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Name: Anil Chejara Roll no. : 9003022 Group no. : 5

BACKGROUND: In a heat exchanger, heat is transferred from hot fluid to cold fluid through metal wall which generally separates these two fluids. Heat transfer through metal wall is always by conduction while on both sides of metal wall it is generally by convection. Generally resistance offered to heat transfer by the metal wall is negligible as compared to resistance offered by convection. The wall temperature is always between local temperatures of the two fluids. The actual value depends upon individual film heat transfer coefficient on either side. At higher Reynoldss number (Re > 10, 000), the ordered flow pattern of laminar flow regime is replaced by randomly moving eddies thoroughly mixing the fluid and greatly assisting heat transfer. However, this enhancement of film heat transfer coefficient is accompanied by much higher pressure drop which demands higher pumping power. Thus, although desirable, turbulent flow is usually restricted to fluids of low viscosity. When heat is transferred through resistances in series, the total resistance to heat transfer is the sum of individual resistances in series. Thus, for heat exchanger, one can write,

Once the heat exchanger material and its geometry is fixed, then the metal wall resistance (x/KAlm) becomes constant. Similarly, if the flow rate of cold fluid is fixed and its mean temperature does not differ much for different flow rates of hot fluid, then the resistance by the outside film will remain almost constant. Thus, the overall heat transfer coefficient will depend upon the value of inside film heat transfer coefficient alone. If flow through inner tube is in the turbulent flow regime, then DittursBoelter equation can be used to find out inside film heat transfer coefficient.

If the bulk mean temperature does not differ much for different flow rates, then all the physical properties will remain nearly the same and equation can be re-written as:

Substituting the above equation in equation ME-314 IIT-Gandhinagar

Thus, the graph of 1/Ui vs 1/u0.8 (which is known as Wilson plot) should be a straight line with a slope equal to constant1 and intercept equal to constant2.


To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient making use of logarithmic mean temperature difference. From overall heat transfer coefficient, determine the individual film heat transfer coefficients Verification of the Dittus-Boelter equation for turbulent flow heat transfer.

APPRATUS: Stainless steel double pipe heat exchanger with facility to measure inlet and outlet temperature of hot fluid with accuracy of 0.1C. The inlet and outlet temperatures of cold fluid are measured with liquid in glass thermometer of 1C accuracy. A stainless steel insulated tank with a heater. Hot fluid circulation pump with speed variation mechanism. Cold fluid circulation pumps with speed variation mechanism. An insulated stainless steel tank with bottom discharge to measure the flow rate of hot fluid.

PROCEDURE: First of all connect 15 amps and 5 amps plug pins to ac supply at 230 volts. Now switch on the temperature indicator and set the point around 90C. Make sure that the valve at the bottom of measuring tank is open and then open the valve on the outlet line of the hot fluid tank. Switch on the power supply to hot fluid circulation pump. Check the inlet and outlet temperatures of the fluid indicated by digital thermometer. Now Note down the temperature difference between inlet and outlet temperatures. Adjust the cooling water flow rate through the heat exchanger such that its temperature rise is restricted to about 3-4C. Keep this flow rate constant throughout the experiment.

Adjust the flow rate of hot fluid through the heat exchanger by adjusting the speed of hot fluid circulation pump. Measure the flow rate of hot fluid by closing the valve at the bottom of measuring tank and noting down the time required for liquid level to rise between two marks. Note down the inlet and outlet temperatures indicated by digital thermometer on the control panel after steady state is reached. Also note down the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water. Repeat last two steps for different flow rates of hot fluid



OBSERVATION & CALCULATIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Inside diameter of inner tube (d1) = 0.7 cm. Outside diameter of inner tube (d2) = 1 cm Length of heat exchanger (L) = 100 cm. Inner heat transfer area of heat exchanger (A) = 0.022 m2.

Thermal conductivity = 0.6

Flowrate (LPH) Hot fluid:Velocity Mass flow (m/s) Rate (Kg/s) Nu Hot fluid temperature inlet (oC) 78.3 73.5 70.3 63.8 63.3 62.5 60.5 Cold fluid temperature Outlet (oC) 34.8 35.2 35.6 35.6 35.9 36 36.3 Re Pr

120 180 240 300 360 420 480

0.8662 1.2993 1.7325 2.1656 2.5987 3.0318 3.4650

0.0333 0.05 0.0667 0.0833 0.1 0.1166 0.1333

outlet Inlet (oC) (oC) 61.3 34.1 60.5 34.6 60.3 35 56.6 35.1 57.2 35.2 57.4 35.5 56.1 35.7

68.8156 93.3991 113.5702 128.7717 148.9928 177.6623 199.9143

14990.74 21656.27 26950.03 30318.78 36382.54 47162.55 55125.06

2.8249 2.9319 3.1402 3.4866 3.4866 3.1378 3.0675


Q (W)

Ui W/(m^2K) 3118.7347 3909.2304 4269.1189 4596.3109 4711.2555 4683.4071 5018.41614

hi (theoretical) W/(m^2K) 5898.4855 8005.6371 9734.590 11037.5721 12770.8132 15228.1975 17135.5111

34.6068 31.6563 29.7201 24.8262 24.6242 24.1603 22.2274

2374.4523 2722.5445 2791.3333 2510.4 2552.24 2489.361 2454.02666

ho (theoretical) W/(m^2K) 4632.454 5347.886 5322.631 5513.28 5225.671 4734.461 4967.79

hi W/m^2K 4532.2112 6418.2866 7449.3239 8505.8760 8908.0792 8809.0386 10073.937



Velocity (m/s) 0.8662 1.2993 1.7325 2.1656 2.5987 3.0318 3.4650

1/(v0.8) 1.1217 0.8109 0.6442 0.5389 0.4657 0.4117 0.3700

U (W/m2K) 3118.735 3909.23 4269.119 4596.311 4711.256 4683.407 5018.416

1/U (m2K/W) 0.000321 0.000256 0.000234 0.000218 0.000212 0.000214 0.000199


1/U vs 1/v0.8
0.00035 0.0003 0.00025 0.0002 1/U 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Linear (1/U)


The overall heat transfer coefficients was found for different flow rates using LMTD Individual heat transfer coefficients were found.



SOURCE OF ERRORS AND PRECAUTIONS: Before reading taken temperature should be kept constant. Wait for few minutes after adjusting new flow rate. We neglected conduction which will cause error. Cold water temperature should be low.