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VII. Colloidal Processes 7.2 Tape Casting Professor W. J. Wei Dept. Mat. Sci. Eng. National
VII. Colloidal Processes 7.2 Tape Casting
VII. Colloidal Processes
7.2 Tape Casting

Professor W. J. Wei Dept. Mat. Sci. Eng. National Taiwan University

Ref.

1. J. R. Reed, Chapter 25 and 26

2. 陶瓷技術手冊, 13

ee d , Ch ap t er 25 an d 26 2. 陶瓷技術手冊 , 第 13

http://www.mse.nthu.edu.tw/~jhjean/

resource.htm

WhatWhat isis ““TaTappee CasinCasingg””??

The tape casting (doctor blade process) is -a shape forming technique, which produces thin flat sheets. -a doctor blade to conrol a moving ceramic slurry. -a binder system offer enough ''greengreen ssttrengrengthth'

Punching and Printing on Tapes Lamination Binder-burn-out (BBO) steps Sintered.

Tape Casting Equipment

Tape Casting Equipment http:// drm.kist.re.kr/cerapedia/ process/jgl003.html

http://drm.kist.re.kr/cerapedia/ process/jgl003.html

Multi-layer Assembly of MLCC (passive chips) or ceramic/metal module

Multi-layer Assembly of MLCC (passive chips) or ceramic/metal module

Formulation of Tape Casting

Formulation of Tape Casting Powder + solution (water or organic solvent) + bind er + di

Powder + solution (water or organic solvent) + binder + dispersant + de-foamer + plasticizer +homogenizer

Binder and Plasticizer for Tape Casting

Binder an d Plasticizer f or T ape Casting

Effect of Binder Content

Effect of Binder Content

Effect of Binder: ζ-potential

Effect of Binder: ζ - potential B. Bitterlich and J. G. Heinrich, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc.

B. Bitterlich and J. G. Heinrich, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc. 22(2002) 2427~2434 C.A. Gutierrez and R. Moreno, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc. 20(2000) 1527~1537

Adsorption Isotherms of Polymeric Additives

Ad sorp ti on I so th erms of Po ly mer i c Additi ves

0,2 μm Alumna powder with BET area: 11.2 m 2 /gm, in MEK/toluene

Plateau coverage:

PVB = 3.46

MFO = 2.31

mg 2 m mg m
mg
2
m
mg
m

2

Binders: PVB(B79 and B76) M.W B79 = 65000, B76 = 105000 Dispersants: Mahatan Fish Oil
Binders: PVB(B79 and B76) M.W B79 = 65000, B76 = 105000
Dispersants: Mahatan Fish Oil (MFO) M.W=2000-3000

Tape Forming Fundamentals

a combination of pressure-driven flow and shear-driven flow

of pressure - driven flow and shear - driven flow Y. T. Chou, Fluid flow model
of pressure - driven flow and shear - driven flow Y. T. Chou, Fluid flow model

Y. T. Chou, Fluid flow model for ceramic tape casting, J. Am. Ceram.

Soc., 70 [10] C-280-C-282 (1987)

Effect of Casting Variables (the forces)

the ratio of pressure force to viscous force, Π

Eff ec t o f Ca s tin g Variables (th e f o r ces

Thickness vs. Tape Casting Velocity

Thickness vs . Ta pe Ca s tin g V e l oc it y At

At various viscosity!

High viscosity is in- sensitive to elocity!

Thickness vs . Ta pe Ca s tin g V e l oc it y At
Critical Tape Casting Factors: CCR & Gap
Critical Tape Casting Factors: CCR & Gap
Critical Tape Casting Factors: CCR & Gap • cr iti ca l cas ti ng ra
Critical Tape Casting Factors: CCR & Gap • cr iti ca l cas ti ng ra

critical casting rate is 5mm/s

• below C.C.R. the shearing is very low, and the viscosity of slurry is high.

the thickness and density didn’t change at constant casting speed

Ga p Size in Ta p e Castin g
Ga p Size in Ta p e Castin g
Blade Gap 1.2 mm Blade Gap 0.4 mm Blade Gap 0.25 mm Casting Speed (mm/s)
Blade Gap 1.2 mm
Blade Gap 0.4 mm
Blade Gap 0.25 mm
Casting Speed (mm/s)
Tape T hicknes s (mm)

Fig. Plot of the green tape thickness obtained at different casting speeds for three different blade gaps.

Ref: A.I.Y. Tok et al., Tape casting of high dielectric ceramic composite substrates for microelectronics application”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 89-90 (1999) 508-512

Thickness vs. Gap and Speed
Thickness vs. Gap and Speed
Blade Speed 5 mm/s Blade Speed 10 mm/s Blade Speed 20 mm/s Blade Gap (mm)
Blade Speed 5 mm/s
Blade Speed 10 mm/s
Blade Speed 20 mm/s
Blade Gap (mm)
Th icknessTape
(mm)

Fig. Plot of the green tape thickness obtained at different blade gaps for three different casting speeds.

Defects in Tape: cavity on surface

Green tape

Binder

burn-out

Sintered

tape

Defects in Tape: cavity on surface Green tape Binder burn-out Sintered tape
Defects in Tape: cavity on surface Green tape Binder burn-out Sintered tape

Defects in Tape: Non-uniform Shrinkage

5 cm (0,Y) (X,0)
5 cm
(0,Y)
(X,0)
Defects in Tape: Non-uniform Shrinkage 5 cm (0,Y) (X,0) Casting Direction • Four main stabilization treatment

Casting Direction

• Four main stabilization treatment

– Bake: 2 h at 120 o C in flowing air.

– Thermal cycling: -5 o C for 30 min, then 120 o C for 30 min, 4 times.

– Solvent exposure: saturated toluene vapor for 1 h at room temperature, then simple bake.

– Humidity: 24 h at 100% RH, 80 o C, then 24 h at 80 o C in flowing air.

• Aging : 23 o C, 50% RH

Directional Linear Aging Shrinkage of Green Tapes

Treatment Shrinkage % Solvent-based Aqueous-based Untreated X : 0.92 Y : 0.71 X : 0.40
Treatment
Shrinkage %
Solvent-based
Aqueous-based
Untreated
X : 0.92
Y : 0.71
X : 0.40
Y : 0.31
Bake
0.30
0.27
0.28
0.32
Thermal
0.25
0.27
0.40
0.36
cycle
Solvent
0.25
0.27
0.40
0.44
Humidity
0.15
0.14
0.17
0.21

*After 35 days of aging

Microstructure of surface vs. bottom Aqueous A queous Bottom Surface
Microstructure of
surface vs. bottom
Aqueous
A queous
Bottom
Surface
3 μm 10 μm
3 μm
10 μm
Microstructure of surface vs. bottom Aqueous A queous Bottom Surface 3 μm 10 μm Organic: bottom

Organic: bottom

Microstructure of surface vs. bottom Aqueous A queous Bottom Surface 3 μm 10 μm Organic: bottom

surface

Microstructure of surface vs. bottom Aqueous A queous Bottom Surface 3 μm 10 μm Organic: bottom

Cross-Sectional Microstructures

Laminated

1mm
1mm

Sintered

Cross - Sectional Microstructures Laminate d 1mm Sintere d • Laminated by com p ression at

• Laminated by compression at room temperature

• Green tape sintered at 1800°C/60min

No single layer can be distinguished after laminated and sintered

MLCC: Engineering of Ceramic Tape

MLCC: En g ineerin g of Ceramic Ta p e Ref: http:// www.tactilecomponents.com/ ceramicacapacitor.htm
MLCC: En g ineerin g of Ceramic Ta p e Ref: http:// www.tactilecomponents.com/ ceramicacapacitor.htm

Ref: http://www.tactilecomponents.com/ ceramicacapacitor.htm

Properties of Cofired multilayer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC) ImportantImportant PropertiesProperties 1. Slip viscosity

Properties of Cofired multilayer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC)

ImportantImportant PropertiesProperties

1. Slip viscosity (mPa·s)

2. Green density (g/cm 3 )

3. States (thickness, etc.) of the tape

4. Microstructure of green tapes

5. Tensile strength (kPa), for example

6

7.

8.

Si

Microstructure of sintered tapes

Dielectric permititivity and dissipation factor (%)

t

n ere

d d

it

/

3

ens

y (g cm )

.

Tensile Strength and Strain-to-Failure of Tape

*Effect of plasticizer for tape properties

Tensile Strength and Strain - to - Failure of Ta p e *Effect of plasticizer for

Summary

• Multi-layer structure and tape process are most popular and important process for electronic components (e.g. L-C-R);

• Processing parameters are extremely complex;

• The manufacturing has faced the competition from the field of silicon industry (system on chip, SOC).

Adapt several technologies from thin film processes and inject-printing.