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It is acknowledged that thorough planning is essential for effective teaching and learning. Such planning is even more critical today when one considers the limited resources, both human and material, which are available. The Ministry of Education, through the Secondary School Reform Project (SSRP), has developed curriculum materials that have been designed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of secondary education. The curriculum materials include Levels 7-9 curriculum guides and teachers guides for Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Reading and Practical Activities for Science. These materials have been tested in secondary-age schools nationwide and are considered useful in providing teachers with a common curriculum framework for planning, monitoring and evaluating the quality of teaching and learning. The curriculum materials also provide a basis for continuous student assessment leading to the National Third Form Examination (NTFE). The initial draft curriculum materials have been subjected to evaluation, by respective Heads of Departments, from all ten Administrative Regions and Georgetown and they have been subsequently revised to reflect the views expressed by teachers. The revised curriculum materials are now published as National Curriculum documents to provide consistency and support for teachers in the process of planning for an effective delivery of the curriculum. All secondary teachers must ensure that they make good use of these curriculum materials so that the quality of teaching and learning can be improved in all schools. Ed Caesar Chief Education Officer

PREFACE

This is the Revised Curriculum Guide for Level 7. This document fulfils the objective of making Mathematics accessible to all students at Level 7. Hence teachers of Level 7 students should make a conscious effort to see how best they could utilize the ideas contained to plan for instruction. This document can serve as a focal point for departmental and regional subject committee meetings, where methodologies and strategies for both teaching and assessing are deliberated on. Lessons should be delivered in an environment in which there is opportunity for active and creative participation by both students and teacher. This Guide has a direct focus on an integrated approach to curriculum delivery, in which the teacher is not unduly restricted by the subject content. The students total development as a person should be of foremost concern to the teacher. In the curriculum process, feedback is a necessary condition for change and improvement, and I would urge all of our mathematics teachers to provide such feedback to the curriculum staff as they visit to provide support that will enhance your classroom teaching.

Mohandatt Goolsarran Head Curriculum Development and Implementation Unit National Centre for Educational Resource Development MARCH 2002

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following persons were involved in writing and revising the Level 7 Curriculum Guide: Jean Holder-Lynch Joan Persaud Mohan Lall Sookdeo Dirk McAulay S. Binda Shirley Klass Alicia Fingal Flavio Camacho Joseph Mckenzie Vice Principal (Administration) Cyril Potter College of Education Deputy Headmistress Annandale Secondary School Deputy Headmaster Charity Primary School Brickdam Secondary School Queenstown Community High School (Retired) Subject Specialist, Mathematics, NCERD (Retired) Assistant Chief Education Officer, Primary (Retired) Subject Specialist Mathematics (SSRP) Senior Subject Specialist Mathematics (SSRP)

Content Knowledge Describe a set. Understanding Attitude Common ways of describing a set: Verbal Description, e.g. The months of the year beginning with the letter J.

Areas of Integration

Agriculture Science, e.g. describing a set of agriculture tools. Home Economics, e.g. describing a tea set.

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Understanding Attitude Tabulation or Listing, e.g. {January, June, July} When listing sets: - a comma is placed between one element and the next. - an element is not repeated. - the elements are enclosed in curly brackets, etc.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration Environmental Education, e.g. listing trees according to their usage.

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Understanding Attitude Using a Loop, e.g. January June July

Evaluation

Areas of Integration Environmental Education, e.g. grouping of tourist resorts, pollutants, solid waste, etc. Agriculture Science, e.g. Edible Roots = {carrots, radish, cassava, sweet potatoes}

Well-defined Sets

Differentiate between sets that are well defined and sets that are not well defined.

Well defined sets, e.g. A set of all the letters of the English alphabet = {a, b, c, d z} A set of all even numbers between 0 and 11 = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

Can students differentiate between sets that are well defined and sets that are not well defined?

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge List the elements of a set. Understanding Attitude Elements of a set.

Elements of a Set

Evaluation Can students: list the elements of a set? differentiate between the symbols and ? use the symbols and to show membership and nonmembership of sets? Can students: identify the empty set? use the symbols { } or to represent the empty set?

Areas of Integration Agriculture Science, e.g. Listing the tools used for harvesting. Agriculture Science, e.g. trowel is not an element of the set of harvesting tools can be written as: trowel {harvesting tools}

Discussing the meaning of the symbols and Using the symbols and to show membership and non-membership of sets.

Displaying examples of the empty set. Using the symbols { } or to represent the empty set.

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Identify finite and infinite sets. A set is finite if it is possible to list or count all its elements, e.g. A = (a, b, c, z} A set is infinite if it is not possible to list or count all its elements, e.g. B = {points on a line} Understanding Attitude

Areas of Integration Finite sets: Environmental Education, e.g. Set B = {Passion fruit simutu, baby pumpkin, water-melon} Infinite sets: Environmental Education, e.g. {Number of sand grains on the sea shore in Guyana}

finite sets?

infinite sets

infinite sets?

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Identify equal sets. Understanding Attitude Equal sets: two sets A and B

Equal Sets

Equivalent Sets

are said to be equal, if and only if they have the same elements, e.g. A = {2, 3, 4} B = {4, 2, 3} A=B Equivalent sets: two sets are equivalent if they have the same number of elements, e.g. A = {2, 3, 4} B = {c, d, k} AB

equal sets.

sets?

Set A = Set B. Environmental Education, e.g. A = {Animals from which craft items are obtained} B = {Craft items obtained from animals in set A} AB

Topic

Content Knowledge Understanding Attitude The symbol , e.g. Set A is equivalent to Set B is written as A B. Subsets of a set, e.g. A = {a, b, c} Subsets of A are: {a, b, c}, {a}, {b}, {c}, .

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Using the symbol to represent equivalent sets.. Small group activities: writing the subsets of given sets. observing the difference between a set and the subsets of a set. Showing on chart examples of the universal set.

Evaluation Can students use the symbol to represent equivalent sets? Can students write down all the subsets of a given set? differentiate between a set and subsets of the set? Can students: identify the universal set? describe universal sets?

Areas of Integration

Subsets of a Set

Enjoy writing down the subsets of a set. Differentiate between a set and subsets of the set.

Social Studies, e.g. collecting, classifying and identifying subsets of given groups.

Universal Set

Environmental Education, e.g. U = {The environment} Social Studies, e.g. U = {The Amerindian tribes in Guyana}

Unit Test

Content Knowledge Identify integers. Understanding Attitude The set of integers includes positive and negative whole numbers and zero, e.g. {-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, } The set of integers is denoted by Z.

Areas of Integration

The symbols < (is less than) and >.(is greater than)

Using the symbols < and > to compare numbers. Discussing the ordering of numbers on a number line.

use the symbols < and > to compare numbers? follow the order relationship of integers? predict the pattern of a sequence? Language, e.g., describing the relationship between numbers on a number line.

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge List odd and even numbers. Understanding Attitude Odd and even numbers. Odd numbers give a remainder of 1 when divided by 2. The odd numbers are 1, 3, 5, 7, Even numbers can be divided by 2 without a remainder. Zero is usually regarded as an even number. The even numbers are 0, 1, 2, 3, Differentiate between odd and even numbers.

Areas of Integration

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge List the factors of a number. Understanding Attitude Factors of numbers, e.g. {1, 2, 3, 6, 12} are factors of 12.

Factors

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Small group activities: Listing the factors of given numbers. Encouraging students to practise finding factors of numbers. Small group activities: Listing the multiples of given numbers. Encouraging students to practise finding the multiples of numbers.

Areas of Integration

Practise finding factors of numbers. Multiples List the multiples of a number. Multiples of numbers, e.g. the multiples of 12 are 24, 36, 48,

Do students practise finding factors of numbers? Can students list the multiples of a number?

10

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Identify prime and composite numbers. Understanding Attitude Prime and composite numbers. A prime number has exactly two different factors, namely 1 and itself. Some of these are: 2, 3, 5, 7, Composite numbers have more than 2 different factors. Some of these are: 4, 6, 8, 10, List prime and composite numbers.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Discussing/ observing the special features of prime and composite numbers.

Areas of Integration Language, e.g. the description of prime and composite numbers.

Prime Factors

Listing prime and composite numbers. Expressing composite numbers as a product of prime factors.

list prime and composite numbers? Can students express a composite number as a product of prime factors?

11

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Write the product of a number in index form. Understanding Attitude Obtain satisfaction from writing the product of numbers in index form. Express a number in index form. do Product of a number in index form, e.g. 2 2 2 = 23

Indices

Areas of Integration

Environmental Education, e.g. the area of a classroom expressed in index form: 64 m2.

Small group activities: Determine the HCF of numbers. Determine the LCM of numbers. . Practise finding the HCF and LCM of numbers. Highest Common Factor. Lowest Common Multiple. Finding the HCF of given numbers. Finding the LCM of given numbers. Encouraging students to practise finding the HCF and LCM of numbers.

Can students: find the HCF of numbers? find the LCM of numbers? Do students practise finding the HCF and LCM of numbers?

12

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Identify the commutative law. Understanding Attitude Appreciate the commutative law. The Commutative Law for + and . Examples: 2+3=3+2 23=32 The commutative law does not apply to subtraction and division. The Associative Law for + and . Examples: 2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 3) + 4 2 (3 4) = (2 3) 4 The associative law does not apply to subtraction and division.

Commutative Law

Areas of Integration

Associative Law

13

Topic

Objectives Skills

Content Knowledge Understanding Differentiate between the commutative and associative laws. Attitude

The Distributive Law, e.g. 4 (6 + 3) = (4 6) + (4 3) = 24 + 12 = 36. The law has two operations, multiplication and addition.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Discussing the difference between the commutative and associative laws. Showing on chart examples of the distributive law.

Evaluation Can students differentiate between the commutative and associative laws? Can students: identify the distributive law?

Areas of Integration

14

Content Knowledge Identify rational numbers. Understanding . Attitude The rational numbers are made up of the set of fractions together with the set of integers. The symbol for the set of rational numbers is Q. Add and subtract with rational numbers. Appreciate adding and subtracting with rational numbers. Addition and subtraction with rational numbers, e.g.

Areas of Integration

1 1 + = 5 4 1 4 1 5 9 + = 5 4 5 4 20 1 1 - = 4 5 1 5 1 4 1 = 45 45 20

15

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Change fractions to decimals. Appreciate changing fractions to decimals accurately. Conversion of fractions to decimals, e.g. 3 = 0.75 . 4

Changing fractions to decimals.

fractions to decimals?

Integrated Science, e.g. the conversion of a fraction of a litre to a decimal of a litre and vice versa. Agriculture Science, e.g. planning for the cultivation of crops.

decimals to fractions?

16

Topic

Objectives Skills

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Small group activities: Adding decimals. Subtracting decimals.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students

add decimals? subtract decimals?

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

17

Small group activities: Multiply a decimal by a decimal. Divide a decimal by a decimal. Multiplication of decimals, e.g. 0.6 0.4 = 0.24 Division of decimals, e.g. 4.48 0.4 = 4.48 = 0.4 4.48 10 = 0.4 10 44.8 = 11.2 4 Practise multiplyin g and dividing a decimal by a decimal.

Multiplying a decimal by a decimal. Dividing a decimal by a decimal.

Can students

multiply a decimal by a decimal? divide a decimal by a decimal?

Unit Test

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify SI units of length?

18

decimetre centimetre millimetre. Identify the prefixes used in SI units of length. Prefixes used in SI units of length, e.g. kilo, hecto, deca, deci, centi, milli. Symbols used for SI units of length, e.g. km, hm, dam. m, dm, cm, mm.

prefixes used in SI units of length. identify prefixes used in SI units of length?

19

Topic

Objectives Skills

Converting measurement from one SI unit to another. To convert measurement from one SI unit to another, it is necessary only to multiply or divide by a power of 10, e.g. 8m= 8 (10 10) cm = 800 cm.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

convert a measurement from one SI unit to another?

20

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

explain the meaning of the word perimeter?

Calculating the perimeter of regular shapes by finding the length of one side and then multiplying it by the number of sides. Calculating the perimeter of irregular shapes.

Agriculture Science, e.g. calculating the perimeter of the schools agriculture plot.

21

Topic

Objectives Skills

Area

Calculate the area of a square, rectangle and triangle. Calculate the area of irregular shapes. Enjoy calculating the area of irregular shapes.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Calculating the area of squares, rectangles and triangles.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

calculate the area of squares, rectangles and triangles? calculate the area of irregular shapes?

Drawing irregular shapes on graph paper and finding their areas by counting the squares that fall inside the shapes.

Agriculture Science, e.g. calculating the area occupied by the schools agriculture plot.

Unit Test

ALGEBRA 1 Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

22

Small group activities: Using semi circular cards labelled: Add a positive integer to a positive integer. Appreciate adding a positive integer to a positive integer correctly. Appreciate adding a negative integer to a negative integer correctly. Addition of positive integers, e.g. (+4) + (+2) = (+6)

+ to add a positive integer to a positive integer.

Can students:

add a positive integer to a positive integer correctly? add a negative integer to a negative integer correctly?

23

Topic

Objectives Skills

Addition of a positive integer to a negative integer, e.g. (+7) + (-3) = (+4) (-7) + (+3) = (-4) An integer + its additive inverse = zero = identity element for addition, e.g. (+2) + (-2) = (0).

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Recognise that adding an integer and its opposite is equal to zero. Add integers in any order. Appreciate adding two integers in any order correctly.

Do students recognise that adding an integer and its opposite is equal to zero? Can students add two integers in any order?

Addition of integers in any order. It does not matter in which order the addition is done the answer is the same. Integers are called directed numbers.

24

Topic

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

Using semi circular cards labelled: Subtract a positive integer from a positive integer. Appreciate subtracting a positive integer from a positive integer correctly. Appreciate subtracting a negative integer from a negative integer correctly. Appreciate subtracting a positive integer from a negative integer correctly. Subtraction of a positive integer from a positive integer, e.g. (+13) - (+9) = (+4)

+ to subtract a positive integer from a positive integer. subtract a positive integer from a positive integer correctly?

Subtraction of a negative integer from a negative integer, e.g. (-4) + (-2) = (-6)

subtract a negative integer from a negative integer correctly? subtract a positive integer from a negative integer correctly?

Subtraction of a positive integer from a negative integer, e.g. (-3) (+7) = (-10)

25

Topic

Subtraction of a negative integer from a positive integer, e.g. (+7) (-3) = (+10)

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies + and -to subtract a negative integer from a positive integer.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Use of Symbols

Use of symbols.

Showing on chart examples of the ways in which symbols can be used to represent the addition of two like sets, e.g. 3 bowls + 2 bowls = 5 bowls can be represented as 3b + 2b = 5b. Showing on chart examples of variables, coefficients and constants in algebraic expressions.

Can students:

identify symbols that represent a number of items/ articles?

Integrated Science, e.g. using symbols to identify quantity, constants and variables.

A variable is usually a letter, e.g. in 5b + 4, b is the variable. A coefficient is the number in front of the variable, e.g. in 5b + 4, 5 is the coefficient of b. The value of a constant does not change, e.g. in 5b + 4, 4 is the constant.

26

Topic

Objectives Skills

The use of symbols to represent ideas, e.g. Jo is 13 years old. How old will he be in y years time, can be represented by 13 + y. Addition and subtraction of algebraic expressions with like terms, e.g. 2a + 4a = (2 + 4)a = 6a 4a 2a = (4 2)a = 2a

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students add and subtract algebraic expressions with like terms?

Language, e.g. writing a letter to a friend explaining concepts learnt or a paragraph explaining what was learnt and asking possible questions.

27

Topic

Objectives Skills

Obtain satisfaction from adding and subtracting algebraic expressions with unlike terms.

Addition and subtraction of algebraic expressions with unlike terms, e.g. 2a + 2b + 2a + b = 2a + 2a + (2b + 2b = (2 + 2)a + (2 + 1)b = 4a + 3b 6c 3 2c + 10d = 6c 2c + 10d 3d = (6 2)c + (10 3)d = 4c + 7d

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies adding and subtracting algebraic expressions with unlike terms.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students add and subtract algebraic expressions with unlike terms?

Topic

Objectives Skills

Multiplication of Algebraic

Multiplication of algebraic

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

28

Terms

like terms.

expressions with like terms e.g. 2a 4a = (2 a) (4 a) = 2 4 a a = 8a2. Multiplication of algebraic expressions with unlike terms, e.g. 3a 3b 2a = 6a2 3b = 18a2b. Practise multiplying algebraic expressions with like and unlike terms.

multiply algebraic expressions with like terms? multiply algebraic expressions with unlike terms?

Encouraging students to practise multiplying algebraic expressions with like and unlike terms.

Do students practise multiplying algebraic expressions with like and unlike terms?

29

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

a b

(ii) (a 5ab) =

a 1 = 5ab 5b

(iii) a4 a2 =

aaaa aa

Do students practise dividing algebraic terms?

30

Topic

Objectives Skills

Substitution

Determine the value of an algebraic expression by replacing variables with numerical values.

Substitution

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Guiding students through steps to be taken when substituting numerical values for variables, e.g. when m = 2, the value of 3m3 is 3 2 2 2 = 24

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students determine the value of an algebraic expression by replacing variables with numerical values?

Unit Test

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

31

Intersection of Sets

Showing on chart:

examples of common elements in two sets.

Can students:

identify common elements in two sets? identify the symbol that represents the intersection of two sets? list the elements in the intersection of two sets?

Identify the symbol that represents the intersection of two sets. List the elements in the intersection of two sets.

The elements in the intersection of two sets, e.g. S = {s, c, h, o, l} H = {h, o, l, y} S H = {h, o, l} Disjoint sets: sets that have no elements in common.

Disjoint Sets

Social Studies, e.g. Set A = {Rose Hall, Georgetown, New Amsterdam} Set B = {Anns Grove, Golden Grove}

32

Topic

Objectives Skills

Union of Sets

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Combining the elements of two sets to form a new set and noting the number of elements in each set.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

combine the elements of two distinct sets to form a new set? identify the symbol that represents the union of sets? list the elements in the union of two sets?

Identify the symbol that represents the union of sets. List the elements in the union of two sets.

The symbol that represents the union of sets, that is . The elements in the union of two sets, e.g. P = {1, 2, 3, 4} Q = {0, 1, 2} S H = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

Showing on chart the symbol that represents the union of sets. Listing the elements in the union of two sets.

33

Topic

Complement of a set, e.g. U = {0. 1, 2, 3} A = {0, 2} A = {1, 3} Differentiate between the universal set, a subset and the complement of the subset.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

list the elements in the complement of a given set? differentiate between the universal set, a subset and the complement of the subset?

Environmental Education, e.g. U = {Solid waste in the home environment} A = {Bio degradable solid waste in the home environment} A = {Non-bio degradable solid waste in the home environment}

Discussing the difference between the universal set, a subset and the complement of the subset.

34

Topic

Objectives Skills

Venn Diagrams

Draw Venn diagrams to show subsets, intersection of sets, union of sets, disjoint sets.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

U A B subsets

subsets?

B is a subset of A. BA

35

Topic

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

intersection of sets?

Social Studies, e.g. drawing Venn diagram to show the intersection of people working in different offices.

Intersecting Sets

union of sets. union of sets?

Union of sets

36

Topic

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

disjoint sets?

Environmental Education, e.g. U = {Vine Plants} A = {Fruit bearing vines in Guyana} B = {Non-fruit bearing vines in Guyana} A and B are disjoint sets.

Disjoint Sets

Unit Test

37

Topic

Objectives Skills

Knowledge

Understanding

Percentage

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Showing on chart examples of fractions, decimals and percentages and drawing students attention to the difference between them.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

recognise the difference between fractions, decimals and percentages? convert fractions and decimals to percentages and vice versa.

fractions decimals percentages

Agriculture Science, e.g. composition of the soil. Home Economics, e.g. a recipe giving the percentage of each ingredient.

and vice versa. Flash cards showing fractions being converted to decimals to percentages and vice versa can be distributed.

38

Topic

Ratio

Demonstrate an understanding of ratio as a comparison between two quantities that are related to each other.

Expression of ratios as fractions in their simplest form, e.g. 1 to 2=1:2 = Enjoy sharing quantities in given ratios.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Using examples from the students environment, e.g. buttons, shapes, scores from games and finding representation of the objects in terms of quantity.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

1 . 2

Expressing ratios as fractions in their simplest form. Demonstrating the sharing of quantities in given ratios. Actual money could be used. Small group activity, e.g. using a scale to measure the mass of each group member and calculating the average or mean mass of the group.

Can students demonstrate an understanding of ratio as a comparison between two quantities that are related to each other? Can students share quantities in a given ratio? Can students use a scale to measure mass and calculate the average or mean mass of a group of objects?

Agriculture Science, e.g. fertilizer application in a given ratio mixture per hectare.

Average

Agriculture Science, e.g. the calculation of mean floor space per bird when caring for growing broilers.

Unit Test

GEOMETRY 1 Topic Objectives Skills Knowledge Content Understanding Attitude Activities/ Materials/ Evaluation Areas of Integration

39

Mathematical Instruments

Mathematical instruments

Strategies Showing samples of mathematical instruments: ruler, compasses, protractor, set squares.

Can students:

identify the mathematical instruments: ruler, compasses, protractor, set squares? select mathematical instruments according to their use?

The use of mathematical instruments, e.g. Ruler is used to measure and draw straight lines. A pair of compasses is used to draw arcs and circles. Protractor is used to measure angles up to 180. Set squares are used to draw vertical and parallel lines.

40

Topic

Objectives Skills

Identify horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines.

Horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Showing on chart examples of horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students

identify horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines?

Small group activities: Draw horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines. Enjoy drawing horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines.

drawing horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines. draw horizontal lines, perpendicular lines, vertical lines, parallel lines, oblique lines? classify lines as horizontal, perpendicular, vertical, parallel, oblique?

41

Topic

Objectives Skills

Name an angle.

Angles

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

name an angle?

BOC , O .

Identify an acute angle, right angle, obtuse angle, straight angle, reflex angle. Draw an acute angle, right angle, obtuse angle, straight angle, reflex angle. Enjoy drawing an acute angle, right angle, obtuse angle, straight angle, reflex angle.

Acute angle, right angle, obtuse angle, straight angle, reflex angle.

Showing on chart examples of acute angles, right angles, obtuse angles, straight angles, reflex angles. Small group activities e.g.

drawing acute angles, right angles, obtuse angles, straight angles, reflex angles.

identify acute angles, right angles, obtuse angles, straight angles, reflex angles? draw an acute angle, right angle, obtuse angle, straight angle, reflex angle? Technical Drawing, e.g. drawing angles.

42

Topic

Objectives Skills

Classification of angles according to size, e.g. Acute angle less than 90 Right angle exactly 90 Obtuse angle more than 90 Straight angle exactly 180 Reflex angle greater than 180 but less than 360.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

classify angles according to their size?

Measurement of angles.

43

Topic

Objectives Skills

Polygons

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

recognise regular polygons by shape? name polygons according to the number and nature of their sides?

Name polygons.

Names of some polygons, e.g. Triangle a polygon with three sides. Quadrilateral a polygon with four sides. Pentagon - a polygon with five sides. Hexagon a polygon with six sides. Heptagon- a polygon with seven sides. Octagon a polygon with eight sides. Nonagon a polygon with nine sides. Decagon a polygon with ten sides.

44

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

list the properties of regular polygons? draw the shapes of regular polygons?

Calculate the size of the interior angles of a regular polygon. Calculate the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon.

Calculating the size of the interior angles of a regular polygon. Calculating the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon.

calculate the size of the interior angles of a regular polygon? Can students calculate the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon?

45

Topic Area

Objectives Skills

Circles

Identify a circle.

Circle A circle is closed figure. Each point on the circumference is equidistant from the centre of the circle. It is circular in shape.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Distributing different objects with circular shapes, e.g. $5 coins, boot polish containers for observation by students.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify a circle?

Enjoy drawing circles. Parts of a circle: arc, chord, diameter, radius, tangent, sector segment.

46

Topic

Objectives Skills

Constructions

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Constructing the perpendicular bisector of straight lines using ruler and compasses only.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

construct the perpendicular bisector of a line using ruler and compasses only? bisect a given angle using ruler and compasses only?

bisecting angles.

Bisection of angles.

Bisecting angles using ruler and compasses only. Constructing angles of 90, 45, 60 and 30 using ruler and compasses only.

Enjoy constructing angles of 90, 45, 60 and 30 using ruler and compasses only.

Can students construct angles of 90, 45, 60 and 30 using ruler and compasses only?

47

Topic Area

Objectives Skills

Areas of Integration

the construction of triangles.

Construction of triangles.

the lengths of the three sides using ruler and compasses only. two sides and the included angle. the length of the three sides using ruler and compasses only? two sides and the included angle?

Construct a triangle when two sides and the included angle are given. Construct a quadrilateral. Enjoy constructing quadrilaterals. Construction of quadrilaterals.

Unit Test

48

RELATIONS Topic

Objectives Skills

Relations Arrow diagrams. The objects and image in any particular relation can be shown on an arrow diagram. The arrow always leaves the object in the domain and points to the image in the range.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Showing on chart examples of relations. Showing on chart arrow diagrams.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

identify an arrow diagram?

49

Area

Objectives Skills

Classify relations.

Types of relations: One-to-one each object has only one image. Many-to-one two or more objects have the same image. One-to-many - one object has more than one image. Many-to-many - one object has more than one image and also two or more objects.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Classifying relations according to the way in which the objects and images are related.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

50

Topic

Objectives Skills

Ordered Pairs

Ordered pairs List the members of the domain for a set of ordered pairs. List the members of the range for a set of ordered pairs. List ordered pairs from an arrow diagram. List sets of ordered pairs that satisfy a relation. Write the rule of a relation.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Small group activities: Listing the members of the domain for a set of ordered pairs. Listing the members of the range for a set of ordered pairs. Listing all the ordered pairs shown on an arrow diagram. Writing sets of ordered pairs that satisfy given relations. Writing the rule of a relation.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

list the members of the domain for a set of ordered pairs? list the members of the range for a set of ordered pairs? list the ordered pairs shown on an arrow diagram? write sets of ordered pairs that satisfy a relation? write the rule of a relation?

51

Topic

Objectives Skills

Co-ordinates

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Drawing a number line using 0 and positive integers from 1 to 6 and negative integers form 1 to 6. Up turning the paper and drawing another number line intersecting the first at right angles and using 0 and the positive integers from 1 to 6 and from 1 to 6. 0 remains at the same point.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

When the two lines come together this way they form a co-ordinate plane.

52

Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify the x and y co-ordinates?

X = {-6, -5, -4, 4, 5, 6} and Y = {-6, -5, -4, 4, 5, 6}. Pointing out that the elements of X are called the x-coordinates and the elements of Y are called the y-coordinates. The point at which the x and y are both 0 is called the origin.

Guiding students in plotting points on a co-ordinate plane. Guiding students in locating given points on a co-ordinate plane.

53

Topic

Objectives Skills

Graphs

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Small group activities: plotting ordered pairs of the given relation on a co-ordinate plane. joining the points corresponding to each ordered pair.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Integrated Science, e.g. drawing the rainfall graphs for different locations.

Unit Test

54

STATISTICS Topic

Objectives Skills

Pictographs

Identify pictographs.

Appreciate pictographs.

Pictographs: an attractive way of presenting numerical information. The pictures give a quick and easy meaning to statistical data. Construction of pictographs.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify a pictograph?

construct a pictograph?.

Interpret pictographs.

Interpretation of pictographs.

interpret pictographs?

55

Topic

Objectives Skills

Bar Chart

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Bar Charts Another way of displaying information is on a bar chart. A bar chart has a heading. A scale is usually on the vertical axis. The bars do not touch. The length of the bars represent numerical information.

Are students willing to discuss information illustrated on pictographs? Can students identify a bar chart?

56

Topic

Objectives Skills

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Guiding students in constructing bar charts to illustrate given information.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

construct bar charts?

Agriculture Science, e.g. constructing bar charts to show the major components of the soil.

interpret the information illustrated on a bar chart? Are students willing to discuss the information illustrated on a bar chart? Can students identify a pie chart?

Pie Charts

Pie Chart: a circle graph in which sections of the circle represent fractions, degrees, percentages.

57

Topic

Objectives Skills

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Calculating each section of the circle in degrees or percentages from given information.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

construct a pie chart?

Representing the information on the circle. Interpret pie charts. Interpretation of pie charts. Interpreting information represented on pie charts.

use pie charts to answer questions and solve problems? Unit Test

Agriculture Science, e.g. construction of a pie chart to show the composition of a loam soil.

GEOMETRY 2 Topic

Objectives Skills

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

58

Common Solids

Common solids: cube, cuboid, pyramid, cylinder, sphere. The general characteristics of common solids: The faces may be flat or curved. An edge is the line where two faces meet. Edges may be straight or curved. A vertex is the point where three or more edges meet. Select common solids.

Displaying models of common solids such as: cube, cuboid, pyramid, cylinder, sphere. Observing the general characteristics of common solids. Manipulating models of common solids.

Can students:

recognise common solids?

59

Topic

Objectives Skills

A cube has 6 square faces, 12 straight edges and 8 vertices. A cuboid has 6 rectangular faces, 12 straight edges and 8 vertices. A pyramid with n-sided base will have n triangular faces meeting at a point. A cylinder has 2 plane faces and one curved surface. It has 2 curved edges and no vertices.

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Having students examine the faces, edges and vertices of common solids and listing what they observe.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

60

Topic

Objectives Skills

Drawing Common Shapes

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Small group activities: Draw the skeleton views of common solids. Draw the nets of common solids. Enjoy drawing the skeleton views of common solids. Skeleton views of common solids.

drawing the skeleton views of a cube, cuboid, pyramid, cylinder, sphere. drawing the nets of solids. matching net with name of solid. folding nets to make models of solids.

Are students willing to discuss the properties of common solids? Can students:

draw the skeleton views of a cube, cuboid, pyramid, cylinder, sphere? draw the net of common solids? match the net with name of solid? fold a net to make a model of a solid? Unit Test

61

ALGEBRA 2 Topic

Objectives Skills

Conversion of verbal statements into symbolic expressions, e.g. if the length of a rectangle is x cm and the width y cm, then an expression for the perimeter of the rectangle can be: Perimeter = (x + x + y + y ) cm = (2x + 2y) cm Practise converting verbal statements into symbolic expressions.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Encouraging students to practise converting verbal statements into symbolic expressions. Applying the distributive law to simplify algebraic expressions, e.g. (3 y) + (4 y) = y(3 + 4) = 7y

Do students practice converting verbal statements into symbolic expressions? Can students apply the distributive law to simplify algebraic expressions?

62

Topic

Objectives Skills

Equations

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Solve simple equations by: (a) inspection, e.g. if y + 4 = 12, then y = 8 (b) balancing, e.g. 2a + 4 = 12 2a + 4 4 = 12 4 2a 8 = 2 2 a=4 Practise solving simple equations in one unknown. Encouraging students to practise solving simple equations in one unknown. Do students practise solving simple equations in one unknown?

inspection?

balancing?

63

Topic

Objectives Skills

Inequations

Identify inequations . Use the symbols < and > to convert verbal statements into algebraic expressions.

Inequations, e.g. 12 > 11 or 11 < 12. The use of the symbols < and > in the conversion of verbal statements into algebraic expressions, e.g. if the length of a rectangle is one cm and the width 4 cm less than the length, then the statement can be expressed by the inequation (a 4) < a.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify an inequation? use the symbols < and > to convert verbal statements into algebraic jhexpressions?

Enviromental Education,e.g.

Using the symbols < or > to convert verbal statements into algebraic expressions.

Number of predators < Number of Prey in an environment. Number of insects > Number of humans on the earth.

64

Topic

Objectives Skills

Indices

Indices

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Showing on chart examples of indices and pointing out the base and index.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

identify the base and index of an expression? write algebraic expressions in index form?

Algebraic expressions in index form, e.g. 3 a a a = 3a3. Multiplication and division of expressions with the same base, e.g. 82 82 82 = 82+2+2 = 86 86 82 = 86-2 = 84.

Writing algebraic expressions in index form. Using the laws of indices to:

multiply indices with the same base. divide indices with the same base.

use the laws of indices to manipulate expressions with positive indices? Unit Test

65

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Explaining cost price, selling price and profit.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Demonstrating that if the selling price of an article is greater than the cost price, then there is a profit. Calculating: Calculate profit. Profit = Selling Price Cost Price.

profit.

Can students explain the concepts of cost price, selling price and profit?

profit?

Agriculture Science, e.g. finding the profit made after a sale of chickens.

Calculate cost price given selling price and profit. Calculate selling price.

Cost price = Selling Price Profit. Selling price = Cost Price + Profit.

66

Topic

Objectives Skills

Loss

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

explain the concept of loss?

Demonstrating that if the selling price of an article is less than the cost price, then there is a loss. Calculating: Calculate loss. Calculate cost price given selling price and loss. Calculate selling price given cost price and loss.

loss cost price given selling price and loss. selling price given cost price and loss.

calculate loss? cost price given selling price and loss? selling price given cost price and loss? Unit Test

67

Volume: The amount of three dimensional space a solid occupies. Volume of a cube = l3 Volume of a cuboid = l b h

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Can students:

explain the concept of volume?

Mass

Solving problems involving volume. Explain the concept of mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object remains the same no matter where the object is located. Discussing the concept of mass.

Home Economics, e.g. finding the mass of flour or sugar or butter for baking cakes or bread.

68

Topic

Objectives Skills

Temperature

Temperature: the measure of hotness or coldness of an object. The SI unit for measuring temperature is degree Celsius ( C) Time

Activities/ Materials/ Strategies Reading the thermometer after immersing it in hot or cold water.

Evaluation

Areas of Integration

Time

Can students:

read time on 12-hour, and 24-hour clocks? change 12-hour clock times to 24-hour clock times and vice versa? solve problems involving time? Unit Test

Change 12-hour clock times to 24-hour clock times and vice versa. Solve problems involving time.

Changing 12hour clock times to 24-hour clock times and vice versa. Let students solve problems involving time.

69

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