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Table of Content No.

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Background Technological Definition Application Classification Future Prospects Business Value Limitation Conclusion References

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Background: The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, serviceoriented architecture, autonomic, and utility computing. Details are abstracted from end-users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility." Almost all the modernday characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit, they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the

provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source software for deploying private clouds. Also, OpenNebula became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. In the same year, efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by realtime interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting to a real-time cloud environment. In July 2010, OpenStack was announced, attracting nearly 100 partner companies and over a thousand code contributions in its first year, making it the fastest-growing free and open source software project in history. With the development of the operating system, stand-alone computers could perform multiple functions simultaneously for the first time. This opened the door for the first instances of multiple users using a system at the same time. Early instances of multiple clients sharing a single, sometimes more powerful, computing device were known as local area networks. In these settings, a single central server or computing device supported several stand-alone personal computers or dumb terminals (keyboards and computer screens) housed in the same physical location. The terminals would connect to the central server, which would do the terminal's actual processing. Cloud Computing is an evolution from these previous efforts at shared computing. As prices for processing power and storage have fallen and high-speed internet connections have become ubiquitous, cloud computing has become an increasingly attractive option for many individuals and businesses. As of September 2008, 69 percent of Americans were using webmail services, storing data online, or otherwise using software programs, such as word processing applications, whose functionality is located on the web. Technological Definition A 'cloud' is an elastic execution environment of resources involving multiple stakeholders and providing a metered service at multiple granularities for a specified level of quality (of service). Cloud Computing, to put it simply, means Internet Computing. With Cloud Computing users can access database resources via the Internet from anywhere, for as long as they need, without worrying about any maintenance or management of actual resources. Besides, databases in cloud are very dynamic and scalable.

The Free Online Dictionary of Computing: A loosely defined term for any system providing access via the Internet to processing power, storage, software or other computing services, often via a web browser. Typically these services will be rented from an external company that hosts and manages them. (2009-04-21). Collins English Dictionary - a model of computer use in which services stored on the internet are provided to users on a temporary basis Webopedia Cloud computing is a type of computing where it relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications.

Application The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system. Backup and Recovery: The first is backup and recovery. Clearly, it is more efficient to make use of a cloud computing service to provide backup and recovery. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): it is a form of cloud computing. Whether its a payroll or customer relationship management (CRM) system, there are times when delivering those applications as a service makes sense. Application service: A lot of IT organization cant afford to invest in supercomputerclass infrastructure. Yet, the business could benefit from access to some pretty computeintensive analytic applications. An interesting example of how one of these services might work is Wolfram Alpha, a query service based on a new model for doing sophisticated searches and calculations. Cloud Storage/Free Storage: Servers and digital storage devices take up space. Some companies rent physical space to store servers and databases. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end. In Research: Often, scientists and researchers work with calculations so complex that it would take years for individual computers to complete them. If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power.

Classification Cloud computing is typically classified in two ways: 1. Basis on Location 2. Basis on services offered

1. Basis of location: Cloud Computing can be classified into 4 types on the location of the cloud computing

Public Cloud: Computing infrastructure is hosted at the vendors premises. The customer has no visibility over the location of the cloud computing infrastructure. The computing infrastructure is shared between organizations. Public Cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned to the general public on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. Example: Amazon, Google Apps, Windows Azure. Private Cloud: The Computing architecture is dedicated to the customer and is not shared with other organizations. Some experts consider that private clouds are not real. They are expensive and are considered more secure than Public Clouds. Private clouds may be externally hosted ones as well as in premise hosted clouds.Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Private clouds are of two types: Onpremise private clouds and externally hosted private clouds. Externally hosted private clouds are also exclusively used by one organization, but are hosted by a third party specializing in cloud infrastructure. Externally hosted private clouds are cheaper than Onpremise private clouds. Private clouds are more expensive and more secure when compared to public clouds. Example: eBay. Hybrid Cloud: Hybrid cloud Organizations may host critical applications on private clouds and applications with relatively less security concerns on the public cloud. The usage of both private and public clouds together is called hybrid cloud. A related term is Cloud Bursting. In Cloud bursting organization use their own computing infrastructure for normal usage, but access the cloud for high/peak load requirements. This ensures that a sudden increase in computing requirement is handled gracefully. Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. There are not many hybrid clouds actually in use today, though initial initiatives such as the one by IBM and Juniper already introduce base technologies for their realization Community Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared between the organizations of the same community. For example, all the government agencies within the state of Califomia can share the same cloud but not the non-government agencies. Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. Community Clouds as such are still just a vision, though there are already indicators for such development, e.g. through Zimory [12] and RightScale [13]. Community clouds show some overlap with GRIDs technology (see e.g. Reservoir [40]). Special Purpose Clouds: In particular IaaS clouds originating from data centres have a general purpose appeal to them, as their according capabilities can be equally used for a wide scope of use cases and customer types. As opposed to this, PaaS clouds tend to provide functionalities more specialized to specific use cases, which should not be confused with proprietariness of the platform: specialization implies providing

additional, use case specific methods, whilst proprietary data implies that structure of data and interface are specific to the provider. Specialized functionalities are provided e.g. by the Google App Engine which provides specific capabilities dedicated to distributed document management. Similar to general service provisioning (web based or not), it can be expected that future systems will provide even more specialized capabilities to attract individual user areas, due to competition, customer demand and available expertise. Special Purpose Clouds are just extensions of normal cloud systems to provide additional, dedicated capabilities. The basis of such development is already visible. 2. Basis on service Provide: Classification based upon service provided, clouds are classified in the following ways: IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service The base IT infrastructure components such as Machines for computing, Storage, Network is provided as a service. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) involves offering hardware related services using the principles of cloud computing. These could include some kind of storage services (database or disk storage) or virtual servers or virtual machines with fixed number of CPUs, fixed amount of RAM and hard disk space. And this virtual machine can run window, MAC server or Linux like OS. All the system services that make up the foundation layer of a cloud are IaaS. Hence network service and data-backup are also consider as part of IaaS. . Leading vendors that provide Infrastructure as a service are Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Rack space Cloud Servers and Flexi scale. PaaS - Platform as a Service a solid platform in which you can develop, test, deploy & offer your applications to your end customers. Mostly your applications are offered as a Web & Web Services technologies Platforms provided by different vendors are typically not compatible. Platform-as-a-Service means Provider enables development of cloud-based application service on that platform through specific API/Services. The underneath platform In order to discuss some of the issues surrounding Looking at the Cloud's forerunners, and the problems they encountered, gives us the reference points to guide us through the challenges it needs to overcome before it is adopted. . Example : Microsoft Azure, Goggle App Engine, from Sales Force SaaS - Software as a Service Software applications provided as a service, As a Cloud Developer, mostly you will consume the services to enhance or enrich their existing offerings. Software as a service (SaaS) includes a complete software offering on the cloud. Users can access a software application hosted by the cloud vendor on pay-per-use basis. This is a well-established sector. The pioneer in this field has been Salesforce.coms offering in the online Customer Relationship Management (CRM) space. Other examples are online email providers like Googles email and Microsofts hotmail,

Future Prospects 1. Cloud computing will allow everybody to be a service provider. The infrastructure to do things is no longer a limiting factor. Focus will shift to application and business services.

2. Employees will be able to use any device to access, transact and manage their work. 3. Security issues replace downtime problems as the major story for public clouds. The press will claim that this shows public clouds are not ready for production applications, but it actually creates a new level of awareness and round of start-ups with viable solutions. That will force organizations to rethink how they secure their data and applications. 4. A new class of real time, personalized service providers will emerge and they will develop partnerships to exploit the advantages of big data, social media and mobility. 5. In Africa, the convergence of social, mobile and cloud will emerge as critical tools for governments to deliver services and drive economic growth. 6. Surging volume of externally originating data (e.g., social nets) will drive more companies to cloud-based analytics like Radian6. 7. Accelerating tablet use will create vast numbers of multi-device users who will prefer cloud-based tools like Google Docs. 8. File-based models of collaboration will give way to cloud-based, conversational models like Chatter where file location is irrelevant. 9. Continued scarcity of IT skills - despite still-high general unemployment, will discourage complex 'private cloud' schemes. 10. Developer talent will focus on Ruby on Rails, HTML5, and other skill sets that improve cloud experience and weaken legacy preferences. 11. PaaS is the future of cloud services. PaaS becomes the overhyped buzzword for 2012; companies begin making decisions on which platforms to adopt. Whoever can combine Java and .NET into an integrated PaaS platform, with options for modern web languages, will take a significant lead with developers. 12. One of the major infrastructure vendors combines OpenStack + the major open-source cloud tools (Chef/Puppet, Xen, etc.) into a unified package that can be deployed in-house (Private Cloud), on AWS (public cloud) or on their vendor-operated cloud, allowing customers to actually deploy cloud in any environment. 13. Federated clouds will take off in a big way and we will be seeing more and more cloud brokerage services helping buyers navigate the ecosystem. 14. The convergence of mobile, cloud and social will accelerate and We will see more and more application vendors bringing in feature parity in their apps for different mobile applications. 15. Watch out for some interesting cloud adoption trends in the Indian sub-continent and APAC region. They will soon become the biggest market for clouds 16. Innovation through acquisition by established technology players. 17. BigData and Business Analytics give companies a leg up and become mainstream. We will also be seeing some efforts to remove the inertia associated with big data. 18. The cloud stack market will shake out. UR either huge (VMware, BMC, CA, IBM, HP, VCE), or you're OpenStack. Several others will exit.

19. Multi-cloud governance will start to be a mainstream area of focus enabling IT to gain control over their "cloud-sprawl" issues. 20. Global IT spending decline based on economy will change calculus of public vs. private cloud - lack of capex at most companies. 21. While Data Centers will Show Slower Growth via larger customers (e.g., cloud providers), many companies who currently rack and stack their IT environments within these data centers will shift to an outsourced. 22. More Cross Cloud Connectivity & Integration different clouds offer different advantages and capabilities. Also, to avoid outages, companies will look to linking public, private and in-house infrastructures for better disaster recovery. 23. Private Clouds Rise in the Ranks Enterprises will now be more accepting of private cloud for their IT environments. Constrained budgets, server sprawl, unused or underutilized hardware environments will cause these corporations to rethink. 24. Cloud Computing Consulting & Professional Services Firms will grow dramatically 25. IT Organizations within Companies will shift to the Cloud 26. Value-added services enter the competitive arena: its time for the cloud service providers to face-off on higher levels of services competition with are around Quality of Service. 27. Mobile will drive an exponential number of data portability and synchronization projects - further moving data off devices to the cloud. 28. The Rise of the Cloud Management Tools - Management tools that are cloud aware and lend themselves to automation become critical. Look to solutions from Opscode, PuppetLabs and enStratus for these needs. 29. Cloud Hosted Desktops will increase like Google Docs, Dropbox, Evernote etc.

Business Value Saves time - Businesses that utilize software programs for their management needs are disadvantaged, because of the time needed to get new programs to operate at functional levels. By turning to cloud computing, you avoid these hassles. You simply need access to a computer with Internet to view the information you need. Less glitch - Applications serviced through cloud computing require fewer versions. Upgrades are needed less frequently and are typically managed by data centers. Often, businesses experience problems with software because they are not designed to be used with similar applications. Departments cannot share data because they use different applications. Cloud computing enables users to integrate various types of applications including management systems, word processors, and e-mail. The fewer glitches, the more productivity expected from employees.

Going green - On average, individual personal computers are only used at approximately 10 to 20 percent of their capacity. Similarly, computers are left idle for hours at a times soaking up energy. Pooling resources into a cloud consolidates energy use. Essentially, you save on costs by paying for what you use and extending the life of your PC. Fancy technology - Cloud computing offers customers more access to power. This power is not ordinarily accessible through a standard PC. Applications now use virtual power. Users can even build virtual assistants, which automate tasks such as ordering, managing dates, and offering reminders for upcoming meetings. Mobilization - From just about anywhere in the world, services that you need are available. Sales are conducted over the phone and leads are tracked by using a cell phone. Cloud computing opens users up to a whole new world of wireless devices, all of which can be used to access any applications. Companies are taking sales productivity to a whole new level, while at the same time, providing their sales representatives with high quality, professional devices to motivate them to do their jobs well. Consumer trends - Business practices that are most successful are the ones that reflect consumer trends. Currently, over 69 percent of Americans with internet access use a source of cloud computing. Whether it is Web e-mail, data storage, or software, this number continues to grow. Consumers are looking to conduct business with a modern approach. Social media - Companies are using social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to heighten their productivity levels. Blogs are used to communicate with customers about improvements that need to be made within companies. LinkedIn is a popular website used by business professionals for collaboration purposes. Also, target groups are tracked more efficiently by tagging networks on Facebook. Customize - Some businesses require a personalized touch that ordinary software cannot provide. Cloud computing gives the user the opportunity to build custom applications on a user-friendly interface. In a competitive world, your business needs to stand out from the rest. Customization is the solution for this problem. IT staff cuts - When all the services you need are maintained by experts outside your business, there is no need to hire new ones. Reduced costs: Cloud computing reduces your hardware (computers, software (all those downloaded programs), networking management and overall IT expenses. In addition, with cloud computing, you pay for what you use. Scalability: You can scale your businesses storage needs seamlessly rather than having to go out and purchase expensive programs or hardware. A not-for-profit ran a cookbook project and was able to pay for all the cloud apps they needed to create, implement and market their project on a month to month basis. They didnt have to purchase a piece of hardware, buy software licenses or worry about overloading their servers. Automatic Updates: There is no need for IT to worry about paying for your future updates in terms of software and hardware.

Remote Access: employees, partners and clients can access, and update information wherever they are, rather than having to run back the office. Disaster Relief: With your companys data safely stored on secure data centers instead of your server room (previously known as your storage closet), losing power due to hurricanes, earthquakes or a construction worker cutting the power lines, you are back at work as long as you have an internet connection. Ease of Implementation: Your IT team may not like this, but implementing cloud services is as easy as, well, setting up a LinkedIn page. Skilled Vendors: Who would you rather manages and protects your data? A company such as InfoStreet (with over 16 years experience serving enterprise clients), IBM or Amazon or your IT staff. Response Time: Cloud computing accomplishes a better response time in most cases than your standard server and hardware. Even playing field for small firms: This allows small companies to compete more effectively with some of the larger businesses, balancing the playing field. Your small business can utilize the same tools that Fortune 100 companies use and can do this because with cloud computing, your business will only pay for what you need. It is highly automated. With cloud computing, businesses do not need to set up a team to handle system updates and back-ups. Automation is one of the biggest attractions of this technology. Cloud computing frees up internal resources. Automation helps release important internal resources for other high-priority work.

Limitation The organizations are putting cloud setup according to their demand, there is no particular protocol to follow, and it may lead to chaos in coming time. There are several others limitations to address these are following: 1. Speed of Network: High speed Internet connectivity is must for cloud users. if the speed is low performance suffers and so the users. Because of Googles on demand Gmail and Goggle apps services went out for hours. During that time, end users

either affords disrupted service or they are to access their Gmail or online application altogether. 2. Control of data security: Data security is the main concern in cloud computing world. The resources in the cloud are shared by multiple users so it raises security issue. 3. Cost: In the case of very high usage demand the cost of cloud computing increases than traditional hosting. 4. Controlling effect: If there is a problem in data center, all virtual machines are affected. There might be or might not be a backup of the data if an enterprise relies only on the cloud for its data management needs. 5. Peripherals: Peripherals devices like printers or scanners might not work with cloud. Many of them require software to be installed locally. Network Peripherals have lesser problems. 6. Integration: Integration internal applications with those on cloud can be complex and in some cases not viable. 7. Generic: Some enterprises are seeing clear benefits in shifting to the cloud and are adopting it unconditionally while some enterprises are moving no critical application to testing. Some others want to wait and watch how the technology involves before deciding. 8. Privileged user access: Sensitive data processed outside the enterprise brings with it an inherent level of risk, because outsourced services can bypass the information. 9. Regulatory compliance: Customers are ultimately responsible for the security and integrity of their own data, even when it is held by a service provider. 10. Unknown Data location: When you use the cloud, you probably won't know exactly where your data is hosted. In fact, you might not even know what country it will be stored in. 11. Legal: There are concerns about a cloud provider's shutting down for financial or legal reasons, which has happened in a number of cases. 12. Data Ensure: To ensure selecting a cloud provider that has well-run, efficiently structured data centers, it is important that an organization take steps to understand and verify before use it. 13. Sustainability: Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. Such as Finland, Sweden and Switzerland, are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. 14. Abuse: as with privately purchased hardware, crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services.


Conclusion Cloud Computing is the next big thing in the arena of computing and storage. There are some concerns about security and its availability. Because in cloud computing, it is very common to store data of multiple customers at one common location. Cloud computing should have proper techniques where data is segregated properly for data security and confidentiality. However, different service providers are coming up with various solutions and suggestions in response to customers concerns. Care must be taken to ensure that one customers data does not affect another customers data. In addition, Cloud computing providers must be equipped with proper disaster recovery policies to deal with any unfortunate event. In any case, cloud is getting bigger and better, and as long as they are available through web services, without capital infrastructure investment at reasonable price, it is for sure going to proliferate and create robust demand in times to come.