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-ING and ED modifying phrases

This college, __________________ in 1800, is the oldest in this part of the US. a) It was established b) Has been established c) Having established d) Established

Not thinking clearly, _____________________________ . a) Janess purse was left in the car b) In the car was Janes purse c) Jane left her purse in the car d) The car had Janes purse in it

Gerunds and Infinitives


INFINITIVE functions as: Noun Adverb Adjective You like to smile. (noun) The man to see is Mr. Jones. (adjective) He ran to meet her. (adverb) GERUND functions as: Nouns

Smiling is good for you. (noun)

INFINITIVE functions as: Subject Object Complements Never as object of prepositions!!!

GERUND functions as: Subject Object Complements Object of prepositions

Todays weather is perfect for to swim.

Todays weather is perfect for swimming.

There are verbs that cannot be followed by infinitives. I enjoy to eat. Some adjectives can be followed by infinitives. I was sad to learn that he had gone. I was sad learning that he had gone. I enjoy eating.

Model: 1. A well-balanced diet is important for __________ strong teeth and bones. a) To maintain b) It maintaining c) Maintaining d) Maintenance 2. Although Greg started to write his paper a week ago, he only finished to write it this morning. A B C 3. Mary went to the store for buy a gallon of milk. A B C D