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E2-E3/Civil

E2-E3: CIVIL

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E2-E3/Civil

Rev date: 01-04-11

Use of Computer in Structural Designing of Buildings In earlier periods say in sixties, engineering calculations were done b y slide rules. Then in seventies, came the era of calculators, which replaced slide rules completel y. The calculators are very much in vogue these days but to aid the structural engineer have come computers which are high -speed calculators and much more. When similar mem bers (say, slabs, beams columns, footings) are to be designed, relevant computer programs can be used to get more accurate methods which were earlier difficult and time -consuming to use manuall y. For example, frames under horizontal loads were anal ysed b y portal or cantilever methods manuall y. These gave onl y approximate results and we had to be satisfied with them. But now, computer can be used effectivel y to get accurate results. Computer-Aided Analysis & Design:Computers have recentl y been brought in to aid structural designers. These machines are as effective as the available software (i.e. computer programs). Programs are available for design of slabs, simpl y supported and continuous beams. Columns under biaxial bending , isolated footings, combined footings and rafts. There are also available 2-D plane frame programs, grids, retaining walls, etc. not only all the available programs may be to the liking of a designer. The assumptions made in the development of some programs may not be acceptable to the structural designer and in one case, it was found that the column program purchased was valid onl y for short columns and not for long columns, although at the time of purchase, it was claimed to be valid for both short and ling columns. In practice, con tinuous beams, frame anal ysis under horizontal loads are almost always solved by a computer. Sometimes, an building is divided into frames in both the principal directions. All the frames with the vertical and the horizontal loads are put in the computer a nd the solution is got which includes the complete design of beams at all the floor levels. Column loads are then assembled manuall y. Column design under biaxial bending at all levels is done by a computer program. A very powerful program STAAD Pro is also available in the market which can be used for 3-D anal ysis of a building as a whole. It is useful for anal ysis and design of multi -storied buildings. We may

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consider the followings methods of approach in order to tap the full capacit y of STAAD Pro soft ware. Structural Design Using STAAD - PRO

Concurrent Full

Engineering based user environment for development, anal ysis, design, visualization and verification .

model

range of anal ysis including static, P -delta, pushover, response spectrum, time history, cable (liner and non -linear), buckling and steel, concrete and timber design. Comparison

Limitations of Hand Computation Methods Applicable for small problems Tedious for even medium sized problems 3 - d a n a l ys i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e Advantage for Invention of Computer M a t r i x m e t h o d s o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l ys i s Development of numerical techniques Finite element method Programming languages developed Object-oriented intuitive 2D/3D graphical model generation. Pull down menus, floating tool bars, tool tip help. Quick data input through propert y sheets and spreadsheets. Customizable structural templates for creating a model. Complete support of VBA macros for customization (integrate with Match CDA or Excel). Supports truss and beam members, plates, solids, linear an d nonlinear cables and curvilinear beams. Advance automatic load generation facilities for wind, snow, area, floor and moving loads. Flexible zoom, pan and multiple views. Isometric and perspective view and 3D shapes. Toggle display of loads, supports, p roperties, joints, members, etc. Built-in command file editor for text editing. State-of-the-art graphical pre and post processors. Rectangular/cylindrical coordinate systems with mix and match capabilities. Joint, member/element, mesh generation with flex ible userPage:3

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Import/Export DSF, DWG, VRML, C IS/2 and Excel files. Efficient algorithm minimizes disk space requirements. FPS, metric or SI units. Presentation qualit y printer plots of geometry and results as part of run output.

Graphics Environment Model Generation Eas y auto mesh and auto refinement of user -defines polygonal element boundary by simple mouse clicks, including openings and column/wall lines.

Unlimited Undo and Redo. More structure wizard models including user -defined parametric structures to create any structural template. 2D and 3D graphic generation using rectangular, cylindrical and reverse cylindrical coordinates systems. Segments of repetitive geometry may be used to generate complex structural models. Generate,copy,repeat,mirror,pivot,etc.for quick and easy geometry generation. Comprehensive graphics editing. Library of commonly used structures can be picked and display of properties, loadings, supports, orientations etc. Graphical specification and display of properties, loadings, supports, orientations etc. Import/Export Auto Cad 2D/3D/ DXF or C IS/2 files to start your model. Access to text editor to modify model quickl y through command s yntax. User-controlled scale factors for deflected or mode shapes. Intelligent objects (beams, plates, columns) to report geometry. Structure Wizard to create parametric templates, meshes with holes and curved surfaces. Eas y snap -to construction grid for laying out beams and columns on irregular grids. Step-by-to hand calculations including all formulae, intermediate results, and code clauses for steel and concrete design. Graphicall y displaying built -up sections and customized shapes in 3D within the STAAD. Pro environment.
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New customizable node/member renumbering schem e.

Design Codes Steel Design Design codes include AISC (ASD and LRFD and & 3 r d Ed.), AIS I and AASHTO. Optional codes available include ASCE 52, BS5400, BS5950, Canadian, South Africa, Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Indian, Scandinavian, Mexican (NTC a nd CFE), Eurocode and much more.

Built-in-steel tables including AISC (7 t h -9 t h Editions), Australian, British, Canadian, Chinese, European, India, Japanese, Korean, Mexican, Russian and South Africa. Shapes include I-Beams with or without cover plates, channels, angles, double angles/channels, pipes and tubes (HSS Sections). User-specified design parameters including sides way, stiffeners, welding, net section factor, drift and deflection. Code check, member selection consisting of anal ysis/design cycle s. Calculation of Effective Length Factors (K Factors) for Steel Design. Powerful grouping command to design disjointed members as a physical member.

Concrete Design

Design of concrete beam/columns/slabs per AC I 318 -02, 318-95. Also footing design pe r ACI 318-02. Optional codes include BS8007, BS8110, Canadian, French, German, Spanish, Scandinavian, Japanese, Chinese, Australian, South African, Singaporean and Indian Codes IS -456-2000. Design circular, rectangular, I and L shaped, trapezoidal and Tee sections. Numerical and graphical design outputs with complete reinforcement details. Interactive concrete design and detailing with bar scheduling and interactive rebar layout. Design Physical members by combining separate beam entities as one with full step-by-step calculation sheets for verification. Full, integrated rectangular shear wall anal ysis and design (including openings) with output including forces at different heights along the wall (axial, shear and moment in -plane and out -of-plane bending moment), automatic meshing of the wall, horizontal and vertical shear and edge reinforcements at different heights. Page:5

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E2-E3/Civil Analysis & Design Static Anal ysis Primary P-delta Non-linear Non-Linear Cable

Rev date: 01-04-11

Structural Analysis
Anal ysis is performed to predict the response of a structure to applied external loads.

Solution of the model

Real world structural problems are very complex in nature. Anal ysis of these problems requires idealization.

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Element Types
Structural Elements
Line

Truss

Beam

Solid

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Structure Types
STRUCTURAL TYPES :
Y

GY
Z

X
GX

GZ

PLANE

SPACE

FLOOR

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Boundary Condition

Inclined

Multilinear

Basic Design Steel Concrete

Static Analysis Geometric Modeling Material Properties Sectional Properties Supports : Boundary Conditions Loads & Load combinations Special Commands Anal ysis Specification Design Command

Geometric Modeling Nodal Co-ordinate Data Selection of Elements : Element Library Beam Elements : Beams, Columns, Truss Members Plate Elements : Structural Walls, Floor Slabs
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Plane Stress Elements : Shear Walls, Floor Slabs A cting As Rigid Diaphragm To Lateral Loading Solid Elements : Thick Raft, Block Foundations Surface Element: Rectangular Default Division 10X10, no. can be controlled Mainly introduced for Shear Wall Modeling & Design Sectional & Material Properties Beam Elements : Cross Section Plate Elements : Thickness Solid Elements : NIL

Material means a set of: Modulus of Elasticity Poissons Ratio Weight Density Thermal Coefficient Damping Ratio Shear Modulus Geometric Constant Beta ( ) Angle Reference Point

Plate Element Loads Pressure (Full / Partial)

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E2-E3/Civil

Rev date: 01-04-11

C o n c e n t r a t e d F o r c e ( x , y) T r a p e z o i d a l & H yd r o s t a t i c T r a p e z o i d a l L o a d Surface Element Pressure Generated Loads Wind Load Seismic Co-efficient Method Repetitive Moving Load Dynamic Loads Time History Response Spectrum Combined Effect of Loads Combination (Algebraic, SRSS, ABS) Repeat Load IS 1893 2002 (Part 1) Parameters: Seismic Zone Coefficient Response Reduction Factor Importance Factor Soil Site Factor T yp e o f S t r u c t u r e Damping Ratio (obtain Multiplication Factor for Sa/g) Depth of Foundation below Ground Level Reduction of A h due to Depth of Foundation C Value Abolished Acceleration as Functi on of Time Period and Soil Type Evaluation of Base Shear Distribution of Lateral Storey Forces (same as before) New Floor Weight & Element Weight Commands

DESIGN

Once anal ysis is completed for different load combination design

will be perform for load env elope case.

Concrete Design can be done either using IS456 or for ductile

detailing IS-13920 can also be used. Using STAAD Pro for analysis & design the Building as a whole Steps in design 1. Manual design of slabs, stairs, chajjas, non -grid beams, etc. 2. Preparing data for STAA PRO program at all levels i.e generation of model, load intensities at al l floors and wall load as u.d.l, support conditions, material properties etc 3. Using computer, feeding data and getting the out -put. It gives beam and column design at all levels and it also gives column loads for design of foundations.. 4. Manual design of footings.
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E2-E3/Civil

Rev date: 01-04-11

5. Preparation of structural drawings with foundations and upwards by AUTOCAD or by manual. After anal ysis and design by STAAD Pro software we have to note down area of steel for column at various levels & grouping is done accordingl y. For beams be have to do detailing as per SP-34 by noting down the main reinforcement & Shear reinforcement & at various section floor wise. The drawings are prepared floor -wise, starting from the foundation, plinth beam and upwards and issued to the site for execution in the same order.

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Rev date: 01-04-11

INPUT FILE OF STAAD PRO FOR ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF A BUILDING STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 12-Nov-07 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT W IDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 -1.2 0; 2 3 -1.2 0; 3 7 -1.2 0; 4 11 -1.2 0; 5 15 -1.2 0; 6 18 -1.2 0; 7 0 -1.2 6; 8 3 -1.2 6; 9 7 -1.2 6; 10 11 -1.2 6; 11 15 -1.2 6; 12 18 -1.2 6; 13 0 -1.2 12; 14 3 -1.2 12; 15 7 -1.2 12; 16 11 -1.2 12; 17 15 -1.2 12; 18 18 -1.2 12; 101 0 0 0; 102 3 0 0; 103 7 0 0; 104 11 0 0; 105 15 0 0; 106 18 0 0; 107 0 0 6; 108 3 0 6; 109 7 0 6; 110 11 0 6; 111 15 0 6; 112 18 0 6; 113 0 0 12; 114 3 0 12; 115 7 0 12; 116 11 0 12; 117 15 0 12; 118 18 0 12; 119 0 0 8; 1 20 3 0 8; 121 7 0 8; 122 11 0 8; 123 15 0 10; 124 18 0 10; 201 0 3.5 0; 202 3 3.5 0; 203 7 3.5 0; 204 11 3.5 0; 205 15 3.5 0; 206 18 3.5 0; 207 0 3.5 6; 208 3 3.5 6; 209 7 3.5 6; 210 11 3.5 6; 211 15 3.5 6; 212 18 3.5 6; 213 0 3.5 12; 214 3 3.5 12; 215 7 3 .5 12; 216 11 3.5 12; 217 15 3.5 12; 218 18 3.5 12; 219 0 3.5 8; 220 3 3.5 8; 221 7 3.5 8; 222 11 3.5 8; 223 15 3.5 10; 224 18 3.5 10; 225 7 1.75 12; 226 11 1.75 12; 301 0 7 0; 302 3 7 0; 303 7 7 0; 304 11 7 0; 305 15 7 0; 306 18 7 0; 307 0 7 6; 308 3 7 6; 309 7 7 6; 310 11 7 6; 311 15 7 6; 312 18 7 6; 313 0 7 12; 314 3 7 12; 315 7 7 12; 316 11 7 12; 317 15 7 12; 318 18 7 12; 319 0 7 8; 320 3 7 8; 321 7 7 8; 322 11 7 8; 323 15 7 10; 324 18 7 10; 325 7 5.25 12; 326 11 5.25 12; 401 0 10.3 0; 402 3 10.3 0; 403 7 10.3 0; 404 11 10.3 0; 405 15 10.3 0; 406 18 10.3 0; 407 0 10.3 6; 408 3 10.3 6; 409 7 10.3 6; 410 11 10.3 6; 411 15 10.3 6; 412 18 10.3 6; 413 0 10.3 12; 414 3 10.3 12; 415 7 10.3 12; 416 11 10.3 12; 417 15 10.3 12; 418 18 10.3 12; 419 0 10.3 8; 420 3 10.3 8; 421 7 10.3 8; 422 11 10.3 8; 423 15 10.3 10; 424 18 10.3 10; 425 7 8.75 12; 426 11 8.75 12; 501 7 12.7 6; 502 11 12.7 6; 503 7 12.7 12; 504 11 12.7 12;

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E2-E3/Civil MEMBER INC IDENCES 101 101 102; 102 102 103; 106 107 108; 107 108 109; 108 109 110; 112 120 121; 113 121 122; 114 123 124; 118 116 117; 119 117 118; 120 101 107; 124 108 120; 125 120 114; 126 103 109; 130 110 122; 131 122 116; 132 105 111; 136 112 124; 137 124 118; 201 201 202; 205 205 206; 206 207 208; 207 208 209; 211 219 220; 212 220 221; 213 221 222; 217 216 217; 218 217 218; 219 201 207; 223 208 220; 224 220 214; 225 203 209; 229 210 222; 230 222 216; 231 205 211; 235 212 224; 236 224 218; 237 225 226; 304 304 305; 305 305 306; 306 307 308; 310 311 312; 311 319 320; 312 320 321; 316 314 315; 317 316 317; 318 317 318; 322 302 308; 323 308 320; 324 320 314; 328 304 310; 329 310 322; 330 322 316; 334 306 312; 335 312 324; 336 324 318; 403 403 404; 404 404 405; 405 405 406; 409 410 411; 410 411 412; 411 419 420; 415 413 414;

Rev date: 01-04-11

103 103 104; 104 104 105; 105 105 106; 109 110 111; 110 111 112; 111 119 120; 115 113 114; 116 114 115; 117 115 116; 121 107 119; 122 119 113; 123 102 108; 127 109 121; 128 121 115; 129 104 110; 133 111 123; 134 123 117; 135 106 112; 202 202 203; 203 203 204; 204 204 205; 208 209 210; 209 210 211; 210 211 212; 214 223 224; 215 213 214; 216 214 215; 220 207 219; 221 219 213; 222 202 208; 226 209 221; 227 221 215; 228 204 210; 232 211 223; 233 223 217; 234 206 212; 301 301 302; 302 302 303; 303 303 304; 307 308 309; 308 309 310; 309 310 311; 313 321 322; 314 323 324; 315 313 314; 319 301 307; 320 307 319; 321 319 313; 325 303 309; 326 309 321; 327 321 315; 331 305 311; 332 311 323; 333 323 317; 337 325 326; 401 401 402; 402 402 403; 406 407 408; 407 408 409; 408 409 410; 412 420 421; 413 421 422; 414 423 424;

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416 414 415; 417 416 417; 418 417 418; 419 401 407; 420 407 419; 421 419 413; 422 402 408; 423 408 420; 424 420 414; 425 403 409; 426 409 421; 427 421 415; 428 404 410; 429 410 422; 430 422 416; 431 405 411; 432 411 423; 433 423 417; 434 406 412; 435 412 424; 436 424 418; 437 425 426; 501 501 502; 502 503 504; 503 501 503; 504 502 504; 1001 1 101; 1002 101 201; 1003 201 301; 1004 301 401; 2001 2 102; 2002 102 202; 2003 202 302; 2004 302 402; 3001 3 103; 3002 103 203; 3003 203 303; 3004 303 403; 4001 4 104; 4002 104 204; 4003 204 304; 4004 304 404; 5001 5 105; 5002 105 205; 5003 205 305; 5004 305 405; 6001 6 106; 6002 106 206; 6003 206 306; 6004 306 406; 7001 7 107; 7002 107 207; 7003 207 307; 7004 307 407; 8001 8 108; 8002 108 208; 8003 208 308; 8004 308 408; 9001 9 109; 9002 109 209; 9003 209 309; 9004 309 409; 9005 409 501; 10001 10 110; 10002 110 210; 10003 210 310; 10004 310 410; 10005 410 502; 11001 11 111; 11002 111 211; 11003 211 311; 11004 311 411; 12001 12 112; 12002 112 212 ; 12003 212 312; 12004 312 412; 13001 13 113; 13002 113 213; 13003 213 313; 13004 313 413; 14001 14 114; 14002 114 214; 14003 214 314; 14004 314 414; 15001 15 115; 15002 115 225; 15003 225 215; 15004 215 325; 15005 325 315; 15006 315 425; 15007 425 415; 15 008 415 503; 16001 16 116; 16002 116 226; 16003 226 216; 16004 216 326; 16005 326 316; 16006 316 426; 16007 426 416; 16008 416 504; 17001 17 117; 17002 117 217; 17003 217 317; 17004 317 417; 18001 18 118; 18002 118 218; 18003 218 318; 18004 318 418; DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROP IC CONCRETE E 2.17185e+007 POISSON 0.17 DENSITY 23.5616 ALPHA 1e-005 DAMP 0.05
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END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY AMER ICAN 1001 TO 1004 2001 TO 2004 3001 TO 3004 4001 TO 4004 5001 TO 5004 6001 TO 6004 7001 TO 7004 8001 TO 8004 900 1 TO 9005 10001 TO 10005 11001 TO 11004 12001 12002 TO 12004 13001 TO 13004 14001 TO 14004 15001 TO 15008 16001 TO 16008 17001 TO 17004 18001 TO 18004 PR IS YD 0.3 ZD 0.6 MEMBER PROPERTY AMER ICAN 111 TO 114 211 TO 214 237 311 TO 314 337 411 TO 414 437 502 PR IS YD 0.45 ZD 0.23 120 TO 137 219 TO 236 319 TO 336 419 TO 436 503 504 PR IS YD 0.6 ZD 0.3 101 TO 110 115 TO 119 201 TO 210 215 TO 218 301 TO 310 315 TO 318 401 TO 410 415 TO 418 501 PR IS YD 0.45 ZD 0.3 CONSTANTS MATERIAL CONCRETE MEMB 101 TO 137 2 01 TO 237 301 TO 337 401 TO 437 501 TO 504 1001 TO 1004 2001 TO 2004 3001 TO 3004 4001 TO 4004 5001 TO 5004 6001 TO 6004 7001 TO 7004 8001 TO 8004 9001 TO 9005 10001 TO 10005 11001 11002 TO 11004 12001 TO 12004 13001 TO 13004 14001 TO 14004 15001 TO 15008 16001 TO 16008 17001 TO 17004 18001 TO 18004 SUPPORTS 1 TO 18 FIXED *ZONE III , CONSIDER ING ORDINARY MOMENT RES ISTANT FRAME FOR MEDIUM SOIL UNIT MMS NEWTON MEMBER RELEASE 111 114 211 214 311 314 411 414 START MZ 113 114 213 214 313 314 413 414 END MZ UNIT METER KN DEFINE 1893 LOAD ZONE 0.16 RF 3 I 1 SS 2 ST 3 JOINT WEIGHT 101 WEIGHT 85.13 102 WEIGHT 111.04 103 WEIGHT 118.02 104 WEIGHT 117.77 105 WEIGHT 84.31
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E2-E3/Civil 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT 85.26 163.24 162.18 171.62 172.39 134.06 158.87 88.75 99 150.09 150.14 127.8 97.01 113.37 156.75 170.52 172.82 158.67 113.52 223.46 279.83 327.51 294.85 250.11 221.07 114.66 180.03 232.11 222.57 181.04 123.82 114.1 157.89 172.09 174.12 159.8 114.27 221.76 276.11 323.95 291.52 246.31 219.38 115.5
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DES IGN COLUMN 1001 TO 1004 2001 TO 2004 3001 TO 3004 4001 TO 4004 5001 TO 5004 6001 TO 6004 7001 TO 7004 8001 TO 8004 9001 TO 9005 10001 TO 10005 11001 TO 11004 12001 TO 12004 13001 TO 13 004 14001 TO 14004 15001 TO 15008 16001 TO 16008 17001 TO 17004 18001 TO 18004 DES IGN BEAM 101 TO 137 201 TO 237 301 TO 337 401 TO 437 501 TO 504 CONCRETE TAKE END CONCRETE DESIGN FINISH

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Questions