mobile phones for reporting rural health statistics, to a more complicated server-based system for administering a countrys pension or judicial system. In allowing people to exchange information and ideas, connectivity provides tools to meet social needs. Connectivity has also created media on the Internet through which individuals and organizations communicate. For developing countries this media
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includes a vast range of online publications addressing social issues and e-mail and web-based diaspora and professional networks providing professional support to colleagues in countries all over the world. Different combinations of media can be brought together through connectivity to reach those who may not be literate. A rural community radio station can take queries on air by phone and use the web or other back-up materials to answer them, making information available to a much wider grouping of people. Those with higher literacy levels can use mobile phones to consult a doctor or nurse appearing on one of the stations programmes. The radio station can offer multimedia facilities that allow local residents to create a music CD that can then be sent for playing on other radio stations. Connectivity enriches the range of media available for people to gather knowledge and express themselves and gives people a variety of ways to use and negotiate access to the benefits of connectivity with different skill and ability levels. However, connectivity without market demand or social need is so much useless circuitry and wires; the technological equivalent of one hand clapping in an empty room. There are many individual users of cyber-cafs in Africa because e-mail is cheaper than using the phone to communicate with friends and family overseas. However, use in rural areas is much less developed because as yet there is neither widespread infrastructure, nor the critical mass of users. Some facilities like telecentres whose services are aimed at less-well-off users are extremely well used, whilst others are not, presumably because factors like literacy mean that they do not respond well to local needs. Thus in many ways, connectivity is not about the technology itself but rather how people understand and interpret the use of the technology, what people can do with it, and how they use it. This

Box 5.2: Getting the message to those who can make a difference
An apocryphal anecdote told in development circles in the early days of ICT use in a development context illustrates how they might change peoples choices. A South African village elder was supposedly asked whether he wanted a phone or a water supply. He replied: A phone. Then I can use it to get the politicians to put in the water supply. What the anecdote exemplifies is that ICTs in a social context can allow individuals to communicate their needs more effectively and find solutions for meeting them.

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also highlights the need to measure the impact of ICTs, rather than access to it, only. The underlying assumption of the role of ICTs in development is therefore what ICTs can deliver will fundamentally affect the social issues identified in the MDGs. But this is not just about the technological changes ICTs introduce. As historian Harold Perkin observed of the Industrial Revolution it was no mere sequence of changes in industrial techniques and production, but a social revolution with social causes as well as profound social effects.8 The same might be said of the changes happening now throughout the developing world, particularly with regard to mobile services. The issue for those wishing to affect positive social changes using ICTs is how best to understand how technology and social forces interact. 5.3 The impact of ICTs on social development It is possible to examine the correlation of ICTs and social development in a number of ways but it may be useful to try and define them in two particular ways: first, their broad potential effects on social processes and second, how organizations have sought to create these effects in concrete uses that might impact on the MDGs. It needs to be acknowledged, however, that ICTs are not the answer to all social issues and it is important to list some of the barriers that limit their impact. The use of ICTs for social objectives has been the subject of debate in development circles. Below is a summary of the key points of this debate and where it has moved over time. 5.3.1 Ways in which ICTs impact on social development ICTs have many ways of affecting peoples lives and in almost any context. As technologies change over time, users increase their familiarity and move beyond initial curiosity to make choices about what aspects are more (or less) beneficial. As a result, there is a bewildering array of ways in which ICTs can have an impact on social development. In the context of developing countries and the MDGs, these functional impacts might include: 1. The ability to speed things up: Communications, the speed with which information and ideas can travel and the degree to which they are available to all, are a key social impact of ICTs. Greater levels of connectivity in developing countries provide the ability to speed things up, including the potential for speeding up the pace at which development processes can happen. As the timetable for the

achievement of the MDGs shortens, the ability to make things happen faster is a key advantage. Instead of only being able to communicate with a remote rural village by making a long, physical journey to visit it, it will be possible to communicate in a number of different and faster ways. Faster collection of health or famine data can allow speedier and more effective responses. Instead of having a daily struggle with the means of communication or having no access to it, greater connectivity holds the promise of people being empowered to do things more quickly. 2. The capacity to create human networks: ICTs can link different groups of people in the same country, region or globally around an idea, a topic or an issue and improve both their understanding of their circumstances and their ability to change them. Put simply, more people can exchange ideas and collaborate on matters of mutual interest or importance. While the geographic distance between Paris and Dakar is large, ICTs allow a surgeon in France to advise his Senegalese colleague on an operation. Likewise a medical specialist in Mozambiques Maputo can offer similar consultations to nurses working in rural areas. Human rights organizations can monitor abuses at a country-wide level and work with international organizations in numerous countries simultaneously, to counter them. 3. The better exchange of information: ICTs allow more information to be made available. For example, at a research level, financially-strapped developing country universities can begin to have access to the wide range of knowledge materials already on offer in the developed world. An initiative called the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) is designed to provide wider access and dissemination of scientific and scholarly information to and from developing countries. Researchers, academics, scholars and librarians in a wide range of countries are now able to access current awareness databases, full-text online journals and document delivery at no cost to themselves. Similarily, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) provides free access to over 1000 of its courses on the Internet. These are used by students and teachers around the world (Box 5.3). Improved information will make for better-informed professionals, whether they are in the fields of education, health or environmental
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Box 5.3: The MIT Open Courseware Initiative (OCW): free educational material for everyone (who is online)
By the end of 2005, the Massachusetts Institute of Technologys (MIT) Open Courseware Initiative (OCW) provided a total of 1250 MIT courses on the Internet. Educators and learners around the world are benefiting from the materials offered freely and openly on the MIT OCW site. In order to understand how well MIT OCW is fulfilling its mission as well as to establish a thorough and continuous feedback process that guarantees its improvement over time a substantial evaluation program has been developed. The evaluation is focused on understanding specifics in three areas of user behaviour: access, use and impact The evaluation was undertaken in October and November 2004 and included a combination of methods helped to achieve both breadth and depth in the evaluation, including online surveys, interviews and site feedback. The evaluation report showed that a total of 2.3 million unique visits were made to the web site between November 2003 and October 2004. The geographic distribution of visitors shows that the initiative is having an international success (Box Figure 5.3, left). On the impact level, the findings, which were based on users impact ratings, showed that visitors indicated that OCW had already had significant impact on their teaching and learning (Box Figure 5.3, right). Eighty percent of site visitors indicated that the information available on the site had an extremely positive or positive impact on their educational activities. The content of the site had been widely distributed beyond the MIT site through translations and mirror sites and the opencourseware model is being adopted by institutions internationally. Mirror sites have been established for Spanish, Portuguese, and Chinese, and a mirror site at Makerere University in Uganda includes over 700 courses from the MIT site. Mirror sites overcome local connectivity issues in countries with limited international bandwidth.

Box Figure 5.3: The MIT Open Courseware Initiative


Distribution of visitors, in percent, by region, 2004 (left) and impact perceptions by users, in %, by role, 2004 (right)

Distribution of visitors, in %, by region, 2004 Latin America: 11% Eastern Europe: 11%
90 80

Impact perceptions by users (%), by role, 2004

W. Europe: 16%

East Asia: 16% North America: 36%

Middle East, Africa, Pacific, Central Asia, Caribbean: 9%

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Educator Student Self Learner

Extremely Moderately/somewhat Not positive positive/positive positive

Source: ITU adapted from MIT. Note: A full report on the OCW evaluation is available at: http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/90C9BC91-7819-48A0-9E9A-D6B2701C1CE5/0/MIT_OCW_2004_Program_Eval.pdf.

protection. This also illustrates how developing countries may leap-frog in certain areas since they have access to information and research that other countries have already spent time and resources on. 4. Improved, low-cost delivery: ICTs can often deliver information more effectively and cheaper than its print equivalents. Whereas much attention is rightly focused on the classroom, connectivity in the developing world context often works well as a way of connecting specialist groups like teachers and
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educators. Where there are shortfalls in the effectiveness of subject teaching (for example, science and maths in many African countries), a network can offer PDF-downloads almost instantly provided a school or community has access to a computer and printer. 5. Interactivity across social and cultural boundaries: ICTs provide new and different opportunities for interactivity between people. When functioning optimally, ICTs are a two-way medium that allow

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interactions that cut across geography, organizational structure and sometimes social barriers. A researcher in Thailand can get direct access to a professor with extensive expertise in a particular subject area. The citizen whose water has been cut off can complain loudly and directly to the person responsible. People may not answer these queries directly but the flow of messages makes for a world that is more rich in communication terms. 6. Transparency: ICTs can create greater transparency in processes. Indian land sales in Uttar Pradhesh used to be made entirely by paper transactions. These were lengthy and often required bribes to speed the process up. By computerizing land sales, the time taken has been drastically cut along with the levels of corruption involved. Local governments in the Republic of Korea have computerized certain procedures allowing those making applications to see where their application has got to in the process. Automated procedures are often more uniform, quicker and allow less opportunity for corruption. 7. Decentralization and empowerment: ICTs can facilitate a decentralization of power and decisionmaking in ways that empower people to do things at a local level. Doctors and nurses can compare practice amongst themselves and act upon these discussions. Communications can be more horizontal between members of an organization and others as well as vertically from above. 8. Efficiencies in processes (e-government): As has been argued in chapter four, ICTs can deliver efficiencies in processes. The same efficiencies can be found in the public sector. Government processes have the potential to be made more effective through using ICTs. Anyone working in developing countries will be very familiar with the form-filling and obtaining of authorizations: in many ways it is no different from government in the developed world, simply slower. The often ponderous, writingbased bureaucratic processes that force people, for example, to queue to register births or collect pensions, mean that citizens have to make a lengthy journey to a town or city to get a licence or an identity card renewed or replaced. ICTs enable these processes to be improved for efficiency. Arguably, money or time saved on one governmental process means that financial savings or staffing resources can be diverted to new areas of need. ICTs raise profound challenges for developing countries and are not a magic solution that will

always bring immediate results in terms of social development. They require skill levels and commitment that often are simply not there. If, as has happened on occasions, the donor-funded computers in a school remain in the boxes or the same school fails to negotiate the complications and costs of an Internet connection, it has to be acknowledged that there are greater barriers both individual and structural impeding the impact of ICTs on social development in developing countries than in the developed world. Therefore, all of the benefits described above may remain simply potential rather than actual if these barriers are not understood and addressed. 5.3.2 The limits of ICTs on social development Advocates of ICTs and connectivity in the developing world have made considerable claims for their impact. In part, this has been in an effort to persuade others (as will be seen in the next section) who are less convinced or are sceptical of sweeping claims. At this stage, the functional processes described above have in many cases delivered more potential than actual benefits. Over time, certain approaches will be found wanting and discarded. For these reasons it is worth identifying those things that connectivity cannot do for developing countries in terms of social impact: No change without skills-based transformation: As noted above, the delivery of the benefits of ICTs are heavily reliant on a range of skills that are not always readily available in developing countries. Without education and training approaches that remedy this, the benefits of connectivity will always remain in the box. However, these issues are being addressed successfully by a number of developing countries. No automatic gain in efficiency of processes: The efficiency savings that might be made in the public sector may not actually come about because they cut across pre-established vested interests. Secure employment in the public sector is often carefully guarded by those who are its beneficiaries. If people do not want change and cannot see its advantages, then no amount of technology will bring it about. Successful changes in government processes require political and managerial leadership, and countries have already shown that it can be done. Winners and losers: As with all processes of social change there be winners and losers and the prizes will tend to go to those that already have advantages or to those who make changes rapidly. The pupils
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that have access to ICTs in their schools may have significant advantages over those that do not. The village whose rural health clinic does not have ICT access will be at a disadvantage to the one that does. No social transformation: Connectivity can pose new challenges for existing social processes and sometimes destabilize them. However, ICTs cannot, by themselves transform social processes if people themselves do not want change. People cannot be empowered if their government exercises a high degree of control over the decisions made in the country. For example, a mailing list in one developing country will only allow its users to make postings if they are first all approved by a senior manager. Connectivity has introduced new ways of doing things but the old habits have not changed. This obviously undermines the speedy sharing of information. No automatic change in the gender divide: Connectivity has no immediate impact on the balance of the gender divide. Much as researchers in the developed world noted that the TV remote control remained largely in male hands, the same will almost certainly be true of ICTs in developing countries. While different studies have various context specific issues, repeatedly, user surveys of the Internet universally find a bias in the average user to be in favour of males. Whether or not those living in developing countries can take advantage of the potential benefits of connectivity cannot be divorced from broader questions of social change and their impact on existing social processes. Many of the positive benefits outlined above will threaten those in favour of the status quo, who seek to protect traditional ways of doing things. If a society does not want to change in some way then no amount of connectivity will change the way it behaves. 5.3.3 ICTs versus other development goals The interest in using ICTs for development is not new. However, interest in what has become known as the digital divide seemed to come into sharp focus with the creation of the G8 Dot Force five years ago. If the developing world is full of complex and seemingly intractable problems, ICTs seemed to offer a new approach. It attracted the energy and commitment of those interested in using technology to transform peoples social circumstances, particularly from the private sector.

However, those promoting the use of ICTs for development purposes found themselves in a debate with those already involved in meeting development goals by existing means. The debate usually juxtaposed an urgent social need with the luxury of putting money into ICTs for social purposes. The trite response was usually about the use in spending money on ICTs when a rural village lacks drinking water and power. Or, that it is futile to introduce ICTs into schools when they lack textbooks. With more pressing social needs, it seemed illogical to be arguing for relatively expensive technologies, some of which required relatively high levels of literacy. Even if there was a clear logic to these questions, it perhaps pre-supposed that there was an order in which things might happen: drinking water first, ICTs later. The technologies existed and (for better or worse) a range of people and organizations had begun to use them. Therefore, those arguing for ICT spending for social purposes emphasized a mixture of the functional qualities identified above and the transformative effects of technology. If there was a problem, a technology solution could probably be found. Those arguing against ICT as a priority did so on the basis that resources were limited and that to spend them differently would undercut the achievement of more important, basic development objectives. The counter-arguments were that ICTs might transform a countrys economic circumstances and increase its tax base and therefore its ability to spend on social objectives. In the context of social development, it would promote more effective and more cost-efficient delivery of services through e-government, e-health and e-education. Although not articulated formally, those recommending ICT for social uses were seeking to help insert some sense of a dynamic for change into the development process. The contrast between, for example, the school without many basic resources and its new computers might sharpen the imperative for making improvements. The implicit argument was one about seeking to raise expectations regarding what it might be possible to achieve. However, after years of seeking to implement ICT activities in a social context, lessons have been learnt by both sides of this argument. As a report prepared by the UN ICT Task Force observed, While some have viewed ICT akin to an exotic luxury in relation to pure development needs and priorities from clean

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water and food security to basic education and healthcare others initially viewed it almost as a panacea for perennial development problems. Now, in parallel with the dotcom crash and the reemergence of the ICT sector has come a shift from anecdotal exuberance to a focus on the empirical evidence of its full development impact, and a more balanced perspective has emerged where ICT is no longer seen as an end in itself but rather as a critical enabler in the development process, increasingly in the context of the MDGs.9 Out of this realisation was born the understanding that it was necessary to mainstream ICTs. In other words, if ICTs were to have an impact on achieving the MDGs, then they needed to be adopted directly by all those involved in meeting them. Their implementation was vital in government and its health and education services but also amongst non-governmental organization (NGOs). Rather than see it as a blanket implementation of ICTs, it was an opportunity to take advantage of ICT-related opportunities to increase the effectiveness of development programmes. This broader recognition at the policy level was also perhaps an acknowledgement of the considerable

barriers that have to be overcome in order to reap the benefits associated with ICTs. These are many and various and have been described at length elsewhere, but include key factors like literacy levels, education and economic circumstances. However, there are two key barriers that pose a clear immediate challenge to the successful use of ICTs for social purposes: 1. Achieving critical mass: In the last five years there have been a considerable number of pilot projects to pioneer the use of ICTs in a number of fields. Many have generated insights that have been helpful in producing second-generation applications that are more responsive to local needs and circumstances. While at a policy level there has been an urgent insistence on the need for scaling-up, it has often proved difficult to achieve a critical mass of users; either within a sector (like health or education) or within a country. Hence, the emphasis being placed on involving government in mainstreaming ICTs. 2. Lowering the cost of connecting: There are primarily two large cost elements to connecting a school or a health clinic: the cost of whatever ICT device is involved (a mobile, a handheld computer

Box 5.4: Tsunami: what ICTs can and cannot do


The 2004 Tsunami illustrates the complexity of the debate on ICTs for social development. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii had some warning of the onset of the Tsunami, but no way of communicating this information to the decisionmakers because there was no framework in place to inform those potentially affected.10 Though the timing of the arrival of the Tsunami was in doubt, due to the lack of appropriate sensors in the Indian Ocean, the fact that it was going to be devastating was not, and yet warnings were not successfully communicated. The Tsunami did highlight the potential benefits of ICTs when they are part of a wider disaster early warning system. Merely having the technology that can identify the onset of a natural disaster like the Tsunami is not enough, though. Instead, the warning needs to be identified as credible and communicated to as many people as possible, as well as to the right people. As one research paper puts it: Public warning is a system, not a technology.11 One of the challenges that any early warning system must face is how to contact people where little ICT infrastructure exists. An early warning system that involves community organizations and the general public must make sure that the alert is first channelled to the correct emergency response organization, so that threats can be identified as credible and acted upon. This would require the set up of emergency numbers and call centres trained in disaster warning. The role of ICTs within any system of early warning is, and will increasingly be, vitally important and useful as access levels to ICTs in developing countries increase. The conversion of technologies and the inclusion of radio and TV could see effective warning systems, especially as the penetration of these (older) ICTs is much higher than newer ICTs. As mobile coverage and other ICT penetration levels increase, innovative ways, such as cell broadcasts from coastal mobile stations warning people of impending disaster, can be used. SMS technology is useful both in warning people and in providing warning to centralised disaster centres.12 After the Tsunami, ICTs were used in various ways to assist health and rescue workers, raise funds and facilitate communication with family and friends. Tsunami Helplines, a WAP-enabled website, was set up and specifically designed for easy mobile access in situations where people have no access to computers and for fieldworkers wanting to find out about emergency help-lines. BBC News also established a mobile site for all Tsunami related information. Numerous blogs were set up and allowed people to communicate and share their experience. SMS campaigns were also used to generate proceeds for Tsunami relief and to give thousands of people unaffected directly by the tragedy the opportunity to send messages of support and donate money to the relief efforts. 13

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or a PC) and the cost of connecting the device, whether for voice or data. Despite several attempts, which continue to be made, the cost of a PC remains relatively high compared to income levels in most developing countries. Likewise, the cost of international bandwidth (which is required to access knowledge on the Internet globally) remains disproportionately high in a number of the poorest parts of the developing world. While this can be linked to the limited control on international bandwidth in many developing countries, the prevalence of monopolies and duopolies in fixed and mobile services also has a serious impact and has numerous knock on effects beyond a social development element. 5.3.4 Ways of using ICTs for social development To highlight how theory has been translated into practical courses of action, a number of specific examples can help show how ICTs have been used to achieve MDGs in different countries around the world (Table 5.2). 5.4 Measuring ICTs and social development It is generally accepted that ICTs can play a positive role in social development and their use is already impacting the MDGs in a number of way. Existing data or evidence, however, are rare. Where data exist, they tend to be in the form of one-off assessments or surveys. This section reviews the central issue of why and how the impact of ICTs should be measured in this context and the practical issues that flow from this requirement. 5.4.1 Measuring performance: objectives, inputs, outputs and outcomes Agencies, governments and NGOs involved in development are all interested in outcomes. Their objective is to make a change, whether this is to lower the numbering of deaths from fatal diseases or to increase the literacy level in a country. To make sure that their actions are successful, all those spending money and resources are eager to account for whether they are achieving their objectives. A useful way of developing indicators to measure the impact of ICTs is through a system that is based on inputs, outputs and outcomes (Figure 5.1).14 A donor or government may spend money or deploy resources to use ICTs to address social objectives. This expenditure can be described as inputs. Any
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government may say that it has deployed 300 computers in a particular department or schools as part of a modernisation drive. Obviously, the existence of the computers by themselves does not guarantee that anything happens as a result of them sitting on the desks of civil servants or in educational institutions. They might not be connected to a network or the staff involved may not have yet been trained to use them. However, once the computers are in use it is possible to identify outputs. This might be that a certain number of primary school teachers have taken part in a variety of online training opportunities designed to expand their expertise and transfer knowledge to their students. While it would be assumed that the teachers performance is a result, counting how many people went on courses does not measure whether their performance improved post-training. Also, to capture performance improvement one requires baseline data against which some form of improvement could be measured. But merely counting outputs often does not tell you much about qualitative improvements and on their own, cannot always reflect the full level of gains made. On the other hand, if the objective is to expand the number of teachers trained, a network that allows to train more teachers (and to count these extra teachers) is a useful output. The dilemma for those wishing to track the effectiveness of expenditure (sometimes described as performance management), is that outputs sometimes do not produce the required result. A decade or more ago, those measuring urban regeneration would count the number of buildings refurbished but they learnt over time that a refurbished building might lie empty and contain no new social or economic activity. Those involved in measuring performance have begun to look at measuring outcomes. In other words, they began to ask questions about the impact of the outputs: how did ICTs affect overall objectives like a clinics mortality rate or a schools number of teachers or pedagogic objectives? The funding agencies and the funded need to demonstrate that what they are doing meets the objectives they have set themselves. In the case of governments, they need to be accountable to their electorates. Obviously, donors and funded at all levels inevitably are seeking to advance their case and have different perceptions, which creates some of the difficulties attached to performance management.

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Table 5.2: Concrete examples how ICTs impact the MDGs


Poverty and Hunger First Voice International (FVI) is working with Save the Children-UK (Save-UK) on the US Agency for International Development (USAID) funded FOCUS Project in Ethiopia. The projects objective is to provide support for food security in the drought stricken Ogaden region of Ethiopia and uses an FVI Multimedia Service (MMS) that enables users to download detailed text and data directly from the AfriStar satellite to a PC. With a small receiver, a laptop computer, and printer (all of which can be solar powered) even communities off the Internet and the electricity grid can have access to vital information. FVI has helped Save-UK establish community information centers in the nine agricultural extension offices in the region. In Peru, wireless technology is used to link small-scale farmers in a desert valley. The project, developed by the Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales (CEPES), uses wifi technology to establish a network of community computer centres to provide farmers with local information online. This includes pricing details for local produce, as well as information on farming techniques and plague prevention. Education ICTs can be used to improve the effectiveness of teachers at the primary level and in so doing help achieve the goal of universal primary education (MDG). SchoolNets in Asia-Pacific is an educational network that links students, teachers, parents and schools, providing them with forums, training material, and educational databases. This network allows teachers to discuss best classroom practices, read about training opportunities and identify relevant teaching resources. In Tanzania, the poor performance of teachers in schools is often caused simply by a lack of information and the absence of the means to communicate and cooperate effectively with their peers in other schools. ICT-Connect-TED has managed to provide 44 teacher training colleges in Tanzania with computers and a networking infrastructure that allows participating teachers to exchange information. Since, by the end of 2004, the project managed to achieved its goal of connecting all of Tanzanias teacher training colleges (TTC) to the Internet and setting up a network linking all of them together, the project is now focusing on content development, via a regular newsletter and other communicationrelated activities. It also provides ICT training for TTC staff. These include a training in business development (addressed to principals) and one on computer maintenance (addressed to tutor-technicians). Gender Equality The Pallitathya Help-Line Centre (Call Centre for the Poor and Underprivileged) has helped to make a difference by helping women to become Mobile Operator Ladies who move from door-to-door to enable other women mostly housewives to ask questions related to livelihood, agriculture, health, and legal rights via a mobile phone. Questions and queries are answered directly, by Help-desk operators who have access to the Internet and who are in contact with experts from government, health groups and human rights organizations. The project was set up after assessments found that that the lack of timely and relevant information was a major barrier to rural development, and a leading factor in the exploitation of the underprivileged, particularly women. The eHomemakers of Malaysia, which was founded in 1998 as the Mothers for Mothers network, empowers home workers, teleworkers, and home business owners to improve their socio-economic status. Through the eHomemakers website, community members are able to network with each other, organize activities to advertise their products and services for free, teletrade and find teleworking assignments, while working within their homes. Environment The Network for Sustainable Development and Environment (Red de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, REDESMA) is a network run by the Centro Boliviano de Estudios Multidisciplinarios (CEBEM), a Bolivian NGO that collects and distributes electronic information about the environment. The development objective of the project is to enhance the democratization of information and knowledge, increase awareness and to stimulate the dialog between stakeholders in the areas of environment and sustainable development. The project, which uses the Internet, allows information exchange between grass-root organizations, NGOs, academic institutions and the central and local governments. Besides raising awareness on environmental issues, the project contributes to the transparency of government. Ugandas Bwindi telecentre has been set up by Conservation Through Public Health and is being used to collect conservation information on local gorillas in the dense tropical forest. It compiles data on the clinical signs of gorillas, on the dung state and then uses the Internet to transmit the data to the Uganda Wildlife Authority. The time series data help monitor the health of the gorillas but can also mitigate disease outbreaks among people by collecting, analyzing and exchanging ideas for diseases from animals to people and people to animals. The telecenter, which offers high-speed wireless Internet access and voice telephony via satellite communication also provides basic computer training and public health awareness campaigns. Health In South Africa, Tuberculosis (TB) patients have a new weapon in the fight against their disease a cellphone. A project that uses SMS technology makes sure that TB patients do not forget to take their pill. TB patients must strictly follow a difficult drug regime over an extended period four tablets five times a week for six months. Evidence suggests that TB patients often do not take their medication simply because they forget. Non-compliance with the drug treatment has exacerbated the high occurrence of TB and created difficulties for the local, overburdened health care service. Precious medicines are wasted when people do not take their medication on schedule, and non-compliance causes the TB virus to become increasingly drug resistant. Treatment failure has drastically increased amongst those patients participating. Mali has only a limited number of radiologists and nearly all of them are located in the capital Bamako. Until recently, all expert diagnosis of x-rays had to take place in the capital, sometimes up to 1000 kilometres from the regional hospitals where the first analysis was made. To allow expert diagnosis closer to where patients are, a tele-radiology project was set up. The project, called IKON, uses the Internet to send and receive radio scans and diagnoses over the Internet. Specific training on scanner and software use for dedicated hospital teams took place in April 2005 and the first successful exchange of a radio via the Internet was performed during that same training workshop. The project is being implemented by three regional hospitals and a central hospital in Bamako.

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Figure 5.1: How to measure the impacts of ICTs on social development: inputs, outputs and outcomes

Inputs Financial and other resources spent on ICT related activities and projects

Outputs Direct results of inputs: new activities/ products/ services as a consequence of inputs

Outcomes Impacts of outputs: help measure the difference that the use of ICTs have made

Efficiencies The cost of the delivery of outputs in terms of "Inputs per unit of output"

Source: ITU adapted from the Institute on Governance.

In the context of the MDGs, those investing into or using ICTs for social purposes need to be able to demonstrate that the input of, for example, computers had an outcome that had some clear impact on their own objectives as an organization as well as the MDGs (the latter being the broad objectives agreed to and referenced by the organizations involved). Those involved in funding development, need to be able to make comparisons between countries, both to identify where progress is being made and to identify the reasons why (or why not). However, if outcomes are defined too narrowly, they can be manipulated and if they are defined too widely, they will be hard to capture or their impact may only appear in the long-term. Those wishing to measure outcomes can use a combination of hard or soft performance measures. A hard measure is usually something that can be tangibly counted, for example, the number of people using a telemedicine facility and what they used it for. Often counting numbers reveals little about broader impacts, though, and soft measures may need to be applied. A soft measure is something that is less tangible but helps measuring performance to get at a particular issue. For example, if the objective of an organization was to publicize malaria, the level of media coverage could be a proxy indicator.

The efficiencies referred to in Figure 5.1 refer to the cost of delivery. One of the key arguments for use of ICTs in social development is that where they work well, they are capable of delivering social services like education, health and government, both more effectively and at a lower cost. Therefore it is important to measure the cost of delivery in order to be able to quantify and compare whether this is actually the case. For example, it may cost the government of a developing country on average a particular sum (e.g. US$100) a year to distribute printed information by post to primary school teachers. In this context, the question would be: can it find ways of using ICTs that both lower this delivery cost and is more effective? If there is growing consensus that ICTs have a social impact, then all those involved will want to measure this impact. Unfortunately, a great deal of the data collected cover inputs. For example, an increasing number of computers per 100 inhabitants points to more and more computers being used by the population. However, this does not explain the sociodemographic characteristics of who is using them, their geographic distribution, income characteristics of those using computers or consumption patterns of users and consumers.

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5.5 ICTs and the Millennium Development Goals: beyond the golden anecdote To understand whether real progress is being made towards the MDGs with the use of ICTs, it is necessary to measure progress at two different levels: 1. at the country level for government policy makers and for comparisons 2. at an organizational level for organizations and donors to judge and measure progress Developing indicators to measure the impact of ICTs on the MDGs rests on the relationship between inputs, outputs and outcomes. Without certain inputs in place connecting places like government offices, primary schools and health centres it will be impossible to use ICTs, let alone claim they have a positive impact. A community access point may connect villages via email or the Internet to the wider world to obtain information but it will make little or no difference if the nearest government office or health clinic does not have the same access. Table 5.3 illustrates the relationship between inputs, outputs and outcomes and the MDGs at an organizational and country level. It proposes a scheme that could help organizations (such as development agencies) as well as governments track the efficiency of using ICTs in achieving the MDGs by helping them identify and develop indicators. The examples provided cover only a very limited area since ICTs can be applied (and demonstrated) in many ways. It is ultimately up to development agencies and governments to identify their specific impact indicators. At the organizational level, this scheme seeks to demonstrate how an ICT input (a connected computer) will generate certain outputs (for example, increase the number of women trained) and how the impact of the outcomes of this process can be measured (in terms of the increased number and type of jobs the women obtained). The purpose is to provide a way of giving the organization a focused goal for the commitment it has to the MDGs (Table 5.3). The set of indicators to measure the impact of ICTs on MDGs at the country level needs to cross-check the impact of each of the different organizations use at a national level. In order to be useful for diagnostic purposes like identifying hot-spots

of MDG-related needs indicators should be capable of being broken down to a local government level and, if possible, in some areas, to the village level. The difference between organizational and national indicators is that the former will be generated much more quickly. A health organization may be identifying the spread of disease in the wake of a disaster and may need to correlate data quickly to respond. However, broader national indicators will take longer to collect and may have to be complemented by case studies, for example to highlight the successful use of ICTs in the area of training in the health sector, or the increase of incomes by those who have access to ICTs. Some outcomes/impacts may be observed with the help of data provided by the national surveys, for example in the area of employment or child mortality rates. However, in order to make judgments about the effectiveness of ICTs that go beyond parading anecdotal success stories, it is necessary to have an underlying process that can compare processes aimed at addressing MDGs with or without the use of ICTs. In this way, it will be possible to discover whether ICTs are delivering on the promises made for them and in a diagnostic way to discover why not, if they turn out not to be doing so. At this underlying level (see first indicator in Table 5.3, Indicators at the national level), governments need to be able to track inputs that show for example how many hospitals and clinics are carrying out their MDG-related activities supported by ICTs in some way. They also need to be able to track the outputs from these activities: in other words how many patient-transactions (eg. number of patients diagnosed using telemedicine) were there in a given time period. But the final question is the key one: were the activities supported by ICTs more or less effective at achieving specific MDG-related outcomes? For example, was the delivery of treatment to patients more effective or cost-efficient than its non-ICTsupported equivalent? This test will pose a significant challenge for practitioners but will help measure achieving outcomes (improved MDGrelated results) rather than just inputs and outputs. In order to be able to read across from inputs to outcomes, national governments need to be able to collect the inputs like technology diffusion data.
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Table 5.3: A scheme to develop and identify the impact of ICTs on the MDGs Indicators at the organisational level
MDGs 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Inputs Provide ICT-based agricultural pricing information Networking teacher training colleges Outputs Access to price information for farmers Outcome (impact) Increased income for farmer

ICT- delivered, (lower cost) training for teachers

Increased the number of teachers trained

Set up multi-purpose Number of women trained in Increased number and type of jobs community centres (run ICTs obtained by women for/by women) that provide ICT training Connected rural health clinics to a telemedicine network Targeted online information for rural health clinics Introduce call centres for HIV/AIDS info Number of web-based consultations Reduced child mortality

4. Reduce child mortality

5. Improve maternal health

Improved advice and diagnosis

Reduced maternal mortality

6. Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development

Advice given to potential patients

Reduction in the number of new people infected with HIV/AIDS

E-group network on environmental issues

Exchange of info & issues

Raised awareness

Set up ICT training facilities at colleges/ universities

Increase the number of IT graduates

Reduce youth unemployment

Each ministry should be able to identify from one year to the next how many computers it has in MDG-related areas, how many are actively connected and where they are located. These data are vital for assessing ICT impact because it should either at local, national or regional level enable governments to compare the relative performance of, for example, health districts with very little ICT support against those with more ICT support. Without the ability to make these kinds of comparisons, it becomes significantly harder, if not impossible, to track the impact of ICTs. It has to be possible to draw a fairly clear line between what the intended consequence was and what actually happened. For example, with regard to gender equality (MDG 3), there will need to be
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a significant number of ICT-related activities targeted at women (inputs) to have any potential for making an impact, whether at a local or national level. A significant number of women will need to take part in those activities (outputs) for the potential output to be realised. And finally, something different needs to happen to the status or employment of women as a result of having taking part in these activities (outcomes). Failure to achieve the required outcomes will allow governments and the agencies involved to look at the reasons for this failure; whether there were external factors or whether something was wrong with the delivery. The last point is an important one because, as was observed earlier, often the relationship between the supporter/donor and the funded means that there is a

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Table 5.3: A scheme to develop and identify the impact of ICTs on the MDGs (contd) Indicators at the national level
MDGs Underlying Inputs Number of ICTsupported activities addressing MDGs Wider diffusion of ICT access Increased number of teachers trained using ICT-supported inservice training Number of ICT activities directed at women trained More connected rural clinics More ICT supported training and consultations to health staff Opportunities to access advice by phone or online National reporting of specified sustainability issues using ICTs Global professional networks Outputs Number of ICT-supported MDG transactions Outcome (impact) Changes in MDGs brought about by using ICTs compared to without ICTs

1. Poverty

Increased market income

Increased annual incomes

2. Universal Primary Education

Larger number of available teachers

More pupils taught where teacher training supported by ICT

3.Gender equality

Number of women taking part in ICT training/ activities More ICT-delivered or supported advice for nurses Increased ICT-delivered diagnosis and expertise

Changes in women's status and employment based on ICTs

4. Child mortality

Lower mortality rates in ICT-supported clinics Reduced maternal mortality rates where staff have received ICT-supported training Fewer new cases of HIV/AIDS and improved treatment for those who sought advice by phone or online Effective actions taken to curb patterns of environmental abuses

5. Maternal Health

6.HIV/AIDS

Number of people taking advice by phone or online

7. Environmental sustainability

Exchange of info &networking using ICTs

8. Global Partnership

Sharing of best practice

Faster improvements in meeting MDGs

Source: ITU.

pressure to report success. This pressure, which exists at all levels in the system, can undermine the ability of all involved to learn from failure, which is often a better teacher than success. With efficiency indicators, it is important to look at the cost of delivery (for example, per patient or per pupil) and see whether the use of ICTs over a reasonable period might affect both the effectiveness and cost of delivery. Efficiencies can be viewed not only in terms of immediate savings

but whether the same amount of money/resources produces a better result. However, even these indicators cannot really deal with external factors like the living conditions in a village potentially leading to re-infection or that the food will only arrive more quickly if the funding is available to buy it. As always, the discussion will need to focus on whether government or donor funding is addressing the symptoms or the cause of any particular MDG-related issue.

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5.6 Conclusion ICTs are having a real impact on social development, although the quantification of this impact and the development of indicators are complex and must be seen as a constantly evolving process. The chapter has suggested a way of measuring the impact of ICTs on the achievement of the Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs) through a system that distinguishes between inputs, outputs and outcomes (Table 5.3). This approach could help organizations (such as development agencies) as well as governments track the efficiency of using ICTs in achieving the MDGs. Efficiencies must be viewed not only in terms of providing more but also better results through the incorporation of ICTs.

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Notes
1

World Bank and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Social Indicators of Development. Washington, D.C. 1995. The UNDPs Human Development Index is based on 4 indicators, only one of which is economic: life expectancy, school enrolment and literacy rate (plus GDP per capita). United Nations ICT Task Force. Innovation and Investment: Information and Communication Technologies and the Millennium Development Goals. New York. April 2005. Research ICT Africa. Towards an African e-index. Household and Individual ICT access and usage across 10 African countries. 2005, at: http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/Toward2.pdf. Samuel, Shah and Hadingham. Mobile Communications in South Africa, Tanzania, and Egypt: Results from Community and Business Surveys, in: Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones. Moving the debate forward. Vodafone Policy Paper Series. Number 3. March 2005, at: http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf. J. Goodman. Linking mobile phone ownership and use to social capital in rural South Africa and Tanzania, in Africa: The impact of Mobile Phones. Vodafone Policy Paper Series. Number 3. March 2005, at: http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf. Similarly, conditions between different developing countries also differ markedly. Harold Perkin. The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780-1880. New York. Routledge. 1969. UN ICT Task Force in support of the Science, Technology & Innovation Task Force of the UN Millennium. Mainstreaming Information & Communication Technologies for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals Report. 2004. L. Valigra. Indian Oceans Tsunami Early Warning System Taking Shape. National Geographic. 23 December 2005, at: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1223_051223_tsunami_warning.html. LIRNEasia. Tsunami Warning System, at: http://www.lirneasia.net/projects/national-early-warning-system. Samarajiva, Knight-John, Anderson, Zainudeen. National Early Warning System. Sri Lanka. 2005, at: http://www.lirneasia.net/wp-content/news-sl.pdf. For an example of a blog, see: http://tsunamihelp.blogspot.com/. Figure 5.1 was adapted from M. Schacter. Means Ends Indicators: Performance Measurement in the Public Sector. Institute on Governance. Policy Brief No. 3. April 1999, at: http://www.iog.ca/publications/policybrief3.pdf.

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CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS

6.

CONCLUSIONS

Old and new divides Access to information and communication technologies continues to grow at high speed and the digital divide in terms of mobile subscribers, fixed telephone lines and Internet users keeps getting smaller. At the same time, the world continues to be separated by major differences and disparities in terms of ICT levels. High growth rates in some areas, and particularly the mobile sector, are not sufficient to bring digital opportunities to all and many developing countries risk falling behind, particularly in terms of Internet access and newer technologies such as 3G and broadband. It is important to counteract such a new technology divide, particularly since broadband is playing a crucial role in transforming countries into Information Societies. Some of the applications that are having the greatest impact on people and businesses are closely linked to broadband uptake. Since access to basic communications in the developing world has largely been achieved through mobile communications, broadband wireless access is expected to play a key role for developing countries seeking to foster the Information Society. The lack of and need for impact indicators The world has made some important progress in agreeing upon a common set of Information Society access and usage indicators and efforts continue to improve the availability and comparability of core Information Society indicators. At the same time, the work carried out in the area of impact measurement is still at a nascent stage, and often restricted to developed countries. Despite the potential of ICTs to be an engine for social and economic development, there is limited quantifiable proof and little

internationally comparable data. The debate on the role of ICTs for development, and their potential to reduce major development concerns (including those of the MDGs) calls for the identification of appropriate impact indicators. The impacts of ICTs are multiple and real Even if the ICT sector is growing faster than the overall economy, and representing a substantial (and often growing) part of GDP in some countries, the real potential of ICTs is not the direct impact of the ICT sector itself. The key economic impact of the spread and use of ICTs is indirect, by transforming the way individuals, businesses and other parts of the society work, communicate and interact. Of particular interest is the ability of ICTs to raise productivity. Different macro-economic and firm-level studies confirm high potential productivity gains from ICTs but emphasize that the benefits of ICTs depend on a number of other factors. To maximize the effects of ICTs, other changes, including a new set of ICT skills, structural changes within business models and institutional and regulatory adjustments within the economy, must be made. Most of the existing studies apply to developed countries and regions and more research needs to be carried out on the impact of ICTs on sector and firmlevel productivity in developing countries. Besides increasing productivity, ICTs are transforming economic relationships and processes in the private and public sectors. Positive impacts have been observed and measured across developed and developing countries. Just as e-commerce and teleworking allow companies to reduce costs and increase revenues, e-government has the potential to
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save money, increase efficiency and raise transparency in the public sector. There have been a number of successful efforts by governments, organizations, and industry to quantify the positive impacts of ICTs. It is obvious that both administrative data and case studies and sector-specific surveys need to be carried out to measure the impact of ICTs. The sector that so far has had the strongest impact in developing countries is the mobile sector. Mobiles are not just a different or complementary way of communication but have opened up entirely new communication means in many parts of the developing world. The boom of the mobile industry has not just created new jobs and revenues but also contributed to economic growth by widening markets, creating better information flow, lowering transaction costs, and substituting for costly physical transport. Apart from the impact of the mobile sector, the transformation of economic relationships and processes is particularly visible in those countries and

regions that have the highest Internet penetration levels. The spread of broadband has an important role in certain areas, including for the emergence of ecommerce, teleworking, and e-education and e-health. This highlights the need for developing countries to pay special attention to broadband deployment, strategies and regulation. ICTs are also having a real impact on social development, although the quantification of this impact and the development of indicators are complex and must be seen as a constantly evolving process. The report has suggested a way of measuring the impact of ICTs on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) through a system that distinguishes between inputs, outputs and outcomes (Table 5.3). This approach could help organizations (such as development agencies) as well as governments track the efficiency of using ICTs in achieving the MDGs. Efficiencies must be viewed not only in terms of providing more but also better results through the incorporation of ICTs.

88

GLOSSARY, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

GLOSSARY, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

2G 3G ADEM AGIMO AIDS ARPU ART ATAC AU$ AVU B2B B2C BPO BT CEBEM CEE CTA DoP DSL ECA ECLAC ESCAP ESCWA EU EU25/ EU15 EUR Eurostat FMS FVI G7 G8

Second generation mobile communication system. Third generation mobile communication system. Generic name for mobile network/ service based on IMT-2000 family of global standards. Agency for the Development of Education Management Acquisition. Australian Government Information Management Office. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Average Revenues Per User. Antiretroviral therapy. Australian Telework Advisory Committee. Australian Dollar (currency). African Virtual University. Business to Business. Business to Consumer. Business Process Outsourcing. British Telecom. Centro Boliviano de Estudios Multidisciplinarios. Central and Eastern Europe. Canadian Telework Association. Geneva Declaration of Principles. Digital subscriber line. A high-speed Internet connection using telephone lines. Economic Commission for Africa (www.uneca.org). Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (www.eclac.org). United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (www.unescap.org). United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (www.escwa.org). European Union. European Union of 25/15 member states. Euros: the European Unions currency. European Statistics (http://epp.eurostat.cec.eu.int/). Fixed-to-mobile substitution. First Voice International. The Group of 7 (G7) refers to the following countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The Group of 8 (G7) refers to the following countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Russia.

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GBP GDP GPA GPT GSA GTC HCW HIV ICT IDA IDABC ILO IMF INASP IP ISDN ISIC ISP IT ITES ITU LAN MDG MFP MIT MIT OCW MMS MSMS NAISC NCC NGO NOIE NSO OECD OU PA
90

Great British Pound (currency). Gross Domestic Product. Geneva Plan of Action. General Purpose Technology. (US) General Services Administration. Grameen Telecom. Healthcare workers. Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Information and communication technology. Interchange of Data between Administrations is a Community Programme managed by the European Commissions Enterprise Directorate General. Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services to public Administrations, Businesses and Citizens. International Labour Organization (www.ilo.org). International Monetary Fund (www.imf.org). International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications. Internet Protocol. Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital switched network, supporting transmission of voice, data and images over conventional telephone lines. International Standard Industrial Classification. Internet service provider. Information technology. Information technology-enabled sector International Telecommunication Union (www.itu.int). Local Area Network. Millennium Development Goals. Multi factor productivity. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT OpenCourseWare. Multimedia Messaging Service. Micro, Small, and Medium-sized enterprises North American Industry Classification System. Nigerian Communication Commission. Non-governmental organization. Australian governments National Office for the Information Economy. National Statistical Office. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (www.oecd.org). Open University. WSIS Plan of Action.

GLOSSARY, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

PC PIAC PSTN PTO PVIT REDESMA ROI SME SMS TA TAIS TB TC TV UIS UK UN

Personal computer. Public Internet Access Centre. Public switched telephone network Public telecommunication operator. Public Value of IT. Red de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente (Network for Sustainable Development and Environment). Return on investment. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise. Short Messaging Service. WSIS Tunis Agenda (for the Information Society), also referred to as TAIS. WSIS Tunis Agenda for the Information Society. Tuberculosis. WSIS Tunis Commitment. Television. UNESCO Institute for Statistics (www.uis.unesco.org). United Kingdom. United Nations.

UN ICT Task Force United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force (www.unicttaskforce.org). UNCTAD UNDP UNESCO UNICEF US$ US/USA VAT VOI VoIP VP WAP WHO WSIS WTDR WTI United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (www.unctad.org). United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unesco.org). United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund (www.unicef.org). United States dollar (currency). United States of America. Value Added Tax. Value of Investment. Voice over Internet Protocol. Village Phone. Wireless Application Protocol. World Health Organization (www.who.int). World Summit on the Information Society (www.itu.int/wsis/). World Telecommunication Development Report. World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators.

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 97 Table A: List of economies ............................................................................................................................ 98 1. Basic indicators ......................................................................................................................................... 100 2. Main telephone lines.................................................................................................................................. 104 3. Waiting list ................................................................................................................................................. 108 4. Local telephone network ............................................................................................................................112 5. Teleaccessibility.......................................................................................................................................... 116 6. Telephone tariffs ........................................................................................................................................ 120 7. Mobile cellular subscribers ....................................................................................................................... 124 8. Prepaid cellular tariffs ............................................................................................................................... 128 9. ISDN and DSL .......................................................................................................................................... 132 10. International telephone traffic ................................................................................................................. 136 11. Telecommunication staff .......................................................................................................................... 140 12. Telecommunication revenue .................................................................................................................... 144 13. Telecommunication investment ............................................................................................................... 148 14. Information technology ........................................................................................................................... 152 15. Internet ..................................................................................................................................................... 156 16. Internet tariffs .......................................................................................................................................... 160 17. Multichannel TV ..................................................................................................................................... 164 18. Network growth ....................................................................................................................................... 168 19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access ................................................................................... 172 20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals ........................................ 180 Technical notes ............................................................................................................................................. 185

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INTRODUCTION

Data are presented for 206 economies with populations greater than 40000 and where sufficient data are available. Economies are grouped by 2004 United States dollar (US$) income levels: low, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of US$ 825 or less; lower middle, US$ 8263255; upper middle, US$ 325610065; and high, US$ 10066 or more. The income level classification is based on World Bank methodology whereas the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita shown in Table 1 is based on the methodology described in the Technical notes. Economies are shown in alphabetical order within their income group in the tables. See Table A for a list of economies in alphabetical order and their location in the tables. The data cover the public telecommunications sector. Due to differing regulatory obligations for the provision of data, a complete measurement of the sector for some economies cannot be achieved. Data for major telecommunication operators covering at least 90 per cent of the market are shown for all economies. More detailed information about coverage and country specific notes together with a full timeseries from 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975-2004 is contained in a CD-ROM version available separately. Data refer to the reporting period that is closest to the end of year indicated. See Table A for the fiscal year reporting period used in each country. Communication data come from an annual questionnaire sent to telecommunication authorities and operating companies. These data are supplemented by annual reports and statistical yearbooks of telecommunication ministries, regulators, operators and industry associations. In some cases, estimates are derived from ITU

background documents or other references. Other data are provided by the relevant international and national organizations identified in the Technical notes. The following signs and symbols are used in the tables: Year other than that specified or estimate. Thousands (i.e. 1000). Millions (i.e. 1000000). Billions (i.e. 1000000000). United States dollars. See the Technical notes for how US$ figures are obtained. % Per cent. _ Zero or a quantity less than half the unit shown. Also used for data items that are not applicable. ... Data not available. CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate. See the Technical notes for how this is computed. The absence of any sign or symbol indicates that data are in units. Comments and suggestions relating to the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators should be addressed to: Market, Economics and Finance Unit Telecommunication Development Bureau International Telecommunication Union Place des Nations CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Fax: +41 22 730 6449 E-mail: indicators@itu.int Additional information about Telecommunication/ICT Indicators can be found at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict. italic 000s M B US$

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TABLE A: LIST OF ECONOMIES

Economy

Location 1 59 60 152 61 113 114 62 153 154 155 63 156 157 2 115 64 158 116 3 159 4 65 66 117 67 160 68 5 6 7 8 161 69 9 10 118 70 71 11 12 119 13 120 72 162 121 14 15 163 73 122 74

Fiscal year Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 30.09 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12. Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12. Ending 31.12. Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12

Region Asia Europe Africa Europe Africa Americas Americas Asia Americas Oceania Europe Asia Americas Asia Asia Americas Europe Europe Americas Africa Americas Asia Americas Europe Africa Americas Asia Europe Africa Africa Asia Africa Americas Africa Africa Africa Americas Asia Americas Africa Africa Americas Africa Europe Americas Europe Europe Asia Africa Europe Africa Americas Americas

Economy Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Latvia Lebanon

Location 75 76 77 123 16 124 17 164 78 165 166 167 168 125 18 79 169 19 170 171 126 127 172 80 173 20 21 81 22 82 174 128 175 23 83 84 85 176 177 178 86 179 180 87 88 24 89 181 182 25 26 129 130

Fiscal year Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Beginning 22.03 Ending 30.06 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12

Region Americas Africa Americas Africa Africa Europe Africa Europe Oceania Europe Europe Americas Oceania Africa Africa Asia Europe Africa Europe Europe Americas Americas Oceania Americas Europe Africa Africa Americas Americas Americas Asia Europe Europe Asia Asia Asia Asia Europe Asia Europe Americas Asia Europe Asia Asia Africa Oceania Asia Asia Asia Asia Europe Asia

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Costa Rica Cte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Rep.

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Economy

Location 27 28 131 132 183 184 29 30 133 90 31 185 91 186 32 134 135 136 92 33 34 93 35 36 94 37 187 188 189 190 38 39 40 137 191 138 41 95 139 42 96 97 98 140 192 193 194 195 99 141

Fiscal year Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.09 Ending 15.07 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12

Region Africa Africa Africa Europe Europe Asia Africa Africa Asia Asia Africa Europe Oceania Americas Africa Africa Africa Americas Oceania Europe Asia Africa Africa Asia Africa Asia Americas Europe Oceania Oceania Americas Africa Africa Oceania Europe Asia Asia Asia Americas Oceania Americas Americas Asia Europe Europe Americas Asia Africa Europe Europe

Economy

Location 43 44 100 196 45 101 142 46 197 143 198 47 48 144 199 102 145 146 147 49 103 104 200 201 105 202 50 51 106 107 52 108 148 109 149 110 53 111 203 204 205 150 54 112 151 55 206 56 57 58

Fiscal year Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Beginning 01.04 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.09 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 30.06 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Ending 31.12 Beginning 01.04 Ending 30.06

Region Africa Africa Oceania Asia Africa Europe Africa Africa Asia Europe Europe Oceania Africa Africa Europe Asia Americas Americas Americas Africa Americas Africa Europe Europe Asia Asia Asia Africa Europe Asia Africa Oceania Americas Africa Europe Asia Africa Europe Asia Europe Americas Americas Asia Oceania Americas Asia Americas Asia Africa Africa

Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macao, China Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Northern Marianas Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Romania Russia

Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan, China Tajikistan Tanzania TFYR Macedonia Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad & Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Virgin Islands (US) Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

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1. Basic indicators
Population Total Density (M) (per km2) 2004 2004 24.93 38 137.13 952 7.26 64 0.78 17 13.39 49 7.07 254 14.48 80 16.30 34 3.91 6 8.85 7 0.79 424 3.82 11 16.90 52 22.78 186 54.42 23 4.22 34 72.42 59 1.46 137 21.38 90 7.80 32 1.31 36 296 8.21 1'081.23 341 32.42 56 5.09 26 5.79 24 1.80 59 3.49 31 17.90 30 12.34 131 11.10 9 2.98 3 4.26 126 2.63 2 18.96 24 54.00 80 24.75 175 5.68 47 12.42 10 127.12 138 152.53 190 5.84 13 8.48 322 0.16 170 10.34 53 5.17 71 0.49 16 12.00 19 34.51 14 6.30 44 37.67 40 5.02 88 26.70 111 26.48 59 82.48 250 20.73 109 10.92 15 11.89 30 2'331.27 78 GDP per capita (US$) 2003 919 382 506 345 83 308 670 284 329 303 1'018 844 670 107 146 96 270 358 381 186 356 561 474 381 427 524 174 362 168 395 365 549 483 217 193 247 749 194 451 465 645 210 331 666 216 616 446 188 282 359 251 257 486 563 338 468 Total telephone subscribers Total per 100 (000s) inhabitants 2004 2004 650 2.61 3'613 2.63 459 6.33 49 6.34 479 3.58 88 1.22 535 3.78 1'172 7.21 70 1.79 136 1.54 15 1.91 397 10.41 1'519 9.13 916 3.87 570 1.08 59 1.40 533 0.77 138 10.42 2'008 9.39 138 1.78 12 0.92 540 6.58 91'260 8.44 2'845 8.78 680 13.35 279 4.82 196 10.90 393 2.19 315 2.55 475 4.28 561 18.84 1'650 38.71 457 18.60 778 4.10 517 0.96 535 2.16 953 16.77 172 1.39 10'175 8.00 9'525 6.24 77 1.41 162 1.91 12 7.76 1'366 13.21 91 1.84 7 1.53 700 5.83 2'077 6.02 293 4.48 1'190 3.37 281 5.61 1'237 4.63 2'038 7.96 15'085 18.29 1'870 9.02 556 5.09 741 6.23 163'646 7.06 Effective teledensity 2004 2.41 2.03 5.33 3.88 2.97 0.89 3.52 6.62 1.53 1.39 1.66 10.05 7.70 3.87 1.06 0.93 0.63 7.53 7.93 1.44 0.82 4.87 4.37 7.85 8.18 3.53 8.83 1.87 1.80 3.60 17.53 20.25 12.98 3.73 0.79 1.69 13.00 1.19 7.20 3.29 1.13 1.64 4.59 10.85 1.35 1.31 4.17 3.04 3.75 2.95 4.40 4.36 6.70 12.28 5.17 4.25 3.56 4.35

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low Income

# # # 0 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # # # # # # # # # 0

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1. Basic indicators
Population Total Density (M) (per km2) 2004 2004 3.19 111 32.34 14 14.08 11 3.80 127 8.35 96 9.85 47 8.97 8 3.87 76 180.66 21 7.76 70 0.47 117 1'299.88 135 45.33 40 11.33 99 0.68 31 8.79 181 13.19 29 70.00 70 6.61 309 0.85 46 5.07 73 12.66 116 0.77 4 7.00 62 222.61 116 69.79 42 25.86 59 2.68 234 5.61 58 15.40 6 0.09 124 0.33 1'101 0.06 31 0.11 80 29.90 45 2.01 2 3.69 612 6.02 15 27.75 22 82.65 276 21.67 91 0.18 63 8.15 80 19.46 297 0.44 3 1.08 62 18.22 98 2.07 80 61.97 121 0.10 143 9.94 61 4.94 10 48.15 80 0.21 14 2'446.63 62 GDP per capita (US$) 2003 1'332 2'085 715 739 880 1'805 962 1'836 2'864 2'560 1'773 1'096 1'808 1'518 894 1'882 2'076 1'040 2'251 1'164 673 2'012 835 1'021 1'111 2'042 3'084 1'814 1'894 464 2'258 1'893 2'567 1'455 1'523 873 1'018 2'208 992 2'626 1'428 1'916 947 2'054 1'871 1'133 2'312 1'322 2'527 1'038 1'113 1'377 Total telephone subscribers Total per 100 (000s) inhabitants 2004 2004 1'355 44.10 6'971 21.56 429 2.99 786 20.67 2'482 29.72 5'415 54.97 2'426 27.04 2'244 58.00 107'987 59.78 7'457 96.08 139 29.49 646'580 49.74 18'168 40.08 844 7.45 46 6.70 3'470 39.47 5'156 39.08 17'107 24.44 2'720 41.13 212 25.66 1'524 30.03 4'300 33.97 207 27.03 1'097 15.68 39'990 17.96 17'948 27.06 1'608 6.22 2'591 96.81 2'212 39.41 5'259 34.14 5 5.68 145 44.13 9.38 5 25 22.33 10'645 35.60 414 20.59 1'332 36.14 2'051 34.59 6'142 22.14 36'373 44.01 14'604 67.39 24 13.05 7'415 90.95 3'207 16.48 295 67.09 131 12.57 5'005 27.47 1'301 62.42 34'176 55.15 15 14.67 4'767 47.97 385 7.92 25'877 53.74 17 8.10 1'063'087 43.51 Effective teledensity 2004 35.80 14.48 2.32 15.32 17.44 32.24 20.07 34.01 36.32 60.94 15.56 25.76 22.95 6.78 5.07 28.82 26.86 13.52 27.71 13.31 16.57 25.02 13.64 10.10 13.48 21.97 4.00 82.21 28.41 17.91 5.11 34.53 8.27 11.52 31.23 14.23 26.44 29.85 14.75 39.85 47.13 7.29 58.01 11.37 48.48 8.14 14.60 37.23 44.18 11.29 35.86 7.73 28.52 4.93 25.41

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower Middle Income

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # # # 0 # #

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1. Basic indicators
Population Total Density (M) (per km2) 2004 2004 0.08 174 38.23 14 0.27 630 0.26 11 1.72 3 15.41 21 4.25 83 4.42 78 10.21 129 0.07 95 0.51 18 1.31 29 1.35 5 0.10 299 0.44 260 10.10 109 2.29 36 3.55 341 5.66 3 3.45 53 25.58 77 1.23 661 0.17 444 104.93 53 0.08 161 2.42 9 3.17 40 38.55 123 144.20 8 0.08 200 5.38 110 45.21 38 0.05 192 0.15 244 0.12 311 1.31 255 72.32 93 3.24 17 26.18 29 578.03 19 GDP per capita (US$) 2003 9'103 3'423 9'659 3'772 4'214 4'818 4'193 6'588 8'881 3'669 5'480 6'800 5'310 3'908 7'990 8'112 4'779 4'988 3'484 5'371 4'141 4'606 6'328 9'379 4'127 5'427 2'370 8'348 6'072 2'293 7'611 4'364 3'162 8'061 3'392 3'461 3'252 4'095 Total telephone subscribers Total per 100 (000s) inhabitants 2004 2004 92 119.48 22'212 58.11 336 123.94 125 48.04 700 40.82 12'885 83.61 2'266 53.35 4'695 106.32 14'210 139.22 63 88.08 51 9.41 1'700 129.95 528 39.05 76 73.80 12'304 121.86 2'187 95.68 1'518 42.76 877 15.86 4'242 123.09 19'058 74.50 864 70.06 30 18.91 56'524 53.87 1'048 43.37 1'232 38.83 29'694 76.95 114'036 79.08 70 86.94 5'526 102.61 21'681 46.76 35 70.00 65 40.90 95 80.12 972 74.40 53'833 74.44 1'600 49.37 11'767 44.96 399'200 68.99 Effective teledensity 2004 70.13 35.35 73.85 35.12 32.87 62.08 31.62 63.58 105.64 58.68 7.64 96.00 36.20 42.05 86.43 67.22 25.01 13.56 99.29 57.12 41.36 12.67 36.64 33.32 26.98 45.09 51.61 60.78 79.39 36.36 50.00 31.95 52.87 49.82 47.99 30.85 32.17 46.60

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper Middle Income

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # 0 # # # # # # # # # # # # # #

102

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

1. Basic indicators
Population Total Density (M) (per km2) 2004 2004 0.07 144 0.11 570 19.91 3 8.21 98 0.32 23 0.72 1'011 10.34 338 0.06 1'148 0.37 63 32.07 3 0.81 87 5.41 126 0.05 34 5.22 14 60.43 111 0.18 2 0.25 63 82.50 231 10.98 83 0.06 0 0.17 367 0.06 858 6.92 6'512 0.29 3 4.04 59 6.86 310 58.00 193 127.80 338 0.09 759 48.08 488 2.55 105 0.46 177 0.47 19'550 0.40 1'266 0.40 358 0.22 278 16.23 394 0.23 12 3.91 15 4.55 14 10.53 115 3.90 435 0.74 65 0.77 306 24.92 10 4.32 6'320 1.98 98 43.20 86 9.01 20 7.42 180 22.69 630 4.35 52 59.80 244 293.66 31 0.11 322 1'007.14 28 6'363.07 861.87 875.36 3'792.07 801.31 32.46 47 29 22 123 31 4 GDP per capita (US$) 2003 17'375 25'436 31'209 15'442 13'827 29'744 35'627 12'447 23'213 18'220 39'412 30'860 29'734 8'564 16'310 29'453 15'118 32'428 23'245 35'973 30'935 16'318 25'251 31'324 12'710 16'693 59'626 17'672 11'759 15'596 11'011 32'866 13'940 19'290 48'162 13'993 11'519 28'920 9'432 22'039 13'896 20'544 33'586 36'738 12'821 18'919 26'369 36'273 22'584 28'522 5'659 708 15'208 2'354 15'234 18'637 Total telephone subscribers Total per 100 (000s) inhabitants 2004 2004 98 145.73 28'140 141.31 11'781 143.56 326 102.82 841 117.35 13'933 134.76 86 132.31 35'594 110.99 1'059 131.21 8'656 159.97 65 135.55 7'356 141.03 78'422 129.76 126 50.73 125'874 152.57 15'655 142.61 45 79.85 99 11'977 173.19 481 164.01 5'799 143.44 10'222 148.96 88'707 152.94 150'262 117.58 63'181 131.40 2'497 97.81 899 199.13 606 130.32 513 128.15 22'661 139.65 170 73.17 4'828 123.62 6'867 150.85 14'600 138.66 3'794 97.35 681 91.56 12'871 51.65 5'725 132.67 2'551 127.77 56'581 130.98 16'222 180.02 11'538 155.60 36'290 159.94 4'871 112.03 94'791 158.51 360'347 122.71 135 121.70 1'318'821 131.25 2'944'754 97'568 669'579 1'248'962 894'997 33'650 46.40 11.46 76.62 32.97 111.72 105.78 Effective teledensity 2004 93.43 82.76 97.36 58.68 90.63 88.32 86.15 64.27 79.37 95.51 85.78 95.63 73.72 29.24 86.42 84.77 44.69 118.77 99.00 93.49 105.25 108.19 71.58 76.09 78.34 119.38 92.94 76.52 91.21 50.19 77.52 103.60 98.41 68.82 65.90 36.82 89.47 87.09 89.46 108.47 84.63 100.31 84.71 102.16 62.11 77.51 27.88 8.65 43.44 19.25 70.93 62.14

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

0 # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # # # # # # 0 0 # # # # # # # 0 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 0 # # # # # # # # # # #

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

103

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

2. Main telephone lines


Main telephone lines (000s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income 1999 29.0 433.0 43.7 12.0 47.3 19.0 27.7 94.6 9.9 9.7 6.5 22.0 219.3 500.0 9.6 27.4 194.5 29.2 160.7 21.1 6.1 70.0 26'511.3 290.0 370.6 35.1 21.6 6.6 50.2 41.6 33.8 16.5 555.3 103.4 78.1 249.1 253.0 150.3 18.9 473.3 2'986.1 59.8 12.7 4.5 165.9 18.2 8.1 24.0 251.4 212.5 149.6 38.2 57.2 1'599.4 2'105.9 284.3 83.1 239.0 39'550.7 2004 50.0 831.0 72.8 30.3 81.4 23.9 36.4 95.2 10.0 13.0 13.2 13.8 238.0 980.0 10.0 39.3 435.0 38.4 313.3 26.2 10.6 140.0 43'960.0 299.3 416.4 75.0 37.2 6.9 58.7 93.0 74.9 39.0 863.4 138.1 69.7 424.9 417.9 214.5 24.1 1'027.5 4'502.2 62.0 23.0 7.0 244.9 24.0 6.2 200.0 1'028.9 245.2 149.1 60.6 71.6 1'717.1 10'124.9 798.1 91.7 317.0 71'415.7 CAGR (%) 1999-04 11.5 13.9 10.8 20.4 11.4 5.9 7.0 0.1 0.3 6.0 19.4 -8.9 2.1 18.3 1.5 7.5 22.3 9.5 14.3 5.6 14.7 14.9 10.6 0.6 2.4 16.4 11.5 1.5 3.2 17.5 17.3 18.7 9.2 7.5 -2.2 11.3 10.6 7.4 5.0 16.8 8.6 1.2 12.7 11.4 8.1 9.6 -6.4 52.8 32.6 3.6 -0.1 12.3 4.6 1.8 36.9 22.9 2.0 5.8 12.5 Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants CAGR (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 0.13 0.20 8.7 0.34 0.61 12.3 0.71 1.00 7.2 1.82 3.88 16.3 0.43 0.61 7.3 0.29 0.33 3.5 0.23 0.26 3.3 0.64 0.59 -2.4 0.28 0.26 -1.6 0.13 0.15 1.9 0.96 1.66 14.5 0.77 0.36 -14.0 1.51 1.43 -1.3 2.18 4.10 17.2 0.02 0.02 0.76 0.93 4.2 0.32 0.63 18.5 2.39 2.89 6.5 0.84 1.47 11.8 0.28 0.34 4.4 0.52 0.82 12.3 0.87 1.71 14.5 2.66 4.07 8.9 1.01 0.92 -1.8 7.64 8.18 1.4 0.69 1.30 13.6 1.02 2.07 15.1 0.23 0.21 -1.8 0.34 0.33 -0.9 0.41 0.75 12.9 0.34 0.68 14.9 0.67 1.31 14.5 15.21 20.25 5.9 4.41 5.62 6.3 0.46 0.37 -4.5 0.55 0.79 7.3 1.16 1.69 7.8 3.04 3.77 4.4 0.18 0.19 1.4 0.43 0.81 13.2 2.20 2.95 6.0 1.20 1.13 -1.9 0.17 0.27 9.1 3.15 4.59 9.9 1.79 2.37 5.8 0.38 0.48 8.2 1.99 1.31 -9.9 0.25 1.67 46.6 0.83 2.98 29.1 3.48 3.75 1.9 0.47 0.42 -2.7 0.85 1.21 9.4 0.26 0.27 0.8 6.58 6.70 0.5 2.68 12.28 35.6 1.63 3.85 18.8 0.83 0.84 0.2 2.12 2.67 4.7 1.88 3.07 10.4

104

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

2. Main telephone lines


Main telephone lines (000s) 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income 1999 140.4 1'600.0 67.2 544.2 730.0 2'638.5 502.6 367.9 24'985.0 2'833.4 46.9 108'715.8 6'665.4 433.8 8.8 826.7 1'129.5 4'686.4 495.3 81.5 671.5 610.7 64.0 279.2 6'080.2 8'371.2 675.0 487.3 565.3 1'759.8 3.1 22.2 3.9 9.9 1'471.0 108.2 222.2 268.1 1'688.0 2'892.4 3'740.0 8.5 2'280.7 671.9 70.8 31.3 1'600.4 471.0 5'215.6 9.1 850.4 358.9 10'074.0 5.5 209'140.5 2004 255.0 2'288.0 96.3 582.5 1'025.4 3'175.9 625.4 928.0 42'382.2 2'726.8 73.4 311'756.0 7'767.0 768.2 11.1 936.2 1'612.3 9'464.1 887.8 102.0 683.2 1'132.1 102.7 390.1 9'990.0 14'571.1 1'034.2 390.7 617.3 2'500.0 4.5 31.5 4.5 12.0 1'308.6 127.9 357.3 280.8 2'049.8 3'437.5 4'389.1 13.3 2'685.4 993.4 81.7 46.2 2'660.0 525.0 6'797.0 11.2 1'203.5 376.1 12'142.0 6.8 458'420.2 CAGR (%) 1999-04 16.1 7.4 9.4 1.4 7.0 3.8 4.5 20.3 11.1 -0.8 9.4 23.5 3.1 12.1 4.7 2.5 7.4 15.1 12.4 5.8 0.3 13.1 9.9 6.9 10.4 14.9 8.9 -4.3 1.8 7.3 13.2 7.3 3.6 4.0 -2.3 3.4 10.0 1.2 4.0 3.5 3.3 11.8 3.3 8.1 2.9 10.2 10.7 2.8 5.4 7.2 7.2 1.2 3.8 4.2 17.0 Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants CAGR (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 4.53 8.30 16.4 5.34 7.08 5.8 0.54 0.67 5.6 14.31 15.32 1.4 9.48 12.28 5.3 26.33 32.24 4.1 6.17 6.97 2.5 9.58 23.98 20.1 14.87 23.46 9.5 34.22 35.13 0.5 10.94 15.56 7.3 8.58 23.98 22.8 16.03 17.14 1.3 3.89 6.78 11.8 1.42 1.63 2.8 10.48 10.65 0.3 9.10 12.22 6.1 7.51 13.52 12.5 8.05 13.42 10.8 10.11 12.35 5.1 12.99 13.47 0.7 5.51 8.94 10.2 7.49 13.39 12.3 4.42 5.57 4.7 2.96 4.49 8.7 13.34 21.97 13.3 3.01 4.00 5.9 18.88 14.60 -5.0 11.54 11.00 -0.9 10.82 16.23 8.5 3.70 5.11 11.3 8.37 9.60 2.8 7.63 8.27 2.0 9.23 10.81 3.2 5.28 4.38 -3.7 6.24 6.36 0.4 7.36 9.70 5.7 5.00 4.73 -1.4 6.69 7.39 2.0 3.88 4.16 1.4 16.70 20.25 3.9 4.85 7.29 10.7 21.44 32.94 9.0 3.69 5.10 6.7 16.48 18.61 2.5 3.20 4.43 8.5 9.93 14.60 8.0 23.40 25.19 1.9 8.70 10.97 4.7 9.26 11.29 6.8 8.99 12.11 6.1 8.19 7.73 -1.4 20.19 25.22 4.6 2.95 3.17 1.5 8.95 18.76 16.0

105

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

2. Main telephone lines


Main telephone lines (000s) 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income 1999 36.5 7'223.2 115.0 36.1 123.8 3'108.8 802.6 1'633.6 3'806.1 21.3 5.8 515.5 38.0 29.4 201.0 3'725.8 731.5 571.0 550.0 1'152.6 4'430.8 257.1 9.7 10'927.4 20.5 220.4 462.5 10'175.2 30'949.0 19.6 1'655.4 5'492.8 20.1 44.5 23.6 278.9 17'912.0 896.8 2'550.8 110'774.6 2004 38.0 8'700.0 135.7 33.7 136.5 3'318.3 1'343.2 1'887.6 3'427.7 21.0 9.6 444.0 38.7 32.7 210.0 3'577.3 650.5 630.0 750.0 820.0 4'446.3 353.8 10.0 18'073.2 ... 242.7 376.1 12'292.5 39'616.0 21.2 1'250.4 4'821.0 25.0 51.1 32.4 321.3 19'125.2 1'000.0 3'346.5 131'609.0 CAGR (%) 1999-04 0.8 3.8 3.4 -1.4 2.0 1.3 10.8 2.9 -2.1 -0.3 13.4 -2.9 0.4 2.1 2.2 -0.8 -2.3 2.0 8.1 -6.6 0.1 6.6 1.2 10.6 ... 2.0 -4.1 4.8 5.1 1.5 -5.5 -3.2 4.5 4.8 8.2 2.9 1.3 2.2 5.6 3.5 Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants CAGR (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 48.86 49.35 0.2 19.84 22.76 2.8 43.01 50.09 3.1 15.44 12.92 -3.5 7.69 7.96 0.7 20.70 21.53 0.8 22.36 31.62 7.2 36.49 42.74 3.2 37.01 33.58 -1.9 29.81 29.40 -0.3 1.31 1.77 7.7 35.74 33.95 -1.0 3.17 2.86 -2.1 31.51 31.75 0.2 47.57 48.73 1.2 36.73 35.43 -0.7 29.99 28.45 -1.0 17.65 17.75 0.1 10.05 13.56 7.8 31.16 23.80 -5.2 20.30 17.38 -3.1 21.89 28.69 5.6 6.79 6.24 -2.8 11.22 17.22 8.9 31.58 ... ... 9.48 10.05 1.2 16.43 11.85 -6.3 26.27 31.85 4.9 21.03 27.47 5.5 24.42 26.16 1.4 30.67 23.22 -5.4 12.76 10.40 -5.0 44.98 50.00 2.1 29.16 31.95 3.1 20.88 27.25 6.9 21.58 24.58 2.6 27.84 26.45 -1.0 28.09 30.85 1.9 10.76 12.78 3.5 20.01 22.73 2.6

106

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS


2. Main telephone lines
Main telephone lines (000s) 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD 1999 33.6 36.6 9'760.0 3'862.4 111.2 165.4 5'008.6 54.9 79.1 20'380.0 424.1 3'638.1 24.9 2'850.3 33'888.0 49.2 52.3 48'210.0 5'610.9 25.6 77.6 50.7 3'868.8 185.0 1'737.0 2'878.0 26'502.0 62'053.6 70.4 25'619.0 455.6 310.9 178.4 197.8 171.9 79.0 9'613.0 50.7 1'833.4 2'446.0 4'229.8 1'294.7 154.9 268.5 2'706.2 1'876.6 757.6 16'480.4 6'519.0 5'066.0 12'043.8 975.2 34'021.0 189'502.0 67.2 548'606.8 908'072.6 2004 35.0 37.1 11'660.0 3'791.0 139.9 191.6 4'801.0 56.0 90.0 20'610.0 418.4 3'487.8 24.0 2'368.0 33'870.2 51.0 53.3 54'574.0 6'348.8 25.3 80.0 55.1 3'763.3 190.5 2'019.1 3'000.0 25'957.0 58'788.0 73.9 26'595.1 497.0 360.1 173.9 206.5 172.0 81.0 7'861.0 53.3 1'800.5 2'150.5 4'238.3 1'111.9 190.9 300.0 3'695.1 1'864.0 812.3 17'934.5 6'447.0 5'262.6 13'529.9 1'187.7 33'700.0 177'947.0 70.9 544'802.2 1'206'247.2 CAGR (%) 1999-04 0.8 0.8 3.6 -0.4 4.7 3.0 -0.8 0.6 4.4 0.2 -0.3 -0.8 -0.7 -3.6 1.8 0.4 2.5 2.5 -0.4 1.5 1.7 -0.6 0.6 3.1 0.8 -0.4 -1.1 2.5 0.8 1.8 3.7 -0.5 0.9 1.3 -3.9 1.0 -0.4 -2.5 -3.0 4.3 5.7 6.4 -0.1 1.8 1.7 -0.2 0.8 2.4 4.0 -0.2 -1.3 1.1 -0.1 5.8 Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants CAGR (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 44.74 52.30 3.2 37.20 35.03 -3.0 51.57 58.55 2.6 48.33 46.20 -0.9 36.90 44.14 3.7 26.71 26.72 48.92 46.44 -1.0 85.73 86.15 0.2 24.59 25.57 1.3 66.83 64.27 -0.8 63.39 51.84 -3.9 68.47 64.46 -1.2 55.72 49.76 -2.2 55.18 45.40 -3.8 57.81 56.04 -0.6 31.28 30.22 -1.7 22.78 21.48 -1.2 58.68 66.15 2.4 52.81 57.84 1.8 45.69 44.69 -0.7 50.89 50.89 81.18 ... ... 58.57 54.42 -1.5 66.37 65.01 -0.4 46.39 49.94 1.5 47.15 43.72 -1.5 46.22 44.75 -0.6 49.00 46.00 -1.3 81.46 84.79 2.0 56.07 55.31 -0.3 21.62 19.47 -2.1 71.89 79.75 2.6 41.50 37.38 -2.1 51.23 51.63 0.2 45.07 44.47 -0.7 36.79 37.23 0.6 60.60 48.44 -4.4 24.12 22.98 -1.0 47.81 46.11 -0.7 54.62 47.24 -2.9 42.31 40.25 -1.0 34.26 28.53 -3.6 26.83 25.65 -0.9 38.01 41.04 3.9 13.32 14.83 2.2 47.50 43.20 -1.9 38.09 40.68 1.7 40.99 41.52 0.3 73.57 71.54 -0.6 70.61 70.97 0.1 54.52 59.63 1.8 32.15 27.32 -3.2 57.18 56.35 -0.3 67.91 60.60 -2.3 62.31 63.86 0.5 56.64 54.10 -0.9 15.22 18.99 4.5

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

18'321.5 275'297.5 291'881.6 306'915.7 11'872.7

25'925.2 295'306.5 538'981.5 327'580.0 13'773.0

7.2 1.4 13.1 1.3 3.0

2.46 33.80 8.35 38.70 39.71

3.09 33.95 14.51 40.90 43.57

4.7 0.1 11.7 1.1 1.9

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. ITU.

107

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

3. Waiting list
Waiting list for telephone lines CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 ... ... ... 172.1 172.2 16.7 32.8 14.5 1.2 1.0 -3.6 ... 3.1 ... 12.0 15.0 4.6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.2 ... 0.6 ... ... ... 3.4 ... ... ... ... 33.1 3.4 -43.4 ... ... ... ... ... ... 19.3 46.2 24.5 224.8 146.1 -10.2 16.9 10.6 -14.3 106.7 154.8 20.4 1.7 1.4 -9.1 3.5 ... ... ... ... ... 3'680.6 1'648.8 -33.1 120.6 107.9 -2.7 66.9 42.2 -8.8 8.9 ... ... 18.0 25.6 9.2 2.4 ... ... 7.3 1.2 -36.2 31.6 17.4 -17.9 ... ... ... 47.8 ... ... 118.1 77.1 -8.2 39.6 35.6 -2.6 39.7 6.7 -29.9 84.4 106.2 4.7 274.6 317.1 2.9 108.4 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 275.0 267.4 -0.6 0.5 ... ... 8.0 ... ... 0.9 0.6 -11.2 24.0 8.8 -22.1 ... ... ... ... ... 4.5 0.5 -42.3 355.0 444.0 11.8 33.9 5.9 -35.3 29.6 8.0 -35.4 14.1 27.5 24.9 9.2 ... ... 38.8 38.9 0.2 ... ... ... 131.1 ... ... 12.3 11.5 -1.4 149.9 240.5 9.9 6'344.0 4'030.8 -8.7 Total demand (000s) 2004 ... 1'003.2 105.6 31.3 84.5 38.9 ... ... 11.2 ... 16.6 ... 241.4 ... ... 85.5 581.1 49.0 468.1 27.6 ... ... 45'608.8 407.2 458.6 ... 62.8 ... 59.9 110.4 ... ... 940.5 173.7 76.4 531.1 735.0 ... ... ... 4'769.6 ... ... 7.6 253.8 ... ... 200.5 1'472.9 251.1 157.1 88.1 ... 1'756.0 ... ... 103.2 557.5 61'525.8 Satisfied demand (%) 2004 ... 82.8 68.9 96.8 96.3 61.4 ... ... 89.3 ... 79.7 ... 98.6 ... ... 45.9 74.9 78.3 66.9 94.9 ... ... 96.4 73.5 90.8 ... 59.3 ... 98.0 84.2 ... ... 91.8 79.5 91.2 80.0 56.9 ... ... ... 94.4 ... ... 91.5 96.5 ... ... 99.8 69.9 97.6 94.9 68.8 ... 97.8 ... ... 88.9 56.9 94.7 Waiting time (years) 2004 ... 1.9 7.3 0.2 0.4 >10 ... ... 3.3 ... 1.6 ... ... ... ... >10 2.2 3.5 6.8 2.3 ... ... 0.9 ... 4.5 ... 4.8 ... >10 1.4 ... ... 1.0 5.2 ... 2.5 7.9 ... ... ... 0.6 ... ... 0.8 3.4 ... ... 2.3 0.7 ... 4.6 ... 1.9 ... ... 5.7 >10 1.4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

108

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

3. Waiting list
Waiting list for telephone lines CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 98.5 98.5 640.0 727.0 6.6 21.1 ... ... 71.0 60.8 -3.8 88.4 439.5 254.4 -10.4 7.5 ... ... ... ... ... 1'000.0 200.0 -55.3 330.0 63.1 -28.2 5.8 0.7 -35.0 ... ... ... 1'155.0 2.4 -70.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35.0 14.5 -35.7 1'293.6 66.1 -44.8 103.6 38.2 -39.2 5.2 5.0 -1.3 104.8 82.3 -5.9 ... ... ... 75.6 ... ... 169.7 330.3 18.1 ... ... ... 1'203.5 1'654.8 8.3 ... ... ... 221.9 217.0 -0.6 29.7 1.1 -56.5 172.4 168.3 -1.2 ... ... ... 0.5 -38.8 ... ... ... 0.2 0.1 -11.1 14.0 -81.5 5.4 2.6 -22.1 38.8 0.8 -53.9 ... ... ... 29.6 -82.4 ... ... ... 740.0 424.8 -10.5 3.5 5.0 9.1 119.0 284.0 19.0 236.2 334.5 7.2 36.7 5.0 -32.9 16.5 22.6 8.2 2'819.0 2'426.0 -3.0 ... ... ... 419.5 479.0 2.7 2.0 4.0 41.4 83.7 60.0 -8.0 58.6 36.8 -20.8 2'654.9 2'142.0 -5.2 ... ... ... 14'550.0 10'211.6 -6.8 Total demand (000s) 2004 353.5 3'015.0 ... 643.2 1'025.4 3'430.3 ... ... 42'582.2 2'789.9 74.1 ... 7'769.5 ... 11.1 ... 1'626.8 9'530.2 926.1 107.0 765.5 ... ... 720.4 ... 16'226.0 ... 607.7 618.4 2'668.3 ... 31.5 ... 12.1 1'308.6 130.5 358.1 ... 2'049.8 ... 4'813.9 18.3 2'969.5 1'327.9 86.7 68.8 5'086.0 ... 7'276.0 15.2 1'263.5 412.9 14'284.0 ... 137'003.7 Satisfied demand (%) 2004 72.1 75.9 ... 90.6 100.0 92.6 ... ... 99.5 97.7 99.1 ... 100.0 ... 99.7 ... 99.1 99.3 95.9 95.4 89.2 ... ... 54.2 ... 89.8 ... 64.3 99.8 93.7 ... 99.9 ... 99.0 100.0 98.0 99.8 ... 100.0 ... 91.2 72.8 90.4 74.8 94.2 67.1 52.3 ... 93.4 73.7 95.3 91.1 85.0 ... 97.8 Waiting time (years) 2004 2.9 5.3 ... 3.6 2.4 ... ... 0.1 ... 0.2 ... ... 0.1 ... 0.2 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.2 ... ... >10 ... 1.0 ... ... ... 0.9 ... ... 0.2 0.7 ... ... 4.7 3.1 3.5 6.0 3.5 4.7 8.6 ... 1.9 5.7 1.2 9.4 4.4 ... 1.5

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

109

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

3. Waiting list
Waiting list for telephone lines CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 ... ... ... 23.1 ... ... 0.8 1.6 14.9 ... 0.7 ... 22.2 14.8 -18.3 26.5 32.3 10.4 34.7 11.5 -19.8 ... 74.0 19.3 -23.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... 39.3 4.5 -41.9 ... 5.3 ... ... ... ... ... ... 77.2 22.5 -21.8 19.7 15.5 -4.6 ... ... ... 80.0 ... ... 74.9 1.3 -55.4 99.0 42.1 -15.7 29.1 13.5 -22.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2.0 ... ... ... ... 1'095.0 387.2 -22.9 6'533.0 5'809.6 -5.7 1.8 1.9 1.4 69.3 3.3 -45.5 100.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.1 0.2 -36.8 10.0 ... ... 499.8 54.2 -35.9 ... ... ... ... 8'910.5 6'443.5 -6.3 Total demand (000s) 2004 ... ... 137.3 34.4 151.3 3'350.6 1'354.7 1'887.6 3'447.0 ... ... 448.5 44.0 ... ... 3'599.8 666.0 ... ... 821.4 4'488.4 367.3 ... ... ... 244.8 ... 12'679.6 45'425.6 23.1 1'253.8 ... ... ... 32.6 ... 19'179.4 ... ... 99'637.1 Satisfied demand (%) 2004 ... ... 98.8 97.9 90.2 99.0 99.2 100.0 99.4 ... ... 99.0 87.9 ... ... 99.4 97.7 ... ... 99.8 99.1 96.3 ... ... ... 99.2 ... 96.9 87.2 91.8 99.7 ... ... ... 99.5 ... 99.7 ... ... 95.3 Waiting time (years) 2004 ... ... 0.7 ... ... ... 0.1 ... ... ... ... >10 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.9 ... ... ... 0.5 ... 0.9 2.7 ... ... ... ... ... 0.1 ... 0.7 ... ... 2.3

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

110

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

3. Waiting list
Waiting list for telephone lines CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 2004 1999-04 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4.7 3.1 -9.6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21.6 2.1 -37.1 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.1 -27.3 0.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.1 ... ... 25.6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 511.0 73.6 -47.6 6.5 0.4 -51.4 4.3 ... ... ... 0.6 0.6 1.5 ... ... ... ... 576.2 79.8 -32.7 30'380.7 20'765.8 -7.3 Total demand (000s) 2004 ... ... 11'660.0 3'791.0 ... ... ... ... ... 20'610.0 421.5 3'487.8 ... 2'368.0 33'870.2 ... ... 54'574.0 6'350.9 ... 80.0 ... 3'763.3 190.5 ... ... ... 58'788.0 ... 26'595.1 497.0 360.1 173.9 206.5 ... ... ... ... 1'800.5 2'150.5 ... ... 190.9 ... 3'768.7 1'864.0 812.7 ... ... 5'262.6 13'529.9 1'188.4 33'700.0 ... ... 292'055.9 590'222.5 Satisfied demand (%) 2004 ... ... 100.0 100.0 ... ... ... ... ... 100.0 99.3 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 ... ... 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 ... ... ... 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... ... ... ... 100.0 100.0 ... ... 100.0 ... 98.0 100.0 100.0 ... ... 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 ... ... 100.0 98.3 Waiting time (years) 2004 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.5 ... ... ... ... 1.4

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

3'616.4 3'039.1 10'660.1 13'045.7 12.3

2'232.4 853.8 7'998.0 9'667.0 13.9

-9.2 -22.4 -5.6 -5.8 2.6

21'054.0 81'888.7 206'850.1 266'536.2 13'600.9

92.1 99.7 98.5 97.1 99.9

1.5 0.4 1.4 2.1 -

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. ITU.

111

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

4. Local telephone network


Capacity used (%) 2004 80.3 81.2 73.0 77.6 63.0 70.8 54.3 69.0 ... 67.5 ... ... 84.2 ... ... 86.5 67.0 ... 79.6 69.1 ... ... 78.4 64.6 78.9 83.4 58.2 ... 81.7 65.2 44.5 ... 96.5 90.9 52.8 85.3 66.9 85.8 ... 57.3 82.5 68.2 ... ... 84.8 ... ... 50.0 74.5 78.9 68.9 59.4 35.8 89.6 60.4 70.5 64.1 74.3 76.4 Main telephone lines Automatic Digital (%) (%) 2004 2004 ... ... 100.0 95.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... ... 100.0 100.0 ... 66.0 ... ... 97.9 81.3 97.3 90.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 76.8 69.0 37.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 93.8 90.6 99.0 96.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 59.3 ... 99.5 100.0 100.0 81.5 84.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.9 79.7 90.0 100.0 91.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 89.0 100.0 100.0 ... ... 100.0 100.0 42.7 100.0 97.0 96.0 100.0 100.0 ... 85.0 34.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.0 100.0 81.0 99.7 96.2 Residential (%) 2004 ... ... 54.5 60.0 ... 62.0 ... ... 39.5 ... ... ... 81.0 ... ... 57.0 70.5 85.0 37.0 45.0 ... ... ... 36.0 82.0 ... 73.1 ... 48.6 52.3 32.0 69.7 86.0 79.0 ... 55.0 ... 72.0 ... 56.0 76.0 ... ... 68.5 69.5 65.0 ... ... 90.0 81.1 63.0 80.0 ... 84.6 ... 66.0 51.0 54.0 72.1 Faults per 100 main lines per year 2004 ... ... 5.8 54.0 18.4 6.0 ... ... 56.0 60.8 55.8 ... 81.0 ... ... 54.3 100.0 ... 67.4 1.6 ... ... 126.0 149.1 ... ... 75.0 ... 59.6 ... ... ... 5.1 20.6 66.0 125.0 68.0 4.8 104.6 20.6 ... ... ... ... 17.3 ... ... ... ... 144.0 24.0 6.2 ... 87.4 ... ... 108.0 2.7 116.1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

112

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

4. Local telephone network


Capacity used (%) 2004 81.4 68.2 ... 80.7 93.4 96.2 82.3 74.2 79.1 68.3 78.0 73.6 81.7 85.6 22.2 ... 83.9 79.1 ... 88.1 46.6 ... ... 77.3 85.1 87.0 ... ... 82.8 88.0 94.5 71.0 ... 72.6 ... 69.4 84.9 83.8 83.7 51.0 87.3 80.8 78.0 75.7 66.3 89.1 76.1 ... 78.8 75.6 63.3 89.6 88.5 45.1 75.4 Main telephone lines Automatic Digital (%) (%) 2004 2004 97.6 97.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 37.0 99.8 48.4 100.0 54.5 100.0 99.8 100.0 89.6 98.7 100.0 100.0 34.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.2 85.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.0 98.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 99.8 ... 36.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 88.1 100.0 100.0 ... 94.0 ... ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 52.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 87.9 ... 96.5 100.0 99.9 96.3 77.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 66.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 70.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.3 Residential (%) 2004 87.9 84.0 ... 90.5 92.3 85.0 72.5 88.3 74.5 84.0 90.0 78.5 77.3 69.2 60.0 67.3 79.2 91.0 69.0 60.0 64.6 ... 77.6 74.0 81.2 84.0 ... 76.0 79.0 81.4 ... 61.5 67.0 60.0 68.0 60.0 ... 73.9 ... 70.0 89.7 57.0 87.3 77.0 ... 43.2 88.5 ... 67.1 78.0 64.4 82.1 86.1 ... 78.9 Faults per 100 main lines per year 2004 57.2 6.0 ... 52.9 45.2 23.1 ... ... 1.6 4.2 43.0 ... 30.6 9.5 136.0 ... 35.3 0.1 35.2 9.3 17.2 ... ... 3.6 20.0 ... ... 31.0 10.0 ... ... 30.8 ... 48.1 25.0 40.4 69.3 3.4 ... ... 10.4 ... 25.0 8.1 38.6 70.0 50.0 ... 2.5 ... 30.0 86.4 ... ... 11.3

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

113

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

4. Local telephone network


Capacity used (%) 2004 ... ... ... 89.6 55.7 ... 95.8 76.6 72.3 72.1 ... 68.8 38.5 ... ... 80.5 78.6 ... ... 68.9 49.4 85.6 ... ... ... 76.0 67.5 98.2 90.3 ... 58.9 ... ... ... ... 72.8 91.1 ... 89.8 84.9 Main telephone lines Automatic Digital (%) (%) 2004 2004 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 79.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 93.5 100.0 91.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 92.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 86.0 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 99.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 90.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 81.0 100.0 94.6 Residential (%) 2004 ... 82.8 68.7 57.3 60.0 71.2 54.0 74.6 67.0 79.2 ... 75.0 73.0 81.0 ... 76.0 80.0 ... ... 77.9 66.0 80.0 ... 75.6 ... 92.0 72.3 62.4 78.4 65.0 76.3 51.0 ... ... 80.9 88.2 76.0 ... 65.8 73.6 Faults per 100 main lines per year 2004 ... ... ... 41.1 ... 25.0 4.0 12.0 6.5 ... ... 16.3 45.0 ... ... 8.7 20.3 ... ... 3.8 7.3 41.5 ... 1.8 ... 89.7 13.9 17.2 ... 6.0 9.5 48.2 ... ... 17.0 ... 30.4 ... 2.0 16.9

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

114

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

4. Local telephone network


Capacity used (%) 2004 ... ... ... ... 73.5 80.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79.3 ... ... ... ... 105.4 ... ... ... 77.4 ... ... ... ... ... ... 93.3 62.8 ... 86.6 86.1 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85.6 ... 69.1 ... 78.1 88.0 ... ... 71.6 75.8 ... ... ... 84.8 77.6 Main telephone lines Automatic Digital (%) (%) 2004 2004 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ... 100.0 ... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 86.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 100.0 97.8 Residential (%) 2004 ... ... 72.8 65.0 ... 70.0 ... ... 71.0 63.0 75.5 ... ... 66.0 69.2 ... ... ... 79.0 ... ... ... 56.2 72.0 ... 64.2 68.2 71.7 ... 75.0 65.0 65.0 74.4 81.0 ... ... 60.0 ... 79.1 77.3 ... 72.6 71.2 ... 65.0 59.6 74.0 70.0 78.5 ... 75.1 50.5 70.8 66.0 55.0 68.6 73.6 Faults per 100 main lines per year 2004 ... ... 8.0 5.0 ... 15.0 5.9 ... ... ... 25.5 9.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 13.8 ... ... ... 1.1 ... 5.6 ... ... ... ... 1.0 4.0 7.0 18.0 20.6 ... ... ... 26.9 ... ... 9.7 ... 15.8 ... 1.7 99.2 23.4 14.2 ... ... 1.4 0.3 11.0 13.2 ... 11.3 21.4

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

72.9 80.6 74.9 88.1 77.0

99.9 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0

98.4 98.4 99.1 94.8 100.0

73.7 68.5 76.8 73.1 73.6

23.1 11.2 51.7 14.7 8.1

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. ITU.

115

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

5. Teleaccessibility
Residential main lines per 100 Total (000s) HH 2004 2004 ... ... ... ... 39.7 2.8 18.2 4.5 ... ... 12.7 0.9 ... ... ... ... 3.7 0.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... 192.8 9.3 ... ... ... ... 22.4 2.7 306.7 2.3 32.6 21.2 107.7 2.6 11.7 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 115.7 1.7 341.5 28.6 ... ... 25.7 5.9 ... ... 28.9 0.9 38.2 1.6 16.3 1.0 26.6 5.3 742.2 55.0 109.1 19.5 ... ... 188.3 1.8 ... ... 154.5 15.2 ... ... 497.6 2.0 2'471.5 12.0 ... ... ... ... 4.3 15.3 164.9 14.6 14.8 2.0 ... ... ... ... 403.2 7.7 198.9 16.9 101.8 1.5 40.9 5.0 ... ... 1'421.9 30.8 ... ... 357.9 13.1 46.8 2.1 171.2 6.4 8'430.7 6.5 Total (000s) 2004 ... 1.51 0.41 0.54 5.83 0.01 0.47 ... 0.10 0.06 0.29 ... 2.70 2.00 ... 0.45 3.52 0.59 6.78 1.24 ... 1.20 2'006.49 10.03 1.54 0.37 1.24 ... 0.91 0.56 ... 6.63 1.91 0.66 7.04 4.43 2.24 6.58 0.07 4.87 184.92 ... ... 0.08 0.51 ... ... ... 7.35 0.43 2.00 12.26 4.63 6.67 10.70 ... 0.86 1.27 2'314.96 Public telephones per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... 0.01 0.06 0.69 0.44 0.03 ... 0.03 0.01 0.39 ... 0.16 0.08 ... 0.11 0.05 0.46 0.32 0.16 ... 0.15 1.93 0.32 0.30 0.07 0.57 ... 0.05 0.05 ... 2.41 0.45 0.27 0.37 0.08 0.09 1.16 0.01 0.04 1.21 ... ... 0.54 0.05 ... ... ... 0.23 0.07 0.06 2.52 0.17 0.26 0.13 ... 0.08 0.11 1.10 As % of main lines 2004 ... 0.18 0.56 1.79 7.17 0.04 1.31 ... 1.11 0.51 2.88 ... 1.13 0.20 ... 1.14 0.81 1.70 2.33 4.78 ... 0.86 4.84 3.05 0.37 0.54 3.54 ... 1.54 0.77 ... 17.36 0.22 0.48 10.11 1.04 0.54 3.07 0.30 0.69 4.11 ... ... 1.30 0.21 ... ... ... 1.64 0.17 1.24 23.96 6.47 0.40 0.24 ... 0.94 0.40 3.81

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

116

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

5. Teleaccessibility
Residential main lines per 100 Total (000s) HH 2004 2004 224.1 30.7 1'579.2 31.6 ... ... 510.1 60.7 868.9 49.1 2'698.6 86.5 380.3 19.8 819.1 75.1 27'885.9 61.2 2'290.5 78.3 64.5 67.2 244'884.3 66.0 6'001.6 64.1 531.3 16.7 6.1 5.7 630.0 25.1 1'129.5 39.1 8'612.4 57.1 519.2 34.1 58.5 42.7 430.8 35.5 ... ... 79.7 39.8 288.7 18.0 6'293.0 11.7 12'239.8 87.9 ... ... 296.9 39.0 491.8 51.2 1'694.6 42.5 ... ... 19.4 43.0 2.8 42.8 6.7 42.1 889.6 15.1 72.8 20.4 ... ... 213.4 15.6 ... ... 2'320.6 14.9 3'935.3 53.8 7.6 31.2 2'344.4 77.0 764.9 14.7 ... ... 20.0 12.0 2'354.1 67.4 ... ... 4'560.8 27.4 8.7 52.0 749.5 35.0 306.9 36.1 9'324.2 53.0 ... ... 349'411.2 55.9 Total (000s) 2004 1.17 5.00 2.11 1.28 2.33 20.10 15.74 3.35 1'316.57 20.61 0.43 22'150.00 103.32 28.61 0.03 11.39 8.05 52.67 21.71 1.00 0.54 39.29 0.70 3.38 402.87 112.42 ... ... 7.72 9.37 0.02 0.94 0.01 0.08 140.00 ... 2.23 8.05 137.03 15.20 51.57 0.10 13.16 7.69 0.36 1.37 4.71 ... 330.90 0.07 37.98 0.25 67.20 ... 25'160.65 Public telephones per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 0.38 0.16 0.16 0.34 0.28 2.04 1.75 0.87 7.29 2.65 0.91 17.04 2.28 2.53 0.04 1.30 0.61 0.75 3.27 1.22 0.11 3.10 0.91 0.48 1.90 1.69 ... ... 1.45 0.59 0.19 2.86 0.19 0.76 4.68 ... 0.60 1.43 4.94 0.19 2.38 0.55 1.61 0.40 0.82 1.31 0.26 ... 5.34 0.71 3.82 0.05 1.39 ... 10.52 As % of main lines 2004 0.46 0.27 2.64 0.23 0.25 0.63 2.52 0.36 3.11 0.76 0.59 7.10 1.33 3.72 0.29 1.22 0.52 0.56 2.89 1.03 0.08 3.47 0.68 0.87 5.20 0.77 ... ... 1.14 0.45 ... 2.98 0.22 0.74 10.70 ... 0.62 2.79 6.68 0.46 1.17 0.75 0.49 0.77 0.44 2.96 0.18 ... 4.87 0.62 3.16 0.07 0.62 ... 5.57

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

117

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

5. Teleaccessibility
Residential main lines per 100 Total (000s) HH 2004 2004 ... ... 6'732.8 66.6 88.6 91.3 19.3 32.7 85.6 21.1 2'315.5 51.7 725.3 73.4 1'361.5 72.5 2'298.0 60.0 16.6 72.2 ... ... 345.8 62.4 28.2 10.4 26.5 82.9 ... ... 2'718.7 69.8 520.4 52.5 ... ... ... ... 638.8 46.9 2'934.5 52.8 261.8 84.4 ... ... 13'657.9 53.9 ... ... 223.3 56.3 279.7 37.5 7'672.9 56.7 27'817.8 53.5 13.8 62.6 953.6 44.5 2'511.5 22.4 ... ... ... ... 26.2 97.2 282.1 81.3 14'535.1 95.2 ... ... 1'868.7 36.0 90'960.7 56.5 Total (000s) 2004 ... 211.94 0.78 0.66 1.90 68.73 21.68 12.54 27.98 ... ... 2.30 0.69 ... ... 33.16 3.94 ... ... 5.66 105.42 2.77 ... 724.51 ... 6.53 12.55 85.65 185.90 0.18 15.60 175.00 ... ... ... 2.30 76.44 14.80 130.42 1'930.02 Public telephones per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... 5.60 2.86 2.51 1.08 4.51 5.10 2.87 2.74 ... ... 1.70 0.51 ... ... 3.28 1.72 ... ... 1.64 4.12 2.27 ... 6.90 ... 2.70 3.96 2.22 1.27 2.14 2.90 3.77 ... ... ... 1.76 1.08 4.57 4.98 3.39 As % of main lines 2004 ... 2.46 0.57 1.95 1.44 2.11 1.61 0.69 0.82 ... ... 0.50 1.77 ... ... 0.93 0.61 ... ... 0.69 2.37 0.79 ... 4.01 ... 2.69 3.34 0.70 0.52 0.84 1.25 3.63 ... ... ... 0.72 0.40 1.48 3.90 1.54

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

118

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

5. Teleaccessibility
Residential main lines per 100 Total (000s) HH 2004 2004 ... ... ... ... 7'982.5 >100 2'464.2 71.9 ... ... 130.0 >100 ... ... ... ... 62.8 >100 12'984.3 >100 320.0 >100 ... ... ... ... 1'694.6 71.2 23'613.9 95.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... 5'013.0 >100 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2'113.5 93.3 137.1 >100 ... ... 1'929.9 >100 17'702.7 77.6 42'151.0 87.5 ... ... 19'363.2 >100 323.0 65.4 225.4 >100 129.4 96.6 167.3 >100 ... ... ... ... 4'716.6 67.0 ... ... 1'424.9 94.5 1'662.3 82.2 ... ... 935.4 73.6 135.9 >100 ... ... 2'156.4 59.7 1'152.5 >100 601.1 87.8 12'554.1 87.0 5'060.9 >100 ... ... 10'166.4 >100 552.2 94.9 23'842.8 95.6 117'445.0 >100 38.2 92.2 320'952.5 97.7 769'755.1 61.9 Total (000s) 2004 ... ... 68.45 21.70 1.59 1.95 13.30 ... ... 155.00 2.81 4.43 ... 5.84 202.46 ... 0.91 106.00 63.77 ... ... ... 7.36 0.48 4.44 16.00 230.00 442.00 ... 374.00 0.69 0.45 0.53 0.86 ... ... 17.30 1.10 ... ... 47.44 24.12 1.11 ... 59.89 ... 3.56 63.87 ... 29.80 126.03 25.98 87.51 1'345.00 ... 3'557.74 32'963.37 Public telephones per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... ... 3.44 2.64 5.01 2.81 1.29 ... ... 4.83 3.91 0.82 ... 1.12 3.39 ... 3.68 1.28 5.81 ... ... ... 1.06 1.66 1.10 2.36 3.97 3.46 ... 7.82 0.29 1.00 1.14 2.17 ... ... 1.07 4.80 ... ... 4.51 6.25 1.50 ... 2.73 ... 1.78 1.55 ... 4.02 5.55 5.97 1.46 4.58 ... 3.65 5.46 As % of main lines 2004 ... ... 0.62 0.57 1.21 1.05 0.28 ... ... 0.75 0.66 0.13 ... 0.23 0.59 ... 1.71 0.19 1.00 ... ... ... 0.20 0.25 0.22 0.52 0.86 0.75 ... 1.45 0.14 0.12 0.30 0.42 ... ... 0.21 2.12 ... ... 1.12 1.89 0.58 ... 1.81 ... 0.44 0.36 ... 0.57 0.93 2.19 0.26 0.76 ... 0.67 2.82

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

...

Africa 17'321.9 13.7 Americas 194'579.8 79.3 Asia 366'371.3 59.3 Europe 181'016.8 74.3 Oceania 9'485.1 102.3 Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

502.41 4'391.93 26'436.90 1'534.28 71.64

0.70 5.07 7.29 1.96 3.33

2.15 1.49 5.05 0.49 0.64

119

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

6. Telephone tariffs
Residential Monthly Connection subs. (US$) (US$) 2005 2005 ... ... 158 ... 109 ... 14 3.5 46 4.6 9 0.4 29 2.9 55 3.2 65 5.1 98 6.5 100 5.5 ... ... 37 11.1 ... ... ... ... 73 2.4 41 0.9 41 1.5 50 1.3 110 3.0 ... ... ... ... 23 2.8 30 6.6 21 1.3 33 1.5 51 8.1 ... ... 40 8.1 10 0.8 37 8.3 19 3.9 39 1.9 52 0.7 17 7.9 26 2.8 168 6.4 52 4.8 68 3.8 9 3.0 3 2.4 31 2.1 44 4.4 43 4.5 47 0.5 40 8.0 ... ... 20 2.4 4 0.2 35 3.7 92 6.9 69 5.8 10 0.5 38 1.7 93 0.6 10 2.1 36 2.0 47 3.6 Business Connection Monthly (US$) subs. (US$) 2005 2005 ... ... 158 ... 109 ... 14 3.5 46 4.6 55 0.4 52 5.9 55 3.2 65 5.1 98 6.5 100 5.5 ... ... 37 11.1 ... ... ... ... 73 2.4 41 2.0 41 1.8 50 1.3 110 3.0 ... ... ... ... 23 4.7 30 6.6 58 2.3 33 1.5 51 8.1 ... ... 40 8.1 10 0.8 37 8.3 19 3.9 39 3.4 5.7 70 17 7.9 26 2.8 256 17.0 61 5.8 68 3.8 9 3.0 17 6.9 31 2.1 44 11.0 43 4.5 47 1.0 45 9.6 ... ... 20 2.4 24 1.4 35 3.7 92 6.9 69 5.8 28 2.5 38 1.7 93 0.6 31 4.2 36 2.0 53 4.5 Local call (US$) 2005 ... ... 0.12 0.03 0.18 0.07 0.03 0.11 0.55 0.14 0.18 ... 0.28 ... ... 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.08 ... ... 0.02 0.11 0.07 0.06 0.20 ... 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.11 0.05 0.02 0.14 0.04 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.15 0.03 ... 0.09 0.17 0.22 0.03 0.09 ... 0.06 0.01 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.08 0.10 Subscription as % of GDP per capita 2005 ... 8.1 12.0 ... 21.3 5.6 11.5 ... 19.0 18.1 ... ... 14.4 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24.6 5.0 15.3 3.6 4.3 16.2 ... 26.7 7.2 23.5 ... 3.8 1.6 ... 0.4 12.0 9.6 30.0 8.9 5.8 3.5 ... ... 7.4 ... ... ... 6.5 ... ... ... 24.3 ... 3.7 1.2 ... ... 11.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

120

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

6. Telephone tariffs
Residential Monthly Connection subs. (US$) (US$) 2005 2005 99 0.8 48 2.1 46 5.7 27 2.0 85 0.7 23 0.6 37 4.4 124 ... 22 14.7 43 6.5 34 2.8 ... ... 110 4.2 93 5.8 55 11.0 51 16.7 32 0.9 105 1.4 7 1.0 46 1.5 93 1.9 314 5.5 3 2.8 25 2.0 31 3.4 122 ... ... 11 8.1 50 6.2 78 2.4 53 6.1 134 2.3 35 12.0 24 8.0 68 10.8 35 7.1 55 4.4 126 3.4 116 14.3 36 10.8 10 5.1 20 3.4 86 0.7 196 4.9 154 ... 32 3.6 76 0.8 25 8.0 90 2.4 56 2.9 46 2.0 77 0.2 32 2.0 79 13.8 67 4.9 Business Connection Monthly (US$) subs. (US$) 2005 2005 199 7.1 48 2.1 112 11.2 32 7.3 128 7.4 60 1.0 37 6.2 124 ... 22 22.9 43 10.2 34 2.8 ... ... 132 5.3 93 ... 55 11.0 51 13.3 ... ... 174 2.3 7 1.6 151 2.2 93 2.8 314 5.5 17 8.4 59 5.1 47 6.0 122 ... ... 15 20.2 101 14.0 281 3.8 53 10.6 134 2.3 35 30.0 24 16.0 135 14.9 40 9.1 166 4.4 126 4.7 116 14.3 63 22.6 10 8.3 29 5.1 173 0.7 196 12.4 154 ... 54 6.4 76 0.8 25 14.0 90 2.4 56 5.8 46 2.0 500 9.6 128 3.2 79 13.8 99 8.2 Local call (US$) 2005 0.02 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.11 0.02 0.06 ... 0.07 0.04 0.05 ... 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.11 ... 0.02 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.08 ... 0.05 0.04 0.01 ... 0.03 0.06 ... 0.06 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.01 0.06 ... 0.08 0.02 ... ... 0.35 0.06 Subscription as % of GDP per capita 2005 ... 1.5 ... 2.2 0.8 0.3 5.5 1.2 2.9 2.5 1.7 2.9 2.4 ... ... 9.2 3.2 1.4 0.5 ... ... 3.1 3.7 2.7 3.8 ... 2.7 3.9 ... ... ... ... 3.7 7.8 ... ... 3.7 7.0 12.4 2.0 ... ... 5.7 0.8 1.1 ... ... 1.1 ... 0.9 ... 1.8 ... 3.1

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

121

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

6. Telephone tariffs
Residential Monthly Connection subs. (US$) (US$) 2005 2005 ... ... 52 4.6 48 17.0 51 ... 42 4.6 36 8.3 42 4.2 84 10.1 154 13.2 55 8.8 ... ... 64 7.6 100 17.5 85 9.7 51 15.3 166 16.7 61 6.2 71 7.6 ... ... 88 8.1 13 6.7 35 3.1 ... ... 106 14.7 ... ... 26 7.8 40 6.2 77 9.0 192 3.5 96 13.1 33 8.1 38 13.2 ... ... 46 8.1 37 7.5 11 4.6 5 8.1 45 9.0 36 6.5 63 9.0 Business Connection Monthly (US$) subs. (US$) 2005 2005 ... ... 52 13.1 48 55.5 51 ... 62 7.3 36 8.3 42 4.9 ... 11.8 154 17.6 55 17.6 ... ... 64 7.6 100 ... 85 14.7 ... ... ... 21.6 61 12.3 71 7.6 ... ... 88 9.8 13 12.1 70 7.9 ... ... 106 18.6 ... ... 26 7.8 40 14.9 77 9.0 345 ... 96 14.3 33 11.4 38 17.5 ... ... 46 14.8 37 17.6 22 27.8 5 28.1 45 17.1 49 8.1 67 15.1 Local call (US$) 2005 ... 1.43 ... 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.18 0.08 ... 0.12 ... 0.08 0.33 0.18 0.14 0.09 ... 0.18 0.03 0.07 ... 0.14 ... 0.06 0.09 0.09 ... 0.16 0.19 0.18 ... 0.09 0.10 0.04 0.15 0.14 0.02 0.15 Subscription as % of GDP per capita 2005 ... 1.4 ... 3.0 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.5 ... ... 1.2 3.7 2.5 ... 2.0 1.3 ... ... 1.5 1.7 0.8 ... ... ... 1.0 ... 2.0 ... ... 1.6 ... ... ... 2.4 0.6 2.3 1.8 1.2 1.7

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

122

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

6. Telephone tariffs
Residential Monthly Connection subs. (US$) (US$) 2005 2005 44 4.7 127 8.5 158 14.0 123 19.3 40 ... 53 3.1 80 20.7 60 26.0 ... ... 45 16.3 78 14.7 154 19.3 121 18.6 120 15.1 67 16.9 ... ... 54 21.7 72 19.3 35 14.4 81 24.3 35 14.0 123 10.0 61 11.6 86 13.2 147 29.2 61 ... 169 16.4 345 15.9 140 18.6 59 5.1 121 8.6 70 22.2 48 8.1 67 7.3 51 15.3 99 10.1 ... ... ... ... 31 27.1 152 24.3 105 18.5 50 ... 55 9.1 51 15.3 80 8.0 19 5.2 86 10.3 72 15.3 125 16.1 33 19.6 94 1.6 49 4.1 131 20.1 43 24.3 ... ... 87 14.9 66 8.0 Business Connection Monthly (US$) subs. (US$) 2005 2005 44 4.7 127 8.5 158 26.5 202 22.9 ... ... 53 5.7 80 20.7 60 32.0 ... ... ... 29.6 78 14.7 154 19.3 121 18.6 120 15.1 67 16.9 ... ... 54 21.7 72 19.3 35 14.4 81 24.3 60 36.0 123 10.0 61 14.4 86 13.2 147 29.2 61 ... 24.7 169 345 23.4 140 18.6 59 5.1 259 20.1 70 22.2 48 24.1 134 19.0 ... ... 99 10.1 ... ... ... ... 37 39.7 152 24.3 87 15.7 120 ... 55 32.0 ... ... 80 8.0 19 7.9 86 10.3 72 15.3 ... ... 33 19.6 94 8.3 49 4.1 173 24.0 74 43.8 ... ... 100 19.0 81 11.1 Local call (US$) 2005 0.15 0.09 0.23 0.18 ... 0.06 0.18 0.20 ... 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.18 0.20 ... 0.35 0.12 0.09 0.21 0.11 0.09 0.18 ... 0.13 0.08 0.01 0.04 0.11 0.15 0.33 0.16 ... ... 0.19 0.22 0.39 0.33 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.17 0.15 0.19 0.05 0.24 0.21 ... 0.13 0.11 Subscription as % of GDP per capita 2005 ... ... 0.5 0.7 ... 0.2 0.7 0.9 ... 0.7 0.8 0.5 ... 0.5 0.6 ... ... 0.7 0.9 ... ... ... 0.6 ... 1.0 0.6 0.8 ... ... 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 ... ... 0.7 ... 1.4 0.5 1.2 ... 0.4 ... 1.0 0.3 0.9 ... 0.5 ... 0.2 ... ... ... ... 0.6 4.4

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

51 65 65 87 52

5.1 8.3 4.1 12.3 10.7

59 75 92 101 66

5.7 16.0 7.6 14.9 16.1

0.12 0.11 0.04 0.13 0.13

11.1 3.9 3.0 1.2 1.8

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. ITU.

123

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

7. Mobile cellular subscribers


Mobile cellular subscribers Total per 100 CAGR (000s) inhabitants (%) 2004 2004 1999-2004 600 2.41 2'782 2.03 79.6 387 5.33 121.4 19 2.45 398 2.97 139.6 101 1.42 162.9 862 5.95 57.4 1'537 9.43 203.2 60 1.53 70.5 123 1.39 9 1.19 384 10.05 138.2 1'532 9.07 42.9 1'900 3.49 175.4 20 0.47 178 0.25 92.5 175 11.97 101.2 1'695 7.93 89.1 155 1.99 43.8 42 3.19 400 4.87 74.1 47'300 4.37 90.5 2'546 7.85 154.7 263 5.17 152.3 204 3.53 76.0 159 8.83 67.7 94 2.71 334 1.87 56.3 222 1.80 58.1 400 3.60 128.7 522 17.53 787 18.46 112.9 429 16.30 65.5 708 3.73 125.1 92 0.17 52.0 117 0.47 84.2 739 13.00 75.6 148 1.19 132.3 7.20 225.6 9'147 5'023 3.29 80.0 22 0.38 25.5 139 1.64 66.0 8 5.00 1'121 10.85 66.4 113 2.28 1 0.23 0.3 500 4.17 1'049 3.04 140.6 135 2.14 193.0 1'640 4.35 100.2 469 9.35 94.2 1'165 4.36 83.3 544 2.05 68.2 4'960 6.01 72.1 1'072 5.17 107.8 464 4.25 75.1 424 3.56 19.5 96'418 4.13 89.7 Prepaid subscribers (%) 2004 100.0 79.7 98.0 93.9 98.4 ... 57.9 97.0 ... 100.0 ... 99.0 93.4 97.3 100.0 73.1 ... 93.6 74.9 ... 100.0 73.0 98.3 70.2 80.8 85.0 ... 94.0 94.9 96.9 98.7 86.6 89.3 93.8 45.8 87.2 99.7 95.0 ... ... 96.4 84.6 98.0 ... ... 100.0 ... ... 97.1 98.8 80.0 ... ... 89.6 99.9 70.7 79.8 Population coverage (%) 2004 ... 70.0 ... ... 72.0 ... 87.5 72.0 ... ... ... 80.0 55.0 ... ... 70.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 70.0 ... 80.0 16.4 30.0 70.0 ... ... 90.0 64.0 95.0 ... ... 60.0 14.0 55.0 ... ... 70.0 ... 85.0 ... ... ... 60.0 ... 25.0 85.0 80.0 75.0 ... 68.0 50.5 ... 60.0 As % of total telephone subscribers 2004 92.3 77.0 84.2 38.7 83.0 72.8 93.2 91.9 85.7 90.4 13.1 96.5 84.3 98.2 33.7 18.4 72.3 84.4 81.0 10.8 74.1 51.8 89.5 38.7 73.1 81.0 85.0 70.5 84.2 93.1 47.7 69.8 91.0 17.9 21.8 77.5 86.0 89.9 52.7 19.5 85.8 40.9 82.1 73.6 14.5 71.4 50.5 16.3 87.5 78.4 94.2 15.7 32.9 57.3 83.5 57.2 56.7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

124

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

7. Mobile cellular subscribers


Mobile cellular subscribers Total per 100 CAGR (000s) inhabitants (%) 2004 2004 1999-2004 1'260 39.45 158.1 4'683 14.48 130.5 940 6.68 108.2 203 5.35 90.2 1'457 17.44 31.5 2'239 22.73 148.9 1'801 20.07 33.8 1'316 34.01 90.4 65'605 36.32 34.3 4'730 60.94 68.3 66 13.94 52.1 334'824 25.76 50.5 10'401 22.95 39.5 71.3 76 0.67 34 5.07 161.9 2'534 28.82 43.0 3'544 26.86 56.0 7'643 10.92 73.9 1'833 27.71 29.1 142 16.79 43.5 841 16.57 44.5 3'168 25.02 56.5 105 13.64 106.1 707 10.10 55.2 30'000 13.48 68.3 4'300 6.16 54.4 574 2.22 2'200 82.21 72.4 1'595 28.41 68.2 2'759 17.91 123.5 1 0.72 25.2 113 34.53 107.8 1 1.13 7.8 13 11.52 9'337 31.23 90.8 286 14.23 57.0 974 26.44 52.8 1'768 29.38 32.3 4'093 14.75 32.2 63.1 32'936 39.85 10'215 47.13 49.8 11 5.76 44.1 4'730 58.01 50.8 2'214 11.37 53.9 213 48.48 64.8 113 10.43 51.8 2'345 12.87 257.8 986 47.71 82.5 27'379 44.18 63.6 16 16.43 159.3 3'563 35.86 130.1 50 1.01 65.8 13'735 28.52 129.3 11 4.93 103.6 606'678 24.80 51.2 Prepaid subscribers (%) 2004 97.3 75.1 ... 75.4 ... ... 85.7 66.6 80.5 65.2 93.9 21.5 64.7 83.2 100.0 85.2 87.1 80.4 64.1 91.7 ... 87.8 ... 88.8 80.6 0.5 82.0 ... 80.0 ... ... 85.5 100.0 95.1 87.6 ... 74.2 79.6 99.0 63.9 70.5 84.3 76.0 99.2 97.3 55.4 85.1 47.4 100.0 97.0 ... 86.4 85.7 46.0 Population coverage (%) 2004 90.4 74.0 ... 84.0 97.0 88.0 ... 95.0 88.0 99.4 ... ... ... 50.0 78.0 ... 88.0 98.0 ... 55.0 94.0 ... 95.0 ... 90.0 90.0 ... 95.0 99.0 ... ... 81.0 ... ... 96.0 88.0 95.0 ... ... 92.0 98.0 ... 95.1 80.0 ... 80.0 90.0 98.0 ... 95.0 98.0 ... 92.0 20.0 89.9 As % of total telephone subscribers 2004 81.2 67.2 77.6 25.9 58.7 41.4 74.2 58.6 60.8 63.4 47.3 51.8 57.2 9.0 75.6 73.0 68.7 44.7 67.4 51.9 55.2 73.7 50.5 64.4 75.0 18.8 35.7 84.9 72.1 52.5 10.0 78.2 11.8 51.6 87.7 69.1 73.2 86.3 66.6 90.5 69.9 44.1 63.8 69.0 72.3 64.8 46.9 59.6 80.1 23.0 74.8 2.4 53.1 60.8 56.9

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

125

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

7. Mobile cellular subscribers


Mobile cellular subscribers Total per 100 CAGR (000s) inhabitants (%) 2004 2004 1999-2004 54 70.13 44.7 13'512 35.35 28.6 200 73.85 58.0 92 35.12 69.3 564 32.87 43.7 9'567 62.08 33.4 923 21.73 46.2 2'808 63.58 56.9 10'783 105.64 40.9 42 58.68 120.6 56 10.95 147.3 1'256 96.00 26.5 489 36.20 122.9 43 42.05 84.8 315 71.04 29.0 8'727 86.43 39.9 1'537 67.22 41.1 888 25.01 7.2 235 4.15 50.9 3'422 99.29 59.4 14'612 57.12 37.3 510 41.36 37.9 48 28.80 38'451 36.64 37.8 20 26.59 805 33.32 45.3 856 26.98 29.7 23'096 59.91 42.3 74'420 51.61 122.3 49 60.78 24.7 4'275 79.39 45.1 19'500 43.13 30.3 10 20.00 70.2 93 62.00 109.6 72 59.50 119.3 651 49.82 75.9 34'708 47.99 33.7 600 18.51 13.5 8'421 32.17 17.3 276'708 47.87 42.8 Prepaid subscribers (%) 2004 ... 88.0 29.0 93.2 96.3 82.5 83.6 71.7 92.9 ... 38.2 81.5 86.5 62.4 73.1 56.4 70.0 ... 50.8 82.5 91.9 92.6 93.5 68.0 86.0 54.4 ... 61.1 57.2 85.6 ... ... 74.6 81.4 75.9 70.0 93.3 79.0 Population coverage (%) 2004 85.0 ... 95.0 ... 99.0 100.0 ... 98.0 99.6 ... ... 99.0 74.0 ... 95.0 99.0 98.1 99.0 ... 100.0 ... 99.8 ... 99.9 ... 86.8 99.0 ... ... 99.0 96.0 ... 80.0 95.0 ... 95.0 100.0 ... 97.8 As % of total telephone subscribers 2004 58.7 60.8 59.6 73.1 80.5 74.2 40.7 59.8 75.9 66.6 81.2 73.9 92.7 57.0 70.9 70.3 58.5 14.5 80.7 76.7 59.0 67.0 68.0 76.8 69.5 58.6 65.3 69.9 77.4 77.8 28.6 21.9 66.0 67.0 64.5 37.5 71.6 67.1

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

126

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

7. Mobile cellular subscribers


Mobile cellular subscribers Total per 100 CAGR (000s) inhabitants (%) 2004 2004 1999-2004 63 93.43 24.9 98 89.44 16'480 82.76 21.1 7'990 97.36 13.5 186 58.68 63.5 650 90.63 37.2 9'132 88.32 23.4 49 79.03 30.8 206 56.26 14'984 46.72 16.7 641 79.37 33.4 5'168 95.51 14.5 41 85.78 30.9 4'988 95.63 8.8 44'552 73.72 15.8 53.55 40.3 98 73 29.24 27.0 71'300 86.42 24.9 9'306 84.77 19.0 32 56.20 19.0 98 59.39 44 78.54 23.4 8'214 118.77 14.0 290 99.00 10.9 3'780 93.49 17.6 7'222 105.25 20.2 62'750 108.19 15.7 91'474 71.58 10.0 84 95.34 27.8 36'586 76.09 9.3 46.1 2'000 78.34 634 138.17 24.8 432 92.94 29.6 306 76.52 52.1 295 74.78 23.7 200 90.09 46.1 14'800 91.21 17.0 116 50.19 35.5 3'027 77.52 16.8 4'716 103.60 11.4 10'362 98.41 17.3 2'682 68.82 26.9 490 65.90 42.2 579 75.51 39.2 9'176 36.82 61.4 3'861 89.47 18.8 1'991 100.51 25.8 38'647 89.46 20.8 9'775 108.47 13.8 6'275 84.63 15.5 22'760 100.31 14.5 3'683 84.71 34.6 61'091 102.16 17.6 182'400 62.11 16.2 64 57.84 776'942 77.14 16.3 1'756'746 78'763 374'144 710'024 573'785 20'031 27.61 9.14 42.74 18.72 71.61 61.71 29.0 59.7 22.9 34.4 25.9 20.7 Prepaid subscribers (%) 2004 ... 43.7 44.2 72.6 80.4 66.1 ... 18.7 49.8 19.6 ... 5.0 38.5 58.3 33.3 50.6 59.6 11.2 ... 44.2 42.9 75.0 27.4 90.9 2.9 ... ... 23.0 58.8 47.2 92.4 46.8 ... 68.2 78.0 70.0 41.3 79.3 ... 72.3 35.7 46.8 32.3 49.9 51.9 57.5 39.6 16.5 ... 66.7 6.0 35.9 47.0 88.6 42.5 33.5 62.6 48.2 Population coverage (%) 2004 ... 96.0 98.5 95.0 100.0 99.0 ... 95.0 100.0 ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 ... 95.0 99.0 99.6 ... ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 98.0 99.8 99.0 ... 99.0 100.0 98.0 100.0 99.0 98.0 ... 99.5 90.0 98.0 ... 99.0 99.0 95.0 ... ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 99.0 98.0 86.9 68.7 94.6 88.2 97.7 87.9 As % of total telephone subscribers 2004 64.1 58.6 67.8 57.1 77.2 65.5 34.9 42.1 60.5 59.7 63.3 67.8 56.8 57.7 56.6 59.4 44.0 44.3 68.6 60.4 65.2 70.7 70.7 60.9 57.9 80.1 60.0 71.3 59.7 65.3 68.6 62.7 68.7 71.0 70.7 72.0 71.3 67.4 68.2 68.3 60.3 54.4 62.7 75.6 64.4 50.6 47.5 58.8 59.1 73.2 55.7 56.7 63.4 59.0

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

127

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

8. Prepaid cellular tariffs, US$ August 2005


Connection charge 2005 45.00 23.67 35.02 13.95 27.65 7.06 ... 36.87 ... ... 4.61 ... ... ... ... 50.59 ... ... ... 57.38 2.30 32.79 ... ... ... ... 7.72 4.13 ... ... 5.62 14.91 ... ... 14.23 ... ... ... 2.55 ... ... ... 4.61 ... ... ... 30.55 11.70 ... ... 11.56 ... ... 3.29 30.13 17.70 Per minute local call Peak Off-peak 2005 2005 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.05 0.28 0.18 0.12 0.11 0.25 0.25 0.17 0.17 0.06 0.05 0.42 0.28 0.18 0.18 0.28 0.22 0.25 0.25 0.36 0.28 0.41 0.15 ... ... ... ... 0.13 0.09 0.08 0.03 ... ... 0.20 0.13 ... ... ... ... 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.21 0.21 0.09 0.07 ... ... 0.44 0.24 ... ... 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.16 0.38 0.26 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.19 ... ... ... ... 0.07 0.07 0.46 0.28 0.36 0.22 0.28 0.26 0.09 0.09 ... ... 0.27 0.23 ... ... 0.21 0.18 0.37 0.31 ... ... ... ... 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.23 0.13 ... ... 0.19 0.10 ... ... 0.15 0.15 ... ... 0.21 0.13 0.46 0.41 0.22 0.17 Cost of local SMS 2005 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.06 ... 0.03 0.13 ... 0.05 0.12 0.09 0.09 ... ... ... ... ... 0.07 ... ... ... 0.03 0.07 ... ... 0.11 ... 0.06 0.05 ... ... 0.08 0.03 ... ... 0.01 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.03 ... 0.10 ... 0.04 0.06 ... ... 0.02 ... 0.04 ... 0.05 ... ... ... 0.05 0.10 0.06 100 minutes of use As % of GNI per capita US$ 10.00 7.10 21.3 23.04 62.8 11.34 21.6 25.00 100.0 16.95 226.0 5.65 22.6 35.02 66.7 18.43 85.1 24.89 124.4 24.58 65.5 31.80 58.7 27.65 50.3 ... ... 10.74 67.8 5.63 75.1 ... 16.69 62.6 ... ... 12.05 36.1 2.33 5.2 20.98 63.0 8.38 29.6 ... 34.04 67.0 ... 16.37 67.7 20.58 154.3 31.80 131.6 ... 20.06 40.8 19.86 49.6 ... ... 6.66 33.3 37.13 60.2 29.03 174.2 27.37 93.8 8.69 20.0 ... 25.10 136.9 ... 19.82 44.0 33.69 269.5 ... ... 9.78 25.5 4.87 27.9 18.06 72.2 ... 14.60 70.1 ... 14.97 37.4 ... 17.32 54.7 43.63 109.1 19.31 74.6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

128

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

8. Prepaid cellular tariffs, US$ August 2005


Connection charge 2005 27.67 19.15 48.00 24.54 17.02 3.73 28.04 10.29 18.55 45.21 ... 111.11 55.10 0.00 19.97 52.98 25.07 5.01 2.61 ... ... 16.18 17.52 ... ... 38.91 ... ... 11.12 13.81 32.96 10.18 1.61 7.33 14.51 28.78 ... 9.83 73.37 14.96 21.50 ... 7.63 ... 11.48 43.82 20.22 Per minute local call Peak Off-peak 2005 2005 0.46 0.46 0.16 0.16 0.24 0.16 0.37 0.26 0.26 0.13 0.04 0.04 0.22 0.11 0.21 0.21 0.45 0.24 0.37 0.37 0.39 0.28 ... ... 0.12 0.09 0.46 0.30 0.17 0.11 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.09 0.39 0.22 1.18 0.24 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.08 0.21 0.16 0.25 0.15 0.10 0.10 ... ... ... ... 0.16 0.11 0.17 0.04 ... ... ... ... 0.13 0.08 ... ... ... ... 0.40 0.24 0.38 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.12 0.03 0.38 0.38 0.14 0.07 0.19 0.19 0.31 0.10 0.18 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.25 0.25 0.39 0.30 0.14 0.14 0.46 0.18 0.12 0.12 ... ... 0.14 0.11 ... ... 0.19 0.19 0.35 0.35 0.26 0.17 Cost of local SMS 2005 0.17 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.11 0.17 ... 0.06 0.15 ... 0.02 0.00 0.09 ... 0.12 0.03 0.07 ... 0.05 0.02 ... ... 0.04 0.07 ... ... 0.02 ... ... 0.11 0.09 ... 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.05 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.07 ... 0.05 ... ... 0.18 0.07 100 minutes of use As % of GNI US$ per capita 46.12 31.8 16.41 10.2 20.00 32.4 31.29 39.5 19.15 28.0 3.73 2.8 16.77 22.4 21.33 16.7 34.57 15.3 36.62 20.6 33.53 27.9 ... 10.41 6.9 37.96 21.2 13.77 18.2 19.60 11.0 0.00 0.0 8.68 7.5 30.32 15.6 70.83 37.9 15.92 24.8 12.86 8.1 18.38 24.5 20.05 24.8 10.44 15.5 ... ... 13.75 5.5 10.51 6.8 ... ... 10.47 5.3 ... ... 32.24 29.5 26.17 16.3 17.26 18.7 7.64 8.3 38.37 21.5 10.75 11.9 19.24 10.2 20.27 16.9 12.46 7.8 8.93 11.5 25.00 13.2 34.80 30.9 13.76 14.2 31.92 19.3 12.10 6.6 ... 12.21 6.5 ... 19.13 23.7 35.06 35.7 21.35 17.4

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

129

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

8. Prepaid cellular tariffs, US$ August 2005


Connection charge 2005 ... 20.25 13.81 12.50 ... 50.42 9.83 9.19 ... 5.80 ... 24.18 3.94 5.22 47.17 ... ... 5.36 ... ... ... 36.27 ... ... 18.92 22.54 ... 9.19 9.19 24.06 ... ... 23.27 14.04 Per minute local call Peak Off-peak 2005 2005 0.33 0.33 0.19 0.11 0.15 0.05 0.43 0.30 0.33 0.08 0.59 0.59 0.06 0.05 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.26 0.22 ... ... 0.30 0.15 0.34 0.16 0.26 0.22 0.45 0.45 0.22 0.10 0.38 0.06 0.47 0.47 ... ... 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.10 ... ... ... ... 0.14 0.14 ... ... 0.14 0.12 ... ... 0.23 0.23 0.15 0.08 0.77 0.39 0.30 0.12 0.41 0.41 ... ... 0.26 0.20 0.26 0.20 0.26 0.09 ... ... 0.37 0.37 0.39 0.09 0.30 0.21 Cost of local SMS 2005 ... 0.05 0.10 0.13 0.04 0.09 0.00 0.07 0.15 0.07 ... 0.12 ... 0.07 0.15 0.12 0.10 0.09 ... 0.04 0.01 ... ... 0.08 ... 0.03 ... 0.07 0.06 0.19 0.11 0.12 ... 0.07 0.07 0.06 ... 0.04 0.06 0.08 100 minutes of use As % of GNI US$ per capita 33.09 4.3 15.16 4.8 9.85 1.3 36.71 13.1 20.72 7.0 58.93 16.2 5.54 1.5 20.17 4.5 30.09 5.0 23.90 8.6 ... 22.41 5.0 24.89 8.9 23.90 7.7 44.74 ... 15.76 3.0 21.91 6.0 47.04 14.0 ... 10.16 2.7 12.06 3.7 ... ... 14.11 2.7 ... 12.95 2.1 ... 23.19 5.3 11.27 5.2 57.88 9.3 21.16 5.1 40.85 17.8 ... 22.98 6.8 22.98 8.3 17.48 2.7 ... 37.06 11.6 24.04 8.3 25.26 6.8

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

130

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

8. Prepaid cellular tariffs, US$ August 2005


Connection charge 2005 ... 28.25 18.94 24.06 49.75 21.18 30.23 9.99 23.95 31.72 16.05 16.05 21.64 36.28 24.18 24.50 24.12 24.06 64.83 ... 61.30 12.87 46.13 12.08 22.12 48.37 26.79 61.30 ... ... 36.28 14.19 24.18 ... 30.23 ... 23.81 30.63 25.00 82.39 6.05 53.32 21.25 30.23 12.87 37.98 31.30 44.91 ... ... 27.35 21.01 13.63 13.30 21.48 21.52 24.48 Per minute local call Peak Off-peak 2005 2005 0.54 0.33 0.40 0.18 0.29 0.01 0.36 0.36 0.33 0.15 0.12 0.10 0.30 0.24 0.30 0.30 0.24 0.12 0.20 0.20 0.08 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.49 0.32 0.19 0.19 0.79 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.84 0.84 0.59 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.28 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.02 0.00 0.17 0.17 0.39 0.23 0.14 0.19 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.18 0.26 0.26 ... ... 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.09 0.13 0.07 0.57 0.33 0.45 0.45 0.48 0.48 0.42 0.42 ... ... 0.61 0.61 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.41 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.13 0.13 0.22 0.03 0.25 0.25 0.51 0.04 0.77 0.62 0.19 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.32 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.15 0.31 0.55 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.12 0.23 0.34 Cost of local SMS 2005 ... 0.08 0.19 0.27 0.05 0.13 0.18 ... 0.06 0.12 0.02 0.03 ... 0.13 0.16 0.13 0.34 0.23 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.08 0.18 0.04 0.12 ... 0.07 0.15 0.03 0.09 0.15 0.14 0.28 ... 0.14 0.12 0.18 0.10 0.11 0.19 0.07 0.03 ... 0.18 0.16 0.16 0.08 ... 0.09 0.10 ... 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.05 0.12 0.15 100 minutes of use As % of GNI US$ per capita 44.12 29.21 2.0 15.25 0.8 36.64 1.6 24.21 1.9 10.84 0.9 27.51 1.3 30.25 1.0 18.20 1.8 20.62 1.0 8.33 0.5 12.28 0.4 41.00 ... 19.54 0.9 61.25 3.0 41.52 5.8 85.20 6.3 47.75 2.3 40.30 3.7 24.43 ... 25.25 ... 26.53 1.0 1.31 0.1 17.20 0.7 31.22 1.4 16.84 1.2 30.28 1.7 22.59 0.8 26.53 ... ... 13.76 0.9 12.15 0.3 10.36 0.7 45.26 5.0 45.19 3.5 48.36 5.3 42.74 2.0 ... 61.15 4.7 43.15 1.2 42.74 4.3 15.15 1.6 19.97 0.8 32.45 ... 22.89 3.0 13.31 0.8 12.62 1.3 25.65 1.8 28.06 1.2 70.15 2.1 15.21 1.4 5.78 0.4 8.84 0.4 10.10 0.3 ... 28.49 1.8 23.77 24.31 24.68 13.56 27.36 44.43 25.2 70.03 10.63 13.44 6.33 17.03

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

131

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

9. ISDN and DSL


ISDN subscribers (000s) 2004 ... ... ... 0.1 ... ... ... ... ... 4.1 ... ... 0.1 0.0 ... ... ... ... ... 0.4 ... ... ... 0.3 ... 0.1 1.8 0.1 0.9 0.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.1 ... ... ... 0.4 0.5 ... 0.2 0.1 ... ... 0.3 ... 9.6 B-channel equivalents (000s) 2004 ... ... ... 1.2 ... ... ... ... ... 20.2 ... ... 0.5 0.1 ... ... ... ... ... 4.7 ... ... ... 1.6 ... 0.2 9.4 1.2 4.6 0.4 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.3 ... ... ... 0.8 1.0 ... 0.4 0.1 ... ... 0.6 ... 47.1 B-channel per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... ... ... 0.09 ... ... ... ... ... 1.22 ... ... 0.01 0.06 ... ... ... ... ... 0.15 ... ... ... 0.10 ... 0.07 2.21 0.47 0.24 0.01 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.85 ... ... ... 0.07 0.03 ... 0.07 0.00 ... ... 0.03 ... 0.12 B-channel as % of main lines 2004 ... ... ... 1.48 ... ... ... ... ... 8.50 ... ... 0.11 0.21 ... ... ... ... ... 1.43 ... ... ... 2.65 ... 0.52 1.09 0.83 6.57 0.10 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4.49 ... ... ... 0.80 0.10 ... 0.70 0.16 ... ... 0.10 ... 0.85 DSL subscribers Total As % of (000s) subscriber lines 2004 2004 0.0 0.06 0.1 0.10 0.4 0.96 0.1 0.01 105.0 0.24 1.8 0.43 0.6 0.73 1.4 0.17 0.4 0.27 7.0 1.65 0.1 0.04 7.7 3.13 0.2 3.29 1.4 0.14 1.7 0.10 7.2 0.16 0.1 0.07 0.4 0.13 135.4 0.21

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

132

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

9. ISDN and DSL


ISDN subscribers (000s) 2004 0.2 ... ... 0.1 0.6 2.2 0.8 17.0 ... 15.9 1.1 780.0 4.1 ... 0.4 ... 18.2 4.0 ... ... ... ... 0.4 ... ... 20.3 ... ... 0.2 ... 8.5 ... 1.2 ... 34.5 ... 18.4 0.0 31.9 1.5 0.1 0.3 5.6 10.9 26.4 0.9 ... ... ... 1'005.9 B-channel equivalents (000s) 2004 0.5 ... ... 0.9 1.5 18.2 1.7 46.2 ... 59.3 2.9 1'560.0 61.4 ... 0.8 ... 87.3 8.5 ... ... ... ... 4.8 ... ... 45.0 ... ... 0.5 ... 35.0 ... 2.8 ... ... ... 87.4 0.4 95.1 4.1 0.4 0.8 11.2 31.5 80.8 2.7 ... ... ... 2'251.6 B-channel per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 0.15 ... ... 0.24 0.18 1.85 0.20 11.95 ... 7.64 6.25 1.20 1.35 ... 0.09 ... 1.25 1.28 ... ... ... ... 0.07 ... ... 8.02 ... ... 1.52 ... 1.17 ... 0.75 ... ... ... 4.03 2.18 11.67 0.22 0.81 0.75 0.61 15.11 1.30 0.28 ... ... ... 1.27 B-channel as % of main lines 2004 0.18 ... ... 0.16 0.15 0.57 0.28 4.98 ... 2.17 4.00 0.50 0.79 ... 0.09 ... 0.92 1.13 ... ... ... ... 0.03 ... ... 7.29 ... ... 1.59 ... 2.67 ... 0.77 ... ... ... 1.99 3.00 3.54 0.44 0.44 2.21 0.42 6.00 1.19 0.24 ... ... ... 0.59 DSL subscribers Total As % of (000s) subscriber lines 2004 2004 0.8 0.02 7.8 1.25 1.5 0.16 0.3 ... 16'935.0 5.45 18.4 0.21 33.5 3.58 2.1 0.13 29.3 ... 0.4 0.06 17.7 0.12 ... ... 0.7 2.28 2.2 0.05 0.6 0.02 2.8 0.24 19'232.7 4.34

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

133

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

9. ISDN and DSL


ISDN subscribers (000s) 2004 ... ... ... ... 7.7 2.8 127.3 191.6 ... ... 42.1 0.0 ... ... 216.8 22.1 ... ... 15.3 59.3 2.6 ... ... ... 0.5 ... 760.1 ... ... 66.8 ... ... ... ... 0.6 14.0 ... ... 1'529.5 B-channel equivalents (000s) 2004 ... ... ... ... ... 5.6 ... 560.8 ... ... 116.0 0.0 ... ... 600.9 47.1 ... ... 43.9 118.6 12.0 ... ... ... 2.8 ... 1'205.1 ... ... 147.9 ... ... ... ... 1.2 177.8 ... ... 3'039.8 B-channel per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... ... ... ... ... 1.33 ... 54.94 ... ... 85.86 0.00 ... ... 59.51 20.61 ... ... 12.75 4.64 9.94 ... ... ... 1.14 ... 31.23 ... ... 27.47 ... ... ... ... 0.94 2.46 ... ... 13.17 B-channel as % of main lines 2004 ... ... ... ... ... 0.42 ... 16.36 ... ... 25.16 0.01 ... ... 16.80 7.24 ... ... 5.36 2.67 3.68 ... ... ... 1.13 ... 9.80 ... ... 11.83 ... ... ... ... 0.38 0.93 ... ... 5.53 DSL subscribers Total As % of (000s) subscriber lines 2004 2004 352.1 4.05 10.0 7.37 2.2 6.49 212.9 6.42 5.5 0.41 12.0 0.70 100.2 3.28 1.1 5.22 68.5 ... 0.6 1.51 0.6 1.86 236.0 7.39 39.3 6.28 50.7 6.40 252.5 5.76 2.7 0.77 695.1 3.85 ... ... 0.5 0.20 9.7 2.57 670.0 ... 125.0 0.32 38.3 3.28 60.0 ... 0.5 2.13 0.8 ... 4.1 1.28 452.4 2.39 27.0 2.70 160.1 4.78 3'590.2 3.19

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

134

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

9. ISDN and DSL


ISDN subscribers (000s) 2004 ... ... 114.4 456.0 3.2 415.8 ... 103.8 23.8 357.0 2.6 169.7 1'900.0 ... 3.2 12'095.0 532.8 ... ... ... 12.8 16.9 51.0 24.0 2'400.0 7'981.0 ... 104.2 0.2 74.5 0.2 1.8 ... ... 1'515.0 2.5 ... 731.7 278.4 2.7 1.5 ... ... 24.4 120.4 1'096.6 204.0 929.0 50.1 25.1 870.0 1'320.3 ... 34'015.7 36'560.6 38.8 1'481.8 9'123.6 25'796.2 120.2 B-channel equivalents (000s) 2004 ... ... 1'268.0 1'298.0 4.0 1'068.4 ... 1'116.3 76.4 936.0 6.3 678.8 4'900.0 ... 8.6 27'690.0 1'269.8 ... ... ... 93.3 57.4 354.5 258.0 5'756.0 17'453.0 ... 332.3 5.0 189.5 0.6 13.2 ... ... 3'800.0 8.4 ... 1'699.3 851.9 15.4 11.5 ... ... 204.7 274.4 3'167.4 964.0 2'247.7 608.4 50.3 4'316.0 8'284.5 ... 91'337.3 96'675.8 176.2 9'495.8 20'856.1 64'862.2 1'285.4 B-channel per 1'000 inhabitants 2004 ... ... 63.68 158.17 5.79 103.33 ... 35.15 106.44 172.97 130.74 130.14 82.16 ... 34.81 335.63 115.68 ... ... ... 13.50 195.90 87.67 37.60 99.24 136.57 ... 6.94 1.94 419.71 1.27 33.03 ... ... 234.18 36.52 ... 373.30 80.91 4.00 15.51 ... ... 49.16 137.39 73.32 106.98 303.13 26.81 11.57 72.17 28.21 ... 93.36 28.58 0.39 21.10 11.29 106.72 52.07 B-channel as % of main lines 2004 ... ... 10.87 34.24 2.16 22.25 ... 5.42 18.03 26.83 26.27 28.67 14.36 ... 16.21 50.74 20.00 ... ... ... 2.48 30.13 17.56 8.60 22.18 29.69 ... 1.29 1.00 52.63 0.34 6.40 ... ... 48.34 16.10 ... 79.02 20.10 1.21 6.05 ... ... 10.58 33.78 17.66 14.95 42.71 4.50 4.23 12.81 4.66 ... 16.92 9.86 0.88 4.42 4.58 23.49 9.45 DSL subscribers Total As % of (000s) subscriber lines 2004 2004 6.3 17.93 710.2 6.77 440.0 14.92 12.8 9.15 9.7 5.26 995.4 23.99 2'483.0 12.05 13.4 ... 639.0 21.97 2.6 12.69 684.8 36.84 6'300.0 18.60 4.3 8.98 6'727.0 17.26 46.5 0.83 ... ... ... ... 790.0 21.45 53.1 35.42 127.7 7.44 650.0 23.50 4'236.0 16.32 13'675.8 27.73 25.43 6'777.4 20.0 4.02 40.0 ... 45.2 26.05 21.7 11.14 6.0 ... 1'876.0 33.64 5.1 9.65 120.0 6.66 553.7 ... 420.6 11.48 21.7 1.71 10.7 5.89 56.5 ... 19.7 0.53 288.3 15.47 36.8 5.60 2'605.0 16.42 846.0 14.87 813.0 20.61 3'169.2 24.43 45.8 3.94 5'003.0 16.54 13'817.3 8.08 75'226.5 15.26 98'184.8 224.9 19'887.0 42'945.9 34'287.1 839.9 8.82 2.05 6.87 8.26 12.28 6.66

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

135

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

10. International telephone traffic


Total M Minutes 2004 102.6 44.3 10.1 40.3 2.8 5.3 22.1 4.2 4.6 3.8 65.1 5.2 15.8 13.5 61.8 8.4 660.0 26.5 31.1 7.3 5.9 6.2 34.2 15.3 15.0 81.2 4.6 18.9 8.4 29.2 33.9 4.3 86.9 128.3 24.9 5.3 1.2 0.0 7.6 5.9 81.0 11.5 11.8 17.9 15.1 60.8 67.2 43.9 12.6 84.6 2'058.5 Outgoing international telephone traffic As % of CAGR Minutes bothway (%) per inhab. 2004 1999-2004 2004 15.7 17.9 0.7 87.7 32.2 6.1 39.7 11.3 13.0 44.5 32.8 3.0 4.5 0.4 22.8 -7.5 0.4 -10.3 1.4 -1.0 1.1 24.0 11.1 0.6 20.5 24.0 5.0 25.2 -2.2 3.9 12.2 15.6 1.2 15.2 6.1 0.2 28.2 10.2 20.0 15.8 2.9 14.6 -11.8 1.1 11.7 0.6 21.3 17.9 -1.2 0.8 37.0 6.3 6.1 36.9 -3.1 1.3 7.6 1.9 25.3 -8.6 0.3 58.2 51.8 3.3 20.2 10.7 1.5 26.3 16.7 5.5 20.8 16.0 19.1 45.5 3.5 1.9 -1.9 1.0 6.4 -14.2 0.2 18.3 3.1 1.2 10.2 -7.8 6.0 -8.0 0.4 14.5 0.7 7.7 13.6 0.9 -0.6 4.7 5.3 0.7 23.8 16.6 8.1 13.5 -92.5 0.0 33.3 1.6 75.8 13.7 20.9 26.6 2.3 17.2 6.3 1.8 22.9 0.9 0.3 23.6 28.2 3.7 24.6 23.9 0.6 -4.8 2.4 10.0 13.0 0.8 19.0 11.3 2.3 16.6 -2.8 1.1 28.6 5.2 7.1 18.3 5.7 1.0 Minutes per subscriber 2004 123.4 608.4 334.0 495.5 126.8 146.7 208.4 466.1 371.7 373.0 273.6 131.6 36.3 352.0 212.2 324.1 15.9 80.7 74.7 104.0 867.6 104.8 468.1 300.1 392.9 94.1 33.1 270.8 19.8 69.9 157.9 191.5 123.8 35.1 401.6 245.3 194.9 0.0 336.1 799.5 78.7 46.7 72.9 349.4 247.5 36.2 17.1 81.0 142.9 267.0 34.5 International telephone circuits (000s) 2004 6.3 0.9 0.3 1.2 0.1 2.4 0.4 1.0 4.9 0.7 22.8 3.6 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.5 2.9 0.3 1.7 2.6 2.0 0.1 0.0 13.5 0.1 0.0 11.2 0.5 0.5 0.9 11.1 6.2 1.6 0.5 102.1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

136

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

10. International telephone traffic


Total M Minutes 2004 62.0 209.2 34.3 37.1 53.1 299.2 62.8 204.1 884.0 109.9 8.7 1'654.0 384.6 27.1 6.1 285.0 231.0 397.5 154.7 23.2 84.6 227.4 18.2 49.8 289.4 329.9 130.0 292.0 131.6 0.6 7.9 0.8 2.4 288.0 62.2 39.1 31.0 188.1 156.0 251.9 7.4 375.2 56.5 37.6 27.8 230.0 64.7 487.5 3.1 200.4 24.1 461.6 2.8 9'687.2 Outgoing international telephone traffic As % of CAGR Minutes bothway (%) per inhab. 2004 1999-2004 2004 13.4 -5.6 20.1 20.8 6.8 34.9 -0.6 2.5 41.5 2.4 9.8 19.6 10.5 6.4 47.6 13.4 30.4 14.3 14.4 7.0 27.5 16.0 52.7 13.6 5.0 38.7 0.0 14.2 14.7 7.2 19.0 1.1 1.3 16.3 12.1 8.5 8.4 -3.6 2.4 29.3 4.4 9.1 12.2 32.8 40.7 17.6 23.6 21.7 5.7 10.0 30.4 23.3 25.4 7.2 28.3 32.2 15.8 17.3 16.6 27.6 18.5 20.8 2.6 23.8 8.6 -1.1 7.1 40.3 -3.5 1.4 64.6 11.7 5.0 21.2 16.7 49.2 42.6 14.9 52.0 33.6 7.3 8.2 28.8 -4.0 7.5 29.7 6.7 24.0 18.6 -9.4 15.6 27.2 5.7 22.1 17.6 5.6 9.6 0.1 30.9 17.0 2.3 10.6 26.7 -2.7 5.2 15.0 6.9 10.8 6.6 3.9 1.9 10.2 11.6 27.4 -7.6 40.8 37.7 13.0 46.0 15.1 7.5 3.0 41.7 24.9 85.6 53.0 -1.3 26.7 28.4 13.5 12.6 25.2 -10.0 31.3 61.3 10.3 7.9 39.7 31.0 33.4 12.7 20.5 13.5 5.0 26.9 4.6 9.7 8.3 14.3 23.2 7.6 4.0 Minutes per subscriber 2004 281.8 111.3 403.5 65.8 51.8 94.2 100.4 219.9 22.5 40.3 121.6 5.3 49.5 35.3 598.9 313.6 149.1 42.0 205.5 237.6 126.7 240.9 177.5 127.7 37.3 22.6 283.4 473.0 63.2 178.0 249.8 188.2 214.2 220.1 486.2 109.5 110.4 102.3 45.4 57.4 559.2 139.7 64.0 459.7 602.7 86.5 115.5 71.7 284.3 174.5 64.4 41.5 416.4 21.6 International telephone circuits (000s) 2004 9.0 4.9 1.2 2.2 5.8 3.6 14.4 0.9 76.9 2.9 1.0 4.1 14.9 0.6 0.8 9.6 16.8 4.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.5 15.3 15.0 0.2 14.5 5.7 1.0 0.6 38.9 8.8 0.1 5.1 4.9 284.8

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

137

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

10. International telephone traffic


Total M Minutes 2004 17.1 458.5 51.2 13.3 66.8 283.7 141.0 360.8 289.1 9.8 4.3 87.7 48.0 28.8 158.9 44.2 93.0 45.2 45.4 982.0 43.4 2'296.1 280.1 45.3 863.0 1'219.2 8.2 133.2 567.2 12.0 16.0 10.0 116.4 714.9 83.1 611.2 10'248.0 Outgoing international telephone traffic As % of CAGR Minutes bothway (%) per inhab. 2004 1999-2004 2004 35.5 5.1 217.6 0.0 12.1 31.3 3.3 189.8 26.4 8.8 50.8 49.7 10.8 38.9 7.8 18.6 40.5 9.3 33.2 46.2 3.7 82.5 38.7 -4.5 28.3 9.5 137.1 9.1 4.4 64.9 57.3 20.8 35.5 43.6 40.8 271.7 35.2 -7.0 15.7 36.4 -4.7 19.3 7.5 27.8 2.5 8.1 36.2 1.0 13.2 48.3 18.5 40.0 38.8 8.4 35.6 18.9 8.0 21.9 59.7 22.4 115.9 27.4 -8.1 15.6 37.3 8.4 22.4 54.8 6.5 8.3 21.9 101.0 28.1 -3.9 24.7 41.1 7.1 12.5 44.9 -2.1 250.5 45.7 98.6 29.4 -3.7 84.0 23.5 11.4 89.1 32.4 0.5 9.9 -1.9 25.9 30.3 23.4 31.5 5.7 17.7 Minutes per subscriber 2004 450.0 53.3 382.1 393.1 489.5 87.2 105.0 197.7 84.3 421.5 623.2 190.2 1'240.7 858.6 44.4 68.0 148.6 68.5 55.3 210.3 124.7 127.0 1'153.8 118.6 70.2 34.3 385.9 106.5 117.1 308.3 362.3 37.4 87.3 182.6 80.6 International telephone circuits (000s) 2004 0.6 9.8 20.0 42.8 1.7 2.7 45.7 1.3 3.7 4.6 7.4 1.2 3.8 20.8 166.0

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

138

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

10. International telephone traffic


Total M Minutes 2004 22.3 2'250.0 1'240.6 75.1 232.5 1'698.0 25.5 8'670.0 343.8 807.6 19.5 469.4 4'703.0 18.3 10'091.0 979.3 14.6 11.2 5'068.3 32.9 1'175.9 1'193.7 5'986.0 2'668.0 3'672.0 539.4 433.0 169.2 16.9 2'072.0 22.8 562.0 518.5 832.8 333.2 1'916.3 1'965.0 107.1 3'231.0 1'184.0 2'671.0 3'024.7 2'874.8 6'005.2 42'664.3 122'611.4 144'605.1 2'759.6 58'370.4 30'080.8 50'470.1 2'924.2 Outgoing international telephone traffic As % of CAGR Minutes bothway (%) per inhab. 2004 1999-2004 2004 -2.2 210.0 54.2 23.9 115.9 1.0 151.2 40.7 2.4 237.0 57.0 14.8 335.0 6.3 164.2 4.4 74.6 6.9 273.0 68.6 21.4 478.6 44.8 4.3 149.2 404.9 2.9 90.1 38.4 2.4 78.9 11.8 76.0 5.0 122.3 6.1 89.2 4.4 260.3 2.4 198.6 70.2 13.3 732.9 6.5 -8.0 112.3 3.0 290.9 59.5 14.1 179.9 44.0 19.3 103.4 57.6 10.6 20.9 66.3 42.5 76.7 24.6 211.3 59.6 7.9 959.0 55.4 5.0 363.6 -15.5 42.2 -0.9 127.2 46.9 9.4 99.4 40.4 -2.0 140.2 52.6 -1.8 113.9 47.3 8.9 79.1 41.6 21.1 447.9 70.2 24.0 87.3 13.3 471.9 0.9 53.6 7.4 74.8 -4.8 131.4 3.3 360.2 48.9 25.8 133.3 24.4 661.2 -3.3 100.4 73.1 10.7 146.7 61.5 7.3 123.5 49.6 27.8 57.3 48.9 40.7 50.1 7.2 6.9 8.1 13.7 3.5 6.2 23.7 3.6 68.5 8.2 62.9 93.8 Minutes per subscriber 2004 599.6 214.6 327.2 569.9 1'251.7 353.7 288.3 420.6 810.5 231.5 813.6 172.2 137.8 343.0 184.9 154.2 556.9 203.2 1'346.7 172.7 582.4 397.1 225.1 44.3 142.3 1'085.4 1'202.6 972.8 81.6 264.1 438.4 312.6 241.1 196.5 1'745.8 577.6 1'016.2 131.8 180.2 183.7 507.5 223.6 2'420.4 178.2 233.1 223.6 122.1 110.7 197.0 57.1 155.9 232.0 International telephone circuits (000s) 2004 5.3 5.4 84.8 7.5 7.0 1.3 0.6 6.7 34.4 75.9 172.3 401.2 954.2 59.5 21.0 691.8 180.3 1.6

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

139

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

11. Telecommunication staff


Telecommunication staff CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 1999-04 2004 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income ... 18.6 1.2 0.4 1.3 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.4 0.4 0.1 ... 3.7 ... ... 0.5 6.6 0.9 3.6 0.8 0.2 3.5 421.4 19.8 7.2 1.1 0.4 ... 2.9 5.0 1.4 0.5 7.6 4.6 2.2 7.8 4.7 2.3 1.4 11.4 55.4 1.8 0.3 0.1 1.4 1.0 0.3 ... 2.7 5.0 3.7 0.9 1.7 26.3 81.8 4.7 3.4 7.9 745.7 ... 19.8 1.3 0.7 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 ... 3.4 ... ... 0.8 8.2 1.1 4.9 0.8 ... 5.0 416.6 18.8 7.4 1.4 0.4 ... 2.3 3.2 1.5 0.7 7.5 3.9 2.0 7.9 4.9 2.0 1.3 15.8 54.9 ... 0.3 0.1 3.3 1.2 0.2 ... 3.0 5.1 3.5 0.9 1.6 24.3 90.0 5.4 3.2 4.7 752.1 ... 3.2 0.4 9.0 -0.1 -1.1 7.9 6.0 -1.4 11.1 8.3 ... -2.2 ... ... 12.4 5.7 6.3 7.9 -2.1 ... 9.3 -0.6 -1.4 0.8 5.3 0.2 ... -5.3 -13.7 4.3 11.1 -0.3 -4.0 -2.4 0.2 0.8 -3.5 -1.9 8.6 -0.2 ... 8.0 -8.0 19.0 11.2 -22.9 ... 2.3 0.4 -1.9 0.6 -0.3 -3.9 2.4 4.4 -1.4 -9.9 0.2 Main lines per employee % female 2004 ... ... 16.3 26.2 13.6 31.5 18.3 ... 17.0 ... ... ... 30.0 ... ... 40.5 33.3 24.3 17.8 32.8 ... ... ... 27.8 42.7 29.3 ... ... 23.8 10.7 22.4 ... 37.2 50.9 30.0 43.2 ... 43.3 ... 17.5 ... ... ... 21.1 23.5 ... ... ... 17.9 22.5 30.4 18.3 ... ... ... 7.1 28.6 17.1 26.3 CAGR (%) 1999-04 ... 10.7 10.4 10.4 11.5 ... -0.8 -5.6 0.5 -4.2 10.2 ... 4.3 ... ... -4.4 15.7 3.0 7.5 9.5 ... 8.8 21.2 4.6 1.6 12.7 9.6 ... 10.2 39.8 13.9 11.0 9.5 12.0 0.2 11.0 9.7 12.0 9.1 7.8 8.1 ... 20.7 21.0 -9.2 0.4 23.6 ... 29.6 3.2 4.5 9.6 4.9 6.1 17.4 18.7 3.4 17.4 8.0

1999 ... 23 35 28 38 33 38 43 25 24 52 ... 59 ... ... 59 30 31 45 25 27 20 63 15 52 31 61 ... 17 8 25 34 73 22 35 32 54 65 14 42 54 33 42 37 118 19 32 ... 95 42 40 44 34 61 26 60 24 30 52

2004 ... 29 58 45 65 ... 37 34 26 20 77 ... 70 ... ... 47 53 34 60 33 ... 28 92 18 56 50 80 ... 26 23 37 52 115 35 35 54 86 102 16 56 74 ... 61 66 73 19 49 ... 346 48 46 57 43 69 49 100 29 68 77

140

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

11. Telecommunication staff


Telecommunication staff CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 1999-04 2004 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income 4.4 17.8 2.1 7.9 11.2 26.8 3.1 1.8 96.4 26.5 0.4 685.0 44.1 15.0 0.4 ... 6.9 55.5 4.1 1.2 10.0 3.8 0.7 4.4 40.3 47.4 ... 3.2 5.8 33.3 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.1 14.1 1.7 2.0 5.9 5.7 18.8 44.9 0.2 14.7 11.2 1.1 0.5 20.4 3.7 25.4 0.3 6.6 7.4 131.4 0.2 1'476.6 3.3 17.9 2.2 5.8 17.9 26.7 3.6 7.0 93.5 20.5 0.5 701.1 32.2 16.7 0.6 ... 7.7 54.8 3.3 2.0 16.5 3.2 0.6 5.9 29.4 46.2 ... 3.0 5.1 33.0 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.1 13.0 1.5 1.5 11.7 13.0 23.4 43.2 0.3 12.3 10.3 1.0 0.5 22.7 3.8 27.2 0.3 7.7 7.5 125.8 0.2 1'487.6 -7.3 0.3 2.0 -7.7 9.8 -0.1 2.6 30.8 -1.5 -5.0 1.0 0.5 -14.6 3.5 10.5 ... 2.3 -0.3 -5.0 18.7 18.3 -8.0 -1.4 5.8 -6.1 -0.7 ... -1.5 -2.6 -0.2 13.1 -1.3 -0.2 2.1 -1.6 -4.5 -5.0 41.2 17.8 4.5 -1.0 4.6 -3.6 -1.7 -0.8 1.1 2.1 1.4 1.4 4.2 5.5 0.6 -1.4 -0.3 0.1 Main lines per employee % female 2004 40.5 ... 27.7 45.2 40.0 43.8 ... 5.4 ... 48.4 30.1 ... ... 50.6 ... ... 38.8 30.0 31.6 30.0 ... ... ... ... ... 6.5 ... ... 20.1 ... 44.2 27.5 50.0 34.1 ... ... ... ... ... ... 37.4 39.0 32.5 26.2 28.7 ... 24.5 ... ... 37.4 31.6 ... ... ... 33.4 CAGR (%) 1999-04 25.3 8.1 6.1 9.3 -2.5 3.9 1.8 -8.0 24.3 4.5 8.4 22.9 23.1 11.4 -6.2 ... 5.0 15.4 16.8 -10.5 -16.8 20.9 11.4 1.1 17.7 15.6 ... 4.5 6.3 -4.1 8.6 3.8 1.0 -0.7 8.9 15.7 -26.5 -11.7 -0.9 4.8 6.9 7.2 10.0 3.7 9.0 8.4 5.4 4.0 2.9 4.8 3.3 3.9 11.2 16.5

1999 32 90 32 68 65 99 160 201 259 107 108 159 151 29 22 ... 164 84 121 68 67 161 96 63 151 177 ... 153 97 53 25 40 35 78 105 63 113 46 294 154 83 40 155 60 66 70 78 128 206 35 129 48 77 31 141

2004 78 105 38 98 57 119 175 133 400 133 162 445 229 40 17 ... 208 173 226 49 39 236 164 66 340 316 ... 153 121 68 23 61 41 81 101 81 234 25 158 147 100 53 219 97 79 98 117 143 250 38 149 52 86 38 301

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WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

11. Telecommunication staff


Telecommunication staff CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 1999-04 2004 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income ... 19.5 1.1 0.4 1.8 20.3 4.5 10.8 23.7 0.2 0.1 2.7 1.1 0.3 0.8 21.5 4.6 5.7 14.0 7.0 25.4 1.8 88.7 ... 2.1 5.4 71.9 432.9 0.4 15.9 55.5 0.2 ... 0.2 2.8 72.5 5.8 14.8 935.9 0.2 22.9 0.9 0.4 1.0 19.4 5.8 11.0 20.3 ... 0.2 3.5 2.2 0.2 ... 18.4 3.7 ... ... 5.3 20.7 1.6 ... 91.6 ... 2.0 6.2 161.3 ... 0.4 10.9 38.5 0.1 ... 0.1 3.1 61.0 5.7 14.8 533.4 ... 3.3 -3.5 1.9 -13.4 -1.5 5.3 0.4 -3.0 ... 15.5 9.0 15.3 -11.2 ... -3.1 -3.9 ... ... -12.7 -6.6 -2.6 ... 0.6 ... -0.8 3.5 22.4 ... 0.1 -7.3 -8.7 -6.5 ... -7.6 6.1 -3.4 -1.2 2.0 Main lines per employee % female 2004 ... ... 53.0 ... 27.0 ... 22.6 70.1 35.6 ... ... ... 37.6 ... ... ... 35.9 ... ... ... ... 22.8 ... ... ... 17.2 65.0 ... ... ... 35.4 22.3 ... ... 25.6 ... 14.5 ... ... 34.6 CAGR (%) 1999-04 ... 0.4 7.2 -3.2 17.3 5.2 5.3 3.1 1.0 ... -5.5 -10.7 -13.0 18.8 ... 2.4 1.7 ... ... 14.5 9.0 10.8 ... 9.9 ... 2.8 -8.0 -14.3 ... 3.9 2.0 6.1 13.2 ... 17.1 -0.3 4.9 4.2 3.7 7.5

1999 ... 371 105 90 71 153 178 151 161 127 39 191 36 109 261 173 161 100 39 166 174 145 372 123 ... 106 86 142 71 55 104 99 119 ... 142 100 247 154 173 118

2004 203 380 148 76 134 179 230 170 169 ... 35 136 18 154 ... 195 174 ... ... 217 226 219 ... 197 ... 122 62 76 ... 60 115 125 153 ... 268 100 314 168 192 170

142

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

11. Telecommunication staff


Telecommunication staff CAGR (000s) (%) 1999 1999-04 2004 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD ... 0.4 85.1 18.6 1.2 2.1 25.1 0.4 ... 86.5 2.4 19.8 0.2 21.6 155.3 0.3 0.8 221.4 21.6 0.6 ... 0.3 36.5 1.3 15.0 6.8 79.0 173.4 0.4 69.0 7.6 0.9 1.0 1.9 0.7 ... 48.8 0.3 6.8 23.9 19.6 ... 1.7 0.7 21.0 8.4 3.6 64.5 28.7 24.1 41.7 8.2 203.0 1'180.0 ... 2'742.4 5'900.6 ... 0.4 50.0 19.9 1.1 1.9 23.8 0.5 ... 82.5 2.4 19.7 0.3 17.4 134.0 ... 0.9 225.1 25.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 19.2 1.6 14.5 11.3 88.0 114.4 0.5 103.6 7.4 1.7 1.1 1.9 ... ... ... 0.2 5.0 15.1 14.8 5.1 1.7 ... 21.3 8.8 12.9 88.0 18.9 22.0 39.1 10.0 236.0 1'042.3 ... 2'513.1 5'286.1 ... 2.2 -12.4 1.3 -2.3 -1.9 -1.1 2.5 ... -1.2 0.2 4.1 -5.2 -2.9 ... 2.4 0.3 3.5 -10.9 ... 2.3 -12.0 3.3 -0.7 18.4 2.7 -9.9 5.1 10.7 -0.7 17.3 2.7 -0.4 ... ... ... -5.1 -7.1 -8.8 -5.5 ... 0.1 ... 0.6 2.1 37.7 6.4 -8.0 -1.9 -1.3 4.1 5.1 -2.5 ... -1.4 -0.4 Main lines per employee % female 2004 ... ... 37.7 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24.3 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13.0 ... ... ... ... 40.6 ... ... ... ... ... ... 38.4 ... 35.5 ... ... ... ... 17.9 ... ... ... ... 15.1 ... ... ... 31.3 ... 42.3 ... 32.9 15.1 24.2 ... ... 28.3 30.1 25.0 39.9 27.8 34.0 35.3 CAGR (%) 1999-04 ... -1.4 17.6 -1.7 6.8 5.0 0.2 -1.8 ... 1.5 -0.2 -0.8 -4.7 2.8 3.0 ... -1.8 2.2 -0.9 11.8 ... 1.7 13.0 -2.6 3.8 -14.3 -2.6 10.1 -2.5 -9.5 2.4 -11.6 -3.1 1.2 ... ... ... 6.0 7.1 6.8 5.9 ... 4.1 ... 6.4 -0.2 -26.1 -4.4 8.5 2.7 3.7 -0.1 -4.7 1.2 ... 1.4 7.0

1999 ... 92 115 207 89 78 200 124 ... 235 177 184 113 132 218 192 61 218 260 41 ... 182 106 139 116 422 335 358 173 372 60 354 187 103 243 ... 197 176 271 103 215 ... 91 369 129 222 210 256 227 210 289 119 168 161 ... 199 153

2004 ... 89 219 191 116 100 202 118 ... 250 176 177 89 147 253 ... 58 242 248 58 199 188 196 122 140 266 302 526 164 249 67 217 160 110 ... ... ... 222 357 143 287 253 111 ... 155 221 63 204 341 240 346 118 145 171 ... 214 215

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

264.1 1'632.0 1'977.0 1'925.4 97.0

236.5 1'499.9 1'954.0 1'528.4 59.2

-1.1 -1.7 -0.2 1.1 -9.1

69 168 148 159 122

104 192 269 183 220

8.4 2.7 12.8 2.9 12.4

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. ITU.

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12. Telecommunication revenue


Total (M US$) 2004 20.0 840.2 64.9 13.7 158.0 14.7 18.7 14.8 9.9 123.9 539.5 28.4 120.7 29.8 128.0 28.5 14'389.3 631.6 86.7 36.6 13.9 556.5 71.0 91.8 115.2 156.3 62.4 103.5 50.8 94.7 152.5 18.4 1'217.2 2'220.2 48.7 6.9 548.9 12.1 449.2 9.2 221.4 42.1 278.4 195.6 1'611.7 165.2 144.7 266.7 26'223.2 % mobile 2004 ... 66.8 25.6 15.6 3.3 ... ... ... ... ... ... 54.7 ... ... 16.4 15.9 43.9 9.6 ... ... ... ... ... 37.0 ... 57.1 ... 55.5 ... ... 66.0 46.4 54.5 ... 14.4 8.5 11.2 ... 63.5 27.0 ... ... 8.2 37.9 ... ... ... ... ... 49.5 ... ... ... ... ... 56.1 37.1 42.9 Telecommunication revenue Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 0.8 31 6.1 233 8.9 141 17.5 277 11.8 330 2.2 273 1.3 35 ... ... 3.8 211 ... ... 13.1 970 32.5 312 32.4 355 ... ... ... ... 6.7 478 1.7 227 22.5 216 6.2 193 3.8 352 ... ... ... ... 13.3 158 19.5 222 17.0 128 6.3 131 6.4 111 ... ... 31.1 1'417 6.8 323 8.6 841 38.7 205 36.7 95 25.4 137 5.5 133 0.9 98 4.0 209 27.6 227 1.7 772 10.1 527 14.6 233 ... ... 5.7 301 45.7 839 53.1 402 ... ... 28.0 1'447 ... ... 13.0 216 1.4 31 6.4 240 8.6 190 10.9 333 7.8 109 19.8 226 8.0 88 13.3 260 22.4 360 12.1 187 Per employee (US$) 2004 ... ... 51'336 20'495 126'272 27'813 18'893 ... ... ... 66'317 ... 158'305 ... ... 34'079 14'737 26'786 26'475 35'402 ... ... ... ... 11'652 ... 38'849 ... ... ... 59'898 ... 20'829 15'870 52'206 6'463 19'838 75'766 13'732 101'009 ... ... ... 72'607 164'059 ... 80'082 ... 151'045 1'789 63'005 47'329 176'781 8'059 17'908 ... 45'633 56'821 32'567 As a % of GDP 2004 ... 1.6 1.6 ... 3.1 ... 0.4 ... 1.1 ... ... 2.9 3.8 ... ... 4.9 ... 8.3 2.1 ... ... ... 2.1 3.9 3.9 1.3 1.9 ... 9.4 4.0 2.8 11.8 6.0 5.3 2.6 0.5 1.6 3.7 ... 2.6 2.4 ... 2.8 13.8 7.2 ... ... ... 2.6 0.8 2.3 2.9 4.3 ... 4.1 1.5 ... ... 2.4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

144

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

12. Telecommunication revenue


Total (M US$) 2004 338.7 361.7 107.3 71.4 323.9 464.9 700.0 20'428.0 1'584.2 64.2 63'709.1 4'741.3 1'086.0 33.0 724.9 2'831.1 734.1 70.8 298.0 448.5 80.1 438.8 2'167.1 1'715.1 466.0 915.5 601.9 4.1 98.0 6.4 12.0 2'429.4 273.8 143.7 0.0 1'394.7 2'952.0 2'965.0 15.2 703.3 334.5 82.4 39.6 677.1 337.4 4'140.5 1'096.0 56.2 3'792.4 14.1 127'073.1 % mobile 2004 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 40.3 ... 49.2 ... 48.2 24.0 ... 22.5 ... 54.5 50.8 ... 34.2 ... ... ... 31.9 ... 25.8 ... ... 60.6 50.9 ... ... ... ... 63.6 ... ... ... ... 59.7 46.5 ... 23.3 21.2 26.4 77.9 28.4 35.2 50.6 ... ... ... ... ... 47.0 Telecommunication revenue Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 110.2 250 11.7 183 ... ... 28.2 137 8.5 29 32.9 60 51.8 192 180.9 312 118.9 309 204.1 212 135.9 461 49.0 99 104.6 261 95.9 1'287 48.5 723 ... ... 54.9 141 40.4 165 111.0 270 86.4 378 58.7 196 38.4 236 92.0 516 62.7 400 10.4 158 25.9 96 ... ... 176.4 226 163.1 414 37.7 194 48.1 1'030 298.7 677 118.6 1'265 108.1 484 81.3 228 136.1 661 39.7 181 0.0 ... 53.5 415 36.4 114 136.8 203 83.2 637 86.3 95 17.7 184 187.6 280 37.9 301 37.2 135 163.3 ... 66.9 183 ... ... 110.3 230 11.6 142 78.8 147 66.2 817 53.7 134 Per employee (US$) 2004 103'563 20'205 ... ... 3'985 12'150 130'347 99'991 218'495 77'383 141'324 90'866 ... ... ... ... 93'712 51'702 ... 35'388 ... 139'929 124'150 74'472 54'422 37'153 ... 155'328 179'720 18'695 26'571 189'862 58'182 ... 187'412 ... 91'914 ... 256'899 135'172 ... 60'365 57'395 40'503 80'054 83'971 29'881 ... 191'294 ... ... 7'481 ... ... 92'291 As a % of GDP 2004 ... ... ... 3.0 0.8 1.4 5.3 10.0 ... 6.6 7.9 3.9 4.9 ... ... ... 2.4 3.6 4.6 7.4 9.0 ... ... 5.8 ... 1.3 ... 5.7 9.2 2.5 ... ... ... 4.3 4.9 9.6 4.8 ... ... 3.7 5.2 ... ... 2.0 8.3 2.0 3.5 ... 3.3 ... 3.9 ... 5.9 ... 3.8

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

145

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

12. Telecommunication revenue


Total (M US$) 2004 3'962.3 186.5 65.0 288.7 2'420.9 467.2 1'239.5 4'438.6 30.5 18.8 710.3 192.1 4'802.6 242.6 768.6 5'724.2 179.9 18'600.4 567.6 7'341.9 6'955.8 1'623.2 8'916.9 48.9 330.8 10'905.4 714.1 3'888.8 85'632.4 % mobile 2004 ... 38.5 ... 39.2 ... ... 52.0 44.0 58.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... 33.9 ... ... ... 50.9 56.5 ... ... 43.0 ... 66.3 ... 57.3 ... ... 58.6 55.0 ... ... ... 35.8 43.7 ... 33.8 47.3 Telecommunication revenue Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 ... ... 103.7 178 691.3 680 249.0 518 168.3 412 160.9 244 110.0 206 283.4 298 434.9 312 427.9 486 40.1 860 543.1 418 142.1 364 ... ... ... ... 475.6 390 106.1 111 ... ... ... ... 223.1 181 223.8 300 147.4 267 ... ... 177.3 329 ... ... 234.9 542 ... ... 190.3 247 47.4 170 ... ... 301.4 294 192.3 411 ... ... ... ... 404.0 ... 253.1 340 150.8 203 222.4 486 148.6 330 150.8 269 Per employee (US$) 2004 ... 172'869 ... 147'059 ... 124'849 79'999 115'843 218'329 ... 94'129 ... 88'739 ... ... 261'705 65'056 ... ... ... ... 113'020 ... 203'088 ... 285'960 ... 45'517 ... ... 149'217 231'657 ... ... ... ... 178'833 126'018 ... 139'962 As a % of GDP 2004 ... 2.6 7.2 6.3 3.4 3.6 2.7 5.5 4.1 11.6 ... 6.3 2.7 ... ... 4.8 1.8 ... ... 3.4 4.9 3.2 ... 2.9 ... 2.6 ... 3.5 ... ... 4.0 8.6 ... ... ... 2.9 3.6 ... 3.6 3.7

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

146

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

12. Telecommunication revenue


Total (M US$) 2004 98.2 22'918.4 6'749.4 536.2 9'901.2 87.6 23'284.0 491.5 6'354.6 33.2 5'484.8 44'914.8 171.7 82'469.1 9'697.5 79.7 49.9 6'321.7 381.8 5'061.7 5'396.0 51'679.0 168'914.0 92.8 26'347.2 2'069.0 413.5 252.9 293.5 13'138.4 76.8 3'158.7 7'252.8 9'029.6 2'598.0 644.5 8'133.0 3'348.6 843.6 45'912.3 10'128.4 12'834.7 11'027.0 2'875.7 66'601.8 291'122.0 969'271.1 1'208'199.8 22'812.4 379'147.5 339'960.2 439'819.4 26'460.3 % mobile 2004 ... ... ... 58.0 ... 53.3 50.6 11.7 ... 25.5 ... 33.6 ... ... 40.3 ... 31.5 34.1 35.3 ... ... ... 34.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75.0 45.1 47.1 ... ... ... ... ... 30.2 21.9 41.8 ... 37.7 ... 68.6 34.7 56.0 42.9 21.8 29.8 56.5 ... 34.6 30.8 ... 34.6 37.2 54.1 31.2 49.8 38.0 30.3 Telecommunication revenue Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 ... ... 926.5 1'090 1'150.9 814 822.4 573 ... ... 748.0 637 957.7 711 1'347.4 1'018 ... ... 733.1 688 609.0 464 1'174.4 734 736.3 696 1'051.5 746 743.2 573 ... ... 699.9 1'200 999.6 655 883.4 619 1'420.7 1'855 ... ... 886.7 576 914.1 528 1'303.0 794 1'252.0 873 786.4 528 891.0 583 1'323.6 1'150 1'063.9 685 548.0 417 810.4 829 915.8 460 543.5 417 733.8 573 ... ... ... ... 645 815.8 350.3 648 787.9 718 1'583.4 1'135 857.6 618 676.9 1'075 866.3 946 ... ... 326.4 632 804.2 634 422.4 331 1'062.8 811 1'124.0 624 1'730.9 1'112 486.0 304 661.4 590 1'113.7 703 1'001.1 852 ... ... 968.3 752 197.9 31.7 452.5 91.5 547.3 1'006.7 448 294 644 288 538 800 Per employee (US$) 2004 ... 235'521 ... 339'165 ... 278'846 416'456 183'992 ... 282'275 ... 321'931 134'850 ... 335'185 ... 188'115 366'367 378'987 122'975 ... 170'737 328'570 243'636 349'881 ... ... 1'476'005 206'119 ... 280'120 249'086 231'989 156'382 ... ... ... 237'819 626'730 472'866 611'018 510'112 375'383 ... ... ... 65'159 521'702 535'499 584'351 281'906 286'458 ... 268'910 ... 380'289 242'989 103'546 255'106 215'194 285'557 393'096 As a % of GDP 2004 ... ... 4.5 2.3 ... 4.9 2.8 ... ... 3.2 3.2 2.6 ... 3.0 2.2 ... ... 3.0 4.7 ... ... ... 3.8 3.1 3.5 4.6 3.1 4.2 ... 3.9 3.7 1.5 2.5 5.5 ... ... ... ... 4.1 3.3 5.4 ... 3.2 ... 3.2 3.8 3.0 4.4 2.9 4.8 3.6 4.0 4.3 2.8 ... 3.3 3.3 4.9 2.9 3.8 3.3 4.5

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

147

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

13. Telecommunication investment


Total (M US$) 2004 80.1 26.4 6.1 61.2 111.2 0.1 4.2 76.9 1.3 35.3 3.7 59.4 0.8 3'511.5 188.6 2.6 29.8 7.1 14.8 17.7 84.7 68.1 8.2 19.7 5.1 25.2 36.6 386.9 210.0 4.1 106.0 128.5 6.5 9.4 30.0 68.0 40.8 73.7 42.5 21.3 5'614.2 Telecommunication investment Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 0.6 47.6 4.0 143.4 7.8 123.0 4.6 127.7 6.8 94.8 0.0 5.3 5.5 408.7 4.6 50.7 0.3 42.3 0.5 66.3 2.8 26.5 2.9 89.8 0.1 10.1 3.4 78.1 5.9 98.3 0.5 3.8 5.2 163.7 3.3 56.4 0.9 43.0 1.7 183.9 30.8 217.6 16.0 41.3 3.3 17.9 1.0 25.4 0.1 9.9 1.1 55.6 6.6 54.4 3.1 95.8 1.4 32.6 27.4 504.1 10.3 77.6 3.9 148.9 1.0 22.3 0.3 16.4 6.2 135.6 2.7 81.2 1.6 22.8 3.8 77.3 3.9 76.4 1.8 28.8 2.9 71.5 As a % of revenue 2004 15.4 33.4 44.5 38.8 1.1 42.1 14.3 7.1 29.3 12.3 46.4 2.9 45.9 28.9 3.0 95.5 50.7 12.3 30.0 91.7 43.6 13.1 19.1 10.0 26.7 24.0 11.9 60.1 19.3 70.7 71.4 4.3 71.2 24.4 20.8 51.1 29.3 8.0 34.6 As % of GFCF 2004 0.7 5.8 5.8 6.0 3.3 8.0 1.0 2.3 7.8 3.1 12.1 2.2 3.6 5.8 1.7 0.6 13.2 4.9 4.7 3.3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

148

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

13. Telecommunication investment


Total (M US$) 2004 64.4 96.5 29.6 19.7 133.7 17.7 255.8 5'205.5 367.1 8.9 26'559.2 1'530.2 111.0 12.4 269.9 554.0 2.6 37.9 66.0 131.1 1'703.3 1'263.7 136.5 161.1 87.5 14.8 304.4 20.5 7.4 81.5 174.5 886.1 301.7 367.7 85.7 15.4 27.6 70.6 38.0 508.2 403.9 7.3 773.2 42'913.7 Telecommunication investment Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 21.0 47.5 3.1 48.7 7.8 43.6 2.4 7.9 13.6 24.7 2.0 7.3 66.1 114.0 29.9 70.6 47.3 49.2 18.8 63.9 20.4 41.1 35.8 143.9 9.8 162.4 18.2 272.1 31.1 89.0 7.9 32.4 0.4 1.4 46.2 202.2 13.5 47.9 18.7 119.4 8.1 124.0 19.1 70.4 52.0 84.2 28.7 72.8 5.5 28.1 45.3 102.5 10.2 28.6 10.2 49.6 2.0 9.3 14.5 56.7 6.7 51.9 10.7 24.4 13.8 32.4 45.1 49.6 4.4 26.7 35.0 52.2 26.5 210.7 3.9 14.1 18.4 8.2 14.9 40.9 131.1 1.5 19.0 16.2 43.9 18.3 45.0 As a % of revenue 2004 19.0 26.7 36.9 27.6 41.3 3.8 36.5 23.2 13.9 41.7 44.1 12.7 37.6 19.6 0.4 53.5 33.7 29.9 78.6 73.7 26.3 17.6 14.5 15.2 12.5 7.5 5.1 26.4 12.5 17.5 52.3 18.7 69.9 10.4 11.3 51.7 29.8 38.3 As % of GFCF 2004 0.8 4.6 0.4 2.2 1.6 6.2 7.3 13.7 7.2 4.3 0.1 6.7 5.4 3.2 5.1 1.5 2.5 6.3 1.7 6.2 3.1 1.7 11.7 1.2 6.9 7.9 4.5

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

149

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

13. Telecommunication investment


Total (M US$) 2004 869.0 25.6 14.5 19.0 588.8 169.1 181.8 474.9 62.0 53.0 450.8 27.8 98.2 1'009.2 37.3 3'611.4 245.8 1'014.9 424.7 871.2 110.1 1'015.2 625.2 11'999.7 Telecommunication investment Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 23.4 58.4 95.1 93.6 55.6 115.6 10.8 29.1 39.1 59.4 39.8 74.6 41.6 43.6 46.5 33.4 45.9 41.1 39.2 100.4 44.6 36.6 12.2 12.7 28.5 23.2 41.1 73.5 30.5 55.3 34.4 63.9 101.7 234.6 6.9 19.1 78.9 76.9 18.8 40.2 84.7 193.9 14.0 18.9 23.9 53.1 22.9 42.0 As a % of revenue 2004 9.8 13.8 22.3 8.1 24.3 36.2 14.7 10.7 11.3 27.6 9.4 11.5 12.8 21.1 20.7 19.4 43.3 26.2 9.8 36.8 9.3 16.1 14.8 As % of GFCF 2004 2.3 7.8 1.1 4.1 3.2 1.6 2.3 2.0 0.7 2.0 4.6 2.9 1.6 4.2 6.5 3.4 2.5

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

150

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

13. Telecommunication investment


Total (M US$) 2004 4'663.2 904.7 65.8 1'750.6 25.0 3'087.1 109.6 955.3 730.2 5'471.7 7'037.0 1'343.2 989.6 37.3 288.8 1'441.1 8'861.8 20'422.0 5'415.7 144.9 48.5 64.5 2'633.0 300.6 2'588.8 1'254.3 141.5 1'000.0 433.0 170.3 5'760.5 1'481.7 1'737.9 2'475.4 371.7 13'432.8 26'836.0 124'475.3 185'002.9 3'918.6 43'674.4 69'529.0 62'879.1 5'001.7 Telecommunication investment Per inhabitant Per telephone (US$) subscriber (US$) 2004 2004 240.2 215.7 111.7 85.2 94.8 104.6 169.3 125.6 385.1 291.1 97.2 91.2 152.6 112.3 176.5 110.4 140.2 100.8 91.8 75.3 85.3 55.9 122.4 85.8 143.1 82.6 129.8 83.8 72.6 52.9 217.2 154.3 153.1 106.3 160.0 139.0 112.6 85.7 321.0 161.2 104.2 80.0 161.2 129.4 163.5 129.3 75.0 68.4 568.7 415.7 119.1 85.9 190.2 207.7 40.1 77.7 104.0 82.0 85.3 66.8 133.4 101.8 166.3 106.6 234.4 150.6 109.1 68.2 85.5 76.3 227.3 161.0 92.3 78.5 98.5 78.1 27.2 5.7 53.8 19.7 82.5 206.3 61.6 52.4 76.2 61.3 82.8 190.9 As a % of revenue 2004 40.7 19.6 13.0 17.7 28.6 13.3 25.6 15.0 16.8 17.2 8.5 13.9 15.7 21.5 7.1 36.0 24.3 12.1 20.6 35.1 19.2 25.1 20.0 9.5 48.0 13.9 22.0 12.3 12.9 20.2 12.5 20.0 13.5 22.4 12.9 18.4 9.2 10.6 13.6 16.9 10.7 21.3 15.8 34.1 As % of GFCF 2004 6.0 2.1 3.5 2.6 4.8 2.0 2.9 2.0 1.5 2.6 2.8 2.2 0.8 7.4 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.9 6.9 3.1 1.9 7.5 3.2 2.3 1.9 2.6 2.0 3.9 4.0 5.3 2.8 3.0 3.7 5.1 3.1 2.7 5.3

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

151

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

14. Information technology


Internet Hosts Total 2004 71 13 899 1'347 436 155 827 461 12 6 9 46 3'801 ... 163 1'037 38 784 373 385 2 143'654 10'016 5'601 1'470 152 17 883 65 364 27 13'306 161 7'167 4 2'846 10'094 145 966 25'096 713 1'744 1'025 685 277 760 1 154 5'908 81 2'678 2'935 391 162 2'342 8'055 260'810 Hosts per 10'000 inhab. 2004 0.03 1.24 17.27 0.33 0.22 0.57 0.28 0.03 0.01 0.11 0.12 2.25 ... 0.03 2.46 0.01 5.36 0.17 0.49 0.02 1.33 3.09 11.00 2.54 0.84 0.05 0.49 0.05 0.33 0.09 31.21 0.61 3.78 1.15 17.76 0.12 0.08 1.65 1.22 2.06 62.50 0.66 0.54 15.48 0.24 1.57 0.16 1.00 1.11 0.05 0.08 2.14 6.77 1.13 Users (000s) 2004 25.0 300.0 100.0 20.0 53.2 25.0 41.0 167.0 9.0 35.0 8.0 36.0 240.0 ... 50.0 50.0 113.0 49.0 368.0 46.0 26.0 500.0 35'000.0 1'500.0 263.0 20.9 43.0 ... 90.0 46.1 50.0 14.0 406.0 200.0 138.0 63.7 120.0 125.0 24.0 1'769.7 2'000.0 170.0 38.0 20.0 482.0 10.0 3.0 15.0 1'140.0 5.0 333.0 221.0 200.0 880.0 5'870.0 180.0 231.0 820.0 54'752.6 Users per 100 inhab. 2004 0.10 0.22 1.38 2.56 0.40 0.35 0.28 1.02 0.23 0.40 1.01 0.94 1.44 ... 0.09 1.18 0.16 3.35 1.72 0.59 1.99 6.09 3.24 4.63 5.16 0.36 2.39 ... 0.50 0.37 0.45 0.47 9.52 7.60 0.73 0.12 0.48 2.20 0.19 1.39 1.31 2.91 0.45 12.20 4.66 0.19 0.61 0.13 3.30 0.08 0.88 4.41 0.75 3.32 7.12 0.87 2.11 6.90 2.38 Total (k) 2004 ... 1'650 30 11 29 34 38 160 11 15 5 17 262 ... ... 15 225 23 112 44 ... ... 13'030 441 87 22 ... ... 91 20 42 42 112 312 112 325 116 200 9 867 ... 367 ... ... 242 ... 20 50 606 ... 278 171 121 ... 1'044 300 113 1'000 22'820 PCs Per 100 inhab. 2004 ... 1.20 0.41 1.41 0.21 0.48 0.26 0.98 0.28 0.17 0.63 0.45 1.55 ... ... 0.36 0.31 1.57 0.52 0.56 ... ... 1.21 1.36 1.71 0.38 ... ... 0.51 0.16 0.38 1.41 2.63 11.86 0.59 0.60 0.47 3.52 0.07 0.68 ... 6.29 ... ... 2.34 ... 4.07 0.42 1.76 ... 0.74 3.41 0.45 ... 1.27 1.45 1.03 8.41 1.13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

152

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

14. Information technology


Internet Hosts Total 2004 527 944 420 1'897 355 6'905 8'346 8'393 3'485'773 65'759 228 162'821 192'761 1'712 772 65'949 8'800 3'499 4'387 1'124 6'303 23'743 642 3'968 111'630 6'616 4 1'456 2'966 22'625 29 534 6 587 4'118 3'359 ... 8'418 110'118 65'390 49'077 10'305 27'578 2'061 130 2'642 11 3'595 360'255 19'090 373 598 130'144 534 5'000'277 Hosts per 10'000 inhab. 2004 1.65 0.29 0.30 4.99 0.43 7.01 9.30 21.69 192.95 84.73 4.83 1.25 42.53 1.51 11.35 75.02 6.67 0.50 6.63 13.27 12.42 18.75 8.37 5.67 5.01 0.95 5.44 5.28 14.69 3.41 16.28 1.05 52.88 1.38 16.70 ... 13.99 39.69 7.91 22.64 572.50 33.83 1.06 2.96 24.40 0.01 17.40 58.13 1'912.83 0.38 1.21 27.03 25.07 20.47 Users (000s) 2004 75.0 845.0 172.0 150.0 408.0 2'461.1 350.0 225.0 22'000.0 1'234.0 25.0 94'000.0 4'050.2 150.0 9.0 800.0 624.6 3'900.0 587.5 61.0 175.6 756.0 145.0 222.3 14'508.0 5'500.0 36.0 1'067.0 600.0 400.0 2.0 19.0 2.0 12.0 3'500.0 75.0 160.0 150.0 3'220.0 4'400.0 4'500.0 6.0 1'517.0 280.0 30.0 36.0 800.0 159.0 6'972.0 3.0 835.0 36.0 3'750.0 7.5 186'008.8 Users per 100 inhab. 2004 2.35 2.61 1.22 3.95 4.89 24.98 3.90 5.81 12.18 15.90 5.30 7.23 8.94 1.32 1.32 9.10 4.73 5.57 8.88 7.20 3.46 5.97 18.90 3.18 6.52 7.88 0.14 39.87 10.69 2.60 2.35 5.79 3.51 10.81 11.71 3.73 4.34 2.49 11.61 5.32 20.76 3.33 18.61 1.44 6.83 3.32 4.39 7.70 11.25 3.01 8.40 0.73 7.79 3.52 7.60 Total (k) 2004 36 290 27 200 149 ... 190 ... 19'350 461 48 52'990 2'506 300 21 ... 724 2'300 297 44 192 231 27 110 3'022 7'347 200 166 300 ... 1 36 5 ... 620 220 169 356 2'689 3'684 2'450 1 389 530 ... 36 600 140 3'716 5 472 ... 1'327 3 108'977 PCs Per 100 inhab. 2004 1.17 0.90 0.19 5.26 1.78 ... 2.28 ... 10.71 5.94 10.17 4.08 5.53 2.65 3.09 ... 5.49 3.29 4.49 5.19 3.78 1.82 3.52 1.57 1.36 10.53 0.83 6.20 5.34 ... 1.18 10.98 8.77 ... 2.07 10.94 4.59 5.92 9.69 4.46 11.30 0.67 4.77 2.72 ... 3.32 3.29 6.78 6.00 5.01 4.75 ... 2.76 1.41 4.54

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

153

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

14. Information technology


Internet Hosts Total 2004 2'113 926'667 211 3'696 2'097 219'250 11'194 34'695 384'633 686 16 63'609 194 19 406 483'814 59'136 6'875 67 94'503 135'082 4'243 1'523'277 18 1'506 6'945 271'767 854'310 266 122'377 350'501 55 41 15 12'207 474'129 108'188 38'025 6'196'833 Hosts per 10'000 inhab. 2004 274.42 242.42 7.79 141.61 12.22 142.27 26.35 78.57 376.84 96.21 0.32 486.31 1.43 1.84 9.16 479.17 258.69 19.37 0.12 274.25 52.81 34.41 145.17 2.34 6.23 21.89 70.50 59.24 32.84 227.26 77.52 11.00 2.73 1.24 93.40 65.56 333.81 14.53 107.21 Users (000s) 2004 20.0 6'153.6 150.0 35.0 60.0 4'300.0 1'000.0 1'303.0 5'100.0 20.5 5.0 670.0 40.0 19.0 79.0 2'700.0 810.0 600.0 205.0 968.0 9'879.0 180.0 ... 14'036.5 ... 245.0 300.0 9'000.0 16'000.0 20.0 2'276.1 3'566.0 10.0 55.0 8.0 160.0 10'220.0 680.0 2'312.7 93'186.3 Users per 100 inhab. 2004 25.97 16.10 55.35 13.41 3.50 27.90 23.54 29.51 49.97 28.75 0.99 51.22 2.96 16.90 17.83 26.74 35.43 16.90 3.62 28.09 38.62 14.60 ... 13.38 ... 10.14 9.46 23.35 11.10 24.69 42.27 7.89 21.41 36.67 6.61 12.24 14.13 20.98 8.84 16.13 Total (k) 2004 ... 3'000 34 35 80 2'138 930 842 2'200 13 7 620 40 16 90 1'476 501 400 130 533 4'900 200 ... 11'210 ... 118 130 7'362 19'010 15 1'593 3'740 11 26 16 103 3'703 430 2'145 67'797 PCs Per 100 inhab. 2004 ... 8.00 12.55 13.51 4.66 13.87 21.89 19.07 21.55 18.23 1.38 47.40 2.96 15.53 20.32 14.62 21.92 11.27 2.34 15.47 19.16 16.22 ... 10.68 ... 4.88 4.10 19.10 13.18 18.52 29.58 8.27 22.00 17.33 13.22 7.90 5.12 13.27 8.19 11.75

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

154

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

14. Information technology


Internet Hosts Total 2004 6'192 5'670 3'939'321 1'284'933 322 1'850 242'861 11'395 6'180 3'562'482 7'624 1'451'200 2'586 1'155'427 2'335'625 1 5'143 3'021'130 275'091 2'526 104 1'799 783'371 139'427 170'191 541'794 1'635'799 16'445'223 1'791 5'433'591 2'791 51'649 81 6'669 327 399 5'410'760 5'920 587'678 873'272 581'583 103 315 24 16'665 503'099 53'421 939'376 1'321'676 761'283 3'153'004 26'570 4'173'453 195'138'696 3'794 256'083'257 267'541'177 Hosts per 10'000 inhab. 2004 924.18 515.45 1'978.27 1'565.75 10.16 25.80 234.90 1'837.90 168.85 1'110.85 94.47 2'681.94 537.15 2'215.16 386.48 0.05 207.38 366.19 250.61 440.84 6.30 322.40 1'132.74 4'758.60 420.95 789.56 282.03 1'286.80 203.52 1'130.06 10.93 1'125.25 1.74 166.72 8.28 17.97 3'334.42 255.17 1'504.94 1'918.44 552.35 0.26 4.23 0.31 6.69 1'165.93 269.67 217.46 1'466.67 1'026.68 1'389.65 61.11 697.90 6'645.16 341.80 2'542.67 422.21 Users (000s) 2004 11.0 ... 13'000.0 3'900.0 93.0 152.7 4'200.0 39.0 56.0 20'000.0 298.0 3'269.0 32.0 3'286.0 25'000.0 38.0 45.0 35'200.0 1'955.0 38.0 79.0 36.0 3'479.7 225.6 1'198.0 3'200.0 28'870.0 64'160.0 27.0 31'580.0 600.0 270.8 150.0 301.0 107.0 ... 10'000.0 70.0 2'110.0 1'792.0 2'951.0 862.0 165.0 200.0 1'586.0 2'421.8 950.0 14'332.8 6'800.0 3'500.0 12'210.0 1'384.8 37'600.0 185'000.0 30.0 528'862.3 862'809.9 Users per 100 inhab. 2004 16.42 ... 65.28 47.52 29.34 21.30 40.62 62.90 15.30 62.36 36.93 60.41 66.47 63.00 41.37 20.77 18.15 42.67 17.81 66.32 47.88 64.52 50.32 77.00 29.63 46.63 49.78 50.20 30.68 65.68 23.50 59.00 32.24 75.25 27.09 ... 61.63 30.17 52.63 39.37 28.03 22.12 22.18 26.08 6.36 56.12 47.96 33.18 75.46 47.20 53.81 31.85 62.88 63.00 27.27 52.52 13.62 2.61 30.94 8.21 31.12 48.18 Total (k) 2004 ... ... 13'720 4'729 ... 121 3'627 34 31 22'390 249 3'543 ... 2'515 29'410 33 78 40'000 986 ... ... ... 4'187 138 2'011 5'037 18'150 69'200 ... 26'201 450 285 135 126 82 ... 11'110 ... 1'924 2'630 1'402 ... 133 279 8'476 2'590 704 10'957 6'861 6'105 11'975 450 35'890 223'810 ... 572'763 772'357 13'382 293'583 224'273 224'183 16'167 PCs Per 100 inhab. 2004 ... ... 68.90 57.63 ... 16.88 35.08 52.31 8.47 69.82 30.86 65.48 ... 48.22 48.66 18.03 31.45 48.47 8.98 ... ... ... 60.54 47.10 49.74 73.40 31.29 54.15 ... 54.49 17.63 62.09 29.01 31.50 20.76 ... 68.47 ... 49.27 57.78 13.32 ... 17.88 36.31 34.01 62.20 35.54 25.36 76.14 82.33 52.78 11.99 60.02 76.22 ... 57.22 12.89 1.73 34.51 6.39 28.48 50.86

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 ...

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

Africa 424'926 5.03 22'018.0 Americas 205'480'386 2'362.01 269'130.8 Asia 27'986'720 75.34 305'242.2 Europe 29'040'707 362.56 249'273.4 Oceania 4'570'594 1'427.34 15'477.5 Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU (Internet host data: Network Wizards, RIPE).

155

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

15. Internet
Internet subscribers (000s) 2004 1.1 100.0 6.4 3.1 14.2 14.0 7.2 7.0 2.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 12.2 6.0 3.5 11.4 11.0 0.2 75.0 5'450.0 60.0 6.5 5.0 2.0 10.5 16.2 15.0 2.0 21.1 46.0 31.8 30.0 21.7 3.1 53.2 257.0 2.5 1.1 19.4 1.0 9.0 300.0 0.5 50.0 12.5 8.0 37.4 1'895.5 75.6 16.5 32.0 8'770.8 Total (000s) 2004 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 235.0 0.1 0.6 0.1 2.4 0.5 7.0 5.0 0.1 7.7 0.2 1.4 0.01 2.8 0.25 9.0 273.0 Broadband As % of total subscribers 2004 18.3 1.0 1.1 5.9 0.5 4.3 2.2 11.0 0.9 11.5 1.1 22.0 23.0 2.5 39.6 20.5 0.5 2.2 7.4 1.5 28.0 4.3 subscribers per 1000 inhab. 2004 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.001 0.22 0.03 0.10 0.01 0.57 0.20 0.13 0.88 0.01 0.74 0.43 0.04 0.002 0.11 0.023 0.75 0.15 International bandwidth Total Bits per (Mbps) inhabitant 2004 2004 30.0 1.2 60.0 0.4 47.0 6.5 9.3 11.9 64.0 4.8 4.0 0.6 18.0 1.3 9.0 0.6 0.5 0.1 3.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.0 0.3 40.5 2.4 10.2 0.2 8.0 1.9 10.0 0.1 2.0 1.5 12.0 0.6 2.0 0.3 12'300.0 11.4 34.0 1.0 30.0 5.9 6.5 1.1 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.1 34.0 1.9 4.6 0.4 18.0 1.6 9.5 3.5 180.0 42.2 22.0 9.0 18.5 1.0 59.0 1.1 6.0 1.1 4.4 0.4 72.0 0.6 800.0 5.2 6.0 1.1 10.3 1.3 2.0 13.2 465.0 45.0 0.5 0.1 1.1 0.5 3.0 0.3 24.0 0.7 2.0 0.3 16.0 0.5 12.0 2.5 60.5 2.3 32.0 1.2 1'892.0 22.9 22.0 2.0 55.0 4.6 16'533.8 7.4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

156

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

15. Internet
Internet subscribers (000s) 2004 20.0 9.0 90.0 350.0 30.6 62.0 168.9 7'900.0 280.0 5.7 71'713.0 773.3 12.2 3.9 104.1 119.8 3'700.0 117.5 9.0 4.1 26.0 22.2 865.7 816.2 14.9 95.0 108.0 152.0 0.8 1.3 0.7 2.1 102.6 19.0 53.0 45.5 643.6 1'200.0 1'206.3 1.3 600.0 128.3 6.5 19.0 160.0 2'403.7 1.9 121.0 229.0 1.6 94'520.2 Total (000s) 2004 1.0 0.9 0.8 8.7 6.6 731.0 1.3 0.3 25'785.0 91.3 35.6 11.6 29.3 95.8 1.4 16.2 9.0 10.4 2.0 0.7 64.7 138.3 382.8 0.4 0.6 45.0 0.0 2.8 0.02 27'473.6 Broadband As % of total subscribers 2004 1.1 0.3 2.5 14.1 3.9 9.3 0.5 5.0 36.0 11.8 34.2 9.7 0.8 81.5 34.4 2.0 9.5 9.7 1.3 56.9 63.0 21.5 31.7 6.4 0.4 1.9 0.6 2.3 1.4 30.0 subscribers per 1000 inhab. 2004 0.26 0.11 0.08 0.97 1.72 4.20 0.17 0.60 19.84 2.01 4.05 0.88 0.42 14.48 0.29 0.25 3.43 1.86 0.13 2.19 2.16 4.98 17.66 0.96 0.03 0.73 0.11 0.29 0.11 13.62 International bandwidth Total Bits per (Mbps) inhabitant 2004 2004 12.0 3.9 156.3 5.0 7.0 0.5 36.0 9.5 2.1 0.3 355.0 36.0 398.0 44.4 94.0 24.3 27'449.0 151.9 620.0 79.9 10.0 21.2 74'429.0 57.3 5'560.0 122.7 87.0 7.7 2.0 3.1 489.0 37.1 1'412.0 20.2 12.0 14.5 706.0 55.8 2'244.0 10.1 1'000.0 15.1 310.0 55.2 48.0 3.0 0.5 5.8 15.0 45.7 1.5 28.6 4.5 40.5 1'240.0 41.5 9.0 4.5 80.0 21.7 155.0 25.8 5'644.0 203.4 3'214.5 38.9 4'033.0 186.1 3.0 16.5 706.0 86.6 310.0 15.9 45.0 102.5 1.0 1.0 16.0 0.9 50.0 24.2 3'006.0 48.5 2.0 20.2 437.0 44.0 814.0 16.9 2.5 11.7 135'228.0 56.8

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

157

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

15. Internet
Internet subscribers (000s) 2004 1'968.7 6.1 1'353.7 125.0 600.0 2'129.0 6.0 1.0 171.5 7.9 4.7 25.0 741.8 67.2 170.0 512.2 3'545.4 63.0 3'166.9 49.1 78.6 2'511.2 1'890.5 3.3 397.8 1'000.0 4.6 4.0 48.9 1'508.5 458.7 22'620.4 Total (000s) 2004 497.5 2.8 913.2 27.9 236.0 3.3 111.7 0.7 411.2 49.1 80.0 129.1 252.7 2.7 1'037.5 0.7 18.3 811.8 11.0 49.2 2.7 0.5 1.3 4.2 577.9 209.7 5'442.5 Broadband As % of total subscribers 2004 25.3 46.4 67.5 22.3 11.1 54.0 65.1 8.3 55.4 73.1 47.1 25.2 7.1 4.3 32.8 1.4 23.2 32.3 0.6 12.4 0.3 10.9 32.6 8.7 38.3 45.7 24.7 subscribers per 1000 inhab. 2004 13.02 10.83 59.25 6.58 23.12 45.62 85.40 0.48 40.72 21.50 22.54 37.45 9.88 2.20 9.89 0.28 5.76 21.06 0.08 9.13 0.06 10.70 10.91 3.24 7.99 8.01 9.64 International bandwidth Total Bits per (Mbps) inhabitant 2004 2004 28.0 359.0 12'248.0 320.4 46.0 176.2 26.0 15.1 12'704.0 824.3 1'410.0 319.3 22'206.0 2'176.9 30.0 420.8 1.0 2.0 4'600.0 3'516.8 155.0 114.6 45.0 436.9 2.0 4.6 10'000.0 990.4 2'248.0 983.4 200.0 56.3 6.0 1.1 666.0 193.3 3'193.0 124.8 61.0 50.0 11'238.0 107.1 350.0 144.9 926.0 291.9 21'380.0 554.6 14'365.0 99.6 6.0 72.5 12'355.0 2'294.4 881.5 19.5 2.0 42.5 3.0 25.2 180.0 137.7 8'861.0 122.5 1'000.0 308.5 1'337.0 51.1 142'759.5 249.2

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

158

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

15. Internet
Internet subscribers (000s) 2004 6.3 5'220.0 1'340.0 31.0 50.9 2'032.8 7'442.0 67.3 2'768.0 12.2 1'400.0 11'936.5 12.0 15.1 22'870.0 848.0 9.1 2'522.4 56.8 1'067.0 1'155.0 19'900.0 33'883.9 12'028.5 250.0 107.6 77.3 87.9 40.0 7'000.0 17.3 781.8 1'423.9 1'252.8 256.0 37.8 928.7 2'226.7 240.5 5'842.7 3'291.0 3'100.0 13'394.6 409.5 15'107.5 66'823.1 249'371.5 375'282.9 5'760.8 91'879.6 156'736.4 114'853.5 6'052.5 Total (000s) 2004 3.6 1'048.0 820.0 12.8 1'617.2 5'416.0 13.4 1'031.3 3.1 800.0 6'754.0 4.4 4'560.0 51.5 1'519.8 55.1 152.1 959.0 4'701.3 14'917.2 11'921.4 20.0 15.4 45.2 37.6 6.0 3'206.0 5.1 83.0 677.2 858.4 22.7 10.7 19.7 512.4 58.0 3'441.6 1'237.0 1'217.0 3'751.2 45.8 7'130.5 28'230.1 106'991.9 140'180.9 121.9 37'530.6 60'165.6 41'222.1 1'140.7 Broadband As % of total subscribers 2004 57.1 20.1 61.2 41.3 79.6 72.8 19.9 37.3 25.7 57.1 56.6 28.9 19.9 6.1 60.3 96.9 14.3 83.0 23.6 44.0 99.1 8.0 14.3 58.5 42.8 15.0 45.8 29.8 10.6 47.6 68.5 8.9 28.2 2.1 23.0 24.1 58.9 37.6 39.3 28.0 11.2 47.2 42.2 42.9 38.0 2.1 40.9 39.5 36.3 18.9 subscribers per 1000 inhab. 2004 42.77 52.63 99.92 40.39 156.42 168.88 16.57 190.59 65.10 153.37 111.76 17.54 55.25 4.69 219.77 188.10 37.62 139.75 81.06 116.89 247.94 7.83 34.00 97.18 94.11 15.30 197.57 22.18 20.70 148.78 81.53 5.89 14.32 0.79 118.75 29.04 79.67 137.27 164.13 165.33 10.54 119.24 97.07 106.82 25.73 0.18 45.02 19.25 52.25 43.48 International bandwidth Total Bits per (Mbps) inhabitant 2004 2004 188.0 2'232.8 22'056.0 1'107.6 54'616.0 6'655.2 90.0 283.9 409.0 589.3 117'535.0 11'368.1 217'521.0 6'782.7 300.0 371.7 188'455.0 34'828.1 160.0 3'323.4 22'617.0 4'336.1 200'000.0 3'309.4 2.0 11.4 58.0 233.9 566'056.0 6'861.2 6'513.0 593.3 48'921.0 7'073.9 1'240.0 4'232.1 24'587.0 6'081.4 17'000.0 2'477.4 119'794.0 2'069.4 132'608.0 1'037.6 71'380.0 1'484.5 287.0 112.4 1'487.0 3'239.7 1'125.0 2'417.8 775.0 1'937.5 2.0 5.1 334'578.0 20'618.6 68.0 293.1 4'575.0 1'171.6 43'019.0 9'450.6 8'746.0 830.6 465.0 625.0 2.0 2.7 750.0 30.1 24'704.0 5'725.1 2'510.0 1'256.9 120'461.0 2'788.6 157'636.0 17'493.0 71'464.0 9'637.8 71'333.0 3'143.9 1'517.0 348.9 781'554.0 13'069.5 970'953.5 3'306.4 4'410'117.5 4'401.9 4'704'638.8 5'493.4 1'268'896.5 474'213.3 2'929'246.0 26'789.6 760.7 6.6 1'525.0 128.8 3'657.4 842.1

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

159

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

16. Internet tariff 20 hours per month, August 2004


ISP charge Hours Excess included time charge US$ 7.76 6.90 20 13 12.60 35.64 20 * 25.39 * * 20 * 14.73 * 20 15 9.70 30 * 2.64 30 20 15 8.50 * 20 * 25 24.25 * 50 * * 25 10.00 84.50 * 2.93 9.94 45.21 30 10 30.98 16.48 * * 30 18.58 8.12 24.35 80 * 7.39 Telephone usage charge US$ 11.00 49.58 8.29 56.34 26.30 11.33 14.11 71.28 85.54 110.42 78.53 17.78 8.93 7.48 10.11 29.11 0.09 7.04 37.05 28.14 26.40 39.09 16.52 30.00 38.31 9.03 10.20 0.27 28.37 42.25 39.69 8.07 1.88 29.24 45.21 12.01 24.15 23.55 4.35 48.00 26.82 60.60 1.61 2.95 4.87 12.67 9.59 23.41 Total Internet price 20 hours As % of of use GNI per US$ capita 18.76 56.3 60.73 165.6 24.02 45.8 84.50 338.0 76.30 1'017.3 53.93 215.7 49.75 94.8 167.51 773.1 85.54 427.7 38.09 101.6 121.22 223.8 166.75 303.2 92.53 1'110.4 52.08 328.9 26.23 349.7 14.11 62.7 32.58 122.2 60.64 169.2 105.09 900.8 130.00 390.0 9.68 21.5 68.34 205.0 38.14 134.6 52.90 186.7 65.69 129.2 48.13 199.2 63.33 475.0 75.87 313.9 42.44 127.3 19.06 38.8 19.20 48.0 50.00 285.7 18.29 77.8 6.23 31.1 53.37 86.6 126.76 760.5 74.30 254.7 12.68 29.3 58.2 24.24 55.34 301.9 90.42 361.7 26.59 59.1 12.01 96.1 82.07 175.9 40.03 104.4 54.35 310.6 117.00 468.0 40.08 155.1 90.60 434.9 20.19 57.7 12.75 31.9 29.22 67.4 35.23 111.3 17.11 42.8 56.52 248.9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low Income

Monthly fee US$ 11.15 8.84 28.17 50.00 30.00 96.23 12.70 121.22 56.34 14.00 34.30 2.57 6.63 22.47 21.83 105.00 130.00 31.29 10.00 18.00 26.60 31.61 33.33 37.56 18.19 10.03 9.00 50.00 18.29 5.96 15.00 34.61 1.67 12.42 26.10 26.59 26.94 50.00 69.00 13.26 30.00 1.68 22.56 7.53 25.72

Total ISP charge US$ 7.76 11.15 15.73 28.17 50.00 42.60 35.64 96.23 38.09 121.22 56.34 14.00 34.30 17.30 6.63 22.47 31.53 105.00 130.00 2.64 31.29 10.00 26.50 26.60 31.61 33.33 37.56 42.44 10.03 9.00 50.00 18.29 5.96 25.00 84.50 34.61 4.60 22.36 26.10 45.21 26.59 57.92 16.48 50.00 69.00 13.26 30.00 18.58 9.79 24.35 22.56 7.53 33.11

160

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

16. Internet tariff 20 hours per month, August 2004


ISP charge Hours Excess included time charge US$ 30 30 * * 11.01 8.65 80 15 0.91 * 14 1.89 20 7.24 20 15 7.50 * * * * * 15 13.77 10.03 30 * 25 20 15 7.75 20 114.29 15 12.84 10 19.50 20 * 15 3.31 * 15 5.89 17 2.10 30 20 20 * * 25 20 5.91 * * 20 20 4.47 Telephone usage charge US$ 8.42 8.93 32.00 2.61 40.77 3.68 7.38 5.38 6.01 12.37 17.63 2.90 12.47 30.00 75.04 12.00 3.93 24.38 1.19 53.07 1.00 22.46 10.77 2.25 7.44 19.57 3.76 51.43 23.44 0.60 15.99 6.46 19.65 22.67 26.15 15.83 2.74 21.25 14.36 26.93 4.58 1.48 30.00 9.60 0.22 13.86 Total Internet price 20 hours As % of of use GNI per US$ capita 28.42 19.6 18.45 11.5 44.00 71.4 46.08 58.2 51.78 75.8 12.33 9.3 19.68 26.2 9.37 7.4 21.95 9.7 22.92 12.9 39.98 33.3 10.13 11.1 18.43 12.2 67.50 37.7 110.72 146.0 8.81 5.0 30.00 19.7 3.93 3.4 24.38 12.5 33.94 18.2 10.03 15.6 53.07 33.3 22.17 29.6 37.46 46.3 21.54 31.9 5.25 3.1 41.69 16.8 28.93 18.8 34.49 23.3 188.57 263.1 61.96 31.6 40.05 23.2 21.00 19.2 31.66 19.7 25.45 27.5 31.22 33.8 32.67 18.3 15.70 17.4 18.2 34.25 45.78 38.2 10.74 6.7 25.28 32.6 29.36 15.5 41.67 37.0 15.05 15.6 18.27 11.1 7.39 4.0 50.00 40.3 12.94 6.9 20.22 21.7 11.43 14.1 56.23 57.2 32.78 30.6

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower Middle Income

Monthly fee US$ 20.00 9.53 12.00 43.47 12.30 3.08 15.94 8.66 22.35 5.96 30.00 35.68 8.81 18.00 18.98 21.17 15.00 10.77 3.00 26.50 9.36 30.73 22.86 25.68 19.95 21.00 15.67 18.99 8.27 10.00 9.81 6.00 29.95 8.01 4.03 15.00 14.74 10.47 18.27 20.00 3.34 20.00 11.43 56.23 14.44

Total ISP charge US$ 20.00 9.53 12.00 43.47 11.01 8.65 12.30 3.99 15.94 10.55 22.35 7.24 5.96 37.50 35.68 8.81 18.00 32.75 10.03 21.17 15.00 10.77 3.00 34.25 9.36 30.73 137.14 38.52 39.45 21.00 15.67 18.99 11.58 10.00 15.70 8.10 29.95 8.01 4.03 15.00 14.74 10.47 18.27 5.91 20.00 3.34 20.00 11.43 56.23 18.91

161

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

16. Internet tariff 20 hours per month, August 2004


ISP charge Hours Excess included time charge US$ 20 30 40 20 * * 20 * 28.90 20 30 * 20 * 34.90 25 25 10.45 30 3.16 25 * 9.33 * 20 30 * * 20 20 20 20 * * * 2.34 Telephone usage charge US$ 14.07 27.28 8.73 8.52 96.23 28.92 30.05 21.95 32.53 4.74 2.65 36.83 12.00 67.18 45.50 0.75 6.73 12.02 Total Internet price 20 hours As % of of use GNI per US$ capita 22.39 2.9 18.37 5.8 25.88 3.4 75.76 27.0 43.51 14.8 21.71 6.0 24.63 6.9 23.74 5.3 28.90 4.8 16.79 6.1 103.30 19.33 4.3 140.78 50.6 22.39 7.2 28.92 34.90 6.6 41.77 11.4 34.59 10.3 10.45 2.1 36.03 9.6 8.42 2.6 15.65 4.6 19.31 3.7 14.51 2.3 36.83 10.9 4.8 20.94 22.00 10.1 100.97 16.2 25.21 6.1 58.36 25.5 22.39 4.1 22.22 6.6 22.20 8.0 13.63 2.1 18.84 8.1 15.85 5.0 11.78 4.0 33.06 8.8

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper Middle Income

Monthly fee US$ 22.39 4.30 25.88 75.76 16.23 21.71 15.90 15.21 16.79 103.30 19.33 44.55 22.39 11.73 12.64 3.51 0.53 15.65 16.67 5.18 20.94 10.00 33.78 25.21 12.87 22.39 22.22 22.20 12.88 18.84 9.11 11.78 18.70

Total ISP charge US$ 22.39 4.30 25.88 75.76 16.23 21.71 15.90 15.21 28.90 16.79 103.30 19.33 44.55 22.39 34.90 11.73 12.64 10.45 3.51 3.68 15.65 16.67 14.51 20.94 10.00 33.78 25.21 12.87 22.39 22.22 22.20 12.88 18.84 9.11 11.78 21.04

162

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

16. Internet tariff 20 hours per month, August 2004


ISP charge Hours Excess included time charge US$ 50 * * 30 * * * 30 24 100 * 20 43.95 * * * 20 30 * * 32.77 20 * 150 * * * 21.85 * 8.00 25 * * * * 20 * 37.04 * 16.47 16.79 15 * * 13.39 * 25.36 * * 7.62 150 * 15 9.75 4.40 4.85 5.45 0.91 4.22 5.72 14.50 Telephone usage charge US$ 28.93 2.86 4.00 8.40 26.05 17.32 31.29 28.92 21.57 7.28 7.14 28.92 49.04 16.00 12.59 27.32 6.64 6.24 14.12 28.89 10.99 7.13 6.72 13.61 Total Internet price 20 hours As % of of use GNI per US$ capita 16.36 48.70 3.4 24.25 1.3 43.01 1.9 24.75 1.9 39.77 3.5 36.00 1.7 33.95 1.1 17.34 1.7 14.67 0.7 22.05 1.5 23.04 0.8 70.00 1.2 27.23 31.29 1.5 28.92 4.1 77.54 5.7 19.81 0.9 25.12 2.3 35.70 32.77 1.2 3.85 0.2 53.43 2.1 36.05 1.6 19.74 1.5 21.57 1.2 28.59 1.0 55.37 10.49 1.0 24.67 1.6 42.67 1.1 11.88 0.8 21.70 2.4 28.92 2.2 33.27 1.5 86.84 7.5 12.66 1.0 44.36 1.2 37.04 3.8 21.96 0.9 27.99 33.33 4.3 11.74 0.7 30.89 3.1 25.24 1.8 25.36 1.1 27.32 0.8 11.12 1.0 13.06 0.8 29.07 1.2 14.95 0.5 34.70 1.8 30.23 1.8 38.73 61.51 31.03 23.44 28.67 58.30 82.1 241.5 23.0 38.6 6.0 57.5

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Monthly fee US$ 16.36 19.77 21.39 43.01 24.75 39.77 36.00 29.95 17.34 14.67 13.65 23.04 9.91 77.54 19.81 25.12 35.70 3.85 53.43 36.05 19.74 28.59 26.24 3.36 16.67 42.67 11.88 21.70 33.27 37.80 12.66 44.36 15.79 5.49 11.20 17.33 11.74 4.91 25.24 4.48 5.44 29.07 14.95 24.95 19.45 19.70 27.17 19.03 12.08 16.23 30.19

Total ISP charge US$ 16.36 19.77 21.39 43.01 24.75 39.77 36.00 29.95 17.34 14.67 13.65 23.04 43.95 9.91 77.54 19.81 25.12 35.70 32.77 3.85 53.43 36.05 19.74 28.59 48.09 3.36 24.67 42.67 11.88 21.70 33.27 37.80 12.66 44.36 37.04 15.79 21.96 27.99 17.33 11.74 18.30 25.24 25.36 4.48 13.06 29.07 14.95 34.70 23.84 24.56 32.61 19.94 16.30 20.74 44.68

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU. * Unlimited access.

163

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

17. Multichannel TV
Cable TV subscribers Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 5'353.2 52.2 17.9 100.0 6.0 0.7 60.0 13.2 15.0 1.4 13.3 88.9 50.4 30.0 115.0 59.0 1.0 22.0 24.4 0.5 0.2 0.5 8.0 1.0 8.0 2.5 93.1 13.0 2.6 5'923.8 21.3 Home satellite antennas Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 7.7 5.9 0.6 0.3 1.0 4.5 3.5 10.5 10.0 0.6 3.0 0.7 5.0 1.9 10.1 18.4 1.3 8.1 4.8 69.6 0.1 10.0 3.3 1.3 0.1 86.1 3.2 1.5 22.1 243.1 3.2 Cable modem subscribers Total As % of cable (000s) TV subscribers 2004 2004 0.2 ... 0.02 ... 0.1 130.0 ... 0.1 0.8 0.1 ... 1.0 ... 0.1 0.1 4.8 4.2 0.1 ... 0.01 ... 1.1 ... 1.1 ... 7.4 ... 145.9 0.1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

# # 0 # # # 0 0 0 0 0 0 # # 0 # 0 0 # # 0 # 0 # # # 0 0 0 # 0 0 # # 0 0 0 # 0 # 0 # 0 0 # 0 0 0 # # # 0 # # 0 0 # 0

164

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

17. Multichannel TV
Cable TV subscribers Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 7.0 1.1 4.6 0.6 5.2 1'091.1 68.2 74.0 7.8 2'358.1 5.5 634.0 96'380.0 31.1 172.4 6.3 460.3 3.3 161.2 61.2 6.6 150.1 16.5 70.0 0.2 106.1 0.4 16.5 30.0 21.4 120.0 12.7 389.2 2'940.0 24.1 3'111.9 10.0 1.5 800.0 5.5 1'936.0 11.3 111'142.5 23.2 Home satellite antennas Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 240.2 36.7 3'500.0 78.4 300.0 285.0 30.0 1'238.3 2.9 198.4 5.1 17.2 0.6 3'500.0 25.0 0.1 0.5 0.1 4'000.0 13.8 328.0 0.0 0.2 3.5 1'786.2 20.0 14.3 310.0 204.0 0.2 0.7 5.0 1'265.0 44.8 330.9 2.3 1'000.0 141.0 0.8 18'679.2 12.4 Cable modem subscribers Total As % of cable (000s) TV subscribers 2004 2004 0.9 ... 2.4 ... 161.0 ... 8'850.0 ... 85.0 ... 2.1 ... 9.5 5.5 88.2 ... 1.0 ... 7.0 ... ... 0.5 ... 6.8 26.6 20.0 ... 84.2 2.7 0.4 4.0 10.0 ... 0.02 ... 9'348.9 1.6

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

# # 0 # # # # # # # 0 # 0 0 0 0 # # # 0 # 0 0 # # 0 0 0 0 # # 0 0 # 0 # 0 # # # # 0 0 # # 0 # 0 # 0 0 0 # 0

165

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

17. Multichannel TV
Cable TV subscribers Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 5'900.0 60.2 864.0 22.0 204.0 21.7 171.0 12.2 941.0 158.0 33.2 25.0 15.6 1'964.0 410.0 100.0 15.2 300.0 2'929.9 3'626.4 27.5 6'396.4 12.7 744.6 39.5 86.5 29.2 1'126.9 0.2 20.3 833.1 26'781.2 19.4 Home satellite antennas Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 0.7 0.9 13.0 126.2 3.2 390.4 98.0 20.6 2.0 1.3 830.0 128.6 300.0 45.5 587.0 19.0 1'561.0 36.2 13.0 1'073.7 3'121.0 23.7 1'624.0 3.2 600.0 31.8 502.0 8.2 3'284.0 14'273.6 9.4 Cable modem subscribers Total As % of cable (000s) TV subscribers 2004 2004 145.4 ... 17.3 ... 0.6 ... 227.1 ... 22.4 ... 70.3 ... 2.2 ... 43.2 ... 135.8 6.9 9.8 2.4 80.0 ... 32.2 10.7 309.0 10.5 ... ... 7.1 60.0 ... 10.9 ... 0.6 ... 37.4 3.3 43.1 ... 1'254.4 3.9

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

0 # # 0 0 # # # # 0 0 # # 0 0 # # # 0 # # 0 0 # 0 # 0 # # 0 # # 0 0 0 # # # #

166

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

17. Multichannel TV
Cable TV subscribers Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 1'597.0 21.9 1'258.0 38.9 7.7 7.5 3'999.3 89.2 24.0 40.7 7'608.0 1'364.8 56.6 5.3 1'099.0 50.4 3'782.0 15.9 19'350.0 1'120.0 7.0 6.9 552.0 40.9 1'400.0 180.0 0.8 24'683.9 14'200.0 85.0 151.0 88.3 17.5 13.7 99.4 83.6 6'390.0 92.5 27.3 1.9 852.8 44.0 1'417.7 350.0 28.4 16.6 19.6 6.0 0.2 380.0 450.0 71.8 996.7 7.3 2'472.0 57.0 2'791.0 4'856.0 89.1 300.0 51.9 3'288.0 66'100.0 61.0 173'200.0 47.8 317'047.5 624.8 88'471.4 153'017.3 73'287.2 1'646.7 29.8 1.6 44.3 30.2 21.2 18.7 Home satellite antennas Total As % of TV (000s) households 2004 2004 575.0 7.9 1'609.0 49.8 67.9 66.4 158.0 3.5 2'325.0 727.0 30.2 7.2 406.0 18.6 5'620.0 23.7 15'470.0 419.0 1.8 5.9 5.9 355.0 26.3 400.0 4'810.0 21.9 12'359.4 1'142.4 6.8 695.0 35.0 20.5 0.2 0.2 15.1 12.7 790.0 11.4 453.0 32.1 510.0 26.3 425.0 2'060.9 57.8 113.9 18.2 1'795.7 13.1 1'090.0 25.1 486.0 12.0 0.2 7'794.0 26'517.7 24.5 89'252.0 21.6 122'448.0 11'090.7 31'302.4 25'221.4 53'805.4 1'028.1 16.2 29.4 17.6 13.5 13.8 11.9 Cable modem subscribers Total As % of cable (000s) TV subscribers 2004 2004 322.4 ... 380.0 30.2 622.8 15.6 2'933.0 38.6 296.6 21.7 115.2 ... 454.0 12.0 145.0 0.7 0.7 ... ... 291.0 26.0 0.7 ... 11.9 2.2 300.0 ... 2'959.7 ... 4'079.2 28.7 4.1 ... 15.9 ... 1'330.0 ... 11.0 ... 92.3 ... 435.0 30.7 1.1 ... ... 218.5 ... 21.2 4.7 793.0 ... 243.0 ... 404.0 14.5 526.2 10.8 2'119.0 64.4 21'357.4 32.3 40'483.9 25.7 51'233.1 7.7 25'444.9 17'475.5 7'970.9 334.1 21.8 0.2 31.8 18.9 9.4

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

0 0 # # 0 # # 0 # # # # # # # 0 0 # # 0 0 0 # # # # # # 0 # 0 # # # 0 0 # 0 # # # # # 0 # # # # # # # # # # 0

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

167

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

18. Network growth


New telephone lines added 1999-2004 CAGR Total (k) (%) 21.0 11.5 398.0 13.9 29.1 10.8 18.3 20.4 34.0 11.4 4.9 ... 8.7 ... 0.6 ... 0.1 0.3 3.3 6.0 6.7 ... -8.2 -8.9 18.7 ... 480.0 ... 0.5 ... 11.9 7.5 240.5 ... 9.1 ... 152.6 14.3 5.1 ... 4.5 ... 70.0 14.9 17'448.7 10.6 9.3 0.6 45.8 2.4 39.9 16.4 15.6 11.5 0.3 ... 8.5 3.2 51.4 17.5 41.2 17.3 22.5 18.7 308.1 9.2 34.7 ... -8.4 -2.2 175.8 11.3 164.9 10.6 64.2 7.4 5.3 5.0 554.2 16.8 1'516.1 8.6 2.2 ... 10.3 12.7 2.4 ... 79.1 8.1 5.8 ... -1.9 ... 176.0 52.8 777.5 32.6 32.7 ... -0.5 ... 22.5 ... 14.3 4.6 117.7 ... 8'019.0 36.9 513.8 22.9 8.6 2.0 78.0 5.8 31'865.1 12.5 New mobile subscribers added 1999-2004 Total CAGR (k) (%) 600.0 ... 2'632.6 79.6 379.4 121.4 19.1 ... 393.0 139.6 63.2 140.2 409.3 41.1 1'071.0 182.4 55.8 70.5 123.0 ... 2.0 ... 378.7 138.2 1'023.6 37.9 988.0 142.2 20.0 ... 91.1 70.7 94.7 79.9 1'625.0 89.1 86.3 34.7 1.3 ... 375.0 74.1 45'415.7 90.5 2'522.4 154.7 260.8 152.3 192.1 76.0 147.0 67.7 47.3 ... 298.1 56.3 199.6 58.1 393.6 128.7 522.4 ... 769.0 112.9 284.4 56.0 695.8 125.1 81.1 52.0 111.3 84.2 694.4 75.6 146.1 132.3 9'122.2 225.6 4'757.3 80.0 10.4 19.9 127.7 66.0 4.8 ... 1'033.4 66.4 113.2 ... -0.6 500.0 ... 1'035.6 140.6 47.0 137.9 989.7 82.8 203.0 66.9 1'108.7 83.3 280.4 51.4 4'631.3 72.1 1'044.3 107.8 436.2 75.1 249.6 19.5 88'907.9 88.2 New Internet users added 1999-2004 Total CAGR (k) (%) ... ... 250.0 43.1 90.0 58.5 19.3 92.8 46.2 50.0 11.5 41.1 31.0 54.3 80.0 38.0 7.5 43.1 34.0 103.6 4.2 44.3 35.5 135.2 220.0 86.1 ... 49.5 364.2 49.1 123.3 67.0 56.5 26.0 31.2 348.0 79.0 35.0 51.6 17.5 66.2 494.0 142.2 32'200.0 65.7 1'465.0 112.0 253.0 92.3 18.9 59.9 42.0 112.2 0.7 82.6 65.0 29.2 36.1 35.8 43.7 51.4 11.0 36.1 381.0 74.6 130.8 64.1 128.0 69.0 63.2 163.6 85.0 27.9 100.0 38.0 21.0 51.6 1'719.7 104.1 1'920.0 90.4 78.0 26.4 33.0 50.0 14.5 97.4 452.0 74.3 7.0 35.1 0.5 4.6 14.0 71.9 1'135.0 196.2 2.1 15.6 225.0 58.5 180.0 47.6 175.0 51.6 484.5 130.9 5'770.0 125.8 170.0 78.3 216.0 72.8 800.0 110.2 50'381.0 71.7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

168

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

18. Network growth


New telephone lines added 1999-2004 CAGR Total (k) (%) 114.6 ... 688.0 7.4 29.1 ... 38.3 1.4 295.4 7.0 537.4 3.8 122.9 4.5 560.1 20.3 17'397.2 11.1 -106.6 -0.8 26.6 9.4 203'040.2 23.5 1'101.6 3.1 334.4 12.1 2.3 4.7 109.4 2.5 482.7 7.4 4'777.8 15.1 392.5 12.4 20.5 ... 11.7 0.3 521.4 13.1 38.7 9.9 110.9 6.9 3'909.8 10.4 6'200.0 ... 359.2 8.9 -96.6 -4.3 52.1 1.8 740.2 7.3 1.4 ... 9.3 7.3 0.6 ... 2.1 4.0 -162.4 -2.3 19.7 3.4 135.1 10.0 12.7 ... 361.8 4.0 545.1 3.5 649.1 3.3 4.8 ... 404.7 3.3 321.5 8.1 10.9 2.9 14.9 ... 1'059.7 10.7 54.0 ... 1'581.4 5.4 2.1 ... 353.1 7.2 17.2 ... 2'068.0 3.8 1.3 4.2 249'279.7 17.0 New mobile subscribers added New Internet users added 1999-2004 1999-2004 Total CAGR Total CAGR (k) (%) (k) (%) 1'089.0 151.2 27.5 64.4 4'610.7 130.5 785.0 69.7 308.8 69.2 74.0 53.1 195.1 90.2 120.0 38.0 1'086.5 31.5 400.0 119.5 2'215.8 148.9 2'411.1 118.0 1'380.4 33.8 270.0 34.3 1'263.6 90.4 218.0 100.2 50'572.3 34.3 18'500.0 44.4 4'379.7 68.3 999.4 39.4 57.7 52.1 20.0 38.0 291'528.0 50.5 85'100.0 60.2 8'434.0 39.5 3'386.2 43.6 70.7 71.3 115.2 33.9 34.2 161.9 8.3 64.4 2'109.6 43.0 704.0 52.8 3'161.0 56.0 524.6 44.3 7'162.1 73.9 3'700.0 81.1 1'321.2 29.1 537.5 63.7 86.5 36.3 47.5 49.0 707.4 44.5 155.6 54.4 2'830.5 56.5 691.0 63.4 101.8 106.1 115.0 37.0 628.6 55.2 187.3 44.7 27'779.0 68.3 13'608.0 74.4 2'886.0 47.1 4'550.0 80.6 574.0 ... ... ... 2'055.6 72.4 1'007.0 77.8 1'476.1 68.2 480.0 38.0 2'709.4 123.5 330.0 41.7 0.3 21.3 1.0 14.9 110.3 107.8 16.0 44.7 0.2 6.2 0.9 22.9 12.8 ... 9.0 32.0 8'967.7 90.8 3'450.0 133.9 256.1 57.0 69.0 65.7 857.3 52.8 ... ... 1'334.7 32.4 100.0 43.1 3'079.2 32.2 2'720.0 45.1 30'085.9 63.1 3'310.0 32.2 8'859.9 49.8 3'900.0 49.6 8.1 ... 4.5 58.5 4'123.9 50.8 1'437.0 80.1 1'956.9 53.9 215.0 33.9 195.3 64.8 21.3 28.0 71.0 43.4 22.0 40.1 2'341.0 257.8 780.0 109.1 727.3 73.9 96.0 33.2 25'039.6 63.6 5'672.0 39.9 11.1 140.2 2.0 24.6 3'507.7 130.1 685.0 41.0 5.2 18.1 18.0 58.5 13'518.4 129.3 3'550.0 79.7 10.2 103.6 6.5 49.6 527'895.7 51.1 165'353.3 56.4

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

169

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

18. Network growth


New telephone lines added 1999-2004 CAGR Total (k) (%) 1.5 0.8 1'476.8 3.8 20.7 3.4 -2.4 -1.4 12.6 2.0 209.5 1.3 540.6 10.8 254.0 2.9 -378.5 -2.1 -0.4 -0.3 3.8 ... -71.5 -2.9 0.7 0.4 3.3 2.1 9.0 ... -148.5 -0.8 -81.1 -2.3 59.0 2.0 200.0 ... -332.5 -6.6 15.5 0.1 96.7 6.6 0.3 ... 7'145.9 10.6 0.5 ... 22.4 2.0 -86.4 -4.1 2'117.3 ... 8'667.0 5.1 1.6 1.5 -405.0 -5.5 -671.8 ... 4.9 4.5 6.7 ... 8.8 ... 42.4 2.9 1'213.2 1.3 103.2 2.2 795.7 5.6 20'855.3 3.5 New mobile subscribers added 1999-2004 Total CAGR (k) (%) 45.5 44.7 9'663.5 28.6 179.8 58.0 85.1 69.3 471.8 43.7 7'305.9 33.4 784.9 46.2 2'512.6 56.9 8'838.0 40.9 41.0 120.6 40.9 133.3 868.7 26.5 480.5 122.9 41.3 84.8 201.3 26.9 7'099.0 39.9 1'262.4 41.1 261.0 7.2 97.0 33.5 3'089.5 59.4 11'621.9 37.3 407.9 37.9 33.2 ... 30'719.5 37.8 15.7 45.0 680.9 45.3 623.0 29.7 13'444.7 34.5 73'049.4 122.3 32.9 24.7 3'611.1 45.1 11'672.0 26.6 9.3 70.2 12.0 44.1 61.5 113.4 612.5 75.9 26'586.0 33.7 280.9 13.5 4'636.2 17.3 221'480.5 41.9 New Internet users added 1999-2004 Total CAGR (k) (%) 16.0 38.0 4'953.6 38.7 144.0 90.4 25.0 28.5 41.0 25.9 3'675.0 47.1 850.0 46.1 1'103.0 45.5 4'400.0 48.8 18.5 59.3 2.5 43.1 470.0 27.4 37.0 67.9 ... ... 56.0 55.2 2'100.0 35.1 705.0 50.5 400.0 24.6 153.0 87.0 865.0 56.5 7'079.0 28.7 125.0 26.8 ... 12'214.3 50.4 ... ... 195.0 37.4 255.0 46.1 6'870.0 33.7 14'500.0 60.5 15.0 32.0 1'983.7 50.7 1'505.0 12.8 ... ... 31.0 62.5 4.0 18.5 85.0 16.4 8'720.0 46.8 350.0 15.6 1'632.7 27.7 75'574.8 40.1

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

170

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

18. Network growth


New telephone lines added 1999-2004 CAGR Total (k) (%) 1.4 0.8 0.6 ... 1'900.0 3.6 -71.4 -0.4 28.8 4.7 26.2 3.0 -207.6 -0.8 1.1 ... 10.9 ... 230.0 0.2 -5.7 -0.3 -150.3 -0.8 -0.9 -0.7 -482.3 -3.6 -17.8 1.8 ... 1.0 0.4 6'364.0 2.5 737.8 2.5 -0.3 ... 2.4 ... 4.4 1.7 -105.4 -0.6 5.5 0.6 282.1 3.1 122.0 0.8 -545.0 -0.4 -3'265.6 -1.1 3.6 ... 976.1 0.8 41.3 1.8 49.2 ... -4.5 -0.5 8.8 0.9 0.1 ... 2.0 ... -1'752.0 -3.9 2.7 1.0 -32.9 -0.4 -295.5 -2.5 8.4 -182.8 -3.0 36.0 4.3 31.5 ... 989.0 6.4 -12.6 -0.1 54.8 ... 1'454.1 1.7 -72.0 -0.2 196.6 0.8 1'486.2 2.4 212.6 4.0 -321.0 -0.2 -11'555.0 -1.3 3.7 1.1 -3'804.5 -0.1 298'195.6 5.8 New mobile subscribers added New Internet users added 1999-2004 1999-2004 Total CAGR Total CAGR (k) (%) (k) (%) 42.0 24.9 6.0 17.1 58.0 42.3 20.0 144.9 10'165.0 21.1 7'400.0 18.3 3'739.6 13.5 2'060.0 16.2 170.1 63.5 81.7 52.4 516.3 37.2 122.7 38.5 5'945.1 23.4 2'800.0 24.6 27.2 25.6 11.0 7.6 113.3 22.1 23.0 13.9 8'073.4 16.7 9'000.0 12.7 488.9 33.4 210.0 27.6 2'539.4 14.5 1'643.0 15.0 30.5 30.9 22.0 26.2 1'714.6 8.8 1'619.0 14.5 23'118.3 15.8 19'630.0 36.0 69.3 37.1 29.0 73.0 50.6 27.0 37.0 41.3 47'854.0 24.9 18'100.0 15.5 5'401.7 19.0 1'205.0 21.1 13.9 15.2 18.9 20.7 59.8 31.9 50.0 37.1 28.5 23.4 26.5 30.5 3'938.9 14.0 2'079.7 20.0 117.5 10.9 75.6 8.5 2'103.0 17.6 788.0 23.9 4'342.0 20.2 2'400.0 32.0 32'454.0 15.7 20'670.0 28.6 34'628.3 10.0 37'100.0 18.8 56.6 26.9 14.0 27.2 13'143.3 9.3 20'720.0 23.8 1'700.0 46.1 500.0 43.1 329.8 20.8 95.0 17.8 314.3 29.6 110.0 30.3 268.5 52.1 271.0 58.6 175.8 22.2 75.0 74.1 170.0 46.1 ... ... 8'054.5 17.0 3'800.0 10.0 91.0 35.5 58.0 42.3 1'632.0 16.8 ... ... 1'971.3 11.4 692.0 10.3 5'690.7 17.3 1'451.0 14.5 1'868.2 26.9 662.0 33.9 406.0 42.2 141.0 47.0 410.5 36.3 170.0 78.3 8'339.1 61.4 1'486.0 73.8 2'229.8 18.8 1'471.8 20.6 1'107.7 22.5 550.0 26.2 23'643.1 20.8 11'502.8 38.3 4'649.0 13.8 3'134.0 13.2 3'217.5 15.5 2'027.0 18.9 11'219.0 14.5 7'410.0 20.5 2'850.8 34.6 926.8 24.8 33'906.0 17.6 25'100.0 24.6 96'353.0 16.2 83'000.0 12.6 34.2 16.4 ... ... 411'634.9 16.3 291'468.5 17.6 1'249'918.9 28.8 582'777.6 25.6

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High Income WORLD

...

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Note: Source:

7'603.7 20'009.1 247'099.8 20'664.3 1'900.3

7.2 1.4 13.1 1.3 3.0

63'924.1 238'042.9 545'235.6 385'622.3 12'065.0

57.0 22.9 34.3 25.6 20.6

18'581.8 145'804.3 238'477.4 172'160.1 6'521.9

50.1 16.9 35.9 26.5 18.6

For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. ITU.

171

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A1. A2. Fixed Mobile cellular telephone lines subscribers per 100 inhab. per 100 inhab. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income 0.2 0.6 1.0 3.9 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.1 1.7 0.4 1.4 4.1 0.0 0.9 0.6 2.9 1.5 0.3 0.8 1.7 4.1 0.9 8.2 1.3 2.1 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.7 1.3 20.3 5.6 0.4 0.8 1.7 3.8 0.2 0.8 3.0 1.1 0.3 4.6 2.4 0.5 1.3 1.7 3.0 3.7 0.4 1.2 0.3 6.7 12.3 3.8 0.8 2.7 3.1 2.4 2.0 5.3 2.5 3.0 1.4 5.9 9.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 10.0 9.1 3.5 0.5 0.2 12.0 7.9 2.0 3.2 4.9 4.4 7.9 5.2 3.5 8.8 2.7 1.9 1.8 3.6 17.5 18.5 16.3 3.7 0.2 0.5 13.0 1.2 7.2 3.3 0.4 1.6 5.0 10.8 2.3 0.2 4.2 3.0 2.1 4.4 9.3 4.4 2.1 6.0 5.2 4.3 3.6 4.1 A3. Computers per 100 inhab. 1.2 0.4 1.4 0.2 0.5 0.3 1.0 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.4 1.6 0.4 0.3 1.6 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.7 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 1.4 2.6 11.9 0.6 0.6 0.5 3.5 0.1 0.7 6.3 2.3 4.1 0.4 1.8 0.7 3.4 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.0 8.4 1.1 A4. Internet subscribers per 100 inhab. 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.9 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.1 2.3 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.4 A5. A6. Broadband International subscribers Internet bandwidth per 1000 inhab. (bits) per inhab. 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.22 0.03 0.10 0.01 0.57 0.20 0.13 0.88 0.01 0.74 0.43 0.04 0.00 0.11 0.02 0.75 0.15 1.2 0.4 6.5 11.9 4.8 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.3 2.4 0.2 1.9 0.1 1.5 0.6 0.3 11.4 1.0 5.9 1.1 0.5 0.1 1.9 0.4 1.6 3.5 42.2 9.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.6 5.2 1.1 1.3 13.2 45.0 0.1 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.5 2.5 2.3 1.2 22.9 2.0 4.6 7.4

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A7. % population covered by mobile telephony ... 70.0 ... ... 72.0 ... 87.5 72.0 ... ... ... 80.0 55.0 ... ... 70.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 70.0 ... 80.0 16.4 30.0 70.0 ... ... 90.0 64.0 95.0 ... ... 60.0 14.0 55.0 ... ... 70.0 ... 85.0 ... ... ... 60.0 ... 25.0 85.0 80.0 75.0 ... 68.0 50.5 ... 60.0 A8. Internet access tariffs (20 hours per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 18.76 56.3 60.73 165.6 24.02 45.8 84.50 338.0 76.30 1'017.3 53.93 215.7 49.75 94.8 167.51 773.1 85.54 427.7 38.09 101.6 121.22 223.8 166.75 303.2 92.53 1'110.4 52.08 328.9 26.23 349.7 14.11 62.7 32.58 122.2 60.64 169.2 105.09 900.8 130.00 390.0 9.68 21.5 68.34 205.0 38.14 134.6 52.90 186.7 65.69 129.2 48.13 199.2 63.33 475.0 75.87 313.9 42.44 127.3 19.06 38.8 19.20 48.0 50.00 285.7 18.29 77.8 6.23 31.1 53.37 86.6 126.76 760.5 74.30 254.7 12.68 29.3 24.24 58.2 55.34 301.9 90.42 361.7 26.59 59.1 12.01 96.1 82.07 175.9 40.03 104.4 54.35 310.6 117.00 468.0 40.08 155.1 90.60 434.9 20.19 57.7 12.75 31.9 29.22 67.4 35.23 111.3 17.11 42.8 56.5 248.9 A9. Mobile cellular tariffs (100 minutes of use per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 10.00 7.10 21.3 23.04 62.8 11.34 21.6 25.00 100.0 16.95 226.0 5.65 22.6 35.02 66.7 18.43 85.1 24.89 124.4 24.58 65.5 31.80 58.7 27.65 50.3 ... ... 10.74 67.8 5.63 75.1 ... 16.69 62.6 ... ... 12.05 36.1 2.33 5.2 20.98 63.0 8.38 29.6 ... 34.04 67.0 ... 16.37 67.7 20.58 154.3 31.80 131.6 ... 20.06 40.8 19.86 49.6 ... ... 6.66 33.3 37.13 60.2 29.03 174.2 27.37 93.8 8.69 20.0 ... 25.10 136.9 ... 19.82 44.0 33.69 269.5 ... ... 9.78 25.5 4.87 27.9 18.06 72.2 ... 14.60 70.1 ... 14.97 37.4 ... 17.32 54.7 43.63 109.1 19.3 74.6 A11. Radio sets per 100 inhab. A12. Television sets per 100 inhab.

6.4 26.8 32.1 10.6 16.2 12.8 10.9 11.6 15.4 14.6 38.0 47.4 9.3 4.7 21.8 6.2 13.1 31.0 15.3 13.8 4.1 5.9 6.6 7.3 8.3 15.1 30.1 11.7 12.6 46.1 41.8 41.0 16.3 14.8 14.4

1.7 8.4 1.1 3.2 1.2 3.5 0.8 4.3 0.5 0.5 2.7 1.3 13.5 16.0 0.3 5.9 0.8 1.5 5.2 1.8 4.5 6.3 8.4 4.8 18.8 5.7 3.7 1.9 0.6 2.9 4.1 36.0 8.1 2.1 0.7 1.1 12.7 1.1 6.8 8.2 2.3 0.8 12.5 4.3 1.3 1.0 1.7 38.7 37.5 4.2 18.0 1.8 29.0 20.9 33.7 6.5 5.1 8.4

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A1. A2. Fixed Mobile cellular telephone lines subscribers per 100 inhab. per 100 inhab. 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income 8.3 7.1 0.7 15.3 12.3 32.2 7.0 24.0 23.5 35.1 15.6 24.0 17.1 6.8 1.6 10.6 12.2 13.5 13.4 12.4 13.5 8.9 13.4 5.6 4.5 22.0 4.0 14.6 11.0 16.2 5.1 9.6 8.3 10.8 4.4 6.4 9.7 4.7 7.4 4.2 20.3 7.3 32.9 5.1 18.6 4.4 14.6 25.2 11.0 11.3 12.1 7.7 25.2 3.2 18.8 39.4 14.5 6.7 5.3 17.4 22.7 20.1 34.0 36.3 60.9 13.9 25.8 22.9 0.7 5.1 28.8 26.9 10.9 27.7 16.8 16.6 25.0 13.6 10.1 13.5 6.2 2.2 82.2 28.4 17.9 0.7 34.5 1.1 11.5 31.2 14.2 26.4 29.4 14.8 39.8 47.1 5.8 58.0 11.4 48.5 10.4 12.9 47.7 44.2 16.4 35.9 1.0 28.5 4.9 24.8 A3. Computers per 100 inhab. 1.2 0.9 0.2 5.3 1.8 2.3 10.7 5.9 10.2 4.1 5.5 2.6 3.1 5.5 3.3 4.5 5.2 3.8 1.8 3.5 1.6 1.4 10.5 0.8 6.2 5.3 1.2 11.0 8.8 2.1 10.9 4.6 5.9 9.7 4.5 11.3 0.7 4.8 2.7 3.3 3.3 6.8 6.0 5.0 4.8 2.8 1.4 4.5 A4. Internet subscribers per 100 inhab. 0.7 0.1 2.9 4.2 0.3 0.7 4.4 4.5 3.6 1.2 5.5 1.7 0.1 0.6 1.2 0.9 5.3 1.8 1.1 0.1 3.4 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.1 3.6 1.9 1.0 0.9 0.4 1.3 1.9 0.3 0.9 1.4 0.8 2.3 1.5 5.6 0.7 7.4 0.7 1.5 1.8 0.9 3.9 1.9 1.2 0.5 0.8 4.0 A5. A6. Broadband International subscribers Internet bandwidth per 1000 inhab. (bits) per inhab. 0.26 0.11 0.08 0.97 1.72 4.20 0.17 0.60 19.84 2.01 4.05 0.88 0.42 14.48 0.29 0.25 3.43 1.86 0.13 2.19 2.16 4.98 17.66 0.96 0.03 0.73 0.11 0.29 0.11 13.62 3.9 5.0 0.5 9.5 0.3 36.0 44.4 24.3 151.9 79.9 21.2 57.3 122.7 7.7 3.1 37.1 20.2 14.5 55.8 10.1 15.1 55.2 3.0 5.8 45.7 28.6 40.5 41.5 4.5 21.7 25.8 203.4 38.9 186.1 16.5 86.6 15.9 102.5 1.0 0.9 24.2 48.5 20.2 44.0 16.9 11.7 56.8

174

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A7. % population covered by mobile telephony 90.4 74.0 ... 84.0 97.0 88.0 ... 95.0 88.0 99.4 ... ... ... 50.0 78.0 ... 88.0 98.0 ... 55.0 94.0 ... 95.0 ... 90.0 90.0 ... 95.0 99.0 ... ... 81.0 ... ... 96.0 88.0 95.0 ... ... 92.0 98.0 ... 95.1 80.0 ... 80.0 90.0 98.0 ... 95.0 98.0 ... 92.0 20.0 89.9 A8. Internet access tariffs (20 hours per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 28.42 19.6 18.45 11.5 44.00 71.4 46.08 58.2 51.78 75.8 12.33 9.3 19.68 26.2 9.37 7.4 21.95 9.7 22.92 12.9 39.98 33.3 10.13 11.1 18.43 12.2 67.50 37.7 110.72 146.0 8.81 5.0 30.00 19.7 3.93 3.4 24.38 12.5 33.94 18.2 10.03 15.6 53.07 33.3 22.17 29.6 37.46 46.3 21.54 31.9 5.25 3.1 41.69 16.8 28.93 18.8 34.49 23.3 188.57 263.1 61.96 31.6 40.05 23.2 21.00 19.2 31.66 19.7 25.45 27.5 31.22 33.8 32.67 18.3 15.70 17.4 34.25 18.2 45.78 38.2 10.74 6.7 25.28 32.6 29.36 15.5 41.67 37.0 15.05 15.6 18.27 11.1 7.39 4.0 50.00 40.3 12.94 6.9 20.22 21.7 11.43 14.1 56.23 57.2 32.8 30.6 A9. Mobile cellular tariffs (100 minutes of use per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 46.12 31.8 16.41 10.2 20.00 32.4 31.29 39.5 19.15 28.0 3.73 2.8 16.77 22.4 21.33 16.7 34.57 15.3 36.62 20.6 33.53 27.9 ... 10.41 6.9 37.96 21.2 13.77 18.2 19.60 11.0 0.00 0.0 8.68 7.5 30.32 15.6 70.83 37.9 15.92 24.8 12.86 8.1 18.38 24.5 20.05 24.8 10.44 15.5 ... ... 13.75 5.5 10.51 6.8 ... ... 10.47 5.3 ... ... 32.24 29.5 26.17 16.3 17.26 18.7 7.64 8.3 38.37 21.5 10.75 11.9 19.24 10.2 20.27 16.9 12.46 7.8 8.93 11.5 25.00 13.2 34.80 30.9 13.76 14.2 31.92 19.3 12.10 6.6 ... 12.21 6.5 ... 19.13 23.7 35.06 35.7 21.4 17.4 A11. Radio sets per 100 inhab. A12. Television sets per 100 inhab.

58.4 23.0 8.5 33.5 18.4 54.4 10.7 51.1 67.3 50.7 49.0 73.1 9.5 7.9 21.2 12.2 18.9 65.3 102.6 17.2 68.3

21.4 18.9 2.1 23.4 33.3 38.6 24.9 36.8 33.0 10.5 38.2 25.1 26.2 7.8 25.0 25.0 23.4 11.7 36.0 15.6 14.1 11.8 15.2 17.4 38.0 19.0 46.6 4.4 14.3 2.5 16.4 8.1 15.4 16.3 19.9 19.2 89.3 14.8 28.8 12.5 24.5 3.6 19.2 24.3 29.0 7.0 21.3 18.3 35.6 1.3 32.2

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

175

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A1. A2. Fixed Mobile cellular telephone lines subscribers per 100 inhab. per 100 inhab. 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income 49.4 22.8 50.1 12.9 8.0 21.5 31.6 42.7 33.6 29.4 1.8 33.9 2.9 31.8 35.4 28.5 17.7 13.6 23.8 17.4 28.7 6.2 17.2 10.0 11.9 31.9 27.5 26.2 23.2 10.4 50.0 32.0 27.3 24.6 26.4 30.9 12.8 22.7 70.1 35.3 73.9 35.1 32.9 62.1 21.7 63.6 105.6 58.7 10.9 96.0 36.2 42.1 71.0 86.4 67.2 25.0 4.1 99.3 57.1 41.4 28.8 36.6 26.6 33.3 27.0 59.9 51.6 60.8 79.4 43.1 20.0 62.0 59.5 49.8 48.0 18.5 32.2 47.9 A3. Computers per 100 inhab. 8.0 12.5 13.5 4.7 13.9 21.9 19.1 21.6 18.2 1.4 47.4 3.0 15.5 20.3 14.6 21.9 11.3 2.3 15.5 19.2 16.2 10.7 4.9 4.1 19.1 13.2 18.5 29.6 8.3 22.0 17.3 13.2 7.9 5.1 13.3 8.2 11.8 A4. Internet subscribers per 100 inhab. 5.2 2.3 8.8 2.9 13.7 20.9 8.4 0.2 13.1 0.6 4.2 5.7 7.3 2.9 4.8 14.9 13.9 5.1 3.0 2.0 2.5 6.5 1.3 4.1 7.4 2.2 9.8 3.3 3.7 2.1 1.8 4.0 A5. A6. Broadband International subscribers Internet bandwidth per 1000 inhab. (bits) per inhab. 13.02 10.83 59.25 6.58 23.12 45.62 85.40 0.48 40.72 21.50 22.54 37.45 9.88 2.20 9.89 0.28 5.76 21.06 0.08 9.13 0.06 10.70 10.91 3.24 7.99 8.01 9.64 359.0 320.4 176.2 15.1 824.3 319.3 2'176.9 420.8 2.0 3'516.8 114.6 436.9 4.6 990.4 983.4 56.3 1.1 193.3 124.8 50.0 107.1 144.9 291.9 554.6 99.6 72.5 2'294.4 19.5 42.5 25.2 137.7 122.5 308.5 51.1 249.2

176

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A7. % population covered by mobile telephony 85.0 ... 95.0 ... 99.0 100.0 ... 98.0 99.6 ... ... 99.0 74.0 ... 95.0 99.0 98.1 99.0 ... 100.0 ... 99.8 ... 99.9 ... 86.8 99.0 ... ... 99.0 96.0 ... 80.0 95.0 ... 95.0 100.0 ... 97.8 A8. Internet access tariffs (20 hours per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 22.39 2.9 18.37 5.8 25.88 3.4 75.76 27.0 43.51 14.8 21.71 6.0 24.63 6.9 23.74 5.3 28.90 4.8 16.79 6.1 103.30 19.33 4.3 140.78 50.6 22.39 7.2 28.92 34.90 6.6 41.77 11.4 34.59 10.3 10.45 2.1 36.03 9.6 8.42 2.6 15.65 4.6 19.31 3.7 14.51 2.3 36.83 10.9 20.94 4.8 22.00 10.1 100.97 16.2 25.21 6.1 58.36 25.5 22.39 4.1 22.22 6.6 22.20 8.0 13.63 2.1 18.84 8.1 15.85 5.0 11.78 4.0 33.1 8.8 A9. Mobile cellular tariffs (100 minutes of use per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 33.09 4.3 15.16 4.8 9.85 1.3 36.71 13.1 20.72 7.0 58.93 16.2 5.54 1.5 20.17 4.5 30.09 5.0 23.90 8.6 ... 22.41 5.0 24.89 8.9 23.90 7.7 44.74 ... 15.76 3.0 21.91 6.0 47.04 14.0 ... 10.16 2.7 12.06 3.7 ... ... 14.11 2.7 ... 12.95 2.1 ... 23.19 5.3 11.27 5.2 57.88 9.3 21.16 5.1 40.85 17.8 ... 22.98 6.8 22.98 8.3 17.48 2.7 ... 37.06 11.6 24.04 8.3 25.3 6.8 A11. Radio sets per 100 inhab. A12. Television sets per 100 inhab.

28.5 75.6 82.1 119.2 22.2 59.1 50.2 24.8 54.2

47.1 32.8 28.9 20.0 4.4 53.4 22.5 32.0 60.3 25.2 50.7 16.3 34.7 29.6 53.0 85.9 35.7 14.9 49.7 21.9 37.0 16.2 27.6 66.5 18.8 22.9 34.6 26.6 40.9 19.7 27.1 33.3 35.4 54.2 25.9 19.0 33.6

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

177

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A1. A2. Fixed Mobile cellular telephone lines subscribers per 100 inhab. per 100 inhab. 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income 52.3 58.6 46.2 44.1 26.7 46.4 86.2 25.6 64.3 51.8 64.5 49.8 45.4 56.0 21.5 66.1 57.8 44.7 99.4 54.4 65.0 49.9 43.7 44.8 46.0 55.3 19.5 79.7 37.4 51.6 48.4 23.0 46.1 47.2 40.3 28.5 25.7 14.8 43.2 40.7 41.5 71.5 71.0 59.6 27.3 56.4 60.6 63.9 54.1 93.4 89.4 82.8 97.4 58.7 90.6 88.3 79.0 56.3 46.7 79.4 95.5 85.8 95.6 73.7 53.6 29.2 86.4 84.8 56.2 59.4 78.5 118.8 99.0 93.5 105.2 108.2 71.6 95.3 76.1 78.3 138.2 92.9 76.5 74.8 90.1 91.2 50.2 77.5 103.6 98.4 68.8 65.9 75.5 36.8 89.5 100.5 89.5 108.5 84.6 100.3 84.7 102.2 62.1 57.8 77.1 A3. Computers per 100 inhab. 68.9 57.6 16.9 35.1 52.3 8.5 69.8 30.9 65.5 48.2 48.7 18.0 31.5 48.5 9.0 60.5 47.1 49.7 73.4 31.3 54.1 54.5 17.6 62.1 29.0 31.5 20.8 68.5 49.3 57.8 13.3 17.9 36.3 34.0 62.2 35.5 25.4 76.1 82.3 52.8 12.0 60.0 76.2 57.2 A4. Internet subscribers per 100 inhab. 7.5 26.2 16.3 9.8 7.1 19.7 23.2 8.3 51.2 25.3 26.8 19.8 6.9 6.1 27.7 7.7 16.0 36.5 19.4 26.4 16.8 34.3 26.6 25.0 9.8 23.8 16.6 22.0 10.2 43.1 7.5 19.5 28.1 11.9 6.6 5.1 3.7 51.6 12.0 13.5 36.5 41.8 59.0 9.4 25.3 23.0 24.9 A5. A6. Broadband International subscribers Internet bandwidth per 1000 inhab. (bits) per inhab. 42.77 52.63 99.92 40.39 156.42 168.88 16.57 190.59 65.10 153.37 111.76 17.54 55.25 4.69 219.77 188.10 37.62 139.75 81.06 116.89 247.94 7.83 34.00 97.18 94.11 15.30 197.57 22.18 20.70 148.78 81.53 5.89 14.32 0.79 118.75 29.04 79.67 137.27 164.13 165.33 10.54 119.24 97.07 106.82 2'232.8 1'107.6 6'655.2 283.9 589.3 11'368.1 6'782.7 371.7 34'828.1 3'323.4 4'336.1 3'309.4 11.4 233.9 6'861.2 593.3 7'073.9 4'232.1 6'081.4 2'477.4 2'069.4 1'037.6 1'484.5 112.4 3'239.7 2'417.8 1'937.5 5.1 20'618.6 293.1 1'171.6 9'450.6 830.6 625.0 2.7 30.1 5'725.1 1'256.9 2'788.6 17'493.0 9'637.8 3'143.9 348.9 13'069.5 3'306.4 4'401.9

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

178

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19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, latest available data
A7. % population covered by mobile telephony ... 96.0 98.5 95.0 100.0 99.0 ... 95.0 100.0 ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 ... 95.0 99.0 99.6 ... ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 98.0 99.8 99.0 ... 99.0 100.0 98.0 100.0 99.0 98.0 ... 99.5 90.0 98.0 ... 99.0 99.0 95.0 ... ... 100.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 99.0 98.0 A8. Internet access tariffs (20 hours per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 16.36 48.70 3.4 24.25 1.3 43.01 1.9 24.75 1.9 39.77 3.5 36.00 1.7 33.95 1.1 17.34 1.7 14.67 0.7 22.05 1.5 23.04 0.8 70.00 27.23 1.2 31.29 1.5 28.92 4.1 77.54 5.7 19.81 0.9 25.12 2.3 35.70 32.77 1.2 3.85 0.2 53.43 2.1 36.05 1.6 19.74 1.5 21.57 1.2 28.59 1.0 55.37 10.49 1.0 24.67 1.6 42.67 1.1 11.88 0.8 21.70 2.4 28.92 2.2 33.27 1.5 86.84 7.5 12.66 1.0 44.36 1.2 37.04 3.8 21.96 0.9 27.99 33.33 4.3 11.74 0.7 30.89 3.1 25.24 1.8 25.36 1.1 27.32 0.8 11.12 1.0 13.06 0.8 29.07 1.2 14.95 0.5 34.70 1.8 30.2 1.8 A9. Mobile cellular tariffs (100 minutes of use per month) US$ as % of GNI per capita 44.12 29.21 2.0 15.25 0.8 36.64 1.6 24.21 1.9 10.84 0.9 27.51 1.3 30.25 1.0 18.20 1.8 20.62 1.0 8.33 0.5 12.28 0.4 41.00 ... 19.54 0.9 61.25 3.0 41.52 5.8 85.20 6.3 47.75 2.3 40.30 3.7 24.43 ... 25.25 ... 26.53 1.0 1.31 0.1 17.20 0.7 31.22 1.4 16.84 1.2 30.28 1.7 22.59 0.8 26.53 ... ... 13.76 0.9 12.15 0.3 10.36 0.7 45.26 5.0 45.19 3.5 48.36 5.3 42.74 2.0 ... 61.15 4.7 43.15 1.2 42.74 4.3 15.15 1.6 19.97 0.8 32.45 ... 22.89 3.0 13.31 0.8 12.62 1.3 25.65 1.8 28.06 1.2 70.15 2.1 15.21 1.4 5.78 0.4 8.84 0.4 10.10 0.3 ... 28.5 1.8 A11. Radio sets per 100 inhab. A12. Television sets per 100 inhab.

196.2 56.9 145.4 42.4 55.9 63.2 56.3 31.1 36.2

23.6 72.4 65.7 24.6 41.3 54.0 107.0 62.1 70.6 38.4 97.5 51.9 67.9 63.3 24.3 22.4 67.5 53.7 27.2 54.3 34.5 69.4 35.4 84.3 47.7 40.7 59.8 29.2 55.4 17.8 76.1 50.2 57.4 155.2 42.1 33.9 42.3 19.2 26.4 30.5 36.6 54.8 57.4 26.4 19.4 110.1 88.2 74.2

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

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20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals, latest available data

Proportion of households with:


Year HH1. Radio HH2. TV HH3. Fixed line telephone HH4. Mobile cellular telephone 21.6 4.9 5.0 86.8 HH5. Computer HH7. Internet access at home 2.0 1.0 0.1

Proportion of individuals who used ICTs in the last 12 months HH6. HH8. Computer Internet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Afghanistan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire D.P.R. Korea D.R. Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda S. Tom & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Low income

2004 2003 2001

2004

2004 2003

2001

2002

2002

2004 2001 2003 2001 2004

2001 2001 2001

2002 2002 2004

30.4 77.0 71.0 35.1 54.2 55.2 49.5 80.1 77.0 51.6 76.0 51.2 48.6

22.9 57.7 26.0 31.6 11.5 3.0 82.1 5.1 59.1 25.0 31.3 26.0 2.6 4.5 70.0

4.8 5.2 6.9 54.6 6.1 13.5 1.1 3.8 0.5 56.2

2.3 2.1 1.4 5.5 2.6

9.7

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20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals, latest available data

Proportion of households with:


Year HH1. Radio HH2. TV HH3. Fixed line telephone HH4. Mobile cellular telephone 5.0 25.9 48.3 57.2 44.3 24.5 48.0 51.0 41.5 30.0 32.4 12.1 36.0 31.5 23.1 69.0 HH5. Computer HH7. Internet access at home 0.2 12.4 9.6 9.8 3.1 2.1 5.0 5.0 9.2 1.7 1.4 5.5 0.7 11.0 6.2

Proportion of individuals who used ICTs in the last 12 months HH6. HH8. Computer Internet

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Albania Algeria Angola Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bolivia Bosnia Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Indonesia Iran (I.R.) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Morocco Namibia Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Syria TFYR Macedonia Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu Lower middle income

2001

2004 2003 2005 2002 2004 2004

2001

2005

2004 2004

2001 2004

2002 2002 2001 2003

2005 2004 2002 2003 2003 2004 2002 2004 2004

2004 2005 2001

88.1 61.5 58.3 19.0 74.0 69.7 79.7 41.4 22.2 72.4 71.3 39.0

90.0 93.0 68.6 97.1 90.9 97.3 75.8 77.7 89.0 48.0 65.4 96.3 92.0 93.4 72.3 68.7 63.1 93.7 91.8 95.0 88.6

66.4 78.6 24.7 49.6 78.0 25.8 37.5 32.7 14.5 54.4 40.0 17.0 8.4 16.8 22.9 12.0 46.1 85.0 26.8

1.4 4.0 0.8 9.6 16.6 14.6 18.8 5.5 6.0 2.0 3.7 2.8 16.4 21.0 11.0 26.4 6.4 6.8 6.6 12.2 4.0 30.0 15.5

24.8 28.2 63.9 35.7 18.0 34.0 21.4

18.1 16.4 11.9 11.6 15.0 24.0 11.9

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20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals, latest available data

Proportion of households with:


Year HH1. Radio HH2. TV HH3. Fixed line telephone HH4. Mobile cellular telephone 31.2 27.1 51.0 43.7 70.8 66.6 70.0 42.5 72.6 28.1 42.0 85.0 49.6 13.7 60.0 53.6 HH5. Computer HH7. Internet access at home 9.1 1.2 10.2 10.2 19.1 39.0 22.0 42.0 15.8 24.0 9.0 30.0 23.0 7.9 17.0 7.0 13.6

Proportion of individuals who used ICTs in the last 12 months HH6. HH8. Computer Internet

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Equatorial Guinea Estonia Gabon Grenada Guadeloupe Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Marianas Oman Panama Poland Russia Seychelles Slovak Republic South Africa St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Trinidad & Tobago Turkey Uruguay Venezuela Upper middle income

2001 2001

2004 2002 2005 2004 2005

2005

2005 2005 2004 2005 2004 2002 2002 2005

2005

2005 2004 2001 2005 2004 2002 2001

90.2 69.7 50.0 88.0 89.2 68.9 80.8

88.6 9.8 87.0 92.8 93.7 93.2 96.2 98.0 97.2 97.8 92.8 92.7 99.0 59.2 79.0 92.2 92.9

82.3 57.1 22.3 51.5 65.6 88.4 61.2 58.7 75.0 54.0 37.4 45.0 76.3 35.0 48.8 50.3 54.6 60.2 35.6

27.1 20.5 6.1 20.5 27.0 27.9 30.0 36.0 31.9 32.0 23.7 31.6 13.0 18.4 36.1 47.0 8.6 13.1 31.0 10.3 17.6

45.0 63.0 43.0 51.0 43.0 21.8 28.5 48.0 66.0 33.0 18.3

4.3 35.0 61.0 39.0 46.0 36.0 12.8 17.7 39.0 55.0 27.0 14.6

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20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals, latest available data

Proportion of households with:


Year HH1. Radio HH2. TV HH3. Fixed line telephone HH4. Mobile cellular telephone 88.0 69.4 53.9 84.9 91.0 95.5 78.0 81.7 78.9 83.7 78.4 91.1 76.8 71.3 79.0 85.4 80.0 68.6 83.6 HH5. Computer HH7. Internet access at home 56.0 46.7 17.6 50.0 55.0 31.7 75.0 54.1 34.0 62.0 22.0 41.0 64.9 84.0 39.7 40.7 39.0 86.8 73.4 77.0 31.7 31.3 26.0 78.0 17.0 37.4 64.0 31.0 39.0 65.0 48.0 36.0 73.0 65.0 28.2 60.0 54.7

Proportion of individuals who used ICTs in the last 12 months HH6. HH8. Computer Internet

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Andorra Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Belgium Bermuda Brunei Darussalam Canada Cyprus Denmark Faroe Islands Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam Guernsey Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jersey Korea (Rep.) Kuwait Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Martinique Neth. Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Runion Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (US) High income

2004 2005 2001 2005

2003 2005 2005 2005 2004

2005 2005

2001 2004 2005 2004 2004 2005 2004 2005 2005 2003 2002

2005 2002 2004 2005 2005

2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2001 2005 2001 2005 2005

88.4 99.0

94.9 96.5 99.0 99.3 97.0 94.1 95.0 99.5 96.8 95.3 92.6 95.5 99.0 98.4 40.0 98.0 99.4 98.6 99.5 93.6 99.6 98.2

83.4 96.3 53.8 97.0 86.8 81.1 43.0 93.2 75.1 88.6 97.9 90.0

66.0 63.1 32.4 44.6 66.8 47.0 75.0 64.9 49.8 68.7 33.0 71.1 85.7 46.3 59.2 47.4 78.2 78.5 67.3 56.4 38.0 72.0 62.2 71.5 41.3 74.0 58.0 50.6 69.2 64.2 56.8 65.3 61.8

68.0 66.0 48.0 43.0 87.0 78.4 76.0 31.0 59.5 89.0 49.6 51.9 42.0 50.8 74.8 79.0 24.4 34.0 84.0 85.0 43.0 63.0 52.0 55.0 87.0 76.0 72.0

58.0 58.0 60.0 64.0 33.0 83.0 74.5 49.0 69.0 24.0 56.4 87.0 37.0 42.1 35.0 69.4 71.9 70.0 81.0 72.2 82.0 35.0 57.0 41.0 48.0 85.0 64.1 70.0 68.0

Note: For data comparability and coverage, see the technical notes. Figures in italics are estimates or refer to years other than those specified. Source: ITU.

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TECHNICAL NOTES
General methodology The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is computed by the formula: [(Pv / P0) (1/n)]-1 where Pv = Present value P0 = Beginning value n = Number of periods

lines per 100 inhabitants or mobile cellular subscribers per 100 inhabitants. 2. Main telephone lines This table shows the number of Main telephone lines and Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants for the years indicated and corresponding annual growth rates. Main telephone lines refer to telephone lines connecting a customers equipment (e.g., telephone set, facsimile machine) to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and which have a dedicated port on a telephone exchange. Note that for most countries, main lines also include public payphones. Many countries also include ISDN channels in main lines (see 9. ISDN and ADSL). Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants is calculated by dividing the number of main lines by the population and multiplying by 100. 3. Waiting list The table shows the total number of applications for a connection to a main telephone line that have had to be held over owing to a lack of technical availability. It should be noted that the waiting list refers to applications received; it does not include figures for those who desire a telephone line but have not submitted an application. Total demand is obtained by adding main lines in operation and the waiting list. Satisfied demand is obtained by dividing the number of main lines by the total demand for main telephone lines (sum of the unmet applications and operating main telephone lines). Waiting time shows the approximate number of years applicants must wait for a telephone line. It is calculated by dividing the number of applicants on the waiting list by the average number of main lines added per year over the past three years. 4. Local telephone network Capacity used is obtained by dividing the number of main lines in service by the total number of main lines that could be connected to local public switching exchanges. The Automatic per cent is calculated by dividing the number of main lines connected to automatic exchanges by the total number of main lines. The Digital per cent is calculated by dividing the number of main lines connected to digital exchanges by the total number of main lines. The percentage of Residential lines refers to the number of main lines
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The result is multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. United States dollar figures are reached by applying the average annual exchange rate (from the International Monetary Fund, IMF) to the figure reported in national currency. For countries where the IMF rate is unavailable or where the exchange rate typically applied to foreign exchange transactions differs markedly from the official IMF rate, a World Bank conversion rate is used. For the few countries where neither the IMF nor World Bank rates are available, a United Nations end-of-period rate was used. Group figures are either totals or weighted averages depending on the indicator. For example, for main telephone lines, the total number of main telephone lines for each grouping is shown, while for main lines per 100 inhabitants the weighted average is shown. Group figures are shown in bold in the tables. In cases of significant missing data, group totals are not shown. Group growth rates generally refer to countries for which data is available for both years. 1. Basic indicators The data for Population are mid-year estimates from national statistical offices or the United Nations (UN). Population Density is based on land area data from the UN; the land area does not include any overseas dependencies but does include inland waters. The data for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are generally from the IMF. They are current price data in national currency converted to United States dollars by the method identified above. Total telephone subscribers refer to the sum of main telephone lines and cellular mobile subscribers (see below for definitions). Total telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants is calculated by dividing the total telephone subscribers by the population and multiplying by 100. Effective teledensity is the higher value of either main telephone

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006

serving households (i.e. lines that are not used for professional purposes or as public telephone stations) divided by the total number of main lines. Faults per 100 main lines per year refer to the number of reported faults per 100 main telephone lines for the year indicated. It is calculated by the total number of reported faults for the year divided by the number of telephone main lines and multiplied by 100. Some countries report this on a monthly basis, so an annual estimate is made by multiplying by 12. The definition of a fault varies among countries: some operators define faults as including malfunctioning customer equipment while others include only technical faults. 5. Teleaccessibility Total residential main lines refer to the number of main lines used by households. Per 100 households is obtained by dividing the number of residential main lines by the number of households and multiplying by 100. Payphones refers to the total number of all types of public telephones including coin- and cardoperated ones. Some countries include public phones installed in private places. No distinction is made between operational and non-operational payphones. Per 1000 inhabitants is obtained by dividing the number of public payphones by the population and multiplying by 1000. As % of main lines is obtained by dividing the number of public telephones by the number of main lines. 6. Telephone tariffs The table shows the costs associated with local residential and business telephone service. Connection refers to connection charges for basic telephone service. Monthly subscription refers to the recurring fixed charge for subscribing to the PSTN. This indicator is not always comparable since some countries include a number of free local calls in the subscription. When subscription charges are reported annually or bi-monthly, they are converted to their corresponding monthly amount. Local call refers to the cost of a 3-minute call within the same exchange area using the subscribers equipment (i.e., not from a public telephone). This is the amount the subscriber must pay for a 3 minute call and not the average price for each 3 minutes. Any taxes involved in these three charges are included to improve comparability. The Subscription as a % of GDP per capita shows cost of an annual residential telephone subscription as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. 7. Mobile cellular subscribers Mobile cellular telephone subscribers refer to users of portable telephones subscribing to an automatic
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public mobile telephone service using cellular technology that provides access to the PSTN. Per 100 inhabitants is obtained by dividing the number of cellular subscribers by the population and multiplying by 100. Prepaid subscribers refers to the total number of mobile cellular subscribers using prepaid cards. Population coverage measures the percentage of inhabitants that are within range of a mobile cellular signal whether or not they are subscribers. This is calculated by dividing the number of inhabitants within range of a mobile cellular signal by the total population. As a % of total telephone subscribers is obtained by dividing the number of cellular subscribers by the total number of telephone subscribers (sum of the main telephone lines and the cellular subscribers. 8. Prepaid cellular tariffs Connection charge refers to the initial, one-time charge for a new subscription. Per minute local call refers to the price of a one-minute peak and off-peak rate local call from a mobile cellular telephone. When there are different rates, the price of a call to the same mobile network is used. Cost of local SMS is the price of sending a national Short Message Service (SMS) message from a mobile handset. 100 minutes of use includes the tariff components of 50 minutes of local peak time calling and 50 minutes of local off-peak calling. Differences in the distance of calls, which may be applicable in some countries, are not taken into account, nor are international calls or SMS messages. The possible one-time charge for connection is not taken into account, except where this is bundled into the costs of a pre-paid account. The price comparison is expressed in US$, and as a percentage of per capita income, which is computed by dividing the 100 minutes of use by the Gross National Income (GNI) of the country. 9. ISDN and ADSL ISDN subscribers refers to the number of subscribers to Integrated Services Digital Networks. It includes both basic rate and primary rate interface subscribers. B-channel equivalents converts the number of ISDN subscriber lines into their equivalent voice channels. The number of basic rate subscribers is multiplied by two and the number of primary rate subscribers is multiplied by 23 or 30 depending on the standard implemented. B-channels per 1000 inhabitants is the number of B-channel equivalents divided by the population and multiplied by 1000. B-channels as % of main lines is the number of B-channel equivalents divided by the number of main telephone lines. DSL subscribers refers to subscribers using Digital

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

Subscriber Line (DSL) technology. DSL is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines, with speed equal to, or greater than 256 kbit/s, as the sum of the capacity in both directions. As % of subscriber lines is calculated by dividing the number of DSL subscribers by the number of subscriber lines. Subscriber lines is calculated by subtracting the number of ISDN channels from main telephone lines and adding ISDN subscribers. 10. International telephone traffic Outgoing international telephone traffic refers to total telephone traffic measured in minutes that originated in the specified country with a destination outside the country. As % of bothway refers to outgoing traffic divided by total traffic (incoming and outgoing). Minutes per inhabitant is obtained by dividing outgoing international minutes by the number of inhabitants in the country. Minutes per subscriber is obtained by dividing outgoing international minutes by the number of main lines. International telephone circuits refers to the number of links (voice channel equivalents) with other countries for establishing telephone communications. 11. Telecommunication staff Telecommunication staff refers to the total number of staff (part time staff converted to full time equivalents) employed by telecommunication enterprises providing public telecommunication services. In some cases where posts and telecommunication organisations are combined, no breakdown of telecommunication staff is available. Note that the figure would generally not include sub contract staff. % female refers to the number of full time telecommunication staff that are female divided by the total number of employees. Main lines per employee is computed by dividing the number of main lines by the number of employees. Caution should be used in interpreting this figure as some countries may subcontract a proportion of work, in which case the number of main lines per employee would be overstated. 12. Telecommunication revenue This table shows the revenues (turnover) received from providing telecommunication services in each country. United States dollar values are obtained by the method described earlier. Data may not be strictly comparable due to a number of factors. First, it is assumed that the data relate to revenues of all operators providing service in the country. This is not unequivocally known and may be impossible to determine since there may be no legal requirement

for all operators to provide financial information, or operators may be part of a parent company that only provides consolidated accounts. The data does not always include revenues from cellular mobile telephone, radio paging or data services in some developing nations if these services are not provided by the main fixed-link operator. Second, the operators may have subsidiaries with financial activities unrelated to telecommunication services that may be included. Third, in the case of countries where posts and telecommunications are combined, a perfect allocation of revenues is not always possible. Fourth, there are definition and accounting differences among countries. Total telecommunication revenue consists of all telecommunication revenues earned during the financial year under review. % mobile revenue is the share of mobile communication revenue. Per inhabitant shows current revenues divided by the number of inhabitants in the country. Per telephone subscriber is obtained by dividing revenues by total telephone subscribers (fixed plus mobile). Per employee is obtained by dividing revenues by employees. For some countries, no breakdown between postal and telecommunication staff is available and the figure may thus be unrealistically low. As a % of GDP shows telecommunication revenues divided by national Gross Domestic Product. 13. Telecommunication investment Investment refers to the annual expenditure associated with acquiring ownership of property and plant used for telecommunication services and includes land and buildings. Total telecom investment shows total current investments for the year indicated; the United States dollar figure is arrived at by the method described above. Per inhabitant is obtained by dividing the annual investment by the population. Per telephone subscriber is obtained by dividing investment by total telephone subscribers (fixed plus mobile). As a % of revenue is obtained by dividing annual investment by telecommunication revenues. As a % of GFCF shows telecommunications investment divided by Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF). For some countries where GFCF is not available, Gross Domestic Investment is used. This is similar to GFCF except that it does not include changes in inventories that tend to comprise a small proportion of GFCF. 14. Information technology Internet hosts refer to the number of computers directly connected to the worldwide Internet network. Note that Internet host computers are identified by a two-digit
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country code or a three-digit code generally reflecting the nature of the organization using the Internet computer. The number of hosts is assigned to economies based on the country code although this does not necessarily indicate that the host is actually physically located in the economy. In addition, all other hosts for which there are no country code identification are assigned to the United States. Therefore the number of Internet hosts shown for each country can only be considered an approximation. Data on Internet host computers are from Internet Software Consortium and RIPE (Rseaux IP Europens). Internet Users is based on nationally reported data. In some cases, surveys have been carried out that give a more precise figure for the number of Internet users. However surveys differ across countries in the age and frequency of use they cover. The reported figure for Internet users which may refer to only users above a certain age is divided by the total population and multiplied by 100 to obtain users per 100 inhabitants. Countries that do not have surveys generally base their estimates on derivations from reported Internet Service Provider subscriber counts, calculated by multiplying the number of subscribers by a multiplier. PCs shows the estimated number of Personal Computers (PCs), both in absolute numbers and in terms of PCs per 100 inhabitants. The figures for PCs come from the annual questionnaire supplemented by other sources. 15. Internet Internet subscribers refers to the number of dial-up, leased line and broadband Internet subscribers. Broadband subscribers refer to the sum of DSL, cable modem and other broadband subscribers. Although there exist various definitions of broadband, it may be defined as sufficient bandwidth to permit combined provision of voice, data and video. Speed should be greater than 128 kbps in at least one direction. As % of total subscribers is calculated by dividing the total number of broadband subscribers by the total number of Internet subscribers. Subscribers per 1000 inhabitants is calculated by dividing the number of broadband subscribers by population of the country multiplied by 1000. International bandwidth refers to the amount of international Internet bandwidth measured in Mega Bits Per Second (Mbps). Data for Internet bandwidth come from ITUs annual questionnaire supplemented with data from TeleGeography. Bits per inhabitant is calculated by dividing the international Internet bandwidth by the population. 16. Internet tariffs The table shows the costs associated with 20 hours dialup use per month. If broadband prices are cheaper, these are used instead. Data are generally those of the largest
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Internet Service Provider (ISP) and incumbent telephone company as they list the prices. ISP charge refers to the Internet monthly subscription plus extra charges once free hours have been used up. Telephone charge refers to the amount payable to the telephone company for local telephone charges while logged on. This includes usage charges but does not include the telephone line rental. Total Internet price refers to the sum of telephone usage charges and ISP charges. As % of GNI per capita shows cost of 20 hours use per month as a percentage of Gross National Income (GNI). 17. Multichannel TV Cable TV subscribers are those who subscribe to a multi-channel television service delivered by a fixed link connection, usually coaxial or fibre optic cable. However, some countries also report subscribers using wireless technology. In addition, some countries also report the number of households cabled to community antenna systems re-broadcasting free-to-air channels because of poor reception. As % of TV households is calculated by dividing the number of cable TV subscribers by the number of TV households. Home satellite antennas shows the number of households with access to a multi-channel television service delivered by satellite. This figure includes both Directto-the-home (DTH) service and Satellite Master Antenna Television (SMATV) which serves several households in the same building. SMATV serving households in different buildings is counted as cable TV. Cable modem Internet subscribers refer to Internet subscribers via a cable TV network. As % of cable TV subscribers is calculated by dividing the number of cable modem Internet subscribers by the total cable TV subscribers and multiplying by 100. 18. Network growth This table shows the increase in the number of main telephone lines, mobile cellular subscribers and Internet users over the preceding year. Note that particularly for main telephone lines, the figure is the addition to the base of main lines and does not reflect replacements. 19. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access This table shows the available data for the core list of indicators on ICT infrastructure and access, identified and agreed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (see chapter 2 of this report). For a more detailed description of the indicators, including definition and methodological notes, please consult the Core ICT Indicators publication, available for free, on the ITU ICT Statistics website (www.itu.int/ict).

WORLD TELECOMMUNICATION/ICT INDICATORS

The indicators are numbered as they appear in the core list of ICT indicators (see Table 2.1 of this report). The definition of the first set of indicators is discussed in previous tables. A radio set is a device capable of receiving broadcast radio signals, using popular frequencies, such as FM, AM, LW and SW. A radio set may be a standalone device, or it may be integrated into another device, such as a Walkman, a car, or an alarm clock. Radio sets per 100 inhabitants is obtained by dividing the number of radio sets in use by the population and multiplying by 100. A television set is a device capable of receiving broadcast television signals, using popular access means such as over-theair, cable and satellite. Television sets per 100 inhabitants is obtained by dividing the number of sets in use by the population and multiplying by 100. 20. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals This table shows the latest available data for the core list of indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by

households and individuals identified and agreed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (see chapter 2 of this report). For a more detailed description of the indicators, including definitions, model questions and methodological notes, please consult the Core ICT Indicators publication, available for free on the ITU ICT Statistics website (www.itu.int/ict). The proportion of households with different type of ICT (radio, TV, fixed telephone line, mobile cellular subscribers, computer, Internet) is calculated by dividing the number of in-scope households with different ICTs by the total number of in-scope households. The proportion of individuals who used a computer is calculated by dividing the total number of in-scope individuals who used a computer from any location in the last 12 months by the total number of in-scope individuals. The proportion of individuals who used the Internet is calculated by dividing the total number of in-scope individuals who used the Internet (from any location) in the last 12 months by the total number of in-scope individuals.

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Printed in Switzerland Geneva, 2006 ISBN 92-61-11451-2