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aerial. The same as antenna. antenna. A means for receiving or radiating radio waves. antenna pattern.

The same as radiation pattern. antenna resistance. The real part of the input impedance of an antenna. aperture of an antenna. A plane surface near the antenna, perpendicular to the direction of maximum radiation, through which the major part of the radiation passes. aperture blockage. A blocking of the radiation from part of the feed itself or the support structures. area of an antenna. The same as effective area of an antenna. array antenna. An antenna comprising a number of radiating elements to obtain a directional radiation pattern. array element. In an array antenna the single radiating element that have a fixed relative excitation. bandwidth of an antenna. The frequency range within which the performance of the antenna, with respect to some characteristic, conforms to a specified value. beam of an antenna. The main lobe of the radiation pattern of an antenna. beamwidth. The same as half power beamwidth. circularly polarized plane wave. A plane wave in which the electric field is circularly polarized. cross polarization. The polarization orthogonal to a reference polarization. dipole antenna. In the common usage is the electrically half wave length metallic radiating structure in which the current has a node only at each end. directional antenna. An antenna having the property of radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves more effectively in some directions than others. directive gain. In a given direction, 4 times the ratio of the radiation intensity in that direction to the total power radiated by the antenna. directive gain in physical media. In a given direction and at a given point in the far field, the ratio of the power flux per unit area from an antenna to the power flux per unit area from an isotropic radiator at the antenna terminal delivering the same power from the antenna to the medium. directivity. The value of the directive gain in the direction of its maximum value. director element. A parasitic element located forward of the driven element of an antenna, intended to increase the directive gain of the antenna in the forward direction. doublet antenna. The same as dipole antenna. driven element. A radiating element coupled directly to the feed line of an antenna. effective area of an antenna. In a given direction is the ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna to the power per unit area of a plane wave incident from that direction, with the same polarization that the antenna would radiate. effective height of an antenna. The height of the antenna centre of the radiation above the ground level. effective radiated power (ERP). In a given direction is the power gain of the antenna multiplied the net available power at the antenna terminals. efficiency. See radiation efficiency. element. See director; driven; parasitic; radiating; radiator; reflector. E plane. The plane containing the electric field vector and the direction of maximum radiation in linearly polarized antenna.

fan-beam antenna. An antenna system producing a major lobe whose transverse cross section has a large ratio of major to minor dimension. far-field region. That region of the field of an antenna where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the distance from the antenna. feed of an antenna. The part of the antenna coupled to the input/output terminals, the same as primary radiator. folded dipole. A device composed of two or more parallel closely spaced dipole connected together at their ends to the dipole fed at its centre. front to back ratio (F/B). The ratio of the directivity of an antenna to its directive gain in a specified direction towards the back. front to rear ratio (F/R). The same as front-to-back ratio. gain. See directive gain; directivity; power gain. Gregorian antenna. A double reflector antenna with a sub reflector located at a distance greater than the focal length from the vertex of the main reflector. ground plane (imaging plane). A conducting or reflecting plane functioning to image a radiating structure. G/T ratio. The ratio of the maximum power gain to the noise temperature of an antenna. half power beamwidth. In a plane containing the direction for the maximum radiation of a beam, the angle between the two directions in which the radiation intensity is one half the maximum value of the beam. horizontally polarized field vector. A linearly polarized field vector whose direction is horizontal. horizontally polarized plane wave. A plane wave in which the electric field is horizontally polarized. H plane. For a linearly polarized antenna, the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the direction of maximum radiation. Impedance. Input/Output impedance; intrinsic impedance; mutual impedance; self-impedance. Input/Output impedance. The impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals. interferometer antenna. An array antenna in which the inter element spacing are large compared to wavelength and element size so as produce grating lobes. intrinsic impedance. The theoretical input/output impedance of an antenna for the basic radiating structure when idealized. isolated impedance of an array element. The impedance of a radiating element of an array antenna with all other elements of the array absent. isolation dB between antennas. The ratio of power input to one antenna to the power received by the other expressed in decibel. isotropic radiator. A hypothetical antenna having equal radiation intensity in all directions. linear array antenna. An antenna having the centre of the radiating elements lying along a straight line. linearly polarized field vector. A field vector for which the polarization ellipse is a line segment. linearly polarized plane wave. A plane wave in which the electric field is linearly polarized. lobe. See beam of an antenna; major lobe; minor lobe; radiation lobe; side lobe. log periodic antenna. Any one of the classes of antennas having a structural geometry such that its impedance and radiation characteristic repeat periodically as the logarithm of frequency. long-wire antenna. A wire antenna of considerable length in comparison with the operating wavelength, which provides a directional radiation pattern. main lobe. The same as major lobe. major lobe. The radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation.

minor lobe. Any lobe except a major lobe. noise temperature of an antenna. The temperature of a resistor having an available thermal noise power per unit bandwidth, equal to that at the antenna output, at a specified frequency. It depends on its coupling to all noise sources in its environment as well as noise generated within the antenna. omnidirectional antenna. An antenna having an essentially non directional pattern in azimuth and a directional pattern in elevation. orthogonal polarization. The same as cross polarization. parasitic element. A radiating element which is not connected to the feed lines of an antenna and which materially affects the radiation pattern and/or impedance of an antenna. pattern. The same as radiation pattern. pencil-beam antenna. A unidirectional antenna having a narrow major lobe with approximately circular contours of equal radiation intensity in the region of the major lobe. phased array antenna. An array antenna whose beam direction or radiation pattern is controlled primarily by the relative phase of the excitation coefficients of the radiating elements. planar array. An array antenna having the centre of the radiating elements lying in a plane. plane of polarization. A plane containing the polarization ellipse. plane wave. A wave in which the only dependence of the field vectors on position is through the same exponential factor whose exponent is a linear function of position. See polarization of a plane wave. polarization of an antenna. In a given direction, the polarization or the wave radiated by the antenna. Alternatively, the polarization of a plane wave incident from the given direction which results in maximum available power at the antenna terminals. power gain. In a given direction, 4 times the ratio of the radiation intensity in that direction to the net power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter. power gain in physical media. In a given direction and at a given point in the far field, the ratio or the power flux per unit area from an antenna to the power flux per unit area from an isotropic radiator at a specified location with the same power input as the subject antenna. primary radiator. A feed which illuminates a secondary radiator. proximity-coupled dipole array antenna. An array antenna consisting of a series of coplanar dipoles, loosely coupled to the electromagnetic field of a balanced transmission line, the coupling being a function of the proximity and orientation of the dipole to the transmission line. radiating element. A basic subdivision of an antenna that in it self is capable of effectively radiating or receiving radio waves. The dipole is the typical example of radiating antenna. radiation efficiency. The ratio of the total power radiated by an antenna to the net power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter. radiation, electromagnetic. The emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. radiation intensity. In a given direction, the power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle. radiation lobe. A portion of the radiation pattern bounded by regions of relatively weak radiated intensity. radiation pattern (antenna pattern). A graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates. Usually referred to the far-field region, properties include power flux density, field strength, phase and polarization. radiation resistance. The ratio of the power radiated by an antenna to the square of the r.m.s. antenna current referred to a specified point. radiator. Any antenna or radiating element that is a discrete physical and functional entity. radome. An enclosure for protecting an antenna from the harmful effects or its physical environment, generally intended to leave the electrical performance of the antenna unaffected.

realized gain. The power gain of an antenna in its environment, reduced by the losses due to the mismatch of the antenna input impedance to a specified impedance. reference boresight. A direction defined by an optical, mechanical, or electrical axis of an antenna established as a reference for the alignments. See electrical boresight. reflector antenna. An antenna consisting of a reflector and a radiating feed. reflector element. A parasitic element located in a direction other than forward of the driven element of an antenna intended to increase the directive gain of the antenna in the forward direction. relative directive gain. In a given direction and at a given point in the far field, the ratio of the power flux per unit area from an antenna to the power flux per unit area from a reference antenna at a specified location and delivering the same power from the antenna to the medium. relative power gain. The ratio of the power gain, in a given direction, to the power gain of a reference antenna, in its reference direction. Reference antenna is commonly an half-wave dipole. resonant frequency. A frequency at which the input impedance of an antenna is non reactive. rhombic antenna. An antenna composed of long-wire radiators comprising the sides as a rhombus. The antenna usually is terminated in a resistance. side lobe. A radiation lobe in any direction other than that of the intended lobe. side lobe level. Generally the relative level of the highest side lobe, expressed in dB. spillover. That part of the power radiated by a feed not intercepted by the secondary radiator. squint angle. A small difference in pointing angle between a reference beam direction and the direction of maximum radiation. subreflector. A reflector which redirects the power radiated from the feed to the main reflector. superdirectivity. The directivity of an antenna when its value exceeds the value which could be expected from the antenna on the basis of its dimensions and the excitation that would have yielded in-phase addition in the direction of maximum radiation intensity. Super directivity happens only at the cost of a large increase in the ratio of average stored energy to energy radiated per cycle. turnstile antenna. An antenna composed of two dipole antennas, perpendicular to each other, with their axes intersecting at their midpoints. Usually, the currents on the two dipole antennas are equal and in phase quadrature. V shape antenna. A V shape arrangement of conductor, balanced-fed at the apex and with included angle, length, and elevation proportioned to give the desired directive properties. whip antenna. A thin flexible monopole antenna. Yagi-Uda antenna. A linear end-fire array consisting of a driven element, one or more reflector elements, and one or more director elements.

Yagi antenna A Yagi-Uda antenna. From left to beam right, the elements mounted on the boom are called the reflector, driven element, and director. The reflector is easily identified as being a bit (5%) longer than the driven element, and the director a bit (5%) shorter. A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a directional antenna system[1] consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The dipole in the array is driven, and another element, typically 10% longer, effectively operates as a reflector. Other parasitic elements shorter than the dipole may be added in front of the dipole and are referred to as directors. This arrangement gives the antenna directionality that a single dipole lacks. Directional antennas, such as the Yagi-Uda, are also commonly referred to as beam antennas[2] or high-gain antennas (particularly for transmitting). Description

` Yagi-Uda antenna. Viewed left to right: Reflector element, driven element, director element.

Yagi-Uda antenna signal-gathering action compared with other end-fire, back-fire and traveling-wave types. Yagi-Uda antennas are directional along the axis perpendicular to the dipole in the plane of the elements, from the reflector through the driven element and out via the director(s). If one holds out one's arms to form a dipole and has the reflector behind oneself, one would receive signals with maximum gain from in front of oneself. Typically, all elements are arranged at approximately a one-quarter-wavelength mutual spacing, with directors progressively shorter than a half wavelength to couple signals of increasingly higher frequencies onto the dipole. (See also log-periodic antenna.) All elements usually lie in the same plane, supported on a single boom or crossbar; however, they do not have to assume this coplanar arrangement. For example, some commercially available Yagi-Uda antennas for television reception have several reflectors arranged to form a corner reflector behind the dipole. The bandwidth of a Yagi-Uda antenna, which is usually defined as the frequency range for which the antenna provides a good match to the transmission line to which it is attached, is determined by the length, diameter and spacing of the elements. For most designs, the bandwidth is small, typically a only a few percent of the design frequency. The gain of a Yag-Uda antenna is proportional to its length, rather than simply the number of elements. Yagi-Uda antennas can be designed to operate on multiple bands. Such designs are more complicated, using pairs of resonant parallel coil and capacitor combinations (called a "trap" or LC) in the elements. The trap serves to isolate the outer portion of an element from the inner portion at the trap design frequency. In practice, the higher frequency traps are located closest to the boom of the antenna. Typically, a triband beam will have two pairs of traps per element. For example, a triband design covering the 10, 15 and 20 meter bands would have traps for the 10 and 15 meter bands. The use of traps is not without cost, as they reduce the bandwidth of the antenna on each band and reduce its overall efficiency. Design There are no simple formulas for designing Yagi-Uda antennas due to the non-linear relationships between physical parameters such as element length, diameter and position and electrical characteristics such as input impedance and gain. Consequently, designs are found experimentally either through direct measurement or computer simulation, or by modifying existing designs. A well-known reference employed in the latter approach is a report published by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) that provides six basic designs derived from measurements conducted at 400 Mhz and procedures for adapting these designs to other frequencies.[3] These designs, and those derived from them, are sometimes referred to as "NBS yagis."

Parabolic antenna

A parabolic antenna for Erdfunkstelle Raisting, the biggest facility for satellite communication in the world, based in Raisting, Bavaria, Germany. A parabolic antenna is a high-gain reflector antenna used for radio, television and data communications, and also for radiolocation (radar), on the UHF and SHF parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic (radio) energy at these frequencies allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the very desirable highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting. With the advent of TVRO and DBS satellite television, the parabolic antenna became a ubiquitous feature of urban, suburban, and even rural, landscapes. Extensive terrestrial microwave links, such as those between cellphone base stations, and wireless WAN/LAN applications have also proliferated this antenna type. Earlier applications included ground-based and airborne radar and radio astronomy. However a term dish antenna is often used for a parabolic antenna instead, it connote a spheric antenna as well, which has a portion of spherical surface as the reflector shape. Design Main types of parabolic antennas A typical parabolic antenna consists of a parabolic reflector with a small feed antenna at its focus. The reflector is a metallic surface formed into a paraboloid of revolution and (usually) truncated in a circular rim that forms the diameter of the antenna. This paraboloid possesses a distinct focal point by virtue of having the reflective property of parabolas in that a point light source at this focus produces a parallel light beam aligned with the axis of revolution. The feed antenna at the reflector's focus is typically a low-gain type such as a half-wave dipole or a small waveguide horn. In more complex designs, such as the Cassegrain antenna, a sub-reflector is used to direct the energy into the parabolic reflector from a feed antenna located away from the primary focal point. The feed antenna is connected to the associated radio-frequency (RF) transmitting or receiving equipment by means of a coaxial cable transmission line or hollow waveguide. Considering the parabolic antenna as a circular aperture gives the following approximation for the maximum gain:

or

where: is power gain over isotropic is reflector diameter in same units as wavelength

is wavelength

Practical considerations of antenna effective area and sidelobe suppression reduce the actual gain obtained to between 35 and 55 percent of this theoretical value. For theoretical considerations of mutual interference (at frequencies between 2 and c. 30 GHz - typically in the Fixed Satellite Service) where specific antenna performance has not been defined, a reference antenna based on Recommendation ITU-R S.465 is used to calculate the interference, which will include the likely sidelobes for off-axis effects. Applying the formula to the 25-meter-diameter antennas used by the VLA and VLBA radio telescopes at a wavelength of 21 cm (1.42 GHz, a common radio astronomy frequency) yields an approximate maximum gain of 140,000 times or about 50 dBi (decibels above the isotropic level). As of 2009, the largest "dish" antenna in the world is the Arecibo Observatory's radio telescope, which has a diameter of 1,000 ft. (305m) at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. For beam-steering reasons, the Arecibo telescope is actually a spherical, rather than parabolic reflector. Generally a spherical reflector does not have a focal point as a point, however, the Arecibo radio telescope is a three-reflector variety of Gregorian telescope, and uses its main, secondary and tertiary reflectors to focus the radio waves to a single point. Structure

Wire-type parabolic antenna (Wi-Fi / WLAN antenna at 2,4Ghz). Oriented to provide horizontal polarization: the reflector wires and the feed element are both horizontal. This antenna has a greater extent in the vertical plane and hence, a narrower beamwidth in that plane. The feed element has a wider beam in the vertical direction than the horizontal and hence matches the reflector by illuminating it fully. The reflector dish can be solid, mesh or wire in construction and it can be either fully circular or somewhat rectangular depending on the radiation pattern of the feeding element. Solid antennas have more ideal characteristics but are troublesome because of weight and high wind load. Mesh and wire types weigh less, are easier to construct and have nearly ideal characteristics if the holes or gaps are kept under 1/10 of the wavelength. Common types include the off-set parabolic antenna, Gregorian and Cassegrain types. In the off-set, the feed element is still located at the focal point, which because of the angles utilized, is usually located below the reflector so that the feed element and support do not interfere with the main beam. This also allows for easier maintenance of the feed, but is usually only found in smaller antennas. The Gregorian and Cassegrain types, sometimes generically referred to as "dual optics" antennas, utilize a secondary reflector, or "sub-reflector", allowing for better control over the collimated beam as well as allowing the antenna feed system to be more compact. These antennas are usually much larger where prime focus and off-set construction are not as practical. The feed element is usually located in a "feed horn" which protrudes out from the main reflector. This setup is used when the feed element is bulky or heavy such as when it contains a pre-amplifier or even the actual receiver or transmitter. Parabolic antenna theory closely follows optics theory. So a Gregorian antenna can be identified by the fact that it uses a concave sub-reflector, while a Cassegrain antenna uses a convex sub-reflector.

V ANTENNA A V ANTENNA is a bidirectional antenna used widely in military and commercial communications. It consists of two conductors arranged to form a V. Each conductor is fed with currents of opposite polarity. The V is formed at such an angle that the main lobes reinforce along the line bisecting the V and make a very effective directional antenna (see figure 4-35). Connecting the two-wire feed line to the apex of the V and exciting the two sides of the V 180 degrees out of phase cause the lobes to add along the line of the bisector and to cancel in other directions, as shown in figure 4-36. The lobes are designated 1, 2, 3, and 4 on leg AA', and 5, 6, 7, and 8 on leg BB'. When the proper angle between AA' and BB' is chosen, lobes 1 and 4 have the same direction and combine with lobes 7 and 6, respectively. This combination of two major lobes from each leg results in the formation of two stronger lobes, which lie along an imaginary line bisecting the enclosed angle. Lobes 2, 3, 5, and 8 tend to cancel each other, as do the smaller lobes, which are approximately at right angles to the wire legs of the V. The resultant waveform pattern is shown at the right of the V antenna in figure 4-36. Figure 4-35. - Basic V antenna.

Figure 4-36. - Formation of directional radiation pattern from a resonant V antenna.

RHOMBIC ANTENNA The highest development of the long-wire antenna is the RHOMBIC ANTENNA (see figure 4-37). It consists of four conductors joined to form a rhombus, or diamond shape. The antenna is placed end to end and terminated by a noninductive resistor to produce a uni-directional pattern. A rhombic antenna can be made of two obtuse-angle V antennas that are placed side by side, erected in a horizontal plane, and terminated so the antenna is nonresonant and unidirectional. The rhombic antenna is WIDELY used for long-distance, high-frequency transmission and reception. It is one of the most popular fixed-station antennas because it is very useful in point-to-point communications. Advantages The rhombic antenna is useful over a wide frequency range. Although some changes in gain, directivity, and characteristic impedance do occur with a change in operating frequency, these changes are small enough to be neglected. The rhombic antenna is much easier to construct and maintain than other antennas of comparable gain and directivity. Only four supporting poles of common heights from 15 to 20 meters are needed for the antenna.

The rhombic antenna also has the advantage of being noncritical as far as operation and adjustment are concerned. This is because of the broad frequency characteristics of the antenna. Still another advantage is that the voltages present on the antenna are much lower than those produced by the same input power on a resonant antenna. This is particularly important when high transmitter powers are used or when high-altitude operation is required.

Figure 4-37. - Basic rhombic antenna.

Disadvantages The rhombic antenna is not without its disadvantages. The principal one is that a fairly large antenna site is required for its erection. Each leg is made at least 1 or 2 wavelengths long at the lowest operating frequency. When increased gain and directivity are required, legs of from 8 to 12 wavelengths are used. These requirements mean that high-frequency rhombic antennas have wires of several hundred feet in length. Therefore, they are used only when a large plot of land is available. Another disadvantage is that the horizontal and vertical patterns depend on each other. If a rhombic antenna is made to have a narrow horizontal beam, the beam is also lower in the vertical direction. Therefore, obtaining high vertical-angle radiation is impossible except with a very broad horizontal pattern and low gain. Rhombic antennas are used, however, for long-distance skywave coverage at the high frequencies. Under these conditions low vertical angles of radiation (less than 20 degrees) are desirable. With the rhombic antenna, a considerable amount of the input power is dissipated uselessly in the terminating resistor. However, this resistor is necessary to make the antenna unidirectional. The great gain of the antenna more than makes up for this loss. Radiation Patterns Figure 4-38 shows the individual radiation patterns produced by the four legs of the rhombic antenna and the resultant radiation pattern. The principle of operation is the same as for the V and the half-rhombic antennas. Figure 4-38. - Formation of a rhombic antenna beam.

Terminating Resistor The terminating resistor plays an important part in the operation of the rhombic antenna. Upon it depend the unidirectivity of the antenna and the lack of resonance effects. An antenna should be properly terminated so it will have a constant impedance at its input. Terminating the antenna properly will also allow it to be operated over a wide frequency range without the necessity for changing the coupling adjustments at the transmitter. Discrimination against signals coming from the rear is of great importance for reception. The reduction of back radiation is perhaps of lesser importance for transmission. When an antenna is terminated with resistance, the energy that would be radiated backward is absorbed in the resistor.

Q.47 What is the main disadvantage of the rhombic antenna? TURNSTILE ANTENNA The TURNSTILE ANTENNA is one of the many types that has been developed primarily for omnidirectional vhf communications. The basic turnstile consists of two horizontal half-wave antennas mounted at right angles to each other in the same horizontal plane. When these two antennas are excited with equal currents 90 degrees out of phase, the typical figure-eight patterns of the two antennas merge to produce the nearly circular pattern shown in figure 4-39, view A. Pairs of such antennas are frequently stacked, as shown in figure 4-40. Each pair is called a BAY. In figure 4-40 two bays are used and are spaced 1/2 wavelength apart, and the corresponding elements are excited in phase. These conditions cause a part of the vertical radiation from each bay to cancel that of the other bay. This results in a decrease in energy radiated at high vertical angles and increases the energy radiated in the horizontal plane. Stacking a number of bays can alter the vertical radiation pattern, causing a substantial gain in a horizontal direction without altering the overall horizontal directivity pattern. Figure 4-39, view B, compares the circular vertical radiation pattern of a single-bay turnstile with the sharp pattern of a four-bay turnstile array. A threedimensional radiation pattern of a four-bay turnstile antenna is shown in figure 4-39, view C. Figure 4-39. - Turnstile antenna radiation pattern.

Figure 4-40. - Stacked turnstile antennas.

GROUND-PLANE ANTENNA A vertical quarter-wave antenna several wavelengths above ground produces a high angle of radiation that is very undesirable at vhf and uhf frequencies. The most common means of producing a low angle of radiation from such an antenna is to work the radiator against a simulated ground called a GROUND PLANE. A simulated ground may be made from a large metal sheet or several wires or rods radiating from the base of the radiator. An antenna so constructed is known as a GROUND-PLANE ANTENNA. Two ground-plane antennas are shown in figure 4-41, views A and B. Figure 4-41. - Ground-plane antennas.

CORNER REFLECTOR When a unidirectional radiation pattern is desired, it can be obtained by the use of a corner reflector with a half-wave dipole. A CORNER-REFLECTOR ANTENNA is a half-wave radiator with a reflector. The reflector consists of two flat metal surfaces meeting at an angle immediately behind the radiator. In other words, the radiator is set in the plane of a line bisecting the corner angle formed by the reflector sheets. The construction of a corner reflector is shown in figure 4-42. Corner-reflector antennas are mounted with the radiator and the reflector in the horizontal position when horizontal polarization is desired. In such cases the radiation pattern is very narrow in the vertical plane, with maximum signal being radiated in line with the bisector of the corner angle. The directivity in the horizontal plane is approximately the same as for any half-wave radiator having a single-rod type reflector behind it. If the antenna is mounted with the radiator and the corner reflector in the vertical position, as shown in view A, maximum radiation is produced in a very narrow horizontal beam. Radiation in a vertical plane will be the same as for a similar radiator with a single-rod type reflector behind it.