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Stacy Thiel Ms. Sandall AP Bio II Block D 28 October 2011 Chapter 13 Study Guide 1.

Offspring acquires genes from parents by inheriting DNA from chromosomes. 2. Asexual Reproduction: a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring. Uses mitosis. Sexual Reproduction: two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations 3. A.) somatic cell: any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or an egg gamete: a haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or a sperm. B.) Autosome: a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex Sex Chromosome: determines the sex. 4. Diploid Cell: any cell with two chromosome sets. Somatic cells Haploid Cell: single chromosome set. Sperm, egg. 5. They alternate to maintain the normal chromosome count for each species. 6. 1st life cycle: Humans and animals. Gametes are the only haploid cells. Produces a multicellular organism. 2nd life cycle: Plants and algae. Alternation of generations. 3rd life cycle: fungi and protists. Meiosis produces haploid cells. Single-celled zygote. 7. Meiosis I Prophase I chromosomes are al over the place Metaphase I chromosomes line up in the middle Anaphase I chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite ends Telophase & Cytokinesis two haploid cells form Meiosis II Prophase II move toward middle Metaphase II line up in the middle Anaphase II chromatids separate Telophase II & Cytokinesis haploid daughter cells form 8. X 9. Synapsis: replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected along their lengths by a zipper-like protein structure, the synaptonemal complex. Genetic

recombination occurs when the two homologs pull apart slightly but remain connected by at least 1 x-shaped region called a chiasma. 10. Mitosis only has one division, while meiosis has two divisions. Meiosis has synapsis while mitosis doesnt. Mitosis has two daughter cells while meiosis has four. 11. Independent assortment each pair sorts its maternal and paternal homologs into daughter cell independently of every other pair. Crossing over the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis. Random Fertilization the fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete during fertilization will produce a zygote with any of about 70 trillion diploid combinations 12. The ability of sexual reproduction to generate genetic variation is one of the most commonly proposed explanations for the persistence of sexual reproduction.