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Abaqus Release Notes

Abaqus 6.11
Release Notes

Abaqus

Release Notes

Legal Notices
CAUTION: This documentation is intended for qualied users who will exercise sound engineering judgment and expertise in the use of the Abaqus Software. The Abaqus Software is inherently complex, and the examples and procedures in this documentation are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular situation. Users are cautioned to satisfy themselves as to the accuracy and results of their analyses. Dassault Systmes and its subsidiaries, including Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., shall not be responsible for the accuracy or usefulness of any analysis performed using the Abaqus Software or the procedures, examples, or explanations in this documentation. Dassault Systmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or omissions that may appear in this documentation. The Abaqus Software is available only under license from Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary and may be used or reproduced only in accordance with the terms of such license. This documentation is subject to the terms and conditions of either the software license agreement signed by the parties, or, absent such an agreement, the then current software license agreement to which the documentation relates. Abaqus software updates are designated by Version, Release, and, if applicable, Maintenance Delivery. Releases are software updates that include enhancements and new functionality. Maintenance Deliveries are software updates that address known issues but generally do not introduce enhancements or new functionality. Abaqus Extended Functionality Releases provide early access to a subset of the new functionality that will be introduced in the next numbered Release. Consistent with the format used by other Dassault Systmes brands for designating releases, Abaqus Software is designated by Version and Release as Abaqus 6.n. Abaqus 6.n is not a new Version but is a new Release. Similarly, Abaqus 6.n-3 refers to Version 6, Release n, Maintenance Delivery 3. When the Abaqus Maintenance Delivery number is omitted in written communications, the reference is interpreted to mean the general release, which is referenced in the code as Abaqus 6.n-1. Extended Functionality Releases are designated by an EF sufx after the Release number. This documentation and the software described in this documentation are subject to change without prior notice. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior written permission of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary. The Abaqus Software is a product of Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA. Dassault Systmes, 2011 Abaqus, the 3DS logo, SIMULIA, CATIA, and Unied FEA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective owners. The Abaqus Software and its documentation includes processes under U.S. Patents 5,920,491, 6,044,210, and 6,697,770. Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering Abaqus Software and/or its documentation. No license of such patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights is provided or implied except as may be expressly provided in a written license agreement from Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary.

Open Source Programs


Abaqus Software uses several open source or free programs (OS Programs) that are identied below. Each such program is distributed with Abaqus software in binary form and, except as permitted by the applicable license, without modication. Each such program is available online for free downloading and, if required by the applicable OS Program license, the source code will be made available by Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp. (SIMULIA) upon request. All of the OS Programs used in the Abaqus software that require a public citation are listed in the table below. Each of these OS Programs is available for use under a license that may be found by searching for the name of the OS Program in the table below. While users should consult the specic license applicable to each OS Program, generally these licenses provide permission to any person obtaining a copy of the OS Program to deal in the OS Program without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the OS Program and to permit persons to whom the OS Program is furnished to do so. Some of the licenses for the OS Programs listed below impose additional restrictions on use or modication and require that source code be made available. Each license includes substantially the following conditions and in some cases additional or different terms: The copyright notice associated with each OS Program (as listed in the program license) and the above permission notice (or other applicable restrictions indicated in each license) shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of such OS Program. The warranty and Support Services provided by SIMULIA under the End User License Agreement apply to all such open source software and are provided by SIMULIA and not by the original licensor. The original licensor of the open source software provides such software on an as is basis and without any liability whatsoever to any licensee. NO CONTRIBUTOR TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANY OS PROGRAM SHALL BE LIABLE TO ANY USER OF ANY OS PROGRAM FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS, OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) AS A RESULT OF USING, MODIFYING, OR DISTRIBUTING THE OS PROGRAM OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF STRICT LIABILITY OR TORT. Software Name asyncore-asynchat Cookie ctypes Exodus II FOX Toolkit Library FreeType Gnu C++ runtime library: libstdc++ Infozip utilities Unzip Infozip utilities Zip Jakarta LAPACK libf Mesa Metis ML Natural Order Sort NEMESIS (none) (none) (none) 4.84 1.0.31 2.1.10 4.1.0 5.42 2.3 2.07 3.2 (none) 6.0.1 4.0.1 4.0.1 2004-10-10 mbp 3.09 Release

Software Name NetCDF NumPy OpenSSL PBMPlus Perl PNG prole, pstats pyexpat Pychecker Python _random SCXML Socket Tcl/Tk TIFF Trace uu Visualization ToolKit (VTK) _wincon.c XML Expat parser xmlrpclib Zlib 4.0.1 1.3.0 (none) 8.3

Release

5.004 (IBM, HP) 5.005 (WinX86_32, linux32, lnx86_64) 5.6.1 (HPI, Linux64), 5.8.8 (WinX86_64) 1.0.3 (none) (none) 0.8.17 2.6.2 (none) Eighth public working draft (none) 8.5 3.5.7 (none) (none) 5.6.0 5/8/2001 1.95.4 (none) 1.1.2

Asyncore asynchat
Copyright 1996 by Sam Rushing All rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Sam Rushing not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. SAM RUSHING DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM RUSHING BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Cookie
Copyright 2000 by Timothy OMalley timo@alum.mit.edu

All rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Timothy OMalley not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. Timothy OMalley DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL Timothy OMalley BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Ctypes
Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Thomas Heller All rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation les (the Software), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Exodus II - Version 4.84


Copyright (c) 2005 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 with Sandia Corporation, the U.S. Government retains certain rights in this software. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither the name of Sandia Corporation nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

FOX Toolkit Library - Version 1.0


Copyright 1998 - 2002 by Jeroen van der Zijp GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2.1, February 1999 Copyright 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. [This is the rst released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor of the GNU Library Public License, version 2, hence the version number 2.1.]

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d. Subclassing from Objects or Widgets supplied by the Library involves no modications to the source code of the Library itself, and does not constitute creating a modied copy based on the Library. 3. If you do not accept or are unable to meet the conditions under (2), you may continue to distribute the combined work under the original GNU Lesser General Public License. END OF ADDENDUM

FreeType - Version 2.1.10


Copyright 1996-2002, 2006 by David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg Portions of this software are copyright 2006 The FreeType Project (www.freetype.org). All rights reserved. Legal Terms =========== 0. Denitions ------------------Throughout this license, the terms package, FreeType Project, and FreeType archive refer to the set of les originally distributed by the authors (David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg) as the FreeType Project, be they named as alpha, beta or nal release. You refers to the licensee, or person using the project, where using is a generic term including compiling the projects source code as well as linking it to form a program or executable. This program is referred to as a program using the FreeType engine. This license applies to all les distributed in the original FreeType Project, including all source code, binaries and documentation, unless otherwise stated in the le in its original, unmodied form as distributed in the original archive. If you are unsure whether or not a particular le is covered by this license, you must contact us to verify this. The FreeType Project is copyright (C) 1996-2000 by David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg. All rights reserved except as specied below. 1. No Warranty -------------------THE FREETYPE PROJECT IS PROVIDED AS IS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT WILL ANY OF THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES CAUSED BY THE USE OR THE INABILITY TO USE, OF THE FREETYPE PROJECT. 2. Redistribution ----------------------This license grants a worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual and irrevocable right and license to use, execute, perform, compile, display, copy, create derivative works of, distribute and sublicense the FreeType Project (in both source and object code forms) and derivative works thereof for any purpose; and to authorize others to exercise some or all of the rights granted herein, subject to the following conditions: Redistribution of source code must retain this license le (FTL.TXT) unaltered; any additions, deletions or changes to the original les must be clearly indicated in accompanying documentation. The copyright notices of the unaltered, original les must be preserved in all copies of source les. Redistribution in binary form must provide a disclaimer that states that the software is based in part of the work of the FreeType Team, in the distribution documentation. We also encourage you to put an URL to the FreeType web page in your documentation, though this isnt mandatory. These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the FreeType Project, not just the unmodied les. If you use our work, you must acknowledge us. However, no fee need be paid to us. 3. Advertising ------------------Neither the FreeType authors and contributors nor you shall use the name of the other for commercial, advertising, or promotional purposes without specic prior written permission. We suggest, but do not require, that you use one or more of the following phrases to refer to this software in your documentation or advertising materials: FreeType Project, FreeType Engine, FreeType library, or FreeType Distribution. As you have not signed this license, you are not required to accept it. However, as the FreeType Project is copyrighted material, only this license, or another one contracted with the authors, grants you the right to use, distribute, and modify it. Therefore, by using, distributing, or modifying the FreeType Project, you indicate that you understand and accept all the terms of this license. 4. Contacts ----------------

There are two mailing lists related to FreeType: freetype@nongnu.org Discusses general use and applications of FreeType, as well as future and wanted additions to the library and distribution. If you are looking for support, start in this list if you havent found anything to help you in the documentation. freetype-devel@nongnu.org Discusses bugs, as well as engine internals, design issues, specic licenses, porting, etc. Our home page can be found at http://www.freetype.org

Gnu C++ runtime library: libstdc++ - Version 3.1.0


Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. The source code of libstdc++-v3 is distributed under the so-called runtime exception to version 2 of the Gnu General Public License: As a special exception, you may use this le as part of a free software library without restriction. Specically, if other les instantiate templates or use macros or inline functions from this le, or you compile this le and link it with other les to produce an executable, this le does not by itself cause the resulting executable to be covered by the GNU General Public License. This exception does not however invalidate any other reasons why the executable le might be covered by the GNU General Public License.

Infozip Utilities Unzip - Version 5.42


This is version 2005-Feb-10 of the Info-ZIP copyright and license. zip.org/pub/infozip/license.html indenitely. Copyright (c) 1990-2005 Info-ZIP. All rights reserved. For the purposes of this copyright and license, Info-ZIP is dened as the following set of individuals: Mark Adler, John Bush, Karl Davis, Harald Denker, Jean-Michel Dubois, Jean-loup Gailly, Hunter Goatley, Ed Gordon, Ian Gorman, Chris Herborth, Dirk Haase, Greg Hartwig, Robert Heath, Jonathan Hudson, Paul Kienitz, David Kirschbaum, Johnny Lee, Onno van der Linden, Igor Mandrichenko, Steve P. Miller, Sergio Monesi, Keith Owens, George Petrov, Greg Roelofs, Kai Uwe Rommel, Steve Salisbury, Dave Smith, Steven M. Schweda, Christian Spieler, Cosmin Truta, Antoine Verheijen, Paul von Behren, Rich Wales, Mike White This software is provided as is" without warranty of any kind, express or implied. In no event shall Info-ZIP or its contributors be held liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages arising out of the use of or inability to use this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, denition, disclaimer, and this list of conditions. 2. Redistributions in binary form (compiled executables) must reproduce the above copyright notice, denition, disclaimer, and this list of conditions in documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. The sole exception to this condition is redistribution of a standard UnZipSFX binary (including SFXWiz) as part of a self-extracting archive; that is permitted without inclusion of this license, as long as the normal SFX banner has not been removed from the binary or disabled 3. Altered versions--including, but not limited to, ports to new operating systems, existing ports with new graphical interfaces, and dynamic, shared, or static library versions--must be plainly marked as such and must not be misrepresented as being the original source. Such altered versions also must not be misrepresented as being Info-ZIP releases--including, but not limited to, labeling of the altered versions with the names "Info-ZIP" (or any variation thereof, including, but not limited to, different capitalizations), "Pocket UnZip," "WiZ" or "MacZip" without the explicit permission of Info-ZIP. Such altered versions are further prohibited from misrepresentative use of the Zip-Bugs or Info-ZIP e-mail addresses or of the Info-ZIP URL(s). 4. Info-ZIP retains the right to use the names "Info-ZIP," "Zip," "UnZip," "UnZipSFX," "WiZ," "Pocket UnZip," "Pocket Zip," and "MacZip" for its own source and binary releases. The denitive version of this document should be available at ftp://ftp.info-

Infozip Utilities Zip - Version 2.3


This is version 2005-Feb-10 of the Info-ZIP copyright and license. zip.org/pub/infozip/license.html indenitely. Copyright (c) 1990-2005 Info-ZIP. All rights reserved. For the purposes of this copyright and license, Info-ZIP is dened as the following set of individuals: Mark Adler, John Bush, Karl Davis, Harald Denker, Jean-Michel Dubois, Jean-loup Gailly, Hunter Goatley, Ed Gordon, Ian Gorman, Chris Herborth, Dirk Haase, Greg Hartwig, Robert Heath, Jonathan Hudson, Paul Kienitz, David Kirschbaum, Johnny Lee, Onno van der Linden, Igor Mandrichenko, Steve P. Miller, Sergio Monesi, Keith Owens, George Petrov, Greg Roelofs, Kai Uwe Rommel, Steve Salisbury, Dave Smith, Steven M. Schweda, Christian Spieler, Cosmin Truta, Antoine Verheijen, Paul von Behren, Rich Wales, Mike White The denitive version of this document should be available at ftp://ftp.info-

This software is provided as is, without warranty of any kind, express or implied. In no event shall Info-ZIP or its contributors be held liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages arising out of the use of or inability to use this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, denition, disclaimer, and this list of conditions. 2. Redistributions in binary form (compiled executables) must reproduce the above copyright notice, denition, disclaimer, and this list of conditions in documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. The sole exception to this condition is redistribution of a standard UnZipSFX binary (including SFXWiz) as part of a self-extracting archive; that is permitted without inclusion of this license, as long as the normal SFX banner has not been removed from the binary or disabled. 3. Altered versions--including, but not limited to, ports to new operating systems, existing ports with new graphical interfaces, and dynamic, shared, or static library versions--must be plainly marked as such and must not be misrepresented as being the original source. Such altered versions also must not be misrepresented as being Info-ZIP releases--including, but not limited to, labeling of the altered versions with the names "Info-ZIP" (or any variation thereof, including, but not limited to, different capitalizations), "Pocket UnZip," "WiZ" or "MacZip" without the explicit permission of Info-ZIP. Such altered versions are further prohibited from misrepresentative use of the Zip-Bugs or Info-ZIP e-mail addresses or of the Info-ZIP URL(s). 4. Info-ZIP retains the right to use the names "Info-ZIP," "Zip," "UnZip," "UnZipSFX," "WiZ," "Pocket UnZip," "Pocket Zip," and "MacZip" for its own source and binary releases.

Jakarta - Version 2.07 SCXML Working Draft 16 December 2010


Jakarta is licensed under the Apache license: SCXML is licensed under the Apache license: Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004 1999 - 2005 The Apache Software Foundation http://www.apache.org/licenses/ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION 1. Denitions License shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as dened by Sections 1 through 9 of this document. Licensor shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License. Legal Entity shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this denition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) benecial ownership of such entity. You (or Your) shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License. Source form shall mean the preferred form for making modications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and conguration les. Object form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types. Work shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix Derivative Works shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof. Contribution shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this denition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as Not a Contribution. Contributor shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work.

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You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License. You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License. 5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. 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We also recommend that a le or class name and description of purpose be included on the same printed page as the copyright notice for easier identication within third-party archives.

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the License); you may not use this le except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on anAS ISBASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND , either express or implied. See the License for the specic language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

LAPACK - Release 3.2


Copyright (c) 1992-2007 The University of Tennessee. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer listed in this license in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither the name of the copyright holders nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. For more information on the contributors to LAPACK 3.2, please visit: http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lapack-3.2.html#_4_external_contributors

libffi license
Copyright (c) 1996-2003 Red Hat, Inc. Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation les (the Software), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Mesa - Version 3.4.2


Copyright (C) 1999-2005 Brian Paul All Rights Reserved. Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation les (the Software), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL BRIAN PAUL BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Metis - Version 4.0


Copyright (c) 1998, Regents of the University of Minnesota METIS is copyrighted by the regents of the University of Minnesota. This work was supported by IST/BMDO through Army Research Ofce contract DA/DAAH04-93-G-0080, and by Army High Performance Computing Research Center under the auspices of the Department of the Army, Army Research

Laboratory cooperative agreement number DAAH04-95-2-0003//contract number DAAH04-95-C-0008, the content of which does not necessarily reect the position or the policy of the government, and no ofcial endorsement should be inferred. Access to computing facilities was provided by Minnesota Supercomputer Institute, Cray Research Inc, and by the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. Related papers are available via WWW atURL : http://www.cs.umn.edu/~metis and: A Fast and Highly Quality Multilevel Scheme for Partitioning Irregular Graphs. George Karypis and Vipin Kumar. SIAM Journal on Scientic Computing, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 359392, 1999.

ML- Version 5.0(http://trilinos.sandia.gov/download/trilinos-9.0.html (http://trilinos.sandia.gov/download/trilinos9.0.html))


GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ (http://fsf.org/) Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below. 0. Additional Denitions As used herein, this License refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the GNU GPL refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. The Library refers to a covered work governed by this License, other than an Application or a Combined Work as dened below. An Application is any work that makes use of an interface provided by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library. Dening a subclass of a class dened by the Library is deemed a mode of using an interface provided by the Library. A Combined Work is a work produced by combining or linking an Application with the Library. The particular version of the Library with which the Combined Work was made is also called the Linked Version The Minimal Corresponding Source for a Combined Work means the Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version. The Corresponding Application Code for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work. 1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL. You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL 2. Conveying Modied Versions. If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modications, a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modied version: a. under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the function or data, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or b. under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of this License applicable to that copy. 3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files. The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from a header le that is part of the Library. You may convey such object code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates (ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following: a. Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b. Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPLand this license document. 4. Combined Works. You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that, taken together, effectively do not restrict modication of the portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse engineering for debugging such modications, if you also do each of the following: a. Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b. Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPLand this license document. c. For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the copies of the GNU GPL and this license document.

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The GNU GPL license follows, solely for reference from the above:
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Natural Order Sort - Version 2004-10-10 mbp


Copyright (C) 2000, 2004 by Martin Pool This software is provided as-is, without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required. 2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software.

3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution. This license applies only to the C implementation. You are free to reimplement the idea from scratch in any language

NEMESIS - Version 3.09


Copyright (c) 2005 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 with Sandia Corporation, the U.S. Government retains certain rights in this software. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither the name of Sandia Corporation nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

NetCDF 4.0.1
Copyright 1993-2008 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Unidata . Portions of this software were developed by the Unidata Program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Access and use of this software shall impose the following obligations and understandings on the user. The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute this software, and any derivative works thereof, and its supporting documentation for any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the software, derivative works and supporting documentation. Further, UCAR requests that the user credit UCAR/Unidata in any publications that result from the use of this software or in any product that includes this software, although this is not an obligation. The names UCAR and/or Unidata, however, may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any products or commercial entity unless specic written permission is obtained from UCAR/Unidata. The user also understands that UCAR/Unidata is not obligated to provide the user with any support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind with regard to the use, operation and performance of this software nor to provide the user with any updates, revisions, new versions or bug xes. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY UCAR/UNIDATA "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL UCAR/UNIDATA BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ACCESS, USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

NumPy 1.3.0
Copyright (c) 2005, NumPy Developers All rights reserved Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither the name of the NumPy Developers nor the names of any contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

OpenSSL
The OpenSSL toolkit stays under a dual license, i.e. both the conditions of the OpenSSL License and the original SSLeay license apply to the toolkit. Copyright (c) 1998-2008 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgment: This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/) 4. The names OpenSSL Toolkit and OpenSSL Project must not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without prior written permission. For written permission, please contact openssl-core@openssl.org. 5. Products derived from this software may not be called OpenSSL nor may OpenSSL appear in their names without prior written permission of the OpenSSL Project. 6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following acknowledgment: This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/) THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT AS IS AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OpenSSL PROJECT OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). Original SSLeay License Copyright 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com) All rights reserved. This package is an SSL implementation written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). The implementation was written so as to conform with Netscapes SSL. This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as the following conditions are adhered to. The following conditions apply to all code found in this distribution, be it the RC4,RSA, lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the SSLcode. The SSL documentation included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright terms except that the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). Copyright remains Eric Youngs, and as such any Copyright notices in the code are not to be removed. If this package is used in a product, Eric Young should be given attribution as the author of the parts of the library used. This can be in the form of a textual message at program startup or in documentation (online or textual) provided with the package. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement: "This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)" The word cryptographic can be left out if the routines from the library being used are not cryptographic related :-). 4. If you include any Windows specic code (or a derivative thereof) from the apps directory (application code) you must include an acknowledgement: "This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN

CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. The license and distribution terms for any publically available version or derivative of this code cannot be changed. i.e. this code cannot simply be copied and put under another distribution license [including the GNU Public License.]

PBMPlus - Version 8.3


Copyright 1998 - 2000 Jef Poskanzer et al. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation. This software is provided as is without express or implied warranty.

Perl
Versions 5.004 (IBM, HP), 5.005 (Winx86_32, linux32, Inx86_64), 5.6.1 (HPI, Linux64), 5.8.8 (Winx86_64) The Artistic License Copyright 2005 by the Open Source Initiative Preamble The intent of this document is to state the conditions under which a Package may be copied, such that the Copyright Holder maintains some semblance of artistic control over the development of the package, while giving the users of the package the right to use and distribute the Package in a more-or-less customary fashion, plus the right to make reasonable modications. Denitions Packagerefers to the collection of les distributed by the Copyright Holder, and derivatives of that collection of les created through textual modication. Standard Version refers to such a Package if it has not been modied, or has been modied in accordance with the wishes of the Copyright Holder as specied below. Copyright Holder is whoever is named in the copyright or copyrights for the package. You is you, if youre thinking about copying or distributing this Package. Reasonable copying feeis whatever you can justify on the basis of media cost, duplication charges, time of people involved, and so on. (You will not be required to justify it to the Copyright Holder, but only to the computing community at large as a market that must bear the fee.) Freely Available means that no fee is charged for the item itself, though there may be fees involved in handling the item. It also means that recipients of the item may redistribute it under the same conditions they received it. 1. You may make and give away verbatim copies of the source form of the Standard Version of this Package without restriction, provided that you duplicate all of the original copyright notices and associated disclaimers. 2. You may apply bug xes, portability xes and other modications derived from the Public Domain or from the Copyright Holder. A Package modied in such a way shall still be considered the Standard Version. 3. You may otherwise modify your copy of this Package in any way, provided that you insert a prominent notice in each changed le stating how and when you changed that le, and provided that you do at least ONE of the following: a. place your modications in the Public Domain or otherwise make them Freely Available, such as by posting said modications to Usenet or an equivalent medium, or placing the modications on a major archive site such as uunet.uu.net, or by allowing the Copyright Holder to include your modications in the Standard Version of the Package. b. use the modied Package only within your corporation or organization. c. rename any non-standard executables so the names do not conict with standard executables, which must also be provided, and provide a separate manual page for each non-standard executable that clearly documents how it differs from the Standard Version. d. make other distribution arrangements with the Copyright Holder.

4. You may distribute the programs of this Package in object code or executable form, provided that you do at least ONE of the following: a. distribute a Standard Version of the executables and library les, together with instructions (in the manual page or equivalent) on where to get the Standard Version. b. accompany the distribution with the machine-readable source of the Package with your modications. c. give non-standard executables non-standard names, and clearly document the differences in manual pages (or equivalent), together with instructions on where to get the Standard Version.

d. make other distribution arrangements with the Copyright Holder. 5. You may charge a reasonable copying fee for any distribution of this Package. You may charge any fee you choose for support of this Package. You may not charge a fee for this Package itself. However, you may distribute this Package in aggregate with other (possibly commercial) programs as part of a larger (possibly commercial) software distribution provided that you do not advertise this Package as a product of your own. You may embed this Packages interpreter within an executable of yours (by linking); this shall be construed as a mere form of aggregation, provided that the complete Standard Version of the interpreter is so embedded. 6. The scripts and library les supplied as input to or produced as output from the programs of this Package do not automatically fall under the copyright of this Package, but belong to whomever generated them, and may be sold commercially, and may be aggregated with this Package. If such scripts or library les are aggregated with this Package via the so-called "undump" or "unexec" methods of producing a binary executable image, then distribution of such an image shall neither be construed as a distribution of this Package nor shall it fall under the restrictions of Paragraphs 3 and 4, provided that you do not represent such an executable image as a Standard Version of this Package. 7. C subroutines (or comparably compiled subroutines in other languages) supplied by you and linked into this Package in order to emulate subroutines and variables of the language dened by this Package shall not be considered part of this Package, but are the equivalent of input as in Paragraph 6, provided these subroutines do not change the language in any way that would cause it to fail the regression tests for the language. 8. Aggregation of this Package with a commercial distribution is always permitted provided that the use of this Package is embedded; that is, when no overt attempt is made to make this Packages interfaces visible to the end user of the commercial distribution. Such use shall not be construed as a distribution of this Package. 9. The name of the Copyright Holder may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission.

10. THIS PACKAGE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

PNG - Version 1.0.3


Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Glenn Randers-Pehrson For the purposes of this copyright and license, Contributing Authors is dened as the following set of individuals: Tom Lane Glenn Randers-Pehrson Willem van Schaik John Bowler Kevin Bracey Sam Bushell Magnus Holmgren Greg Roelofs Tom Tanner Andreas Dilger Dave Martindale Guy Eric Schalnat Paul Schmidt Tim Wegner The PNG Reference Library is supplied AS IS. The Contributing Authors and Group 42, Inc. disclaim all warranties, expressed or implied, including, without limitation, the warranties of merchantability and of tness for any purpose. The Contributing Authors and Group 42, Inc. assume no liability for direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages, which may result from the use of the PNG. Reference Library, even if advised of the possibility of such damage. Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this source code, or portions hereof, for any purpose, without fee, subject to the following restrictions: 1. The origin of this source code must not be misrepresented. 2. Altered versions must be plainly marked as such and must not be misrepresented as being the original source. 3. This Copyright notice may not be removed or altered from any source or altered source distribution.

The Contributing Authors and Group 42, Inc. specically permit, without fee, and encourage the use of this source code as a component to supporting the PNG le format in commercial products. If you use this source code in a product, acknowledgment is not required but would be appreciated.

profile, pstats
Copyright 1994, by InfoSeek Corporation, All rights reserved. Written by James Roskind Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose (subject to the restriction in the following sentence) without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of InfoSeek not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. This permission is explicitly restricted to the copying and modication of the software to remain in Python, compiled Python, or other languages (such as C) wherein the modied or derived code is exclusively imported into a Python module. INFOSEEK CORPORATION DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL INFOSEEK CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Pychecker - Version 0.8.13


Copyright (c) 2000-2001, MetaSlash Inc All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither name of MetaSlash Inc. nor the names of contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

pyexpat
Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd and Clark Cooper Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation les (the Software,), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Python
Version 2.4.3 Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Python Software Foundation; All Rights Reserved PSF LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 2.4 ------------------------------------

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Python Software Foundation (PSF), and the Individual or Organization (Licensee) accessing and otherwise using Python 2.4 software in source or binary form and its associated documentation. 2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, PSF hereby grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use Python 2.4 alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that PSFs License Agreement and PSFs notice of copyright, i.e., Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Python Software Foundation; All Rights Reservedare retained in Python 2.4 alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee. 3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or incorporates Python 2.4 or any part thereof, and wants to make the derivative work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python 2.4. 4. PSF is making Python 2.4 available to Licensee on an AS IS basis. PSF MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PSF MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF PYTHON 2.4 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. 5. PSF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 2.4 FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 2.4, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. 6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of its terms and conditions. 7. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between PSF and Licensee. This License Agreement does not grant permission to use PSF trademarks or trade name in a trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third party. 8. By copying, installing or otherwise using Python 2.4, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement.

_random
Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Socket
Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 WIDE Project. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE

GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Tcl/Tk License Terms Version 8.5


This software is copyrighted by the Regents of the University of California, Sun Microsystems, Inc., Scriptics Corporation, and other parties. The following terms apply to all les associated with the software unless explicitly disclaimed in individual les. The authors hereby grant permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and license this software and its documentation for any purpose, provided that existing copyright notices are retained in all copies and that this notice is included verbatim in any distributions. No written agreement, license, or royalty fee is required for any of the authorized uses. Modications to this software may be copyrighted by their authors and need not follow the licensing terms described here, provided that the new terms are clearly indicated on the rst page of each le where they apply. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR DISTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, ITS DOCUMENTATION, OR ANY DERIVATIVES THEREOF, EVEN IF THE AUTHORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. THE AUTHORS AND DISTRIBUTORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND THE AUTHORS AND DISTRIBUTORS HAVE NO OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.

TIFF - Version 3.5.7


Copyright (c) 1988-1997 Sam Lefer Copyright (c) 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc. Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided that (i) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software and related documentation, and (ii) the names of Sam Lefer and Silicon Graphics may not be used in any advertising or publicity relating to the software without the specic, prior written permission of Sam Lefer and Silicon Graphics. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS-IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Trace
Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Andrew Dalke Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix, Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission.

uu
Copyright 1994 by Lance Ellinghouse Cathedral City, California Republic, United States of America. All Rights Reserved

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Lance Ellinghouse not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. LANCE ELLINGHOUSE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL LANCE ELLINGHOUSE CENTRUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Visualization Toolkit (VTK) 5.6.0


VTK is an open-source toolkit licensed under the BSD license. Copyright (c) 1993-2008 Ken Martin, Will Schroeder, Bill Lorensen All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither name of Ken Martin, Will Schroeder, or Bill Lorensen nor the names of any contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specic prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

_wincon.c
Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Secret Labs AB Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Fredrik Lundh By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE

XML Expat Parser - Version 1.95.4


Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd. Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation les (the Software), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

xmlrpclib
Copyright 1999-2002 by Secret Labs AB Copyright 1999-2002 by Fredrik Lundh By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specic, written prior permission. SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Zlib - Version 1.1.2


Copyright (C) 1995-2004 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler This software is provided as-is, without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required. 2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software. 3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

Commercial Programs
Abaqus Software uses several commercial programs. Each such program is distributed with Abaqus software in binary form and, except as permitted by the applicable license, without modication. Each commercial program included in a SIMULIA product has been obtained through a commercial license that permits redistribution of that program in one or more SIMULIA products. In some cases these licenses require that users be informed of copyrights and/or license citations. In those cases this information may be found below. Software Name AMD ACML Boeing BCSLIB IBM XL Fortran 90 IBM Java Runtime Environment 4.2.0 N/A 11.1 1.5.0 Release

ACML (AMD Core Math Library) Release 4.01


LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR AMD CORE MATH LIBRARY IMPORTANT: This is a legal agreement (Agreement) between you, either as an individual or an entity, (theUser) and Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD). By loading the software or any portion thereof (Software), and any related documentation (Documentation), User agrees to all of the terms of this Agreement. Additionally, User remains subject to the original terms and conditions of any other software license agreements entered into by User and a third party. User is responsible for ensuring that use of the Software provided by AMD is not in violation of any such agreement. DO NOT LOAD THIS SOFTWARE UNTIL YOU HAVE CAREFULLY READ AND AGREED TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS. LOADING OR OTHERWISE USING THE SOFTWARE OR DOCUMENTATION CONSTITUTES ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, IMMEDIATELY UNINSTALL AND STOP USING THIS SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTATION OR ANY PORTION THEREOF. NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereto agree as follows: 1. Denitions a. Software shall mean the AMD Core Math Library, and does not include any third-party runtime libraries. b. Documentation shall mean all manuals for the Software or Licensed Materials, and all other materials, regardless of media, that describe or relate to the design, use or operation of the Software or Licensed Materials. c. Executable Code shall mean all software in a machine-readable, binary or executable form. In no event shall Executable Code include source code. d. Licensed Materials shall mean any Executable Code as provided to User by AMD, any Documentation and any Updates. e. Effective Date shall mean a date upon which User uses the Software or Licensed Materials or accesses any Documentation. 2. License a. Subject to the terms of this Agreement, AMD hereby grants to User a limited, non-exclusive, non-transferable, royalty-free copyright license to use the Licensed Materials only for the purpose of executing and evaluating the performance of software. Other than the limited license granted in this Section 2.a., User shall have no other rights in the Licensed Materials or Software, whether express, implied, arising by estoppel or otherwise. If User desires to distribute any of the Licensed Materials or Software, User shall enter into a separate written agreement with AMD. b. Without limiting Section 2.a. above, User does NOT have the right: i. to modify, adapt, translate, or create derivative works based upon the Licensed Materials or Software or any part thereof; or ii. to modify, disassemble, reverse engineer, decompile, or otherwise reduce to source code or any human perceivable form any part of the Software, Licensed Materials or updates thereto that are not already source code; or iii. to remove proprietary legends in the Software or Licensed Materials including, but not limited to, legends that protect AMDs patent, trade secret, copyright and other proprietary rights in the Software or Licensed Materials. 3. Ownership and Copyright of Material. The Software and Licensed Materials are owned by AMD and its licensors and are protected by United States and international intellectual property laws and other international treaty provisions. Except as expressly provided herein, AMD does not grant any express or implied right to User under AMD patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets or other proprietary rights. 4. Obligations of the Parties

a. Licensed Materials and Software. User may use the Licensed Materials and Software only in accordance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement. b. Feedback. During the term of this Agreement, User may inform AMD of all errors, difculties or other problems with the Licensed Materials or Software, collectively referred to as "feedback". AMD may use for any purpose whatsoever, any feedback User provides regarding the Licensed Materials or Software including, but not limited to, usability, bug reports and test reports. c. Issuance of Software or Licensed Materials. AMD shall not be obligated to make the Software or Licensed Materials publicly available, in whole or in part. d. Support. AMD may, in its sole discretion, provide to User updates to the Software, Licensed Materials and Documentation, and such updates will be covered under this Agreement. AMD is under no obligation to provide User with any updates, support, or maintenance of the Software, Licensed Materials or Documentation. 5. Disclaimer of Warranty and Indemnity. THE LICENSED MATERIALS, SOFTWARE, AND ANY OTHER MATERIALS PROVIDED PURSUANT TO THIS AGREEMENT ARE PROVIDED "AS IS," WITH ALL FAULTS, AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. FURTHERMORE, NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE LICENSED MATERIALS OR SOFTWARE INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ANY WARRANTIES THAT MAY ARISE FROM USAGE OF TRADE OR COURSE OF DEALING, AND ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL AMD BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EXPENSES, LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOST BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE OR LICENSED MATERIALS, EVEN IF AMD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND NOTWITHSTANDING THE FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY REMEDY. User acknowledges that its use of the Software or Licensed Materials without charge reects this allocation of risk. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental, consequential or special damages, or the exclusion of implied warranties, and therefore, the above limitations might not apply to User. In addition to the disclaimer of warranties set forth above, it is understood that AMD makes no representations concerning the completeness, accuracy or operation of the Software or Licensed Materials. Furthermore, User shall have the sole responsibility for adequate protection and backup of its data used in connection with the Software or Licensed Materials, and User shall not make any claim against AMD for lost data, re-run time, inaccurate input, work delays or lost prots resulting from the use of the Software or Licensed Materials. USER AGREES TO DEFEND, INDEMNIFY AND HOLD HARMLESS AMD, ITS LICENSORS, ITS LICENSEES, AND ANY OF THEIR DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AFFILIATES OR AGENTS, FROM AND AGAINST ANY AND ALL LOSS, DAMAGE, LIABILITY AND OTHER EXPENSES (INCLUDING REASONABLE ATTORNEYS FEES), RELATED TO OR RESULTING FROM (A) THE USE OF ANY SOFTWARE, LICENSED MATERIALS OR DERIVATIVE WORKS THEREOF OR ANY OTHER MATERIALS PROVIDED AS A RESULT OF THIS AGREEMENT OR (B) ANY SOFTWARE OR LICENSED MATERIALS CREATED OR DISTRIBUTED BY USER. 6. Limitation of Liability. If, notwithstanding the provisions of this Agreement, AMD shall at any time have any liability arising from or by virtue of this Agreement, whether due to AMDs gross negligence, AMDs breach of its obligations under this Agreement, or otherwise, User agrees that in no event will the total aggregate liability of AMD for any claims, losses, or damages exceed $1,000, notwithstanding the failure of essential purpose of any remedy. This limitation of liability is complete and exclusive, shall apply even if AMD has been advised of the possibility of such potential claims, losses, or damages, and shall apply regardless of the success or effectiveness of any other remedies possessed by User, Users customers, or any third parties. This limitation of liability reects an agreed upon allocation of risk between AMD and User in view of the nature of this transaction. AMD assumes no liability that may arise out of the use or possession of the Software or Licensed Materials. 7. Termination. This Agreement is effective until terminated. User may terminate this Agreement at any time by destroying all copies of the Software and providing written notice to AMD. AMD may terminate this Agreement upon ninety (90) days written notice. If User fails to comply with any of its obligations hereunder, AMD shall have the right, at any time, to terminate the Agreement, and within ve (5) days after termination of the Agreement for any reason other than the Software or Licensed Materials being released as a standard AMD product, User will remove or certify in writing to the destruction of, the Licensed Materials from its computer systems and return to AMD the Software and Licensed Materials in the form provided by AMD. This Agreement shall terminate immediately with respect to any person or entity asserting or threatening to assert any intellectual property right against AMD. 8. General a. Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties and supersedes all prior agreements concerning the subject matter herein and may not be changed or terminated except by a written communication signed by the party against whom the same is sought to be enforced.

b. Severability. If any of the provisions of this Agreement are invalid under any applicable statute or rule of law, such provisions or portions thereof are to that extent deemed to be omitted. The Users remedies in this Agreement are exclusive. c. Governing Law, Venue. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of California without regard to the conicts of laws provisions of any state or jurisdiction. Each party hereto submits to the jurisdiction of the state and federal courts of Santa Clara County and the Northern District of California for the purposes of all legal proceedings arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the subject matter hereof. Each party waives any objection which it may have to contest such forum. d. Import/Export/Re-Export/Use/Release/Transfer Restrictions and Compliance with Applicable Laws. User is hereby provided notice, and agrees and acknowledges by signing this Agreement, that the Licensed Materials and Software as well as any accompanying information may be subject to restrictions on use, release, transfer, importation, exportation and/or re-exportation under the laws and regulations of the United States or other countries (Applicable Laws), which include, but are not limited to, U.S. export control laws such as the Export Administration Regulations and national security controls as dened thereunder, as well as State Department controls under the U.S. Munitions List. User further agrees that the Software, Licensed Materials, any source code, any accompanying media, material and information, and any product thereof, will not be used, released, transferred, imported, exported and/or re-exported in any manner prohibited under Applicable Laws, including U.S. export control laws regarding specically designated persons, countries and nationals of countries subject to national security controls. e. Government Users. If User is a U.S. Government User, then the Software and Licensed Materials are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS as set forth in subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-14 or subparagraph (c) (1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.277-7013, as applicable. f. No waiver. The failure of AMD to enforce any rights granted hereunder or to take action against User in the event of any breach hereunder shall not be deemed a waiver by AMD as to subsequent enforcement of rights or subsequent actions in the event of future breaches.

BCSLIB-EXT - Release N/A


Copyright The Boeing Company 1987 1. Denitions a. Licensee, as used in this Exhibit B, shall mean SIMULIAs Sublicensee(s) of Program. b. Licensor, as used in this Exhibit B, shall mean SIMULIA. c. Software, as used in this Exhibit B, shall mean Program Product. 2. TERMS FOR SUBLICENSE OF PROGRAM Licensor shall include the substance of the following clauses in all Sublicense Agreements issued: OWNERSHIP AND PROPRIETARY NATURE OF SOFTWARE The Software provided under this License Agreement is owned by a Software developer or its supplier. Except for those rights in the Software specically granted under this License Agreement, no rights in the Software are granted to Licensee, including, but not limited to, the right to further sublicense or distribute copies of the Software to any third party, the right to modify or otherwise make derivative works based on the Software, or the right to reverse compile or reverse assemble the object code into source code, or in any other way attempt to discover the source code for the Software. The Software in source code form is the proprietary information, and/or trade secret information of the Software developer or its suppliers. In the event the source code becomes known to Licensee in any manner, Licensee shall preserve the source code in condence, and shall not disclose the source code to any third parties. NEITHER THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER NOR ANY OF ITS SUBSIDIARIES OR SUPPLIERS AND/OR LICENSOR MAKE ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WITH RESPECT TO ANY SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTATION OR ANY OTHER GOODS OR SERVICES PROVIDED UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE OR USE OR FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, STRICT LIABILITY AND NEGLIGENCE), WARRANTY OR OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE GROUNDS. Licensee agrees that any and all claims concerning the Software, including without limitation any claims for breach of warranty or indemnication, are to be made against Licensor not the Software developer. RIGHTS OF USE Licensor grants to Licensee a non-exclusive, non-transferable license to use the Software, in object code form only, solely for Licensees own internal use or Licensees subsidiaries or subcontractors. Own internal use shall not include use of the Software in a remote computing service business or any other arrangement where the Software, or use thereof, may be sold, sublicensed or otherwise provided to third parties. COMPLIANCE WITH EXPORT LAWS

A Part of Program Product is controlled under U.S. Department of Commerce, Export Administration Regulations (EAR), and may be exported under Export Commodity Classication Number (EAR99) to all foreign nationals except all unilaterally embargoed countries (currently Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Libya, and Sudan). It is agreed that Licensee will not knowingly, directly or indirectly, export or re-export Program Product, copies, or Documentation, or any part thereof, except in compliance with the laws and regulations of the United States and its Departments and Agencies relating to the export of software and technical data. Licensor will reasonably cooperate with Licensee regarding export matters. Licensee agrees to indemnify Licensor against civil nes or penalties arising out of any violations of export laws or regulations pertinent to this Agreement. These export compliance obligations shall survive the term of this Agreement. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY EXCEPT FOR CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR, OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES OR SUPPLIERS, HAVE ANY LIABILITY, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT LIABILITY), WARRANTY OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE GROUNDS, FOR ANY LOSS OF USE, PROFIT OR REVENUE BY LICENSEE, OR FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES INCURRED OR SUFFERED BY LICENSEE ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT, EVEN IF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR, OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES, HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGES. LIMITATION OF REMEDY EXCEPT FOR CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY, INCLUDING DEATH, OR PHYSICAL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO REAL OR TANGIBLE PERSONAL PROPERTY CAUSED BY THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES, LICENSEE AGREES THAT THE TOTAL LIABILITY OF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR AND ALL OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES, FOR ALL CLAIMS OF ANY KIND ARISING AS A RESULT OF, OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION STRICT LIABILITY AND NEGLIGENCE), WARRANTY OR ON OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE GROUNDS, SHALL BE LIMITED TO GENERAL MONEY DAMAGES AND SHALL NOT EXCEED THE LESSER OF THE AMOUNT PAID TO LICENSOR AS A RESULT OF THIS AGREEMENT.

IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX V11.1


CONTAINS Runtime Modules of IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX, V11.1 (c) Copyright IBM Corporation 1990-2007 All Rights Reserved

IBM Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Release 1.5.0


CONTAINS IBM(R) 64-bit forAIX(TM), Java(TM) 2 Technology Edition, Version 5 (c) Copyright Sun Microsystems Inc, 1992, 2004 ((c) Copyright International Business Machines Corporation, 1998 - 2006 (c) Copyright The Apache Software Foundation, 1999, 2004 All Rights Reserved

Optional Third-Party Software


Included on the media with the Abaqus Programs and under license from third parties, as a convenience to Abaqus users, are certain third-party and open source programs that may be executed at the users option. These optional third-party and open source programs are not part of the Abaqus Programs and are NOT warranted or supported by SIMULIA: Software Name HP-MPI Microsoft MPI (MS-MPI) Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Redistributable Packages Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Packages Python for Windows Extensions Release 1.1 through 2.3.0 2.1 C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 C++ 2008 SP1 Build 213

HP-MPI LICENSE
HP-MPI is an implementation from Platform Computing Company Platform of the Message Passing Interface standard that may be used for parallel execution of Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD. HP-MPI is the property of Platform and is not an Abaqus Program. Under a license from Platform to Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., HP-MPI is made available to licensed Abaqus users at no additional charge. You are a licensed Abaqus user if you are authorized to use Abaqus software under a software license agreement between Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary and the business, governmental or academic entity with which you are associated. If you are a licensed Abaqus user, you may obtain HP-MPI under a license directly from Platform, or you may proceed as described in the Installation Instructions for Abaqus Programs without entering into a separate license with Platform. If you choose to install HP-MPI as made available by Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary, use and reproduction of HP-MPI by your business, governmental, or academic entity will be subject to the same restrictions as are in the license agreement with your business, governmental or academic entity that govern the use of Abaqus software and will be terminable by Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary on the same conditions as are in the Abaqus software license agreement. However, HP-MPI is NOT an Abaqus Program and is NOT warranted or supported by Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries. HP-MPI IS PROVIDED AS IS AND WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. DASSAULT SYSTMES, ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AND PLATFORM SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF NONINFRINGEMENT OR OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL DASSAULT SYSTMES, ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR PLATFORM BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION) ARISING FROM USE OR ATTEMPTED USE OF HP-MPI, EVEN IF DASSAULT SYSTMES, ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR PLATFORM HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

MS-MPI LICENSE TERMS


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Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 Redistributable Packages


C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 The Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP and SP Redistributable Packages install runtime components of Visual C++ Libraries required to run applications developed with Visual C++ on a computer that does not have Visual C++ 2005 installed. There are two versions of this package, Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP Redistributable Package (x86) for 32 bit Windows computers, and Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP Redistributable Package (x64) for 64 bit Windows computers. Abaqus users may install the appropriate version of this software at their discretion. More information on this software is provided by Microsoft at \http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=200B2FD9-AE1A-4A14-984D389C36F85647 (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?familyid=200B2FD9-AE1A-4A14-984D-389C36F85647) (32 bit) or http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=EB4EBE2D-33C0-4A47-9DD4-B9A6D7BD44DA (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=EB4EBE2D-33C0-4A47-9DD4-B9A6D7BD44DA)(64 bit).

Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 SP1 Redistributable Packages


C++ 2008 SP1

The Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 SP1 Redistributable Package installs runtime components of Visual C++ Libraries required to run applications developed with Visual C++ on a computer that does not have Visual C++ 2008 installed. Abaqus users may install the appropriate version of this software at their discretion. More information on this software is provided by Microsoft at: (64 bit). http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=a5c84275-3b97-4ab7-a40d-3802b2af5fc2 (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=a5c84275-3b97-4ab7-a40d-3802b2af5fc2) or: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=ba9257ca-337f-4b40-8c14-157cfdffee4e (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=ba9257ca-337f-4b40-8c14-157cfdffee4e) (64 bit). (32 bit)

Python for Windows Extensions


Build 210 The Python for Windows Extensions provide additional Python services for Abaqus users. This open source software is installed as a part of the Abaqus installation, but is executed only at the users discretion. More information on The Python for Windows Extensions is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/pywin32/ (https://sourceforge.net/projects/pywin32/) .

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Complete contact information is available at http://www.simulia.com/locations/locations.html.

CONTENTS

Contents
1. Introduction to Abaqus 6.11

Key features of Abaqus 6.11 Abaqus products Enhancements to the Abaqus environment le Changes in interpretation of input data
2. General enhancements

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE Copying step-dependent objects to a different step
3. Execution

2.1 2.2 2.3

GPGPU direct solver acceleration Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient delity dynamic analyses Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation Co-simulation execution procedure Mapping thermal and magnetic loads
4. Modeling

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Substructures in Abaqus/CAE Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE Mapped analytical elds in Abaqus/CAE Surface-based uid cavities in Abaqus/Standard Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set Enhancements to the offset, extend, and blend face tools Creating a wire-from-edge feature Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature Adding a mirror feature to a part Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15

CONTENTS

Selecting elements by topology Suppressing or deleting multiple features


5. Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE

4.16 4.17

Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Exporting models in OBJ format
6. Analysis procedures

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis Time-harmonic eddy current analysis Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for uid dynamic analysis Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis AMS eigensolver performance improvement Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints Matrix generation enhancements Matrix input enhancements Dening a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE Creating a spectrum from a user-specied amplitude in Abaqus/Standard New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit Contact iterations solution technique no longer available Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Including the effect of a residual stress eld on contour integral evaluation Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization
7. Materials

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23

Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE Material models for electromagnetic problems Low-density foam model with Poisson effects

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

ii

CONTENTS

8.

Elements

Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Triangular prism for uid ow problems Eulerian heat transfer element Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements Electromagnetic elements
9. Prescribed conditions

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Expanded predened eld support in Abaqus/CAE Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions Total force distribution option for pressure loads Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Dening a spatially varying velocity for uid boundary conditions Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Application of uid cavity pressure on the uid exchange surface
10. Constraints

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints Improvement to coupling denition


11. Interactions

10.1 10.2

Parallel cavity radiation Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact Accounting for friction coefcient changes in default choice of solution scheme De-emphasized contact controls Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore uid diffusion
12. Meshing

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8

Tetrahedral meshing enhancements Mesh stack orientations Partitioning faces by projecting edges Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

iii

CONTENTS

Enhancements to bottom-up meshing New tools for editing orphan mesh parts
13. Output and visualization

12.5 12.6

Plotting contours for beam geometry Streamlines Output database size reduction Enhanced query options for probing the model Displaying constraints in the Visualization module Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots Plotting XY data from free body denitions Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization Saving and operating on history output XY data simultaneously Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system Contact stress output improvements Contact stress error indicators General contact output enhancements
14. User subroutines, utilities, and plug-ins

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15

Dening damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI Dening wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis
15. Abaqus Scripting Interface

14.1 14.2 14.3

Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Setting the last main le to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE
16. Summary of changes

15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5

Changes in Abaqus elements Changes in Abaqus options Changes in Abaqus user subroutines Changes in Abaqus output variable identiers
I.1 Product Index

16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4

iv

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

1.

Introduction to Abaqus 6.11

This document introduces features in Abaqus that have been added, enhanced, or updated since the Abaqus 6.10 release. Some of these features were rst available in the Abaqus 6.10-EF release. The remaining features are new in Abaqus 6.11. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the Abaqus products included in this release. Chapters 215 provide short descriptions of new Abaqus 6.11 features in Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, Abaqus/CFD, and Abaqus/CAE, categorized by subject:

Chapter 2, General enhancements: general changes to the Abaqus interface. Chapter 3, Execution: commands and utilities for running any of the Abaqus products. Chapter 4, Modeling: features related to creating your model, such as node and element denition in Abaqus/Standard or Abaqus/Explicit and part and assembly denition in Abaqus/CAE. Chapter 5, Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE: features related to importing and exporting parts, assemblies, and models to or from Abaqus/CAE. Chapter 6, Analysis procedures: features related to dening an analysis. Chapter 7, Materials: new material models or changes to existing material models. Chapter 8, Elements: new elements or changes to existing elements. Chapter 9, Prescribed conditions: loads, boundary conditions, and predened elds. Chapter 10, Constraints: kinematic constraints. Chapter 11, Interactions: features related to contact and interaction modeling. Chapter 12, Meshing: features related to meshing your model. Chapter 13, Output and visualization: obtaining, postprocessing, and visualizing results from Abaqus analyses. Chapter 14, User subroutines, utilities, and plug-ins: additional user programs that can be run with Abaqus. Chapter 15, Abaqus Scripting Interface: using the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write user scripts.

Each entry in these chapters clearly indicates the Abaqus product or products to which the feature applies and includes cross-references to more detailed information. Chapter 16, Summary of changes, summarizes in tabular format the changes to Abaqus elements, keyword options, user subroutines, and output variable identiers.

1.1

Key features of Abaqus 6.11

This section provides brief descriptions of some of the most signicant new capabilities and enhancements available in Abaqus 6.11; refer to the table of contents for a complete list of new features.

11

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

Analytical mapped elds in Abaqus/CAE allow you to import discrete and discontinuous parameter data from a point cloud data le generated by a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database le to dene spatially varying parameter values (Mapped analytical elds in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.4). Shape and topology optimization can now be performed in the Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module, a new product offering available in Abaqus/CAE. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis (Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.2). Abaqus/CAE now offers assembled fasteners to simplify modeling in systems that contain a large number of fasteners such as bolts, rivets, or screws by allowing you to dene a complex fastener behavior once and replicate that behavior multiple times in your model (Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.3). Pressure penetration loading, including support in Abaqus/CAE, is now available for three-dimensional models (Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading, Section 9.1). You can now use Abaqus/CAE to create substructures, to import substructures into your model database, to add substructures to your assembly, and to recover substructure data during an analysis (Substructures in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.1). The new parameter update capability for the CATIA V5 Associative Interface allows you to work exclusively in Abaqus/CAE after importing a model from CATIA V5 while keeping the original CATIA V5 model up to date with any geometric changes (Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface, Section 5.1). Material calibration, which is the process of deriving Abaqus material behaviors from sets of material test data, can now be performed in Abaqus/CAE (Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE, Section 7.1). Modeling enhancements in Abaqus/CAE include the option to mirror a part and retain the complete feature creation history and the ability to edit those features (Adding a mirror feature to a part, Section 4.12). Mesh stack orientation enhancements, including assigning a stack direction based on the orientation of a reference face and assigning stack orientations that are independent of the sweep direction, are now available in Abaqus/CAE (Mesh stack orientations, Section 12.2). In Abaqus/Standard you can now obtain simultaneous solutions for the temperature, electric potential, and stress/displacement elds (Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis, Section 6.1). A smoothed particle hydrodynamic modeling technique has been introduced in Abaqus/Explicit to model violent free-surface uid ows and extremely high deformation/obliteration of solid structures (Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, Section 6.3). New scalable thread-parallel execution capability of the AMS eigensolver signicantly improves the performance of frequency extraction analyses (AMS eigensolver performance improvement, Section 6.8). The iterative solver algorithm offers improved handling of dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence (Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints, Section 6.9).

12

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

More efcient and robust edge-to-edge contact interactions in general contact are available in Abaqus/Explicit (Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement, Section 11.3). The direct sparse solver in Abaqus/Standard can use compute-capable GPGPU cards to reduce the run time for equation solution (GPGPU direct solver acceleration, Section 3.1). The surface-based uid cavity capability is now available in Abaqus/Standard to analyze the coupling between the deformation of a structure and the pressure exerted by a contained uid on the structure (Surface-based uid cavities in Abaqus/Standard, Section 4.5). You can now perform a time-harmonic eddy current analysis in Abaqus/Standard that accounts for full coupling between electric and magnetic elds (see Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.2). Contact stress output is more accurate and less noisy for second-order surfaces (Contact stress output improvements, Section 13.13). Output enhancements were implemented to reduce the size of the output database, including changing the extrapolation and interpolation schemes in Abaqus/Standard for three commonly used output variables: stress, Mises equivalent stress, and equivalent pressure stress (Output database size reduction, Section 13.3). Timoshenko beams in Abaqus/Standard now support linearly tapered general beam sections and standard library sections (Tapered beams and improved mass formulation, Section 8.1). You can use a scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis to reduce the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines (Performance improvement for modal steadystate dynamic analysis, Section 6.21). Enhancements to the extended nite element method (XFEM) include support for a user-dened damage initiation criterion and for simulation of low-cycle fatigue using XFEM and the direct cyclic approach (Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability, Section 6.5). You can obtain improved accuracy for modeling contact interactions with gasket elements (Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets, Section 11.2). Abaqus/CFD provides support for the RNG k turbulence model, which is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that accounts for the effects of small scales of motion (New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for uid dynamic analysis, Section 6.6). Abaqus/Aqua loading to apply wave drag and buoyancy loading to structures modeled using pipe and beam elements is now available with Abaqus/Explicit (Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua, Section 9.6). Several enhancements are available for visualizing results: Contour plots of linear beam section stresses (Plotting contours for beam geometry, Section 13.1). Streamlines can be used to visualize the velocity and vorticity of uid ow in an Abaqus/CFD analysis (Streamlines, Section 13.2). New options for probing the model offer more customization and improve usability (Enhanced query options for probing the model, Section 13.4).

13

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

Abaqus 6.11 general release products are available on DVD-ROM. Limited availability products are available on the SIMULIA ftp site. Contact your local ofce or representative for details. Products supported on each of the following combinations of supported operating systems and processors are summarized in Table 11. Interactive products include Abaqus/CAE and Abaqus/Viewer. Analysis products include Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD. Table 11 Platform Windows/x86-32 Windows/x86-64 Linux/x86-64 Linux/Itanium AIX/Power Overview of platform and product support. Availability DVD DVD DVD ftp ftp Supported products Interactive and analysis products Interactive and analysis products Interactive and analysis products Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Analysis products

For current and complete details on supported Abaqus products and platforms, including platform information for add-on products, interfaces, and translators, refer to the Abaqus systems information available through the Support page at www.simulia.com. For more information, see Appendix A, System requirements, of the Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide. The remaining chapters in this book provide details on these and other new features of Abaqus 6.11. In addition to the enhancements listed here, most of the known bugs in Abaqus 6.10 are corrected.

1.2

Abaqus products

Individual components of the Abaqus suite are described in this section.

Analysis

Abaqus/Standard:

This general-purpose nite element analysis program includes all analysis capabilities except nonlinear dynamic analysis using explicit time integrationprovided in the Abaqus/Explicit programand the add-on analysis functionality described below.

This product provides nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis of solids and structures using explicit time integration. Its powerful contact capabilities, reliability, and computational efciency on large models also make it highly effective for quasi-static applications involving discontinuous nonlinear behavior.
Abaqus/Explicit: Abaqus/CFD:

This product is a computational uid dynamics program with extensive support for preprocessing, simulation, and postprocessing in Abaqus/CAE. Abaqus/CFD provides scalable parallel

14

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

CFD simulation capabilities to address a number of nonlinear coupled uid-thermal and uid-structural problems.

Preprocessing and postprocessing

Abaqus/CAE: This product is a Complete Abaqus Environment that provides a simple, consistent interface for creating, submitting, monitoring, and evaluating results from Abaqus simulations. Abaqus/CAE is divided into modules, where each module denes a logical aspect of the modeling process; for example, dening the geometry, dening material properties, generating a mesh, submitting analysis jobs, and interpreting results. Abaqus/Viewer: This subset of Abaqus/CAE contains only the postprocessing capabilities of the Visualization module. It uses the output database (.odb) to obtain results from the analysis products. The output database is a neutral binary le. Therefore, results from an Abaqus analysis run on any platform can be viewed on any other platform supporting Abaqus/Viewer. It provides deformed conguration, contour, vector, and XY plots, as well as animation of results.

Add-on analysis

Abaqus/Aqua: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit provides a capability for calculating drag and buoyancy loads based on steady current, wave, and wind effects for modeling offshore piping and oating platform structures. Abaqus/Aqua is applicable for structures that can be idealized using line elements, including beam, pipe, and truss elements. Abaqus/Design: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard allows the user to perform design sensitivity analysis (DSA). The derivatives of output variables are calculated with respect to specied design parameters. Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module: This capability is available in Abaqus/CAE to

perform shape and topology optimization. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis.
Abaqus/Foundation: This analysis option offers more efcient access to the linear static and dynamic

analysis functionality in Abaqus/Standard.


CZone for Abaqus: This add-on capability for Abaqus/Explicit provides access to a state-of-the-art

methodology for crush simulation based on CZone technology from Engenuity, Ltd. Targeted toward the design of composite components and assemblies, CZone for Abaqus provides for inclusion of material crush behavior in simulations of composite structures subjected to impact.

Optional analysis functionality

Abaqus/AMS: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard allows the user to select

the automatic multi-level substructuring (AMS) eigensolver when performing a natural frequency extraction.

15

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

Co-simulation with MpCCI:

This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus can be used to solve multiphysics problems by coupling Abaqus with any third-party analysis program that supports the MpCCI interface. This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Explicit can be used to perform vehicle-occupant crash safety simulations by coupling Abaqus/Explicit with MADYMO.

Co-simulation with MADYMO:

Interfaces

Abaqus Interface for Moldflow: This optional interface translates nite element model information from a Moldow analysis to an Abaqus input le. Abaqus Interface for MSC.ADAMS: This optional interface allows Abaqus nite element models to be included as exible components within the MSC.ADAMS family of products. The interface is based on the component mode synthesis formulation of ADAMS/Flex. Specically, exibility data from Abaqus superelements are translated to the modal neutral (.mnf) le format required by the ADAMS/Flex product. Although the ADAMS/Flex interface supports only linear exibility data, the Abaqus user may include an arbitrary number of preloading steps before the linear exibility data are obtained. Multiple exible components generated by Abaqus can be included in an MSC.ADAMS model. Most Abaqus structural elements are supported by the interface.

Associative interfaces and geometry translators

CATIA V5 Associative Interface: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between a CATIA V5 session and an Abaqus/CAE session. This connection can be used to transfer model information from CATIA V5 to Abaqus/CAE. Subsequent modications to the model in CATIA V5 can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model while retaining any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were dened on the model in Abaqus/CAE. The geometry of CATIA V5-format Part (.CATPart) and Product (.CATProduct) les can also be imported directly into Abaqus/CAE. SolidWorks Associative Interface: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection

between a SolidWorks session and an Abaqus/CAE session. This connection can be used to transfer model information from SolidWorks to Abaqus/CAE. Subsequent modications to the model in SolidWorks can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model while retaining any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were dened on the model in Abaqus/CAE.
Pro/ENGINEER Associative Interface:

This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between a Pro/ENGINEER session and an Abaqus/CAE session. This connection can be used to transfer model information between Pro/ENGINEER and Abaqus/CAE. Modications to the model in Pro/ENGINEER can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model without affecting any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were dened on the model in Abaqus/CAE, and certain geometric modications can be made in Abaqus/CAE and propagated to the model in Pro/ENGINEER.

16

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

Abaqus/CAE Associative Interface for NX: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between an NX session and an Abaqus/CAE session. This connection can be used to transfer model data and to propagate design changes between NX and Abaqus/CAE. The Abaqus/CAE Associative Interface for NX can be purchased and downloaded from Elysium Inc. (www.elysiuminc.com). Geometry Translator for CATIA V4: This add-on capability allows the user to import the geometry of CATIA V4-format parts and CATIA V4 assemblies (.model, .catdata, and .exp les) directly into Abaqus/CAE. Geometry Translator for Parasolid: This add-on capability allows the user to import the geometry of Parasolid-format parts and Parasolid assemblies (.x_t, .x_b, and .xmt les) directly into Abaqus/CAE.

Translator utilities

Abaqus translators are provided with the release. They are invoked through the Abaqus execution procedure (the driver). The translators and the commands to invoke them are described below: abaqus fromansys translates an ANSYS input le to an Abaqus input le. abaqus fromnastran translates a Nastran bulk data le to an Abaqus input le. abaqus frompamcrash translates a PAM-CRASH input le to a partial Abaqus input le. abaqus fromradioss translates a RADIOSS input le to a partial Abaqus input le. abaqus tonastran translates an Abaqus input le to Nastran bulk data le format. abaqus toOutput2 translates an Abaqus output database le to the Nastran Output2 le format. abaqus tozaero enables you to exchange aeroelastic data between the Abaqus and ZAERO analysis products.

Other utilities

Additional programs are included with the release. They are all invoked through the Abaqus execution procedure (the driver). The utilities and the commands to invoke these programs are described below: abaqus append joins separate results les into a single le. abaqus ascl translates Abaqus results les between ASCII and binary formats, which is useful for moving results les between different computer types. abaqus cosimulation runs a co-simulation using a single command where the analysis job options specify two values, one for each child analysis. abaqus doc accesses the Abaqus documentation collection using a web browser. abaqus emload converts results output from an electromagnetic analysis for use as loads in a subsequent analysis. abaqus encrypt creates an encoded, password-protected version of an Abaqus input le, while abaqus decrypt converts an encrypted le back into its original, unencoded format.

17

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

abaqus fetch extracts example input les from the libraries included with the release. abaqus ndkeyword provides a list of sample problems that use the specied Abaqus options. This utility will help users nd examples of features they may be using for the rst time. abaqus free converts all xed format data in an input le to free format. abaqus licensing provides a summary of Abaqus license usage reporting and the available FLEXnet Licensing utilities. abaqus make compiles and links user-written postprocessing programs for Abaqus and creates user-dened libraries of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines. abaqus networkDBConnector creates a connection to a network ODB server that can be used to access a remote output database. abaqus restartjoin appends an output database le produced by a restart analysis of a model to the output database produced by the original analysis of that model. abaqus odbcombine combines the results data in two or more Abaqus output database les into a single output database le. abaqus odbreport creates organized reports of output database information in text, HTML, or CSV le formats. abaqus python accesses the Python interpreter. abaqus resume resumes an Abaqus analysis job. abaqus script initiates a Python scripting session. abaqus substructurecombine combines the model and results data produced by two of a models substructures into a single output database le. abaqus suspend suspends an Abaqus analysis job. abaqus terminate terminates an Abaqus analysis job. abaqus upgrade upgrades an input le or output database le from previous versions of Abaqus to the current version.

Changes to documentation

The Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual now contains a complete description of all the input options available in Abaqus/CFD. When installing Abaqus, if you have installed both the PDF and HTML versions of the documentation, you now have the option of choosing the format that the abaqus doc command will open. See Abaqus product installation, Section 2.1.3 of the Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide. The PDF version of the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual now consists of one volume. The manual contains the same content as before. The volume division was removed to ease searching in the PDF version. Search hit counts in the HTML manuals are now displayed for every level of the table of contents. Search hit highlighting has been enhanced such that if you use the table of contents to open a section containing search hits, it rst opens to the section title rather than to the rst hit. Then you can use the Next Match

18

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

button to jump to the rst search result in that section. If you are already reading a manual, conducting a new search will also reload the current page to the section title.

Changes to Abaqus product offerings


The Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module is available for the rst time in the Abaqus 6.11 release. This product requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis.

Changes to Abaqus installation


The client installer is no longer available. Previously, you could run the client installer to congure a computer on a Windows platform to run the Abaqus products that had been installed on a mounted network drive. For instructions on how to achieve this conguration without the installer, see Client installation on Windows in the Dassault Systmes DSX.ECO Knowledge Base at www.3ds.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System, which is accessible through the My Support page at www.simulia.com.

1.3

Enhancements to the Abaqus environment file

The cpus_weight_std, cpus_weight_xpl, and cpus_weight_cfd environment le variables can be used to distribute CPUs between analysis products for a co-simulation execution procedure (Co-simulation execution procedure, Section 3.6). The portpool environment le variable species the range of TCP/UDP port numbers that represent the start and end value of port numbers to be used by the co-simulation execution procedure when establishing connections between the child processes (Co-simulation execution procedure, Section 3.6). The gpu environment le variable can be used to activate GPGPU solver acceleration in Abaqus/Standard (GPGPU direct solver acceleration, Section 3.1).

1.4

Changes in interpretation of input data


The enhanced general contact tracking algorithm for edge-to-edge contact in Abaqus/Explicit is now used by default (*CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT, TYPE=ENHANCED EDGE TRACKING). This algorithm utilizes more local information than the alternative tracking algorithm (TYPE=EDGE TRACKING) in tracking contact between edges and typically reduces the extent of global tracking required. The combination of second-order triangular slave faces, a node-to-surface contact formulation, and strictly enforced hard contact conditions is likely to cause poor convergence behavior and/or noisy contact pressure predictions. This combination, which may be present unintentionally in your existing models, is now identied with an error message during batch preprocessing so that you can modify

The following change in Abaqus 6.11 may impact the analysis of input les from previous releases of Abaqus:

19

INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.11

the model to resolve potential problems (Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces, Section 11.7). For a complete list of changes to the Abaqus input le interface, refer to Chapter 16, Summary of changes.

110

GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS

2.
2.1

General enhancements

This chapter describes the following general enhancements that have been made to Abaqus: Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE, Section 2.1 Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE, Section 2.2 Copying step-dependent objects to a different step, Section 2.3

Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Several enhancements to view manipulation, including the ability to select any location on the model (previously limited to nodes and vertices) as the center of rotation, revised default behavior for view rotation, and quick access to options for setting the center of rotation, improve the usability of Abaqus/CAE. Description: The following enhancements for view manipulation are now available:

When using the rotate view tool, the default center of rotation has changed from the camera target to the center of the viewport display. Shortcuts (shown in Figure 21) are available for the following view manipulations by clicking mouse button 3 in the viewport: Set the center of rotation at any location on the model or in the viewport. Clear a previously set center of rotation. Center the view in the viewport at the position of the mouse click.

Figure 21 New shortcuts available for view manipulation.

The 3Dconnexion motion controller functions have been extended to include Set Rotation Center, Clear Rotation Center, and Set View Center.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: Position the cursor in the viewport, click mouse button 3, and select Set As Rotation Center, Use Default Rotation Center, or Center View

21

GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS

References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual


2.2

Centering the view, Section 5.6.1, in the online HTML version of this manual Rotating the view, Section 5.6.3, in the online HTML version of this manual Using the 3Dconnexion motion controllers with Abaqus/CAE, Section 5.7, in the online HTML version of this manual

Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Up and down buttons on the context bar lists allow you to move quickly to the previous item or next item. Description: The context bar contains the Module list for moving to different modules within Abaqus/CAE. As shown in Figure 22, new up and down arrows (to the left) now allow you to move to the previous module or next module with a single click. Similar arrows are added to all other lists that appear on the context bar.

Figure 22 Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

List navigation in the context bar.

2.3

The context bar, Section 2.2.4

Copying step-dependent objects to a different step

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When copying a step-dependent object such as a load or boundary condition, you can now choose a different destination step for the copied object. This enhancement improves usability and saves time when working with multistep analyses in Abaqus/CAE. Description: Using the Abaqus/CAE object manager dialog boxes, menu commands, or Model Tree, you can copy loads, boundary conditions, interactions, predened elds, output requests, or adaptive mesh constraints. In previous releases of Abaqus/CAE, these objects could only be copied into the same step. You can now choose another valid step of the analysis as the destination for the copied object, as shown in Figure 23.

22

GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS

Figure 23

Copying objects to another step.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Various modules: Load Manager, Boundary Condition Manager, Interaction Manager, Predefined Field Manager, Field Output Requests Manager, History Output Requests Manager, or ALE Adaptive Mesh Constraint Manager; select object; Copy; Step: destination step Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Copying step-dependent objects using manager dialog boxes, Section 3.4.11, in the online HTML version of this manual

23

EXECUTION

3.

Execution

This chapter discusses commands and utilities for running the Abaqus products. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:


3.1

GPGPU direct solver acceleration, Section 3.1 Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver, Section 3.2 Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient delity dynamic analyses, Section 3.3 Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import, Section 3.4 Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation, Section 3.5 Co-simulation execution procedure, Section 3.6 Mapping thermal and magnetic loads, Section 3.7

GPGPU direct solver acceleration

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The direct sparse solver in Abaqus/Standard can use compute-capable GPGPU cards to reduce the run time for equation solution. Description: High-end graphics cards that support general processing (GPGPUs) offer a new way to improve performance of compute-intensive applications. When used on appropriate-sized models, speedup in the solver can exceed 3 compared to a 4-core run. This can represent more than 2 overall speedup in the Abaqus/Standard executable (standard.exe). Since only the solver makes use of the GPGPU, analyses where the run time is dominated by the solver will realize the greatest benet. GPGPU solver acceleration:

does not support the unsymmetric solver, can use only a single GPGPU card, is supported only on shared memory computers or a single compute node of a computer cluster, and is available only for 64-bit Windows and Linux operating systems.

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD execution, Section 3.2.2 Using the Abaqus environment settings, Section 3.3.1 Parallel execution: overview, Section 3.5.1 Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.5.2

31

EXECUTION

3.2

Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The parallel ordering procedure for the direct sparse solver has been improved to give higher quality orderings, resulting in improved solver performance. Description: The parallel ordering procedure for the direct sparse solver has been improved to generate higher quality orderings for improved solver performance. The procedure will now run on any number of host machines in a cluster conguration. Reference:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

3.3

Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.5.2

Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient fidelity dynamic analyses

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Thread-parallel execution of additional calculations provides improved performance for many dynamic analyses. Description: Dynamic analyses with transient delity application settings now execute element and contact search calculations with thread-based parallelization among processors of a compute node, which is similar to the existing behavior for moderate dissipation and quasi-static application settings. In previous Abaqus releases these calculations were performed on only one processor per compute node. Reference:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

3.4

Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.5.2

Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import analyses can now benet from MPI-based parallelization. Description: MPI-based parallel Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import analyses are now supported.

32

EXECUTION

Reference:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

3.5

Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.5.2

Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Abaqus/Standard analyses that use the co-simulation technique can now benet from MPI-based parallelization. Description: Abaqus/Standard co-simulation analyses can be executed using MPI-based parallelization. For example, this new feature will benet your Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation. Reference:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

3.6

Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.5.2

Co-simulation execution procedure


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CFD

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: When running a co-simulation between Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD, you can now submit jobs with a single command. With this procedure you can now readily submit co-simulation job pairs to batch queues, you no longer need to specify and ensure consistency of port numbers, and you have more exibility in dening the distribution of CPUs between the co-simulation jobs. Description: A co-simulation analysis executes two child analyses and directs the communication of the two processes. The co-simulation execution procedure allows you to specify comma-separated pairs of job parameters on a single command line to run the co-simulation and is an alternative to running the co-simulation using the Abaqus execution procedure. This co-simulation execution procedure is the recommended procedure for Abaqus/CFD to Abaqus/Standard or to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation. Three methods are available for allocating CPUs to child analysis jobs for parallel processing: specifying the number of CPUs for each job, distributing CPUs between analysis jobs, and distributing CPUs between analysis products. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD co-simulation execution, Section 3.2.3 Co-simulation parameters in Using the Abaqus environment settings, Section 3.3.1

33

EXECUTION

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

3.7

Dynamic impact of a scooter with a bump, Section 2.4.2

Mapping thermal and magnetic loads

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can convert the results from a time-harmonic eddy current analysis to a form that is usable in a subsequent heat transfer, coupled temperature-displacement, or stress/displacement analysis. Description: The new abaqus emloads utility takes as input your eddy current analysis results output database (.odb) le and your input le for the subsequent analysis and creates an output database le containing a mesh matching your subsequent analysis and steady-state concentrated nodal elds consistent with the eddy current analysis results. The new output database le can be used to dene concentrated heat uxes and/or loads in a subsequent heat transfer, coupled temperature-displacement, or stress/displacement analysis. The new execution procedure thus facilitates modeling the interactions of the electromagnetic elds with thermal and/or mechanical elds in a sequentially coupled manner. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Mapping thermal and magnetic loads, Section 3.2.21 Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.7.5 Sequentially coupled multiphysics analyses using predened loads, Section 16.2.2

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4.

Modeling

This chapter discusses features related to creating your model, such as node and element denition in Abaqus/Standard or Abaqus/Explicit and part and assembly denition in Abaqus/CAE. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:


4.1

Substructures in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.1 Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.2 Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.3 Mapped analytical elds in Abaqus/CAE, Section 4.4 Surface-based uid cavities in Abaqus/Standard, Section 4.5 Orientation distribution for connector elements, Section 4.6 Adjusting nodal coordinates, Section 4.7 Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set, Section 4.8 Enhancements to the offset, extend, and blend face tools, Section 4.9 Creating a wire-from-edge feature, Section 4.10 Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature, Section 4.11 Adding a mirror feature to a part, Section 4.12 Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties, Section 4.13 Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections, Section 4.14 Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements, Section 4.15 Selecting elements by topology, Section 4.16 Suppressing or deleting multiple features, Section 4.17

Substructures in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now supports substructure generation, usage, and recovery. These enhancements expand the scope of modeling capabilities in Abaqus/CAE and enable you to perform analyses with improved performance. Description: Abaqus/CAE now enables you to create substructures, import them into your model database, add them to your assembly, and recover their data during an analysis. The enhancements fall into three categories: substructure generation, substructure usage, and substructure recovery.

The new Substructure generation step denition enables you to control several aspects of substructure generation in your analysis, including its recovery region, generation options, retained eigenmodes, and damping controls. Multiple preloading steps can precede the substructure generation step in your analysis.

41

MODELING

Once you specify a substructure generation step, you can create a boundary condition to specify the retained nodal degrees of freedom for nodes or regions in the substructure. When you import a substructure from this analysis into a model for substructure usage, Abaqus/CAE displays these nodes as light blue crosses, which enables you to pick them easily from a part instance or assembly. If you want to apply a load to the substructure at a location other than its retained degrees of freedom, you can dene a load case in the substructure generation step. You can subsequently create the loads that you want to use in your analysis, include them in the load case denition, and create a substructure load in the usage model that refers to the load case. You can use substructures in your model by rst importing them into the model database as new part denitions. The new Create Substructure Part dialog box enables you to customize the name of the new substructure part you import and to specify the output database le containing the mesh you want to display for the selected substructure. Once imported, you can instance a substructure-based part in Abaqus/CAE in the same way that you can for any other part denitions, and you can translate and perform other manipulations on substructure part instances using the same tools you use to manipulate the other part instances in your assembly. Abaqus/CAE distinguishes substructure part instances by displaying them with translucency by default, but you can toggle off translucency for all substructures at the part or assembly level. Figure 41 shows a model of a backhoe in which one component, the dipper, has been modeled with a substructure part instance.

Figure 41 Translucent display of a substructure part instance in a backhoe model. The substructure statistics query enables you to display detailed information about a substructure part in the message area, including its number of retained nodes, eigenmodes, and substructure loads; the availability of the recovery matrix, gravity load vectors, reduced mass matrix, reduced structural

42

MODELING

damping matrix, and reduced viscous damping matrix in the substructure; and mass properties of the substructure. You can now request eld output for one or more sets in a substructure. If you specify the Substructure as the Domain for your request, the eld output editor enables you to open the Select Substructure Sets dialog box to select the set or sets for which you want to recover output within one or more substructure part instances. Figure 42 displays this dialog box with ve sets selected for output in the rst substructure part instance, FAN_Z114-1.

Figure 42

Select Substructure Sets dialog box.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: FileImportPart: File Filter: Substructure: select .sim le Part module: ToolsQuery: Substructure statistics ViewPart Display Options: Always show substructure with translucency

43

MODELING

Assembly module: ViewAssembly Display Options: Always show substructure with translucency Step module: OutputField Output RequestsCreate: Domain: Substructure StepCreate: Procedure type: Linear perturbation: Substructure generation Load module: BCCreate: Mechanical: Retained nodal dofs LoadCreate: Mechanical: Substructure load Load CaseCreate: Step: substructure generate step References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


4.2

Substructuring, Section 10.1 Importing a substructure into a model database as a part, Section 10.7.13, in the online HTML version of this manual Using the Query toolset in the Part module, Section 11.16.4 Conguring a substructure generation procedure in Conguring linear perturbation analysis procedures, Section 14.11.2, in the online HTML version of this manual Modifying eld output requests, Section 14.12.2, in the online HTML version of this manual Using the load editors, Section 16.9, in the online HTML version of this manual Using the boundary condition editors, Section 16.10, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening a load case, Section 34.5, in the online HTML version of this manual Chapter 39, Substructures Controlling translucency for substructure parts, Section 76.6

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Structural optimization is a tool for shortening the development process by replacing a designers experience and intuition with an automated procedure. Structural optimization is an iterative process that helps you rene your designs and produce lightweight, rigid, and durable components. Description: You can use the new Optimization module to create topology optimizations and shape optimizations. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis. Both topology and shape optimizations are governed by a set of objectives and constraints. A topology optimization starts with an initial design (the design area), which is assumed to be the maximum physical extent of the component. The initial design also considers any prescribed conditions, such as

44

MODELING

boundary conditions and loads. The optimization process determines a new material distribution by changing the density and the stiffness of the elements in the initial design while continuing to satisfy the optimization constraints, such as the minimum volume or the maximum displacement of a region. Figure 43 shows the progression of a topology optimization as it attempts to maximize the stiffness of a loaded curved plate while reducing the volume of the plate by 50% during 15 design cycles.

Start 100% volume

After 5 cycles 85% volume

After 10 cycles 77% volume

After 15 cycles 61% volume

After 17 cycles 57% volume

Figure 43

The progression of a topology optimization.

You use shape optimization at the end of the design process when the general layout of a component is xed, and only minor changes are allowed by repositioning surface nodes in selected regions. A shape optimization starts with a nite element model that needs minor improvement or with the nite element model generated by a topology optimization. Typically, the objective of a shape optimization is to minimize stress concentrations using the results of a stress analysis to modify the surface geometry of a component until the required stress level is reached. Shape optimization tries to position the surface nodes of the selected region until the stress across the region is constant (stress homogenization).

45

MODELING

After you have congured an optimization and submitted it for analysis, Abaqus/CAE iteratively:

prepares the design variables (element density or surface node position) and updates the Abaqus nite element model, and executes an Abaqus/Standard analysis. the specied objective functions are satised, the maximum number of design cycles is reached, or specied stop conditions are reached.

These iteration or design cycles continue until either:

Figure 44 shows how you congure an optimization and the interaction between Abaqus and the optimization. Abaqus/CAE provides the following tools for creating, analyzing, and viewing optimizations:

The new Optimization module allows you to create an optimization task and dene the objectives and constraints that govern the optimization. You create an optimization process in the Job module. An optimization process refers to an optimization task. You can congure the optimization process in the Job module, submit it for analysis, and monitor its progress. Abaqus/CAE automatically creates and displays a view cut in the Visualization module when you open an output database le created by an optimization process, for both topology and shape optimization. Each design cycle of the optimization appears as a frame in the output database le. By default, the view cut displays the model at the isosurface where the value of the material property is zero, which corresponds with elements that have a density and stiffness close to zero and consequently play an insignicant role in the strength of the model.

There are restrictions on the type of Abaqus models that can be optimized; for example, only particular element types and material models are supported. In addition, you must ensure that your Abaqus model can be analyzed and produces the expected results, before you attempt to optimize your model. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Optimization module: TaskCreate Job module: OptimizationCreate Visualization module: ToolsView CutCreate References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Structural optimization: overview, Section 13.1 Optimization models, Section 13.2

46

MODELING

Create model

User actions Automated optimization actions

Create optimization task

Setup optimization

Create design responses

Create objective functions

Create constraints

Create optimization process

Submit optimization process

Perform optimization

Prepare design variables and update finite element model

Monitor optimization progress

Design cycle iteration

Abaqus analysis

Monitor job progress

No

Optimization complete?

Yes

Optimization process is finished

Review results

Figure 44

User actions and automated Abaqus/CAE actions in an optimization.

47

MODELING

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual


4.3

Chapter 18, The Optimization module Understanding optimization processes, Section 19.5 Chapter 80, Cutting through a model

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Topology optimization of an automotive control arm, Section 11.1.1 Shape optimization of a connecting rod, Section 11.2.1

Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now offers assembled fasteners as a tool for efcient and realistic modeling of complex connections. This feature allows you to create a template model of the fastener-like construct and to instance the template at any number of attachment points in your main model. The assembled fastener capability simplies modeling in any system containing large numbers of fasteners such as bolts, rivets, or screws. Description: Fasteners allow the modeling of point-to-point connections between parts. In Abaqus/CAE, assembled fasteners can be used to model complex behaviors for bolts, rivets, screws, and other types of connectors. For a large system such as an airframe or automobile, assembled fasteners allow you to dene the fastener template once, then assign it many times in the main model. Assembled fasteners are different from point-based (mesh-independent) and discrete fasteners in Abaqus/CAE. Assembled fasteners do not create individual fastener objects like point-based and discrete fasteners, but instead they allow you to replicate fastener-like behavior in many places. Using the assembled fastener technique, you can read in connector and constraint behaviors from a template model and assign these attributes in multiple locations in your main model. The template fastener attributes are aggregated in the input le generated by Abaqus/CAE, to help you manage models containing large numbers of assembled fasteners. Figure 45 illustrates how the template model is replicated and assigned in the main model. The overall process for building assembled fasteners is as follows: 1. Build the template model containing your fastener-like construct: connector section assignments, tie constraints, coupling constraints, adjust points constraints, and solid or beam section assignments. 2. Develop your main model, placing attachment points at the locations where you want the template fastener to be replicated. The template model control point will be mapped onto the locations of the attachment points in the main model (see Figure 45). 3. Working in your main model, use the Create Fasteners and Edit Fasteners dialog boxes to dene how the template model will be read in, assembled, and oriented.

48

MODELING

Template Model:
-Connector sections -Tie constraints -Coupling constraints

Surface B

Surface A

Control point Assembled fasteners

Main Model
(Generated model in input file) Assignment surface B

etc. Attachment points Assignment surface A

Figure 45

Replicating the template model in the main model.

4. Optionally, use property generation scripts to modify the properties copied into the main model from the template model. Multiple property generation scripts can be used with the same template model to achieve different results in separate assembled fastener objects. For example, you could use two scripts to apply different materials to the same fastener template. You can use the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write your property generation scripts; see Creating and running your own scripts, Section 9.5.4 in the Abaqus/CAE Users Manual, and the Abaqus Scripting Users Manual. Figure 46 shows the Edit Fasteners dialog box used to create new assembled fasteners. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: SpecialFastenersCreate: Assembled References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

About assembled fasteners, Section 29.1.3 Creating assembled fasteners, Section 29.5, in the online HTML version of this manual

49

MODELING

Figure 46

Creating assembled fasteners.

4.4

Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now offers mapped elds that allow you to dene spatially varying parameter values from an external data source. This feature allows the denition of certain properties and attributes from data generated in a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database. Description: Abaqus/CAE now provides two types of analytical elds: mapped elds and the previously available expression elds. You can create and manage analytical elds using the Analytical Field toolset in the Property module, Interaction module, or Load module. For example, you can dene a spatially varying shell thickness or pressure load by providing the thickness or pressure values at different coordinates. Parameter values can be read in from a point cloud data le generated by a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database (.odb) le. Mapped elds allow you to import discrete and discontinuous parameter data and apply it to your Abaqus/CAE model. Abaqus/CAE applies the values to the current model, mapping the imported X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates to locations in the model. Abaqus/CAE maps the source data onto the target model, and

410

MODELING

Abaqus computes the distributed parameter values to be used during the analysis. The parameter values are also called eld values, or eld data; for example, pressure values at different points on a surface. Mapped elds can be used to dene the attributes and properties shown in Table 41. Table 41 Attributes and properties that support mapped elds. Attribute/Property Pressure Temperature Pore pressure Acoustic pressure Mass concentration Mass ow Electrical potential Predened elds Nodal temperature Pore pressure Void ratio Saturation Interactions Surface lm condition Surface radiative Concentrated lm condition Other Density (material density distributions) Shell thicknesses (element distribution or nodal distribution in shell sections) The magnitude you specify in the load, boundary condition, predened eld, or interaction is used as a multiplier for the mapped eld data values. Mapped elds can be used only in three-dimensional models. Figure 47 shows the Edit Mapped Field dialog box used to create mapped elds. You can display symbols to visualize the locations and relative magnitudes of the source data points for point cloud data in XYZ format, as shown in Figure 48. When the source data are taken from an output database, the process is called mesh-to-mesh mapping. An example of mesh-to-mesh mapping is demonstrated in the following workow:

Category Loads Boundary conditions

411

MODELING

Figure 47 Point cloud data imported from a le in XYZ format. 1. Set up and run a thermal analysis in Abaqus to generate an output database that contains nodal temperatures. 2. Open the output database in the Visualization module, and display the undeformed contour plot of a specic results step and frame for output variable NT. 3. Open the model database that contains your main target model, and create a mapped analytical eld using the nodal temperature values displayed in the viewport in the previous step as the source data. 4. Mesh (or remesh) your target model. 5. Create a temperature predened eld, and select the mapped analytical eld to dene the temperature distribution. Abaqus/CAE maps the source data points and their associated temperatures onto points in the target model. 6. Set up and run the subsequent analysis.

412

MODELING

Figure 48 Visualization of mapping source data. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module, Interaction module, or Load module: ToolsAnalytical FieldCreate; Type: Mapped field References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual


4.5

Using analytical mapped elds, Section 58.3 Creating mapped elds from point cloud data, Section 58.7.1, in the online HTML version of this manual Creating mapped elds from output database mesh data, Section 58.7.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The surface-based uid cavity capability, previously available only in Abaqus/Explicit, is now also available in Abaqus/Standard. It supersedes the element-based hydrostatic uid cavity capability in functionality and does not require the user to dene uid or uid link elements.

413

MODELING

Description: In certain applications it may be necessary to predict the mechanical response of a liquid-lled or a gas-lled structure. Examples include pressure vessels, hydraulic or pneumatic driving mechanisms, and automotive airbags. A primary difculty in addressing such applications is the coupling between the deformation of the structure and the pressure exerted by the contained uid on the structure. Figure 49 illustrates a simple example of a uid-lled structure subjected to a system of external loads. The response of the structure depends not only on the external loads but also on the pressure exerted by the uid, which, in turn, is affected by the deformation of the structure. The surface-based uid cavity capability provides the coupling needed to analyze such situations. The cavity is assumed to be completely lled with uid with the same properties and state; that is, effects such as sloshing and wave propagation through the uid cannot be modeled with this feature.

fluid

Figure 49 References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Fluid-lled structure.

Surface-based uid cavities: overview, Section 11.5.1 Fluid cavity denition, Section 11.5.2 Fluid exchange denition, Section 11.5.3

414

MODELING

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual


4.6

*FLUID BEHAVIOR *FLUID CAVITY *FLUID EXCHANGE *FLUID EXCHANGE PROPERTY UFLUID, Section 1.1.32

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Hydrostatic uid elements: modeling an airspring, Section 1.1.9

Abaqus Verification Manual

Hydrostatic uid elements, Section 1.3.39 Fluid link element, Section 1.3.40 UFLUID, Section 4.1.17

Abaqus Theory Manual

Hydrostatic uid calculations, Section 3.8.1

Orientation distribution for connector elements


Abaqus/Explicit

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: You can now use a distribution to dene spatially varying orientations on connector elements, which greatly simplies the modeling process. Description: In Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit you can dene orientations for connector elements using a distribution. For models that have a signicant amount of spatial variation in their orientations, this enhancement allows you to minimize the number of section denitions and orientation denitions needed for the model. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Distribution denition, Section 2.8.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONNECTOR SECTION *DISTRIBUTION

415

MODELING

Abaqus Verification Manual

4.7

Spatially varying element properties, Section 5.1.4

Adjusting nodal coordinates


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: You can use nodal adjustment to adjust user-specied nodal coordinates so that the nodes lie on a given surface. This is useful in situations such as dening fasteners, where the specied reference node should be positioned at its projection point on the associated surface, but that position may be known only approximately; you can use nodal adjustment to move the reference node to that location automatically. Description: In general, user-specied nodal coordinates are not modied during input le processing. However, there are some situations where mesh coordinates are known only in a generic way and it is inconvenient to determine their coordinates for their actual usage. To adjust the nodal coordinates, you identify the nodes to be moved and the surface onto which they are to be moved. Nodes can be moved to the surface using a normal adjustment or a directed adjustment. By default, the nodes are adjusted to the closest point on the specied surface along the normal to the surface. You can specify an orientation to move the nodes to the surface along a given direction rather than along the normal to the surface. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: ConstraintCreate: Adjust points ConstraintCreate: Coupling; Adjust control point to lie on surface References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Adjusting nodal coordinates, Section 2.1.6

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening coupling constraints, Section 15.15.4, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening adjust points constraints, Section 15.15.5, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*ADJUST

Abaqus Verification Manual

*ADJUST, Section 5.1.2

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MODELING

4.8

Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can use the new mass adjust option to specify the mass of an element set directly or to specify a minimum element stable time increment for an element set which, unlike mass scaling, is accomplished with no increase in the mass of the set. Description: The ability to accurately specify the mass of a meshed part in an analysis model is often important. The mass adjust option enables you to specify the mass of an element set directly without the need to know the original mass of the element set. In addition, you can impose a minimum element stable time increment on an element set. Unlike mass scaling, which adds mass to the critical elements (elements with the smallest stable time increments) in the set, this feature redistributes mass from the noncritical elements to the critical elements and has the advantage that the mass of the element set is preserved. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


4.9

Adjust and/or redistribute mass of an element set, Section 2.6.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*MASS ADJUST Knee bolster impact with general contact, Section 2.1.9 Impact of a water-lled bottle, Section 2.3.2

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

Mass adjust verication, Section 1.11.10

Enhancements to the offset, extend, and blend face tools

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Three of the face editing tools added in Abaqus 6.10 have been enhanced in the current release. Enhancements to the offset, extend, and blend tools for editing faces simplify the operations, reduce the need for viewport selections, and add new control options for use when you edit models or create midsurface models. Description: The Offset Faces operation now includes an option that allows Abaqus/CAE to select target faces automatically for determining the offset distance. The new Auto Select button shown in Figure 410 is available only when the faces to offset are part of the reference representation used for creating a midsurface

417

MODELING

model. When you use automatic selection, Abaqus/CAE considers faces from the opposite side of the midsurface region from those that you selected to offset.

Figure 410

The Auto Select option in the Offset Faces dialog box.

The Extend Faces operation has two new options available if you use target faces to determine the extension distance. You can choose whether Abaqus/CAE extends the target faces (temporarily) to create intersections with the faces that you are extending. The Trim to extended underlying target surfaces option is toggled off by default. The second enhancement allows you to limit the edges that will be extended when you use target faces. Now when you click OK in the dialog box, Abaqus/CAE highlights only those edges from your selection that would intersect with the target faces and gives you the option to extend these edges instead of your original selection. You can accept the new selection, edit the new selection in the viewport, extend your original selection (edges or all free edges if you selected faces), or cancel the procedure. The Blend Faces procedure has been enhanced so that you now select edges for the rst and second sides of the blend before the dialog box is displayed. In addition, you can now select faces instead of edges for the second side to create a blend between edges and faces. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: ToolsGeometry Edit: Face: Offset, Extend, or Blend

418

MODELING

References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Offset faces, Section 69.6.7, in the online HTML version of this manual Extend faces, Section 69.6.8, in the online HTML version of this manual Blend faces, Section 69.6.9, in the online HTML version of this manual

4.10

Creating a wire-from-edge feature

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now convert shell or solid part edges into wires. Description: When you select edges to create a wire-from-edge feature, Abaqus/CAE removes the adjoining faces and creates a wire feature to replace all edges of the removed faces. In addition, Abaqus/CAE makes any other changes necessary to retain the validity of the remaining geometry, such as converting solids to shells. For example, if you select two disconnected edges from a solid box, the resulting model contains two shell faces and a wire feature that completes the original shape of the box, as shown Figure 411. Each of the selected edges was associated with two faces, so Abaqus/CAE removes those faces and converts the solid to a shell. The selected edges, and all the other edges that are no longer associated with faces, make up the new wire feature.

Figure 411 Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: ShapeWireFrom Edge

Creating wires from the edges of a solid part.

419

MODELING

Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Adding a wire-from-edge feature, Section 11.23.4, in the online HTML version of this manual

4.11

Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Adding a spline wire by using the point-to-point wire editor provides greater exibility than selecting a series of points from the viewport. Description: Spline wires have been added to the existing point-to-point wire tool in Abaqus/CAE. The
Create Wire Feature dialog box now contains two options, Polyline and Spline, to specify the type of wire you want to create. Select Polyline to create one or more straight line segments; this functionality is unchanged from the point-to-point tool available in past releases. Select Spline to create a spline curve through a series of connected points. When you choose to create a spline wire, Chained wireswhere all

line segments are connectedis the only selection method available, and each point is entered on a separate line in the table instead of in pairs as they are for a polyline. You can use the tools in the Create Wire Feature dialog box to edit the selected points, delete points, or add points to the end of the spline. However, once you commit your selections by clicking OK in the dialog box, you can edit the completed wire only by editing the features that created the points or by deleting the wire and creating a new one. Enhanced spline wire creation within the point-to-point wire tool replaces the previously available ShapeWireSpline tool. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: ShapeWirePoint to Point: Select Spline for the Geometry Type Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Adding a point-to-point wire feature, Section 11.23.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

4.12

Adding a mirror feature to a part

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now add a mirror feature to a part. The mirror feature retains the complete feature history of the part, and you can select any planar face or datum plane as the mirror plane.

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MODELING

Description: The new mirror feature is similar to the existing mirror option available when you copy a part. However, the mirror feature has three advantages over a copied part:

You can still edit all the other part features. You can select any planar face or datum plane as the mirror plane. You can keep or delete the original geometry and any internal boundaries between the original and the mirror image.

In contrast, copying a part with the mirror option compresses the features so the original features are no longer available to edit. Using the mirror option while copying a part also allows you to mirror the part only about the principal planes. Figure 412 shows an original part with the mirror plane highlighted and the resulting mirror features when the original geometry is kept. The center image is the result with internal boundaries, and the right image is the result without internal boundaries.

Figure 412 Mirror features, with and without internal boundaries. Mirror features can be deleted, suppressed, and resumed. Since you create them by making selections from the viewport, mirror features have no editable parameters. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: ShapeTransformMirror Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Mirroring a part, Section 11.28, in the online HTML version of this manual

4.13

Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties

Product: Abaqus/Standard

421

MODELING

Benefits: New diagnostics help you to avoid mistakes in specifying inertia properties in a dynamic model. Description: Abaqus/Standard issues an error message by default if the global mass matrix is singular for dynamics models with an application-type setting of transient delity. The global mass matrix is affected by material densities, concentrated masses and rotary inertias, and nonstructural mass. A singular global mass matrix is most commonly due to omitting specication of inertia properties. A warning message is also issued if a density denition is omitted for any materials in a dynamic analysis. Other more subtle causes of a singular global mass matrix include the density being zero for certain values of temperature or eld variables and unconstrained degrees of freedom at massless nodes that are connected to other nodes by constraints. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration, Section 6.3.2

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*DYNAMIC

4.14

Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections
Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: Using distributions to specify spatially varying thicknesses and material orientations on membrane elements greatly simplies the modeling process and improves performance for models with a signicant amount of element property variation. Description: In Abaqus/Standard you can now dene material orientations and thickness for membrane elements using distributions. These enhancements allow you to minimize the number of section denitions needed for a model that has signicant variation of these features, which can lead to performance improvements during pre- and postprocessing. In Abaqus/CAE you can now use an analytical eld or an element-based discrete eld to dene the spatially varying membrane thickness, as shown in Figure 413. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: SectionCreate; Category: Shell; Type: Membrane Membrane thickness: Element distribution

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MODELING

Figure 413 Using element distributions for membrane thickness.

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Orientations, Section 2.2.5 Distribution denition, Section 2.8.1 Membrane elements, Section 28.1.1

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Creating membrane sections, Section 12.12.7, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*DISTRIBUTION *MEMBRANE SECTION Spatially varying element properties, Section 5.1.4

Abaqus Verification Manual

423

MODELING

4.15

Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: Using a distribution to specify spatially varying composite layer thicknesses on shell elements greatly simplies the modeling process and improves performance for models with a signicant amount of element property variation. Description: In Abaqus/Explicit you can dene composite layer thicknesses for shell elements using a distribution. This enhancement allows you to minimize the number of section denitions needed for a model that has signicant variation of these features, which can lead to model simplication and performance improvements. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Distribution denition, Section 2.8.1 Using a shell section integrated during the analysis to dene the section behavior, Section 28.6.5 Using a general shell section to dene the section behavior, Section 28.6.6 *DISTRIBUTION *SHELL GENERAL SECTION *SHELL SECTION Spatially varying element properties, Section 5.1.4

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

4.16

Selecting elements by topology

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now easily select element rows or layers. Description: The new topology selection method allows you to select entire rows or layers of elements from a structured mesh with a single click. When you are performing a task that allows you to pick multiple elements, the list of selection methods in the prompt area includes by topology. To select elements, click on an element face in a three-dimensional structured mesh to select a row of elements. Click on an element edge in a three-dimensional structured mesh to select an entire layer of elements. In a two-dimensional structured mesh, click on an element edge to select a row of elementsthere are no layers in a two-dimensional mesh. Figure 414 shows the selection by topology of an internal row and layer of elements. Without selection by topology, selection of a curved row of interior elements such as that on the left in the gure would be much more difcult.

424

MODELING

Figure 414

Selection of an element row or layer by topology.

You can use selection by topology to select elements from other types of meshes. However, without the clearly dened rows and layers of a structured mesh, the selections will be less predictable. In some cases, such as with a tetrahedral mesh, topology selection may be limited to only those elements that share the edges that you selected. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Various procedures: Select by topology from the element selection methods in the prompt area Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Using the topology method to select multiple elements, Section 6.2.5

4.17

Suppressing or deleting multiple features

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now suppress or delete multiple features in a single operation. Description: The suppress and delete feature tools now support selection of multiple items. You can select multiple items from the viewport or the Model Tree. When you conrm your viewport selections or when you select Suppress or Delete from the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 after making

425

MODELING

selections from the Model Tree, Abaqus/CAE suppresses or deletes your selections. For example, you can now delete multiple part instances from the viewport in a single operation. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Various modules: FeatureSuppress: Select one or more features from the viewport FeatureDelete: Select one or more features from the viewport References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Suppressing features, Section 65.4.3, in the online HTML version of this manual Deleting features, Section 65.4.5, in the online HTML version of this manual

426

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE

5.

Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE

This chapter discusses features related to importing and exporting models to or from Abaqus/CAE. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:


5.1

Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface, Section 5.1 Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface, Section 5.2 Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models, Section 5.3 Exporting models in OBJ format, Section 5.4

Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: After importing a model using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface, you can use a new tool to modify geometry parameters in the model; both the Abaqus/CAE model and the original CATIA V5 model are updated based on the modied parameters. This allows you to keep your Abaqus/CAE and CATIA V5 models synchronized while you iterate on a design. Description: The parameter update capability for the CATIA V5 Associative Interface allows you to work exclusively in Abaqus/CAE after importing a model from CATIA V5 while keeping the original CATIA V5 model up to date with any geometric changes. Certain geometry parameters can be modied in Abaqus/CAE, then these modications are propagated to the CATProduct and CATPart les for the original CATIA V5 model (this functionality was previously available for only Pro/ENGINEER models). To use bidirectional import, you must rst specify the parameters and their values in the CATIA V5 model that will be imported into Abaqus/CAE. These parameters are used to dene dimensions in the CATIA V5 model; for example, a parameter may be used to specify the radius of a hole feature or the length of an extrusion. When you import the model into Abaqus/CAE using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface, the list of specied parameters is also imported. Figure 51 shows how you can use the CAD Parameters dialog box in Abaqus/CAE to modify the values of each parameter. When you click Update, the features associated with the modied dimensions are regenerated, and the models geometry is updated in Abaqus/CAE and in the saved CATIA V5 CATProduct and CATPart les. Figure 52 shows the relationship between the CATIA V5 version of the model, the Abaqus/CAE version of the model, and the models geometry parameters.

51

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE

Figure 51

The CAD Parameters dialog box.

CATIA V5

Abaqus/CAE

Parameter Update

Associative Import

Figure 52

Using parameter updates to synchronize geometry changes in CATIA V5 and Abaqus/CAE models.

52

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE

Parameter updates can be performed only when Abaqus/CAE is running on a Windows platform. CATIA V5 must also be installed on the computer that is running Abaqus/CAE. For detailed instructions on using bidirectional import, download the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Users Guide. This manual is available from the Dassault Systmes DSX.ECO Knowledge Base at www.3ds.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System, which is accessible through the My Support page at www.simulia.com. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: ToolsCAD Parameters Assembly module: ToolsCAD InterfacesCAD Parameters References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual


5.2

What can I do with the associative interfaces?, Section 10.1.2 Updating geometry parameters in an imported model, Section 60.2

Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can use the scripting interface for the SolidWorks Associative Interface to automate the design process. For example, you can attempt to minimize the weight of your design by running a script that decreases the thickness of a region until Abaqus calculates that a maximum stress level or displacement has been reached. Description: A macro scripting interface for the SolidWorks Associative Interface is now available for Release 1.5 of the SolidWorks Associative Interface. You can use a SolidWorks VBA script to update a SolidWorks model in Abaqus/CAE and to save SolidWorks parts in assembly (.eaf) le format. Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

5.3

What can I do with the associative interfaces?, Section 10.1.2

Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

53

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE

Benefits: You can now translate a Nastran model containing many different membrane properties to an Abaqus model that contains a single membrane section. Description: The abaqus fromNastran execution procedure and the Import Nastran Input File dialog box now provide translation and import for Nastran membrane data. You can control the section consolidation of membrane data using the same options that control the section consolidation of section data. The distribution parameter settings for the execution procedure and the Section consolidation options in Abaqus/CAE determine whether Abaqus creates a membrane section for each Nastran PSHELL or PCOMP property ID, creates sections for all homogeneous elements that reference the same material, or creates a separate membrane section for each combination of thickness or orientation in the Nastran input le. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: FileImportModel: File Format: Nastran: Section consolidation options References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


5.4

Translating Nastran bulk data les to Abaqus input les, Section 3.2.23

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Importing a model from a Nastran input le, Section 10.5.4

Exporting models in OBJ format

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Wavefront OBJ is an open le format for geometry denition and visualization that is supported by many three-dimensional graphics applications. You can now export geometry and mesh data from an Abaqus/CAE model database to OBJ format, which enables you to display your Abaqus/CAE data in a variety of CAD and visualization programs. Description: Abaqus/CAE now supports export of model data in OBJ format. When you export data from the Visualization module, Abaqus/CAE exports only mesh data to the OBJ-format le. If you export data from any other module, Abaqus/CAE exports mesh data if the mesh is displayed in the current viewport; otherwise, geometry data are exported. Export of data from the Visualization module is also sensitive to the current step and frame. If you display an undeformed plot in the viewport, Abaqus/CAE exports undeformed data to the OBJ-format le; if you display a deformed plot, Abaqus/CAE exports deformed data for the current step and frame to the OBJ-format le.

54

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE

Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: FileExportOBJ Reference:


Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Exporting viewport data to an OBJ-format le, Section 10.9.6, in the online HTML version of this manual

55

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.

Analysis procedures

This chapter discusses features related to dening an analysis. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:


6.1

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis, Section 6.1 Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.2 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, Section 6.3 Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements, Section 6.4 Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability, Section 6.5 New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for uid dynamic analysis, Section 6.6 Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis, Section 6.7 AMS eigensolver performance improvement, Section 6.8 Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints, Section 6.9 Matrix generation enhancements, Section 6.10 Matrix input enhancements, Section 6.11 Dening a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE, Section 6.12 Creating a spectrum from a user-specied amplitude in Abaqus/Standard, Section 6.13 New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis, Section 6.14 Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture, Section 6.15 Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure, Section 6.16 Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit, Section 6.17 Contact iterations solution technique no longer available, Section 6.18 Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation, Section 6.19 Including the effect of a residual stress eld on contour integral evaluation, Section 6.20 Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis, Section 6.21 Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit, Section 6.22 New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization, Section 6.23

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now perform a fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.

61

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Description: You can now obtain simultaneous solutions for the temperature, electric potential, and stress/displacement elds. Both transient and steady-state analyses are supported; however, in the transient analysis the transient electrical effects are assumed to be very rapid and, consequently, are neglected. This procedure is available only with three-dimensional continuum elements. In addition, the electrical contact capabilities have been enhanced to allow the gap electrical conductance to be a function of surface separation or surface pressure, as illustrated in Figure 61.

d (a)

d (b)

Figure 61 Examples of input data to dene the gap electrical conductance as a function of clearance (d) or contact pressure (p). References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis, Section 6.7.4 Three-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.4 Electrical contact properties, Section 35.3.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT *GAP ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

GAPELECTR, Section 1.1.11

Abaqus Verification Manual

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements, Section 1.4.10

62

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.2

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now perform a time-harmonic eddy current analysis that accounts for full coupling between electric and magnetic elds. Description: Time-harmonic eddy current analysis is a new feature in Abaqus that is under active development. This capability should be treated as an initial offering of a more complete set of future capabilities. You can now calculate the eddy currents that are induced in a conductor placed within a time-harmonic magnetic eld, as shown in Figure 62.
EMCD, Magnitude (Avg: 75%) +3.23e+08 +2.97e+08 +2.71e+08 +2.45e+08 +2.20e+08 +1.94e+08 +1.68e+08 +1.42e+08 +1.16e+08 +8.96e+07 +6.36e+07 +3.76e+07 +1.16e+07

Figure 62 Induced current density in a spherical conductor due to a magnetic eld. The magnetic eld can be generated by a coil carrying a time-harmonic current at a known frequency, or it can be specied directly by means of appropriate boundary conditions/loads. The solution procedure is based on obtaining a time-harmonic solution to Maxwells equations describing electromagnetic phenomena under the low-frequency assumption and, hence, accounts for strong coupling between the electric and the magnetic elds. This procedure is available with two-dimensional (planar) and three-dimensional continuum elements and is based on an element edge-based interpolation of elds instead of the usual node-based interpolation. The eddy current analysis can be driven by prescribed volume and/or surface current density vectors or by prescribed values of the magnetic vector potential on surfaces. Magnetic permeability must be dened everywhere in the domain, and electrical conductivity must be dened in the conductor regions. The eddy current analysis provides output such as Joule heat dissipation or magnetic body force intensity, which can be transferred to drive a subsequent heat transfer, coupled temperature-displacement, or purely

63

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

mechanical analysis. This allows for modeling the interactions of the electromagnetic elds with thermal and/or mechanical elds in a sequentially coupled manner. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Mapping thermal and magnetic loads, Section 3.2.21 Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.7.5 Sequentially coupled multiphysics analyses using predened loads, Section 16.2.2 Two-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.3 Three-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.4 Electrical conductivity, Section 25.5.1 Magnetic permeability, Section 25.5.3

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT *ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY *ELECTROMAGNETIC *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

UDECURRENT, Section 1.1.23 UDEMPOTENTIAL, Section 1.1.24 UDSECURRENT, Section 1.1.26

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.4 TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.5

Abaqus Verification Manual

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 3.6.1

64

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.3

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: A smoothed particle hydrodynamics modeling technique is now available in Abaqus/Explicit. Using this technique, you can model violent free-surface uid ows (such as wave impact) and extremely high deformation/obliteration of solid structures (such as ballistics). Description: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a particular Lagrangian mesh-free numerical method. You dene the model using 1-node PC3D elements (commonly referred to in the literature as particles) that are placed in space much like nodes of the usual nite elements. Abaqus/Explicit searches for neighboring particles based on a radius of inuence (smoothing length) and computes kinematic quantities (such as strains, deformation gradients, etc.) based on contributions from this cloud of particles centered at the particle of interest. Every increment Abaqus/Explicit recomputes the local connectivity; thus, there are no restrictions on the movement of the particles with respect to each other. Consequently, the method can accommodate very large strain gradients that are usually not possible to account for when using regular Lagrangian nite elements. While the method tends to address modeling needs similar to the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method, it is likely to be more efcient in cases where the material to void ratio is small. Fragmentation, where chunks of material move signicantly through space before the secondary impact of interest occurs, is a prime example. The method can be used with all materials available in Abaqus/Explicit (including user materials). Contact with other meshed Lagrangian bodies is dened as for any other node-based surfaces. Boundary conditions, initial conditions, and constraints are dened as usual. Figure 63 shows an example of ballistic impact. The projectile penetrates the plate, causing material failure and fragmentation. The impact area is modeled with particle elements. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


6.4

Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis, Section 15.1.1 Particle elements, Section 27.5.1 Particle element library, Section 27.5.2

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Impact of a water-lled bottle, Section 2.3.2

Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements

Product: Abaqus/Explicit

65

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Figure 63

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics ballistic impact example.

Benefits: The default element stable time estimation provides a larger element stable time increment. For analyses using variable mass scaling, less total mass will need to be added to achieve a given stable time increment. Description: By default, Abaqus/Explicit will now use the improved element time estimation method to calculate the element stable time increment for three-dimensional elements. This improved element time estimation method usually results in a larger element stable time increment. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Explicit dynamic analysis, Section 6.3.3 Fully coupled thermal-stress analysis, Section 6.5.4

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*DYNAMIC *DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT

66

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.5

Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The extended nite element method (XFEM) allows you to model discontinuities, such as cracks, along an arbitrary, solution-dependent path during an analysis. A user-dened damage initiation criterion can now be used within the framework of XFEM. This capability is very useful to accurately predict the durability and damage tolerance of composite structures and the bone fracture with complex failure mechanisms. A low-cycle fatigue analysis can now be simulated with XFEM for a structure subjected to cyclic loading by using the direct cyclic approach. Three-dimensional second-order stress/displacement tetrahedron elements can now be associated with an enriched feature. Description: XFEM allows you to model crack growth without remeshing the crack surfaces since it does not require the mesh to match the geometry of the crack. A user-dened damage initiation criterion is now supported. User subroutine UDMGINI provides a very general capability for implementing a user-dened damage initiation criterion. You can specify more than one failure mechanism in an enriched element, with the most severe one governing the actual failure. The XFEM capability can be used to simulate a discrete crack growth along an arbitrary path subjected to a sub-critical cyclic loading based on the principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) in a low-cycle fatigue analysis using the direct cyclic approach. The fracture energy release rates at the crack tips in the enriched elements are calculated based on the modied VCCT technique. The onset and crack growth are characterized by using the Paris law, which relates the relative fracture energy release rates to crack growth rates. A low-cycle fatigue step can be the only step, can follow a general static step, or can be followed by a general static step. Multiple low-cycle fatigue analysis steps can be included in a single analysis. If a fatigue analysis is performed in a model without a pre-existing crack, a static step proceeded by the fatigue step can be used to nucleate a crack. XFEM is now available for second-order stress/displacement tetrahedron elements. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Low-cycle fatigue analysis using the direct cyclic approach, Section 6.2.7 Modeling discontinuities as an enriched feature using the extended nite element method, Section 10.7.1 *DAMAGE EVOLUTION *DAMAGE INITIATION *DIRECT CYCLIC *ENRICHMENT *FRACTURE CRITERION

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

67

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual


6.6

UDMGINI, Section 1.1.25

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Crack propagation of a single-edge notch simulated using XFEM, Section 1.19.1 Crack propagation in a plate with a hole simulated using XFEM, Section 1.19.2

New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/CFD

Benefits: The RNG k model is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that produces more accurate results than the standard k model for ow problems where separation and recirculation occur. Description: The RNG k model is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that accounts for the effects of small scales of motion in contrast to the standard k model that bases its turbulent viscosity on a single length scale. The RNG k model attempts to account for the contribution of multiple scales to the dissipation rate. The RNG k model in Abaqus/CFD is implemented using wall functions that rely on an advanced normal-distance level-set function to accurately locate the near-wall region in complex geometry. As a two-equation model, the incremental computational cost increase is quite small relative to the Spalart-Allmaras model. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: StepCreate: General: Flow; Turbulence tabbed page: k-epsilon renormalization group (RNG) References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


6.7

Incompressible uid dynamic analysis, Section 6.6.2

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Conguring a ow procedure in Conguring general analysis procedures, Section 14.11.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Enhanced functionality in coupled structural-acoustic subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis is available.

68

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Description: The following features can be included in coupled structural-acoustic steady-state dynamic analysis that uses the high-performance SIM architecture:

You can specify the uid ow velocity as a predened eld for an acoustic domain. You can use innite acoustic elements to dene an unbounded domain. You can dene the volumetric drag coefcient for the acoustic medium as a function of frequency. You can select modes, which will be used in a modal procedure.

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


6.8

Natural frequency extraction, Section 6.3.5 Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis, Section 6.3.9 Acoustic, shock, and coupled acoustic-structural analysis, Section 6.10.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*ACOUSTIC FLOW VELOCITY *ACOUSTIC MEDIUM *FREQUENCY *SELECT EIGENMODES *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS

AMS eigensolver performance improvement


Abaqus/AMS

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: New scalable thread-parallel execution capability of the AMS eigensolver signicantly improves the performance of frequency extraction analyses. Description: Scalable thread-parallel execution of the AMS eigensolver delivers signicant performance improvement on shared memory computers and on a single node of a computer cluster. Table 61 illustrates the improved performance of the AMS eigensolver on a system with Intel Nehalem processors for two industrial models: Model 1 is a 4.3 million degree-of-freedom automotive powertrain model with a large selective recovery node set and damping projection, and Model 2 is a 9.2 million degreeof-freedom automotive vehicle model with a large selective recovery node set. The wall-clock times in the table indicate the total elapsed times for the frequency extraction step using the AMS eigensolver.

69

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Table 61 AMS performance improvement due to a new scalable thread-parallel execution capability.

Model

Degrees of Freedom (Millions) 4.3 9.2

Abaqus 6.10 (1-core) Number of Modes 1709 4208 Wall Clock Time (h:mm) 1:02 2:00

Abaqus 6.10-EF (4-core) Number of Modes 1710 4210 Wall Clock Time (h:mm) 0:29 1:03

Model 1 Model 2

Large-scale models specifying full recovery of eigenmodes may require a considerable amount of physical memory to avoid extra I/O operations, which may lead to a degradation of parallel scaling. Due to this enhancement and the approximate nature of the AMS technology, it is possible to observe slight differences in the number of eigenmodes extracted by AMS in Abaqus 6.10-EF versus Abaqus 6.10. These differences are expected since AMS eigenmodes close to the user-specied maximum frequency are generally less accurate and more sensitive to perturbations (e.g., changes in the order of the system of equations). However, the results of subsequent modal dynamic procedures are very close to the results in Abaqus 6.10 and previous releases if an appropriate number of modes are used to construct the projection basis. Parallel scaling of the AMS eigensolver is improved in Abaqus 6.11 for multi-core shared memory computers having more than 4 cores. Table 62 illustrates the improved parallel scaling of the AMS eigensolver for a 9.3 million degree-of-freedom automotive vehicle model with selective recovery. The AMS eigensolver computes 7326 eigenmodes for this model. Table 62 AMS performance improvements due to improved parallel scaling on multi-core systems.

Number of Cores 1 4 8 16

Abaqus 6.10-EF Wall Clock Time (sec) 5650 2560 2185 2149 Speedup 1.00 2.21 2.25 2.63

Abaqus 6.11 Wall Clock Time (sec) 5367 2257 1762 1604 Speedup 1.00 2.38 3.05 3.35

610

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

In addition, the residual mode computation is parallelized in Abaqus 6.11 to improve the performance for models with many residual vector nodes. The performance of the overall full recovery procedure is improved for the case where the full recovery requires a large number of I/O operations. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


6.9

Natural frequency extraction, Section 6.3.5

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*FREQUENCY

Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The iterative solver algorithm offers improved handling of dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence. Description: The iterative solver can now achieve better convergence for models that include dense linear constraint equations (such as multi-point constraints, surface-based tie constraints, kinematic couplings, etc.) that eliminate a large number of slave degrees of freedom per master degree of freedom and/or eliminate some slave degrees of freedom in favor of a large number of master degrees of freedom. Previously in Abaqus 6.10, dense linear constraints would often lead to non-convergence of the iterative solver. In the current release, the iterative solver has a new treatment for dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence. If a model contains a large amount of dense constraints, performance may be reduced. See Iterative linear equation solver, Section 6.1.5, for more details. Reference:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Iterative linear equation solver, Section 6.1.5

6.10

Matrix generation enhancements

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The matrix generation procedure offers enhanced functionality for mathematical abstraction of model data in the form of global or element matrices.

611

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Description: The behavior of the matrix generation procedure has changed signicantly. Global or element matrices can be generated for the whole model or for a part of the model dened by an element set. By default, the matrices are generated and stored in a binary form. A new matrix output option is available to control output of the generated matrices to one of the supported text formats. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Generating matrices, Section 10.3.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*MATRIX GENERATE *MATRIX OUTPUT

6.11

Matrix input enhancements

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Enhanced matrix input functionality is available. Description: The matrix input capability has been improved to allow reading matrices generated by the matrix generation procedure and stored in binary form. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dening matrices, Section 2.11.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*MATRIX INPUT

6.12

Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: The ability to dene a spectrum in Abaqus/CAE increases the coverage of Abaqus product functionality. Description: When performing a response spectrum analysis, you must rst convert the given dynamic event into a spectrum. In Abaqus/CAE you can now use the Amplitude toolset to dene a spectrum by specifying the magnitude of the spectrum at all frequencies at each damping value. You can then use the

612

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

spectrum amplitude in a response spectrum analysis. Figure 64 shows how you can read the data for the spectrum amplitude from a le.

Figure 64

Reading spectrum data from a le.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module, Interaction module, or Load module: ToolsAmplitudeCreate: Type: Spectrum: dene spectrum Step module: StepCreate: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum; Use response spectrum: select spectrum References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Response spectrum analysis, Section 6.3.10

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening a spectrum, Section 57.11, in the online HTML version of this manual

613

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.13

Creating a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude in Abaqus/Standard

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The ability to create a spectrum from a user-specied amplitude that describes a dynamic event simplies the conversion process. Description: When performing a response spectrum analysis, you must rst convert the dynamic event into a spectrum. Abaqus/Standard allows you to create a spectrum automatically from a given dynamic event that is supplied in the form of a user-dened time domain amplitude record. You can build a displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum for a number of provided damping values. The spectrum that you create can be used in a subsequent response spectrum analysis or it can be written to an external le for future use. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Response spectrum analysis, Section 6.3.10

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*SPECTRUM

6.14

New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis
Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: The new modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis comply with the latest regulations and conform to the ASCE 498 standard for Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary. Description: Two new modal summation methods for response spectrum analysis are now available: the double sum combination (DSC) method and the grouping (GRP) method. The double sum combination method is the rst attempt to evaluate modal correlation based on random vibration theory. The grouping method improves the response estimation for structures with closely spaced eigenvalues. Two new directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis are now available: the 40% (R40) method and the 30% (R30) method. These methods use the rules recommended in the ASCE 498 standard to combine the response for all possible combinations of the three components, including variations in sign (plus/minus), assuming that when the maximum response from one component occurs, the response from the other two components is 40% (or 30%) of their maximum value.

614

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: StepCreate: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum; Excitations: Multiple direction thirty percent rule or Multiple direction forty percent rule; Summations: Double sum combination or Grouping method References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Response spectrum analysis, Section 6.3.10

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Conguring a response spectrum procedure in Conguring linear perturbation analysis procedures, Section 14.11.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Abaqus Theory Manual

Response spectrum analysis, Section 2.5.6

6.15

Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: A response spectrum analysis can now superpose eigenmodes extracted using the AMS eigensolver or the Lanczos eigensolver with the SIM architecture. This enhancement allows you to analyze large models that involve a large number of eigenmodes for modal superposition. Description: The SIM architecture now supports response spectrum analyses. You invoke the SIM architecture in eigenfrequency extractions by specifying the AMS eigensolver or by specifying the Lanczos eigensolver based on the SIM architecture. All modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis are available within the SIM architecture. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: StepCreate: Linear perturbation: Frequency; Eigensolver: AMS Eigensolver: Lanczos, toggle on Use SIM-based linear dynamics procedures StepCreate: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum

615

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dynamic analysis procedures: overview, Section 6.3.1 Natural frequency extraction, Section 6.3.5 Response spectrum analysis, Section 6.3.10

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Conguring a frequency procedure in Conguring linear perturbation analysis procedures, Section 14.11.2, in the online HTML version of this manual Conguring a response spectrum procedure in Conguring linear perturbation analysis procedures, Section 14.11.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*FREQUENCY *RESPONSE SPECTRUM Response spectrum analysis, Section 2.5.6

Abaqus Theory Manual

6.16

Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can select uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure. This enhancement allows you to take advantage of the benets offered by the AMS eigensolver to generate substructures from large NVH models. Description: Abaqus/Standard can now use uncoupled eigenmodes, generated from the SIM-based Lanczos or AMS eigensolver, to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure. In this case the effect of acousticstructural coupling is included during the substructure generation. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dening substructures, Section 10.1.2

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*FREQUENCY

616

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

*SELECT EIGENMODES *SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATE

6.17

Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: The new periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit allows for easy and economical simulation of systems with repetitive structures that move through a process zone. Description: Periodic media analysis is a Lagrangian technique that offers an Eulerian-like view into a moving structure. It can be used to effectively model systems that are repetitive in nature, such as manufacturing processes involving conveyor belts or continuous forming operations. The functionality takes topologically identical meshed structures (blocks) and automatically links them together to form a continuous chain. The number of meshed structures only needs to be enough to cover the process zone. Meshed structures are moved automatically from the outlet to the inlet region. This technique leads to signicant analysis time speedup when compared to traditional modeling techniques that may require excessively large meshes. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Periodic media analysis, Section 10.5.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*MEDIA TRANSPORT *PERIODIC MEDIA Media transport, Section 3.25.1

Abaqus Verification Manual

6.18

Contact iterations solution technique no longer available

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Removing the contact iterations solution technique simplies the user interface and facilitates future development. Description: The contact iterations solution technique has been removed due to limited applicability and benet of this technique. This solution technique was intended for analyses with small nonlinear effects other than contact, and it attempted to improve performance by avoiding global stiffness matrix assemblage and factorization while performing iterations to determine the correct contact status distribution. In practice, this

617

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

solution technique often resulted in longer analysis times even if seemingly small nonlinear effects existed. Other contact enhancements in recent versions of Abaqus, such as contact stabilization and convergence tolerances associated with the resolution of open/close and stick/slip contact status, have tended to further limit circumstances in which the contact iterations capability would improve performance over the default approach of treating contact status changes with Newton iterations. The current default contact settings are typically effective for analyses that previously relied on the contact iterations technique. An error message will be issued if the contact iterations technique is specied in an analysis. If removing this technique from an existing analysis results in performance or robustness degradation, removing other nondefault contact control settings is likely to improve the analysis behavior. In addition, the following contact options, which are not always active by default, may overcome convergence issues and improve performance:

penalty enforcement of contact, the surface-to-surface contact formulation, and contact stabilization in the normal direction.

References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Conguring general analysis procedures, Section 14.11.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*SOLUTION TECHNIQUE (TYPE=CONTACT ITERATIONS setting has been removed)

6.19

Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CFD

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: By synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation, you can restart a co-simulation analysis between Abaqus products and between Abaqus products and third-party analysis programs. Description: To restart a co-simulation between Abaqus products, you can synchronize the restart information written in the co-simulation. To achieve this synchronization, it is recommended that you request that restart data are written at a specied number of time intervals, n. In this case Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit, and Abaqus/CFD will write restart information at the co-simulation target time immediately after the time dictated by each interval. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: OutputRestart Requests: enter n in the Intervals column

618

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation in Restarting an analysis, Section 9.1.1

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Restart output requests, Section 14.5.2

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*RESTART

6.20

Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: The residual stress eld can now be taken into account when evaluating the contour integral value based on either the conventional nite element method or the extended nite element method. Description: A residual stress eld often occurs in a structure due to a number of reasons such as service loads that produce plasticity, a metal forming process in the absence of an anneal treatment, thermal effects, or swelling effects. When the residual stresses are signicant, the standard denition of the contour integral may lead to a path-dependent value. An additional term due to the residual stress eld is now included when evaluating the contour integral value to ensure its path independence. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Modeling discontinuities as an enriched feature using the extended nite element method, Section 10.7.1 Contour integral evaluation, Section 11.4.2

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Requesting contour integral output, Section 31.2.11, in the online HTML version of this manual Requesting contour integral output for XFEM, Section 31.3.7, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTOUR INTEGRAL

619

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Contour integral evaluation: two-dimensional case, Section 1.16.1

6.21

Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can use a scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis to reduce the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines. Description: A scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis that uses the high-performance SIM architecture signicantly reduces the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines. The parallel solver is available for the symmetric, unsymmetric, and coupled structural-acoustic frequency response analyses. Both mode-based and subspace-based procedures are supported. Table 63 shows the performance of a scalable thread-parallel steady-state dynamic solver. The analysis is based on 10,000 eigenmodes, and the frequency sweep is performed at 500 points. The model includes material damping; thus, at every frequency point, a system of linear equations is solved. The presented analysis time includes only the solver time, and output is requested at only a few nodes. It is typical for a steady-state dynamic procedure based on a high number of modes that the time spent in other phases of the analysis is negligible. The presented results show very good parallel scaling up to 16 cores. Table 63 Performance of a scalable thread-parallel steady-state dynamic solver. Wall Clock Time [h:mm] 21:54 11:35 5:48 2:57 1:47 Parallel Speedup 1.00 1.89 3.78 7.44 14.24

Number of Cores 1 2 4 8 16 References:


Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Mode-based steady-state dynamic analysis, Section 6.3.8 Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis, Section 6.3.9 *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

620

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

6.22

Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: Import of pipe elements enables continuation of an Abaqus/Standard analysis containing pipe elements in Abaqus/Explicit, which is typically more efcient in simulating rapid dynamics with contact. This might be advantageous in riser dynamic simulations for the oil and gas industry, which involve pipe-to-pipe contact or pipe-to-ocean oor contact. Description: Linear pipes can be imported as element sets from an Abaqus/Standard analysis to an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Elements in Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard, Section 9.2.2

Abaqus Verification Manual

Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard, Section 3.14.1

6.23

New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: The ability to specify the incomplete LU factorization ll-in level for the iterative solver offers improved convergence for soil reservoir simulations. Description: A new iterative solver option is available for soils and geostatic analyses. By default, the ILU factorization ll-in level is set to zero. In cases where the simulations do not reach convergence using the default level, you can increase the level up to three. The performance improvement is case by case. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module OtherSolver ControlsEdit: Specify: ILU factorization fill-in level References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Iterative linear equation solver, Section 6.1.5

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Customizing solver controls, Section 14.15.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

621

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*SOLVER CONTROLS

622

MATERIALS

7.

Materials

This chapter discusses new material models or changes to existing material models. It provides an overview of the following enhancement:


7.1

Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE, Section 7.1 Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE, Section 7.2 Material models for electromagnetic problems, Section 7.3 Low-density foam model with Poisson effects, Section 7.4

Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Material calibration enables you to import material test data into Abaqus/CAE, process the data to improve their suitability for material modeling, and derive elastic and plastic isotropic material behaviors from the data. Description: Material calibration is the process of deriving Abaqus material behaviors from sets of material test data. You can create material calibrations in three general steps:

Create data sets by importing text les of material test data into Abaqus/CAE. You can customize these data by adding, deleting, or modifying individual rows. In addition, you can label the columns in a data set with quantity types to describe the data: material calibration data sets can be labeled as stress/strain, force/displacement, or axial strain/transverse strain. Process the contents of a data set using lters and tools to make the data more suitable for use in material modeling. The processing options enable you to scale the data along either axis, to smooth the curve of the data, and to truncate data points above a specied value along the X-axis. You can also convert a data set between nominal and true forms. Dene calibration behaviors to derive elasticity- and plasticity-related parameters from the data. You can dene elastic-isotropic calibration behaviors to dene the Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio from material data, or you can dene an elastic-plastic isotropic calibration behavior to dene these elastic behaviors as well as the yield point and a set of data points dening material plasticity. Once you complete the selected calibration behaviors for your material test data, Abaqus/CAE adds the new material behaviors to your selected material denition.

As you import, process, and extract calibration behaviors from material data, Abaqus/CAE plots the selected material data in the viewport. Figure 71 shows an elastic-plastic-isotropic calibration in progress; the elastic and plastic material denitions are specied in the Elastic Plastic Isotropic dialog box, and they are also plotted in the viewport.

71

MATERIALS

Figure 71

Dening an elastic-plastic isotropic material calibration behavior.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Model Tree: Calibrations container Reference:


Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Creating material calibrations, Section 12.16, in the online HTML version of this manual

72

MATERIALS

7.2

Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create materials with anisotropic hyperelastic behavior in Abaqus/CAE. This enhancement augments the feature set available in Abaqus/CAE. Description: This feature provides a general capability for modeling materials that exhibit highly anisotropic and nonlinear elastic behavior; for example, biomedical soft tissues and ber-reinforced elastomers. The material editor for dening anisotropic hyperelastic materials is shown in Figure 72. Several forms of strain energy potential are available for anisotropic hyperelastic materials: the generalized Fung form (including fully anisotropic and orthotropic cases), the Holzapfel form for arterial walls, and user-dened forms (strain-based and invariant-based). This material model can also be used in combination with large-strain time-domain viscoelasticity. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Material editor: MechanicalElasticityHyperelastic; Material type: Anisotropic References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


7.3

Anisotropic hyperelastic behavior, Section 21.5.3

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Creating an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in Dening elasticity, Section 12.9.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*ANISOTROPIC HYPERELASTIC

Material models for electromagnetic problems

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Material models for magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity allow you to carry out timeharmonic eddy current analysis. Description: Abaqus/Standard provides new electromagnetic capabilities to carry out time-harmonic eddy current analysis. You need to dene magnetic permeability everywhere in the domain and electrical conductivity in the conductor regions. The material properties can be isotropic, orthotropic, or anisotropic and can also be dened to be frequency, temperature, and/or eld-variable dependent. Only linear magnetic and electrical behaviors can be modeled.

73

MATERIALS

Figure 72

Dening an anisotropic hyperelastic material.

74

MATERIALS

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


7.4

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.7.5 Electrical conductivity, Section 25.5.1 Magnetic permeability, Section 25.5.3

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.4 TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.5

Abaqus Verification Manual

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 3.6.1

Low-density foam model with Poisson effects

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now model Poisson effects in low-density, highly compressible elastomeric foams with signicant rate-sensitive behavior. Description: The model for low-density foams previously available in Abaqus/Explicit assumed the Poissons ratio of the material to be equal to zero. While this assumption provides a good representation of the behavior of foams under large compressive strains, it fails to capture the nonzero Poissons ratio observed at small strains. The low-density foam model has now been enhanced to include Poisson effects to better capture the behavior of these materials in a large range of strains and strain rates. The model requires as input the stress-strain response of the material for both uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression tests. Poisson effects are included by also specifying lateral strain data for each of these tests. Rate-dependent behavior is specied by providing the uniaxial stress-strain curves for different values of nominal strain rates. Both loading and unloading rate-dependent curves can be specied to better characterize the hysteretic behavior and energy absorption properties of the material during cyclic loading.

75

MATERIALS

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Low-density foams, Section 21.9.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*LOW DENSITY FOAM *UNIAXIAL TEST DATA

Abaqus Verification Manual

Low-density foam in Elastic materials, Section 2.2.1

76

ELEMENTS

8.
8.1

Elements

This chapter discusses elements available in Abaqus. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: Tapered beams and improved mass formulation, Section 8.1 Linear pore pressure elements, Section 8.2 Triangular prism for uid ow problems, Section 8.3 Eulerian heat transfer element, Section 8.4 Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element, Section 8.5 Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements, Section 8.6 Electromagnetic elements, Section 8.7

Tapered beams and improved mass formulation


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: You can now dene Timoshenko beams with linearly tapered cross-sections in Abaqus/Standard and in Abaqus/CAE. You can also use an improved mass formulation for linear Timoshenko beams based on cubic deections. Description: Timoshenko beams in Abaqus/Standard now support linearly tapered general beam sections and standard library sections. A new improved mass formulation for linear Timoshenko beams is also available. The new mass matrix is based on cubic interpolations and provides much better estimates of the frequency response in models where the mesh is too coarse, especially when used in conjunction with the automatic calculation of the slenderness correction factor based on the sections elastic properties. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Beam section editor: Section integration: Before analysis: Beam shape along length: Tapered; and Stiffness tabbed page: Use consistent mass matrix formulation References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Choosing a beam element, Section 28.3.3 Dening linear section behavior for tapered cross-sections in Abaqus/Standard in Using a general beam section to dene the section behavior, Section 28.3.7

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Creating beam sections, Section 12.12.10, in the online HTML version of this manual

81

ELEMENTS

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual


8.2

*BEAM GENERAL SECTION *BEAM SECTION

Linear pore pressure elements


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: The pore pressure element library in Abaqus/Standard now includes both linear tetrahedral (C3D4P) and linear wedge (C3D6P) elements. These elements add modeling exibility for coupled pore pressure-displacement analyses. Description: Pore pressure elements are provided in Abaqus/Standard for modeling fully or partially saturated uid ow through a deforming porous medium. These two new elements support all of the loadings, material behaviors, and contact interactions supported by existing pore pressure elements. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshElement Type: Family: Pore Fluid/Stress References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Coupled pore uid diffusion and stress analysis, Section 6.8.1 Three-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.4

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Element type assignment, Section 17.5.3

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Calculation of phreatic surface in an earth dam, Section 10.1.2

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Partially saturated ow in a porous medium, Section 1.9.1 Demand wettability of a porous medium: coupled analysis, Section 1.9.2 Wicking in a partially saturated porous medium, Section 1.9.3 Desaturation in a column of porous material, Section 1.9.4

Abaqus Verification Manual

Continuum pore pressure elements, Section 1.4.7

82

ELEMENTS

Abaqus Theory Manual

8.3

Effective stress principle for porous media, Section 2.8.1

Triangular prism for fluid flow problems


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/CFD

Benefits: The uid ow elements in the Abaqus/CFD element library now include the triangular prism (FC3D6) element. This element adds modeling exibility for uid ow analyses. Description: Fluid ow elements are provided in Abaqus/CFD for modeling the uid domain. The new FC3D6 element supports all of the loadings, material behaviors, and boundary conditions supported by the existing uid ow elements. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshElement Type References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


8.4

Fluid (continuum) elements, Section 27.2.1 Fluid element library, Section 27.2.2 Assigning Abaqus element types, Section 17.5

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Eulerian heat transfer element

Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Eulerian element library now includes the new thermally coupled EC3D8RT element. This element extends the Eulerian capability to coupled thermal-mechanical problems in which the heat transfer equation is also solved as part of the solution. Description: The thermally coupled Eulerian element is provided in Abaqus/Explicit for modeling fully coupled thermal-stress Eulerian analyses. The new element supports all of the thermal loads and boundary conditions available for the existing Lagrangian thermally coupled elements (thermal contact interaction is not supported). Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshElement Type: Family: Eulerian: toggle on Thermally coupled

83

ELEMENTS

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


8.5

Eulerian elements, Section 31.14.1 Eulerian element library, Section 31.14.2 Eulerian analysis, Section 14.1.1 *EULERIAN SECTION T2: One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation, Section 4.3.2 T4: Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection, Section 4.3.4 Patch test for heat transfer elements, Section 1.5.8

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: The new PC3D particle element allows for the analysis of violent free-surface ows and high deformation of solids via the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) method. Description: The new 1-node PC3D element is available in Abaqus/Explicit to be used as the basic building block in constructing models to be analyzed using the SPH method. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


8.6

Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis, Section 15.1.1 Particle elements, Section 27.5.1 Particle element library, Section 27.5.2 *SOLID SECTION

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements

Product: Abaqus/Standard

84

ELEMENTS

Benefits: New coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements that have displacements, temperatures, and electrical potentials as nodal variables are available in Abaqus/Standard. Description: Simultaneous temperature/electrical potential/displacement solution requires the use of coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements; pure displacement and temperature-displacement elements can be used in part of the model in a fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis, but pure heat transfer elements cannot be used. The rst-order coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements in Abaqus use a constant temperature over the element to calculate thermal expansion. The second-order coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements in Abaqus use a lower-order interpolation for temperature than for displacement (parabolic variation of displacements and linear variation of temperature) to obtain a compatible variation of thermal and mechanical strain. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


8.7

Fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis, Section 6.7.4 Three-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.4

Electromagnetic elements

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: New electromagnetic elements are available in Abaqus/Standard for the analysis of time-harmonic eddy current problems. Description: These elements solve for the electric and the magnetic elds simultaneously and are based on an element edge-based interpolation of the magnetic vector potential. The user-dened nodes only dene the geometry of the elements; the degrees of freedom of the element are not associated with these nodes. Electromagnetic elements must be used to model the response of all the regions in an eddy current analysis, which typically includes a coil, a workpiece, and the space in between and surrounding them. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.7.5 Two-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.3 Three-dimensional solid element library, Section 27.1.4

85

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

9.

Prescribed conditions

This chapter discusses loads, boundary conditions, and predened elds. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:


9.1

Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading, Section 9.1 Expanded predened eld support in Abaqus/CAE, Section 9.2 Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions, Section 9.3 Total force distribution option for pressure loads, Section 9.4 Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping, Section 9.5 Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua, Section 9.6 Dening a spatially varying velocity for uid boundary conditions, Section 9.7 Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 9.8 Application of uid cavity pressure on the uid exchange surface, Section 9.9

Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: Pressure penetration loading is now available for three-dimensional models. Description: Pressure penetration loading can now be applied to the contact pair surfaces dened by using solid, cylindrical solid, shell, continuum shell, membrane, and rigid elements in three dimensions. It can also be applied to an analytical three-dimensional rigid surface when the surface is dened as the master surface of a contact pair. Two important enhancements are made for planar and axisymmetric models as well as for three-dimensional models:

Pressure penetration loading can now be used with any contact formulation within the contact pair framework. The element loop parallelization calculation is available.

Figure 91 shows the pressure penetration between two three-dimensional rings started from the bottom side at the outside corner of the contact surfaces.

91

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

PPRESS +3.000e+02 +2.750e+02 +2.500e+02 +2.250e+02 +2.000e+02 +1.750e+02 +1.500e+02 +1.250e+02 +1.000e+02 +7.500e+01 +5.000e+01 +2.500e+01 +0.000e+00

Y Z X Increment
Step: pressure_penetration, Step 2 20: Step Time = 1.000 Primary Var: PPRESS Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +3.000e+01

Figure 91

Pressure penetration between two bodies dened using CCL12 elements.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: InteractionCreate: Pressure penetration References:


Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Pressure penetration loading, Section 35.1.7

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening pressure penetration, Section 15.13.13, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*PRESSURE PENETRATION Pressure penetration analysis of an air duct kiss seal, Section 1.1.16

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

92

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Abaqus Verification Manual


9.2

Surface-based pressure penetration, Section 1.3.42

Abaqus Theory Manual

Pressure penetration loading with surface-based contact, Section 6.4.1

Expanded predefined field support in Abaqus/CAE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create predened elds in Abaqus/CAE for ve previously unsupported Abaqus initial conditions: geostatic stress, initial stress, pore pressure, initial void ratio, and saturation. These enhancements improve modeling options and usability in Abaqus/CAE. Description: Abaqus/CAE now supports ve new types of predened elds. The following elds can be specied in the initial step of an analysis:

initial stresses elevation-dependent (geostatic) stresses saturation initial void ratio pore pressure in a porous medium

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: Predefined fieldCreate; Category: Mechanical: select Stress or Geostatic stress Predefined fieldCreate; Category: Other: select Saturation, Void ratio, or Pore pressure References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening an initial stress, Section 16.11.3, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening a geostatic initial stress eld, Section 16.11.4, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening a saturation eld, Section 16.11.12, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening an initial void ratio eld, Section 16.11.13, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening a pore pressure eld in a porous medium, Section 16.11.14, in the online HTML version of this manual

93

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

9.3

Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now change the coordinate system in which you apply a symmetry, antisymmetry, or encastre boundary condition. This enhancement provides a ner level of control when dening these types of boundary conditions. Description: By default, the global coordinate system is used when dening any boundary condition. For a symmetry/antisymmetry/encastre boundary condition, the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box now includes a button that lets you do either of the following:

Select an existing datum coordinate system in the viewport. Select an existing datum coordinate system by name. Figure 92 shows the new edit button, available for the CSYS option.

Figure 92

Changing the coordinate system for a symmetry boundary condition.

94

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: Create Boundary Condition; Category: Mechanical; Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre; CSYS: select other coordinate system Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

9.4

Dening a symmetry/antisymmetry/encastre boundary condition, Section 16.10.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

Total force distribution option for pressure loads

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When dening pressure loads, you can choose the new total force option for the load distribution. This allows you to simply enter the total magnitude of pressure applied over the surface. In previous releases, using the uniform distribution option, it was necessary to query the faces of the surface to nd the total area and then divide the total force by the surface area. With the new total force option, you can simply enter the total magnitude of pressure applied over the entire surface. Description: When modeling a pressure load, you usually know the total force that will be applied to a face or surface of the model. In previous releases of Abaqus/CAE, this number had to be divided by the surface area before entering it into the Magnitude eld of the Edit Load dialog box (using the existing Uniform option for Distribution). Now, with the Total Force option (shown in Figure 93) you can directly enter the total magnitude of the pressure. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: LoadCreate; Category: Mechanical; Type: Pressure; select surfaces; Distribution: Total Force Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

9.5

Dening a pressure load, Section 16.9.3, in the online HTML version of this manual

Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping


Abaqus/Explicit

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: When temperature elds are interpolated from a previous analysis, you can now specify the source region from where the temperatures are read and the target region onto where the temperatures are mapped.

95

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Figure 93

Total force distribution option for pressure loads.

This new feature eliminates the ambiguity in temperature assignment for cases in which free surfaces in a heat transfer analysis are very close or touching. Description: When mapping prior analysis temperatures to a node in a current analysis, the general interpolation function searches for a parent element from the previous analysis that encloses or is the closest to the node. In a heat transfer analysis, temperatures may vary signicantly on two surfaces that are close or touching but on separate parts. In such a case, the parent element might be found in either of the adjacent parts, resulting in an ambiguous temperature denition for a node on the surfaces. You can now eliminate this ambiguity by specifying the source and target interpolation regions. The source region refers to the heat transfer analysis and is specied by an element set. The target region refers to the current analysis and is specied by a node set. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Initial conditions in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, Section 32.2.1 Predened elds, Section 32.6.1

96

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual


9.6

*INITIAL CONDITIONS *TEMPERATURE

Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua

Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua Benefits: Abaqus/Aqua, which previously could be used only with Abaqus/Standard, is now available with Abaqus/Explicit. Description: In the case of structures submerged in a uid eld, such as offshore pipelines used in the oil and natural gas industries, appropriate uid-based loads can be applied to simulate the dynamics of such structures. You can dene the uid eld consisting of steady currents and waves (gravitational waves) and identify the model that is potentially submerged in the uid. Abaqus computes the appropriate buoyancy and drag loads (transverse drag, tangential drag, and inertial loads) based on that uid eld. Similarly, you can dene a wind eld and identify the exposed structure. Abaqus computes the appropriate drag loads based on that wind eld. Buoyancy and drag loads (transverse drag, tangential drag, wind drag and inertial loads) can be applied on linear beam and pipe elements, either in the form of distributed or concentrated loads. In Abaqus/Explicit the wave formulations are limited to fth-order Stokes waves (default), Airy waves, and user-dened waves. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


9.7

Abaqus/Aqua analysis, Section 6.11.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*AQUA *CLOAD *DLOAD *WAVE *WIND

Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/CFD

97

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Benefits: You can now dene a spatially varying velocity when you specify inow and outow conditions and wall boundary conditions for a uid dynamic analysis. This enhancement improves the usability of uid boundary conditions in Abaqus/CAE. Description: In Abaqus/CAE you can specify a spatially varying velocity for uid inlet/outlet and wall boundary conditions. Figure 94 shows the new Distribution option available for uid boundary conditions. When velocity is prescribed, arrows that indicate the resultant direction of the velocity are displayed in the viewport, as shown in Figure 95 (the arrow size has been increased to emphasize the spatial variation).

Figure 94 Specifying a spatially varying velocity for a uid inlet boundary condition.

98

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

Figure 95

Symbol display for a parabolic uid inlet velocity.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: BCCreate; Category: Fluid Type: Fluid inlet/outlet; toggle on Specify: Velocity, Distribution: select analytical eld Type: Fluid wall condition; Velocity tabbed page, Distribution: select analytical eld References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Boundary conditions in Abaqus/CFD, Section 32.3.2

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening a uid inlet/outlet boundary condition, Section 16.10.9, in the online HTML version of this manual Dening a uid wall boundary condition, Section 16.10.10, in the online HTML version of this manual

99

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

9.8

Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: New capabilities are available to prescribe loads and/or boundary conditions to drive an eddy current analysis. Description: Abaqus/Standard provides new electromagnetic capabilities to solve time-harmonic eddy current problems. Such problems are usually driven by prescribed body or surface current densities in certain regions of the model and require the prescription of boundary conditions on surfaces. Both uniform and nonuniform loads and boundary conditions can be prescribed. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual


9.9

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 6.7.5 Electromagnetic loads, Section 32.4.5

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.4 TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic eld, Section 1.8.5

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

Time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 3.6.1

Application of fluid cavity pressure on the fluid exchange surface

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now specify that the uid cavity pressure should be applied to the uid exchange surface as an equivalent load on the periphery of the surface. Description: The uid exchange surface is part of a uid cavity, and the cavity pressure is applied on it by default. If the uid exchange surface represents a vent and is meshed such that it includes nodes away

910

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS

from its perimeter, the cavity pressure acting on the vent surface can lead to local bulging due to the typically soft stiffness used to represent the vent. The local bulging may lead to inaccurate leakage area computation, thus affecting the mass ow through the vent. To model the uid exchange through a vent, Abaqus/Explicit provides an option to apply an equivalent line pressure load on the vent periphery. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Fluid exchange denition, Section 11.5.3

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*FLUID EXCHANGE

Abaqus Verification Manual

Surface-based uid cavities, Section 5.1.24

911

CONSTRAINTS

10.

Constraints

This chapter discusses kinematic constraints. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints, Section 10.1 Improvement to coupling denition, Section 10.2

10.1

Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE automatically creates shell-to-solid coupling constraints between the shell and solid sections within a single part instance. Description: When the model of a single part contains both shell and solid sections, such as when a midsurface shell section is created within a solid part, Abaqus/CAE now automatically creates shell-to-solid coupling constraints so that the shell portions of the model follow the motion of the adjoining solid sections. Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints are created only in sections within the same part instance, and the sections being constrained must be nearly perpendicular. You must manually create shell-to-solid coupling constraints between separate part instances. References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening shell-to-solid coupling constraints, Section 15.15.7, in the online HTML version of this manual Understanding midsurface modeling, Section 35.1

10.2

Improvement to coupling definition


Abaqus/Explicit

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: You can now specify multiple coupling constraints on a surface via a single coupling denition instead of multiple denitions. Weights for a distributing type coupling are now the same as those formed using fasteners. Description: It is now easy to specify multiple coupling denitions on a given surface just by including all the reference nodes in a single reference node set instead of dening separate coupling denitions. The weights for cloud nodes of a distributing type coupling are identical to those formed using fasteners.

101

CONSTRAINTS

Reference:
Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*COUPLING, Section 3.81

102

INTERACTIONS

11.

Interactions

This chapter discusses features related to contact and interaction modeling. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Parallel cavity radiation, Section 11.1 Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets, Section 11.2 Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement, Section 11.3 Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact, Section 11.4 Accounting for friction coefcient changes in default choice of solution scheme, Section 11.5 De-emphasized contact controls, Section 11.6 Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces, Section 11.7 Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore uid diffusion, Section 11.8

11.1

Parallel cavity radiation

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can run large cavity radiation analyses using parallel decomposition of cavities during heat transfer analyses. Description: You can now use parallel computing to solve large cavity radiation problems in Abaqus/Standard. This new radiative heat functionality is fully parallel and scalable and allows for very large cavities, their size being limited only by available system memory. Analyses involving cavities as large as 128,000-facet models have been run successfully on an HP Linux cluster of 16 machines with two sockets of Intel Xeon Quad Core L5520 and 24 GB each. Table 111 illustrates the performance improvement for the exhaust manifold described in Conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer in an exhaust manifold, Section 5.1.5 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual (see Figure 111), and two industrial models: Model 1 is a 15,000-facet automotive part model, and Model 2 is a 10,000-facet rocket engine model. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Cavity radiation, Section 39.1.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CAVITY DEFINITION

111

INTERACTIONS

Table 111

Performance of parallel cavity radiation. Wall Clock Time (hh:mm:ss)

Model Exhaust manifold Model 1 Model 2

Number of facets 4,000 15,000 10,000

Parallel Decomposition Off 00:04:08 01:33:34 41:57:36

Parallel Decomposition On 00:00:33 00:12:15 00:04:23

Figure 111 Performance improvement in the solution of the exhaust manifold example model illustrates the speedup achieved in the new parallel cavity radiation scheme.

11.2

Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now obtain improved accuracy for modeling contact interactions with gasket elements.

112

INTERACTIONS

Description: The algorithm to automatically assign contact penalty stiffness now accounts for stiffening of underlying gasket elements upon compression if thickness-direction gasket material behavior is specied directly. This change will typically result in better resolution of contact conditions for cases in which the penalty or augmented Lagrange methods are used to enforce contact constraints at interfaces involving gaskets. If you have existing models that employ scale factors to adjust the penalty stiffness at such interfaces, these scale factors are likely no longer needed and may degrade convergence behavior; you should try removing these scale factors in favor of the new stiffness algorithm. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dening the thickness-direction behavior of the gasket in Dening the gasket behavior directly using a gasket behavior model, Section 31.6.6 Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Standard, Section 36.1.2

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*GASKET THICKNESS BEHAVIOR *SURFACE BEHAVIOR

11.3

Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement

Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now obtain more efcient and robust edge-to-edge contact interactions in general contact in Abaqus/Explicit. Description: Edge-to-edge contact now allows for more local tracking information to be utilized to reduce the extent of global tracking required. This change will typically result in better edge-to-edge contact performance in analyses that include extensive edge-to-edge contact interactions. The new algorithm is active by default for all edge-to-edge contact interactions dened in a model. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Contact controls for general contact in Abaqus/Explicit, Section 34.4.5

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT

113

INTERACTIONS

11.4

Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The edge-to-surface formulation often provides better resolution of contact involving feature edges. Description: A supplementary edge-to-surface formulation has been added for general contact in Abaqus/Standard. The general contact capability relies on the surface-to-surface formulation to resolve most contact involving surfaces with nearly opposing normal directions. General contact can now also use the edge-to-surface contact formulation to more accurately resolve contact involving feature edges where an oblique angle exists between surface normals in the active contact region, such as in the snap-t example shown in Figure 112. This capability is limited to feature edges of solid, three-dimensional bodies.

Figure 112 Snap-t example involving feature edge-to-surface contact. References:


Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dening general contact interactions in Abaqus/Standard, Section 34.2.1 Surface properties for general contact in Abaqus/Standard, Section 34.2.2 *CONTACT *SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

11.5

Accounting for friction coefficient changes in default choice of solution scheme

Product: Abaqus/Standard

114

INTERACTIONS

Benefits: Using an unsymmetric solution scheme by default in more cases involving high friction coefcients tends to improve convergence behavior. Description: Abaqus/Standard now considers step-dependent modications to friction coefcients in the logic associated with the default selection of a symmetric or unsymmetric solution scheme. Unsymmetric stiffness contributions associated with friction tend to become more signicant as the friction coefcient increases. Use of an unsymmetric solution scheme approximately doubles the computational cost of solving a linearized system of equations. Therefore, the friction coefcient value may inuence whether a symmetric approximation of the stiffness is more appropriate (based on trade-offs between CPU time per iteration versus convergence behavior in nonlinear steps and CPU time versus solution accuracy in linear perturbation steps). One of several criteria for invoking the unsymmetric solution scheme by default in past versions of Abaqus/Standard was a Coulomb friction coefcient exceeding 0.2 in the model denition; however, changes to the friction coefcient during an analysis were not considered in this logic. Now if a friction coefcient exceeds 0.2 for a portion of a step, all increments of the step use the unsymmetric solution scheme by default. As in past versions, you can explicitly specify use of a symmetric or unsymmetric solution scheme rather than relying on the default setting. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Matrix storage and solution scheme in Abaqus/Standard in Procedures: overview, Section 6.1.1 Changing friction properties during an Abaqus/Standard analysis in Frictional behavior, Section 35.1.5

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Conguring general analysis procedures, Section 14.11.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CHANGE FRICTION *FRICTION *STEP

11.6

De-emphasized contact controls


Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: Removing semi-obsolete contact controls from the primary documentation and Abaqus/CAE dialog boxes enables users to focus on features that are more generally recommended.

115

INTERACTIONS

Description: Several contact controls for Abaqus/Standard have been removed from Abaqus/CAE dialog boxes and are no longer documented in the Abaqus manuals. These controls remain available through the *CONTACT CONTROLS keyword option and the Abaqus Scripting Interface. The following contact controls are affected:

Stabilization based on the initial contact opening distance. Automatic calculation of contact separation and penetration tolerances. Denition of a modied hard contact pressure-overclosure relationship, in which a certain number of nodes are allowed to violate contact conditions, including specication of the number of nodes that can violate contact conditions, an allowable overclosure distance before contact is enforced, and an allowable tensile contact pressure before surfaces separate.

Delaying the onset of frictional constraints during changes in contact state. Direct control over the use of Lagrange multipliers in enforcing contact constraints.

These controls are typically not necessary and are generally not recommended, although in select cases experienced users may nd them useful. Quality assurance testing associated with these controls will continue. Documentation for the de-emphasized contact controls is available from Documentation of de-emphasized contact controls in the Dassault Systmes DSX.ECO Knowledge Base at www.3ds.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System, which is accessible through the My Support page at www.simulia.com. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Adjusting contact controls in Abaqus/Standard, Section 34.3.6

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Specifying contact controls in an Abaqus/Standard analysis, Section 15.13.8, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT CONTROLS

11.7

Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Disallowing the combination of second-order triangular slave faces, a node-to-surface contact formulation, and strictly enforced hard contact conditions avoids situations in which unintentional use of this combination leads to poor convergence behavior and/or noisy contact pressure predictions.

116

INTERACTIONS

Description: The combination of second-order triangular slave faces, a (nite- or small-sliding) node-tosurface contact formulation, and strictly enforced hard contact conditions has fundamental numerical issues that tend to degrade convergence behavior and cause severe noise in contact pressure and contact shear stress (CPRESS and CSHEAR) predictions. This combination can be avoided in Abaqus/Standard by making one or more of the following changes:

Use the surface-to-surface contact formulation instead of the node-to-surface contact formulation; Use the penalty or augmented Lagrange constraint enforcement method instead of strict enforcement of hard contact conditions; or Use modied second-order tetrahedral elements (C3D10M) instead of regular second-order tetrahedral elements.

The surface-to-surface contact formulation and penalty method are generally recommended modeling practices; but, for historical reasons, the node-to-surface formulation and strictly enforced hard contact are assumed defaults in the *CONTACT PAIR keyword interface for nite-sliding interactions. Therefore, this undesirable combination may be present unintentionally in your models. (In Abaqus/CAE, the default contact interaction settings use the surface-to-surface formulation.) An example of the very large contact pressure noise that typically occurs with the modeling combination being disallowed is shown in Figure 113. The combination of C3D10 elements, a node-to-surface contact discretization approach, and strict enforcement of hard contact conditions overestimates the maximum contact pressure by many orders of magnitude in this example. Figure 113 shows that a preferred modeling approach deviates from the analytical solution by approximately 1%. Table 112 compares the amount of numerical error in the contact pressure solution for various modeling combinations (the two combinations shown in Figure 113 are the rst and last cases in this table).

Uniaxial loading = 1.0

CPRESS 18658 16793 14927 13061 11195 9329 7463 5598 3732 1866 0

CPRESS 1.006 1.004 1.003 1.001 0.999 0.997 0.996 0.994 0.992 0.990 0.989

C3D10, NodetoSurface, Strict enforcement

C3D10, SurfacetoSurface, Penalty enforcement

Figure 113 Simple example of two contacting blocks under uniform pressure loading showing very large contact pressure noise with the combination of modeling techniques that is being disallowed and a low contact pressure noise with a preferred modeling approach.

117

INTERACTIONS

Table 112 Deviation from analytical (uniform) contact pressure solution for example with two blocks under uniaxial loading. Contact discretization Node-to-surface Node-to-surface Node-to-surface Surface-to-surface Surface-to-surface References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Element type C3D10 C3D10M C3D10 C3D10 C3D10

Constraint enforcement method Direct Direct Penalty (default stiffness) Direct Penalty (default stiffness)

Maximum error in CPRESS 4 orders of magnitude 35.4% 21.2% 1.9% 1.1%

Modied triangular and tetrahedral elements in Solid (continuum) elements, Section 27.1.1 Contact formulations in Abaqus/Standard, Section 36.1.1 Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Standard, Section 36.1.2 Three-dimensional surfaces with second-order faces and a node-to-surface formulation in Common difculties associated with contact modeling in Abaqus/Standard, Section 37.1.2 *CONTACT PAIR *ELEMENT *SURFACE BEHAVIOR

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

11.8

Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore fluid diffusion

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Finite permeability associated with uid ow across contact interfaces can be specied, and contact can be modeled for coupled ow-heat transfer analyses. Description: Two contact enhancements associated with pore uid diffusion are provided. First, uid permeability can be specied for contact interfaces. Previously, pore uid pressure was always enforced to be equal on both sides of a contact interface, corresponding to no resistance to ow (or innite permeability) across the interface. Now, a nite or zero value of this permeability can be specied instead.

118

INTERACTIONS

Pore uid ow across and into a contact interface now occurs only where contact surfaces are separated by less than a threshold distance. By default, ow only occurs where the surfaces are separated by less than a characteristic surface facet dimension. Previously this ow occurred regardless of the separation distance, although the pore ow models at a contact interface are intended for situations with nearby surfaces (more sophisticated pore uid ow models are available if an interface is modeled with cohesive elements, as discussed in Dening the constitutive response of uid within the cohesive element gap, Section 31.5.7 of the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual). An additional enhancement is that contact can be modeled for coupled ow-heat transfer analyses. Previously, contact could be modeled for coupled pore pressure-displacement analyses, but not with the additional thermal coupling. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Coupled pore uid diffusion and stress analysis, Section 6.8.1 Pore uid contact properties, Section 35.4.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT PERMEABILITY *SOILS

119

MESHING

12.

Meshing

This chapter discusses features related to meshing your model. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Tetrahedral meshing enhancements, Section 12.1 Mesh stack orientations, Section 12.2 Partitioning faces by projecting edges, Section 12.3 Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds, Section 12.4 Enhancements to bottom-up meshing, Section 12.5 New tools for editing orphan mesh parts, Section 12.6

12.1

Tetrahedral meshing enhancements

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Tetrahedral meshing algorithms have been improved to provide more accurate meshing for spline faces and virtual combined faces. Boundary meshing has also been improved, and Abaqus now uses quadratic tetrahedral elements by default instead of linear elements in some cases. Transitions from small to large mesh elements are more gradual than in past releases, the meshing of narrow regions has been improved, and you now have more control over the size of interior elements. Description: The triangular surface meshing process has been improved to minimize gaps between the boundary nodes and the geometry prior to generating the tetrahedral mesh. The former process sometimes resulted in a bumpy mesh for certain curved surfaces if quadratic elements were used, as shown on the left in Figure 121. The image on the right shows the quadratic mesh with the new enhancements.

Figure 121 Triangular surface meshes with quadratic elements.

121

MESHING

In addition, if you choose tetrahedral meshing instead of hexahedral, hex-dominated, or wedge meshing to mesh a three-dimensional region, Abaqus now uses quadratic-order tetrahedral elements as the default instead of linear tetrahedral elements. However, Abaqus may still use linear tetrahedral elements if nondefault element types were selected before you chose to use tetrahedral meshing. The boundary meshing process has been improved to prevent poor boundary elements from causing the tetrahedral mesh to fail. Figure 122 shows a tetrahedral mesh generated in Abaqus 6.10 with an element error highlighted and the same mesh generated in the current release containing no errors.

Figure 122

Poor tetrahedral boundary elements are removed.

Several enhancements were made to reduce the occurrence of at triangular elements in the boundary meshes. These changes include local mesh renement and shape optimization. Figure 123 shows a triangular mesh for a thin circular section with coarse seeding. The image on the left was generated in Abaqus 6.10, and the image on the right shows the same model meshed with the current release.

Figure 123

Local mesh renement improves the correspondence between mesh and geometry.

122

MESHING

Finally, an improved user interface for interior element growth provides you with greater control over element growth within a tetrahedral mesh. Where previously you could choose either moderate or maximum growth, you can now either enter a numerical growth rate or use a slider control to choose a growth rate. Either option allows you to select values between 1.0 (minimal growth) and 2.0 (fast growth). Table 121 shows the relationship between the Abaqus 6.11 interior element growth controls and those available in previous Abaqus releases. If you open a model from a previous release, Abaqus/CAE automatically converts the interior element growth values to their numerical equivalents. Table 121 Interior element growth for tetrahedral meshes. Equivalent Abaqus 6.11 growth rate 1.05 (default) 1.2 2.0

Abaqus 6.10-EF or earlier releases Increase size not selected. Moderate growth Maximum growth

Note: The enhancements to tetrahedral meshing may result in signicant changes to an existing mesh when you upgrade models to the current release and remesh them. References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Chapter 17, The Mesh module Setting the mesh algorithm, Section 17.17.5

12.2

Mesh stack orientations

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now assign a mesh stack direction for solid parts that is independent of the sweep direction, and the cells need not be swept or bottom-up meshed. You can assign a single stack orientation to multiple cells. In addition, the shell/element normal and beam/truss tangent assignment tools are now available in the Mesh module. Description: Continuum shell, cohesive, cylindrical, and gasket elements all include directional properties that depend on the stack orientation of the elements. You can now assign a stack direction based on the orientation of a reference face. If the cells are already meshed, Abaqus/CAE changes the stack direction of the elements as needed. If there is no mesh or a partial mesh, Abaqus/CAE uses the reference face orientation

123

MESHING

to dene the stack direction of the elements as you mesh the part. As shown in Figure 124, the mesh stack orientation can be completely separate from the sweep direction for a swept part. The stack orientation shown by the red arrow, with the top element faces colored brown, is perpendicular to the sweep paths (black arrows) that could be used for this part.

Figure 124

The stack orientation need not follow the sweep direction.

You can assign mesh orientations using the Mesh menu, the tool in the Mesh module toolbox, or the Assign Stack Direction button located in the Mesh Controls dialog box. You can assign a mesh stack orientation to solid cells with any element shape except tetrahedral. The Element Normal and Element Tangent options, previously available only in the Property module, are also included in the new MeshOrientation menu. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshOrientationStack, Normal, Tangent References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Assigning shell/membrane normal directions, Section 12.14.5, in the online HTML version of this manual Assigning beam/truss tangent directions, Section 12.14.6, in the online HTML version of this manual Applying a mesh stack orientation, Section 17.17.8, in the online HTML version of this manual

12.3

Partitioning faces by projecting edges

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now partition a face by projecting an edge from elsewhere in the model.

124

MESHING

Description: Creating a partition by projecting edges works similarly to using the edge projection tool in the Sketcher. The face is partitioned by a perpendicular projection of the selected edges onto it. You can choose to project the edges or to project and extend them so they reach the edges of the selected face. If you do not extend the edges, the partition may be incomplete, as shown by the center section in Figure 125.
select face to partition select edge to project

optional extended partition resulting partition optional extended partition

Figure 125 A projected edge partition with extensions to reach the edges of the face. You can partition faces using the Create Partition dialog box or by selecting the Project edges tool in the Mesh module toolbox. The faces to be partitioned must belong to parts or independent part instances of an assembly. Dependent part instances cannot be partitioned. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part, Property, Assembly, Load, Mesh, and Optimization modules: ToolsPartition: Faces: Project edges References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

An overview of partitioning techniques, Section 70.4 Using the project edges method to partition faces, Section 70.6.7, in the online HTML version of this manual

12.4

Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds

Product: Abaqus/CAE

125

MESHING

Benefits: You can now control the minimum element seeding size and curvature control separately, and there are now two options for setting the minimum size. Description: The default minimum global seed size is the same as in previous releases, 0.1 (10 %), set as a fraction of the global size. You can set the minimum size as a fraction of the global size, or you can specify an actual value for the minimum size as shown in Figure 126. As shown in the gure, the curvature control option used to rene global seeding around holes and other areas of signicant curvature is now separated from the minimum size control.

Figure 126 Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: SeedPart Reference:


Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

The Global Seeds dialog box.

Dening seed density for an entire part or part instance, Section 17.15.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

12.5

Enhancements to bottom-up meshing

Product: Abaqus/CAE

126

MESHING

Benefits: Bottom-up meshing can now be used with orphan mesh models in addition to native geometry, and a new methodoffsetis available for working with orphan meshes. The extrude method includes several new options for setting the extrusion depth and a new parameter that you can use to vary the thickness of the extruded element layers. You can now automatically create element sets for native or orphan meshes or extend existing sets in an orphan mesh model to include the bottom-up mesh elements. Description: You can now use bottom-up meshing to create new solid elements on an orphan mesh part. You can also work with dependent orphan mesh instancesthe mesh changes are added to the mesh part. The sweep, extrude, and revolve bottom-up meshing methods can be used with either bottom-up meshing cells on native geometry or with orphan meshes. These methods work the same way for orphan meshes as they do for native meshes. A new offset bottom-up method is available for use only with orphan meshes. The offset method in the Create Bottom-Up Mesh dialog box is very similar to the Offset (create solid layers) option in the Edit Mesh dialog box. Both methods add solid elements to an existing solid or shell orphan mesh. The bottom-up extrude method now provides three options for selecting the extrusion depth:

Use vector length, Specify, or Project to target.

By default, Abaqus/CAE uses the vector length, which was previously the only choice available. The new options allow you to specify an exact distance or select a target. Selecting a target allows you to extrude the mesh up to a contoured surface, as shown in Figure 127. The extrusion vector is not shown in the gure; it extends from the center of the rectangular face to the center of the cylinder. The extruded mesh on the right matches the contour of the cylindrical target face, but Abaqus/CAE only matches the existing nodes and elements on the source side, not the target. The target may be one or more geometric faces from any part instance (including another instance of the same orphan mesh part), a datum plane, or selected element faces. The bottom-up extrude method includes a new parameter, Bias ratio, that allows you to vary the thickness of the extruded elements from the source side to the end of the extruded depth. The bias ratio is the ratio of the thickness of the last layer of elements in the extruded mesh to the thickness of the rst layer. A bias ratio of 1.0 has equal thickness for all extruded layers. Figure 128 shows an orphan mesh part that was extended by adding an extruded mesh with a bias ratio of 3.0. The layer of elements closest to the source side is 1/3 of the thickness of the last extruded layer. A bias ratio between zero and one would result in thicker layers at the source side and thinner ones at the end of the extrusion. You can create element sets in either a native or an orphan mesh model containing the new bottom-up elements, or you can extend existing orphan mesh element sets to include newly created bottom-up elements. If you extend existing sets, the new elements added to those sets are included for section assignments and any other set-based functions. If you create new sets, you can create either a single set with all the bottomup elements or create a separate set for each layer of elements. The element set controls are located in the Options area of the Create Bottom-Up Mesh dialog box.

127

MESHING

Figure 127 Extruding a at mesh to a cylindrical target surface.

Figure 128 The Bias ratio varies the element layer thickness in an extruded mesh. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshCreate Bottom-Up Mesh References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Bottom-up meshing methods, Section 17.11.2 Selecting parameters for a bottom-up mesh, Section 17.11.3 Creating a bottom-up mesh, Section 17.11.8, in the online HTML version of this manual

128

MESHING

12.6

New tools for editing orphan mesh parts

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now have Abaqus/CAE grow element edges that are smaller than a minimum criteria. You can also merge or subdivide element layers to modify an orphan mesh. Description: When you use the Edit Mesh toolset to work with an orphan mesh, three new tools are now available:

Grow short edges, Merge layers, and Subdivide layers.

When you use the Grow short edges tool, you specify a minimum edge size; and Abaqus/CAE lengthens any edges in the mesh that are smaller than the minimum by shortening the adjacent element edges. By default, Abaqus/CAE checks all element edges in a mesh part for short edges, but you can specify a different element domain. You can select a thickness direction and/or a reference edge to indicate that Abaqus/CAE should check for short edges in only that direction. Using a thickness direction vector also allows Abaqus/CAE to grow edges in model areas that contain adjacent short edges by progressively moving nodes in the specied direction. Without a direction vector, Abaqus/CAE treats each edge individually and cannot grow a short edge if adjusting its nodes would collapse or invert the surrounding elements. The element domain, thickness direction, and reference edge options have also been added to the existing Collapse short edges tool, and the tool can now be used with other element shapes in addition to triangular elements. The Merge layers and Subdivide layers tools reduce or increase, respectively, the element density in an area. The newly merged or divided elements have the same element type as the originals and are members of the same element sets. You can merge a minimum of two elements and subdivide one or more elements; however, you should merge or subdivide complete element layers or an entire mesh to maintain node compatibility. Figure 129 shows an orphan mesh model of a gear; the main image shows the modied mesh, and the inset shows the original mesh. The Subdivide layers option was used to add more layers radially, and the Merge layers option was used to reduce the number of layers through the thickness of the gear. The modied mesh is better suited than the original to the radial loading expected for a gear. The element changes that you make are included in any existing element sets. For example, section assignments will be applied to new elements created by subdividing existing elements. However, existing surfaces and node sets are not extended; therefore, after editing an orphan mesh, you must verify that any node- or surface-based entities such as loads are applied correctly to the new mesh. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: MeshEdit: Select the Mesh category: Collapse short edges, Grow short edges, Merge layers, or Subdivide layers

129

MESHING

Figure 129 Using merge and subdivide to improve an orphan mesh.

Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Manipulating the mesh, Section 64.1.3, in the online HTML version of this manual

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13.

Output and visualization

This chapter discusses obtaining, postprocessing, and visualizing results from Abaqus analyses. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Plotting contours for beam geometry, Section 13.1 Streamlines, Section 13.2 Output database size reduction, Section 13.3 Enhanced query options for probing the model, Section 13.4 Displaying constraints in the Visualization module, Section 13.5 Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots, Section 13.6 Plotting XY data from free body denitions, Section 13.7 Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts, Section 13.8 Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut, Section 13.9 Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization, Section 13.10 Saving and operating on history output XY data simultaneously, Section 13.11 Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system, Section 13.12 Contact stress output improvements, Section 13.13 Contact stress error indicators, Section 13.14 General contact output enhancements, Section 13.15

13.1

Plotting contours for beam geometry

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now plot contours to display eld output in the beam cross-sections in your model. This enhancement provides a more realistic depiction of analysis results for beam geometry. Description: You can now enable beam rendering for a contour plot, which allows you to visualize eld output as contours in beam geometry. For nodal output variables and element integration point output variables, Abaqus/CAE creates contour plots with results that are constant through the cross-section of the beam, as shown in the I-beams in Figure 131. Contour plots of element integration point data show data for a single section point through the entire thickness of the beam.

131

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

U, Magnitude +2.934e11 +2.704e11 +2.474e11 +2.244e11 +2.015e11 +1.785e11 +1.555e11 +1.325e11 +1.095e11 +8.651e12 +6.353e12 +4.054e12 +1.755e12

Figure 131 Beam contours displayed for displacement, a nodal output variable, on several I-beams in a model of a building. Stress visualization in beams provides an additional level of realism, because you can now plot contours that depict the variations in stress throughout the beam. The beam stress contour plot uses linear elastic theory to compute values at critical corners of the cross-section based on the element integration point quantities SF (section force) and SM (section moment). Abaqus/CAE then interpolates these values within the beam cross-section. Selecting the new BEAM_STRESS output variable enables you to show these interpolated beam stress values in a contour plot, as shown in the close-up of I-beam geometry in Figure 132. The BEAM_STRESS output variable is available for use only if the current step and frame includes results from the element integration point variables SF and SM.

132

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Figure 132

Beam contours displayed for the new BEAM_STRESS output variable.

You can create contour plots of beam stress for seven types of beam proles: box, pipe, rectangle, circle, I-beam, L-beam, and T-beam. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ResultField Output: Primary Variable tabbed page: BEAM_STRESS References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Producing a contour plot of linear beam section stresses, Section 44.4, in the online HTML version of this manual Controlling beam prole display, Section 55.12.5

13.2

Streamlines
Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/CFD

133

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Benefits: You can now visualize the velocity or vorticity of uid ow in an Abaqus/CFD analysis using streamlines, which trace the path that massless particles travel in a uid ow analysis. This enhancement expands the visualization capabilities of Abaqus/CAE for uid-structure interaction analyses. Description: The new Stream toolset enables you to visualize uid ow data by placing a rake into the ow. A rake is a line segment or series of line segments with a number of points specied along its length; Abaqus/CAE traces streamlines to display the ow passing through each point on the rake. Figure 133 displays the streamlines that show uid ow downstream from a twelve-pointed stream rake placed at the inow duct of a manifold.

Figure 133 Twelve-pointed stream showing velocity data for a ow analysis through a manifold. You can dene the rake you want to use by dening a line segment or by specifying a path denition. If you want to use a line segment for your stream rake, you can either pick starting and ending nodes from the viewport or enter the global coordinates for the points you want to use. The Stream Manager enables you to display or hide multiple stream denitions in the viewport; and for each stream, you can display ow data upstream from the rake location, downstream from the rake location, or in both directions.

134

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

You can also customize the color and thickness of streamlines in the current viewport. Streamlines can be displayed with a uniform color or by using a contour spectrum that matches the current primary eld output variable. If you display streamlines with contours, you can choose between a banded contour spectrum or a continuous spectrum. In addition, you can add arrows to the streamlines that indicate the direction of uid ow, and you can increase or decrease the number of arrows to clarify their display. Streamlines display ow data for the currently selected stream variable, which you can control from the new Stream Variable tabbed page in the Field Output dialog box. Most ow analyses include both velocity and vorticity data. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ToolsStream ResultField Output: Stream Variable tabbed page Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Chapter 74, The Stream toolset

13.3

Output database size reduction


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: A new scheme was implemented as an option in Abaqus/Standard to reduce the size of the output database for extrapolation and interpolation of three commonly used output variables: stress components, Mises equivalent stress, and equivalent pressure stress. In addition, in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit you can now easily request output on the exterior nodes and elements. Description: The extrapolation and interpolation schemes were changed in Abaqus/Standard for three commonly used output variablesstress, Mises equivalent stress, and equivalent pressure stressto reduce the size of the output database. In the old scheme extrapolation or interpolation was performed after the analysis nished and required storage of stresses at integration points. In the new scheme the extrapolation or interpolation is performed as soon as the results are available during the analysis, and only the results at the requested locations are written to the output database. The new scheme is invoked automatically when output is requested for any of the supported variables. In the case of Mises equivalent stress and equivalent pressure stress the new output variables, MISESONLY and PRESSONLY, must be used. If output variables MISES and PRESS are used instead, the old scheme is invoked. In addition, an enhancement was implemented in both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit that allows you to easily request output on the exterior node and element sets. This option is available only for threedimensional models and is particularly useful for visualization of the overall deformation of the model.

135

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Field output request editor or history output request editor: MISESONLY and PRESSONLY References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Output to the output database, Section 4.1.3

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Dening output requests, Section 14.12, in the online HTML version of this manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*ELEMENT OUTPUT *NODE OUTPUT

13.4

Enhanced query options for probing the model

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now probe a model plot for all of the direct components of a tensor variable or for all of the principal components of a vector variable, rather than for just the selected component. In addition, you can now specify multiple labels at the same time when you add nodes or elements to a query by their labels, you can probe a model plot for nodes or elements from a particular display group, and you can annotate an individual node or element in the viewport with its eld output results. These enhancements improve usability and offer more customization options for probing values in a model. Description: The probe functionality includes the following enhancements:

You can now launch the Probe Values dialog box more quickly by clicking the new button in the Visualization module toolbox. The Probe Values dialog box now enables you to display all of the component values for a tensor or vector variable and to write these values to a le. For tensor quantities you can query for the selected invariant or component for all six direct components of the tensor or for all three principal components of the tensor. For vector variables you can query for either the resultant vector value or for one of the individual component values. When you add nodes or elements to a probe by keying in their IDs, Abaqus/CAE now enables you to specify a list of comma-separated IDs at the same time. You can now probe values from all the nodes or elements in a particular display group. If you choose Select a display group and specify one of the display groups in your session, Abaqus/CAE adds rows to the data table for all the nodes or elements in that display group.

136

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

You can create a new display group using the group of nodes or elements in the data table by clicking mouse button 3 in the data table and selecting Create Display Group. You can display the eld output results for an individual node or element as annotations that appear next to the node or element in the viewport. Figure 134 shows a model with probe annotations that display the element label and Mises stress value for three of the four elements selected in the Probe Values dialog box.

Figure 134

Probe annotation display.

137

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: from the toolbox: Click Use the Select a display group option to probe values in a particular display group. From the Components list, select the component values that you want to probe. Toggle on check boxes in the left column of the data table to display probe annotations. Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Using the Query toolset to probe the model, Section 51.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

13.5

Displaying constraints in the Visualization module

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now lets you view analysis constraints in the Visualization module, facilitating the debugging of models with large numbers of constraints. Description: You can selectively control the display of model constraints using display groups and the ODB Display Options dialog box. These controls are useful when debugging models that contain large numbers of constraints. By turning the display of some constraints on and off, you can more easily nd the source of problems. The following types of constraints can be individually selected for display:

tie constraints rigid body constraints shell-to-solid couplings distributing couplings kinematic couplings multi-point constraints

You must rst add the desired constraints to a display group for them to be visible in the viewport. You can create and edit display groups to include (or exclude) different constraints. Figure 135 shows an example of a kinematic coupling constraint display, and Figure 136 shows the new Constraints tab of the ODB Display Options dialog box.

138

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Figure 135

Spider lines representing a kinematic coupling constraint in the viewport.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ViewODB Display Options; Constraints tab ToolsDisplay GroupCreate References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Controlling the display of constraints in the Visualization module, Section 55.11 Creating or editing a display group, Section 78.2.1, in the online HTML version of this manual

13.6

Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create a symbol plot that displays nodal forces as free body vectors that show force and moment distributions across sections of a model. This enhancement enables you to visualize individual vectors on nodes that vector sum to the total free body vector. The new symbol plot functionality complements

139

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Figure 136 Enabling/disabling display of constraints. the existing free body cut options, which allow you to obtain the forces and moments at a location in the part or along a view cut. Description: Symbol plots in Abaqus/CAE now support the display of free body nodal forces. Figure 137 shows a model in which several nodes have an imbalance of forces or moments due to an applied load; the symbol plot displays free body vectors to identify these nodes. The gure also shows the Field Output dialog box with the new FREEBODY symbol variable selected. The symbol plot displays free body vectors at each node that has a nonzero force summation. The total forces for the entire part always equal zero. The output database you select must include results from output variable NFORC. Abaqus/CAE calculates the vectors for a symbol plot of free body nodal forces using the contents of the current display group.

1310

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Figure 137

Free body nodal forces displayed in a symbol plot.

Symbol plots of free body nodal forces can be customized using the same vector display options that are available for all other symbol plots: you can adjust the vector arrow color, size, style, and density; and you can display or hide the force or moment values next to each free body vector. In addition, you can still display free body data on a view cut while you are working with a symbol plot of free body nodal forces. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ResultField Output: Symbol Variable: FREEBODY

1311

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Producing a symbol plot of free body nodal forces, Section 45.4, in the online HTML version of this manual

13.7

Plotting XY data from free body definitions

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now read XY data from the active free body denitions in your session. This enhancement enables you to display the resultant force or moment data from locations in your model in an XY plot or in a table. Description: You can now extract the resultant force and moment data from the active free body cuts in your session as new XY data objects. Figure 138 shows an XY plot of the resultant force and moment data for two different free body cut denitions.
500. 600. 450.

400. 500.

350.

Moment

400.

Force

300.

250.

300. 200.

150. 200. 100.

FreeBody1 force resultant FreeBody1 moment resultant


100. 50. 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Time

Figure 138

XY plot of resultant forces and moments.

Abaqus/CAE reads XY data from all free body cuts listed as active in the Free Body Cut Manager and creates individual XY data objects for the free body entities and components that you select. You can create

1312

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

XY data objects from the force data, moment data, or both entities in free body cuts; and you can create XY data objects from the resultant magnitude and from any of its three component values. Selecting all of these options prompts Abaqus/CAE to create eight XY data objects for each active free body cut in your session. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ToolsXY DataCreate: Free body Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Reading XY data from all active free body cuts, Section 47.2.4

13.8

Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now display free body cuts on several different active view cuts at the same time. This enhancement enables you to display resultant forces and moments at several locations in your model without dening free body cuts in the Free Body toolset. Description: Abaqus/CAE now enables you to display the free body cuts on the view cuts in your session even when multiple view cuts are active. Figure 139 shows a sample model plot in which three view cuts are active, each one displayed with a free body that evaluates forces and moments across that view cut. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ToolsView CutManager: Allow for multiple cuts: toggle on multiple check boxes under the Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

icon

Displaying a cut section and its resultant force and moment vectors, Section 80.2.2, in the online HTML version of this manual

13.9

Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut

Product: Abaqus/CAE

1313

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

5.547e+03

6.659e+02 1.896e+02 5.116e+03 1.717e+02

1.973e+03

Z X

Figure 139 Model with multiple view cuts, each one displayed with the free body cut for its location.

Benefits: You can now display a series of free body cuts emanating from a single view cut in your model. This enhancement makes it easier to investigate resultant force and moment values at multiple locations in your model. Description: When you enable display of free body data for a selected view cut, Abaqus/CAE displays the resultant force and moment data across that view cut by default. This enhancement expands free body display for view cuts by enabling you to display a series of free body cuts spread out at different points in your model. Figure 1310 shows an example of resultant force and moment display for a beam subjected to three different loads along its length. The top portion of the gure shows the different loads; the middle and bottom portions show the force and moment output, respectively, using 75 free bodies emanating from a single view cut of the model. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: OptionsView Cut: Free Body: Number of free bodies

1314

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Beam Loading

30 kN concentrated force

2 kN/m^2 constant pressure

7.5 to 2.5 kN/m^2 linearly varying pressure

Y Z X

Shear force diagram

Y Z X

Bending moment diagram

X Z Y

Figure 1310

Multiple free body cuts displayed from a single view cut denition.

Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Customizing display and calculation of resultant force and moment on the active view cuts, Section 80.2.8, in the online HTML version of this manual

1315

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

13.10 Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization


Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now control whether the plot state in the current viewport should be synchronized with the eld output variable selections in the Field Output toolbar. This enhancement provides greater exibility for display of results data. Description: The Field Output toolbar now includes the Synchronize Plot State tool. By default, this tool is toggled on, and Abaqus/CAE changes the plot state automatically if you select a new variable from the toolbar that would require a change of plot state in the current viewport. However, when this option is toggled off, you can modify the eld output variable selections without automatically switching plot states in the current viewport. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module:
Field Output toolbar: toggle

Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Using the eld output toolbar, Section 42.4.2

13.11 Saving and operating on history output XY data simultaneously


Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE is enhanced to allow you to save and operate on history output data at the same time. Description: When saving history data from the Save XY Data As dialog box, you can now apply any of the Abaqus/CAE built-in operations to the data set. The available operations include a variety of mathematical, trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, and other functions. Figure 1311 shows some of the single-operand functions available. If you are saving two history output variables at the same time, there are several new dual-operand functions available:

append((XY,XY)) combine((XY,XY)) power((XY,XY))

If you are saving three or more history output variables at the same time, there are two new multi-operand functions available: append((XY,XY,...)) vectorMagnitude((XY,XY,XY))

1316

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Figure 1311

Operating on XY history data when saving.

In addition, you can now change the prex of the data object name when saving multiple history output XY data sets. The default data object names are XYData-1, XYData-2, etc.; you can edit the XYData portion of the data object name to specify a new prex.

Figure 1312

Saving a data object with name NodalDisplacement-1.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ToolsXY DataCreate; ODB history output; select output variables; Save As; select Save Operation

1317

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

References:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Saving an XY data object, Section 47.2.7 Overview of XY data operations, Section 47.4.4

13.12 Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system


Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: A new algorithm for computing components of coordinate- and distance-based results relative to cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems expands the options available for evaluating results. Description: You can choose to apply an angular transformation to coordinate- and distance-based results. The new angular transformation option type computes components in terms of R, , and Z for cylindrical coordinate systems and in terms of R, , and for spherical coordinate systems; the default transformation orients a system for transformation relative to a cylindrical or spherical system but performs a Cartesian transformation of the X-, Y-, and Z-components. Angular transformation component results are denoted using (AT: CSYS-name) in the viewport to differentiate them from the results obtained using the default transformation type.

Figure 1313 Angular transformation result option.

1318

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: ResultOptions: Transformation tabbed page: Angular Reference:
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Transforming results into a new coordinate system, Section 42.5.8, in the online HTML version of this manual

13.13 Contact stress output improvements


Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Contact stress output is more accurate for second-order surfaces. Description: Contact pressure output (CPRESS) and contact shear stress output CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2 to the output database (.odb) le have been made more accurate and less noisy for second-order surfaces. The improvements tend to be most noticeable in regions with signicant variation of contact stress over individual surface facets, which commonly occurs near the perimeter of an active contact region. Figure 1314 and Figure 1315 show two examples involving quadratic tetrahedral elements (element type C3D10) in which contact pressure noise has been reduced across versions. Of course, adequate mesh renement remains necessary for accurate predictions with nite element methods. As in previous releases, contact stress accuracy is generally more accurate with the surface-to-surface contact formulation than with the node-to-surface contact formulation. Results are not affected by this enhancement for the following surface types: surfaces based on linear element types, surfaces based on modied tetrahedral or triangular elements, and node-based surfaces.

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Surface output in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit in Output to the output database, Section 4.1.3 Abaqus/Standard output variable identiers, Section 4.2.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT OUTPUT

1319

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

CPRESS 5.4 5.0 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.2 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.0

CPRESS 5.9 5.4 5.0 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.2 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.0

Abaqus 6.10EF

Prior versions

Figure 1314 Reduced CPRESS solution noise across versions for an initially spherical surface.
CPRESS 80.0 73.3 66.7 60.0 53.3 46.7 40.0 33.3 26.7 20.0 13.3 6.7 0.0 CPRESS 124.2 80.0 73.3 66.7 60.0 53.3 46.7 40.0 33.3 26.7 20.0 13.3 6.7 0.0

Abaqus 6.10EF

Prior versions

Figure 1315 Reduced CPRESS solution noise across versions for a coarsely meshed nut.

13.14 Contact stress error indicators


Products: Abaqus/Standard Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Contact stress error indicator output helps convey a sense of contact stress accuracy. Description: Contact pressures and contact shear stresses are often of key interest in engineering systems, so it is often important to have condence in the accuracy of these results. The surface-to-surface contact formulation facilitates obtaining good estimates of contact stresses, but accuracy relies on adequate mesh

1320

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

renement and other modeling choices. Highly localized contact stress concentrations are quite common, which may call for local mesh renement to accurately predict the maximum contact pressure. In some cases the problem posed may have a contact stress singularity where a corner of one surface interacts with a smooth portion of another surface, yet a nite element analysis will predict nite stresses regardless of the level of mesh renement. You can request output variable CSTRESSERI to generate contact pressure and contact shear stress error indicators, CPRESSERI and CSHEARERI. These error indicator elds provide estimates of error in the corresponding base solution output variable elds CPRESS and CSHEAR, respectively. These error indicators have units of stress (as with pre-existing error indicators, they are not normalized). Plots of CPRESS and CPRESSERI for contact between two elastic spheres modeled with quadratic tetrahedral elements (element type C3D10) and surface-to-surface contact are shown in Figure 1316. These plots suggest that the contact pressure solution is quite accurate in the interior of the active contact footprint (where the maximum contact pressure occurs) and less accurate near edges of the contact footprint (where relatively large stress gradients occur and the contact pressure is signicantly less than the maximum value). If the maximum contact pressure is of primary interest, this level of mesh renement may be adequate for the loading considered.

CPRESS +6.1e+04 +5.4e+04 +4.8e+04 +4.2e+04 +3.6e+04 +3.0e+04 +2.4e+04 +1.8e+04 +1.2e+04 +6.1e+03 +0.0e+00

CPRESSERI +1.6e+04 +1.4e+04 +1.3e+04 +1.1e+04 +9.7e+03 +8.0e+03 +6.4e+03 +4.8e+03 +3.2e+03 +1.6e+03 +0.0e+00

Figure 1316 Contour plots of CPRESS and CPRESSERI for contact between a deformable sphere and a rigid plate. You should not assume that a sum (or other combination) of a base solution variable and the corresponding error indicator provides a conservative estimate of the true solution. An error indicator tends

1321

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

to give a crude, non-conservative approximation of the deviation from the exact solution if the mesh is coarse relative to local solution variations or the exact solution to the problem posed is singular. The following qualitative interpretations of error indicator results exceeding approximately 10% of base solution results are often appropriate:

Signicant potential for solution inaccuracy exists in this region. The mesh may be too coarse to give a good estimate of solution error in this region. Perhaps there is really a stress singularity at this corner. Local mesh renement (in the original model or through submodeling). Switching to the surface-to-surface contact formulation and activating surface geometry adjustments where appropriate for curved surfaces. Switching to second-order elements in the contact region. Rounding sharp corners to avoid stress singularities.

The following techniques can be helpful for improving accuracy of contact stress predictions:

Additional insight on the accuracy of contact stress predictions can be gained through comparison to stresses in elements underlying contact surfaces. Signicant deviation between contact stresses and corresponding underlying element stress components is another indication of potential inaccuracy. Unlike other error indicators, contact stress error indicators cannot be used to control adaptive remeshing. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Field output request editor: Output Variables: Error indicators: CSTRESSERI References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Surface output in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit in Output to the output database, Section 4.1.3 Abaqus/Standard output variable identiers, Section 4.2.1 Selection of error indicators inuencing adaptive remeshing, Section 12.3.2 Dening general contact interactions in Abaqus/Standard, Section 34.2.1 Dening contact pairs in Abaqus/Standard, Section 34.3.1

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Creating and modifying output requests, Section 14.4.5

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT OUTPUT

1322

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION

13.15 General contact output enhancements


Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can better control surface history and eld output requests by specifying surfaces of interest in general contact in Abaqus/Explicit. Description: Enhancements to surface history and eld output now allow output requests to be made for either a single surface or a pairwise surface. Whole surface output is made when a single surface is used in the output request. Contributions from all other surfaces interacting with this surface will be output in this case. Contact interactions between two specic surfaces can be analyzed through the use of pairwise surface output. Output is limited to any contributions from the contact between the two specied surfaces. Existing general contact output variables are supported by this enhancement. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Output to the output database, Section 4.1.3

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*CONTACT OUTPUT

1323

USER SUBROUTINES, UTILITIES, AND PLUG-INS

14.

User subroutines, utilities, and plug-ins

This chapter discusses additional user programs that can be run with Abaqus. It provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Dening damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI, Section 14.1 Dening wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE, Section 14.2 Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis, Section 14.3

14.1

Defining damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: This user subroutine allows you to customize damage initiation criterion. Description: User subroutine UDMGINI is used to specify user-dened damage initiation criterion. References:
Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*DAMAGE INITIATION

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

UDMGINI, Section 1.1.25

14.2

Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE

Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua Benefits: User subroutine VWAVE allows you to control the uid variables that affect the loads in Abaqus/Aqua. Description: User subroutine VWAVE is used to specify user-dened wave kinematics. You can compute the unsteady contribution, and Abaqus adds that to the steady component; or you can completely overwrite the uid variables. You can also compute the free-surface elevation of the wave, which is used in Abaqus to determine the submergence of elements on which loads are applied.

141

USER SUBROUTINES, UTILITIES, AND PLUG-INS

References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Dening the uid properties in Abaqus/Aqua analysis, Section 6.11.1

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*WAVE VWAVE, Section 1.2.21

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

VWAVE, Section 4.1.40

14.3

Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis

Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: A new set of user subroutines allows you to prescribe a nonuniform volume current density vector, surface current density vector, and surface magnetic vector potential in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Description: The following user subroutines are now available for time-harmonic eddy current analyses: UDECURRENT: Prescribe nonuniform volume current density vectors. UDSECURRENT: Prescribe nonuniform surface current density vectors. UDEMPOTENTIAL: Prescribe nonuniform magnetic vector potential on surfaces. References:
Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

*D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT UDECURRENT, Section 1.1.23 UDEMPOTENTIAL, Section 1.1.24 UDSECURRENT, Section 1.1.26

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

142

Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE

15.

Abaqus Scripting Interface

This chapter discusses using the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write user scripts. Abaqus makes every attempt to be backward compatible and can execute most Abaqus Scripting Interface scripts from previous releases of Abaqus. However, backward compatibility is not guaranteed beyond several releases of Abaqus, and it is recommended that you upgrade your commands to the most recent release. A complete list of Abaqus Scripting Interface commands that have changed is included in Summary of Abaqus Scripting Interface changes between Abaqus 6.10 and Abaqus 6.11 in the Abaqus Scripting Reference Manual. This chapter provides an overview of the following enhancements:

Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus, Section 15.1 Setting the last main le to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE, Section 15.2 Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface, Section 15.3 Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line, Section 15.4 Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE, Section 15.5

15.1

Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus


Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE

Products: Abaqus/Standard

Benefits: Abaqus now supports the NumPy extension to Python for mathematical functions replacing its predecessor, Numeric, which is no longer supported. Support for NumPy expands the library of available mathematical functions and provides improved performance. Description: The Numeric library of mathematical functions for Python has been deprecated, so Abaqus now supports NumPy. The NumPy library includes a Numeric-compatible module named oldnumeric, which replicates all of the functionality in the deprecated library. To use the functions previously available in Numeric, issue the following command in the Abaqus Python interactive interpreter or from the CLI in Abaqus/CAE: >> import numpy.oldnumeric as Numeric This syntax can be used to replace input Numeric in an Abaqus Scripting Interface script or a Python script. For more information about the numpy module, see numpy.scipy.org. The upgradeScript utility that upgrades your Python scripts for the new functionality in Abaqus will also account for this mathematical library change.

15.2

Setting the last main file to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE

Product: Abaqus/CAE

151

Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE

Benefits: The Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE) can now automatically reopen the main le that was selected upon your last session. This enhancement improves the ease of use of this functionality. Description: If you toggle on the Set Last Main File on Startup setting during your Abaqus PDE session, the Abaqus PDE will automatically reopen the most recently selected main le the next time you open the utility. The main le is the script being tested by the Abaqus PDE environment. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: FileAbaqus PDE: SettingsSet Last Main File on Startup Reference:
Abaqus Scripting Users Manual

Selecting the settings for use with a le, Section 7.2.4

15.3

Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Abaqus Scripting Interface now enables you to customize the default behavior for many display options and GUI preferences in Abaqus/CAE. Description: Settings in the abaqus_v6.11.gpr le determine the default display and GUI behavior for many aspects of Abaqus/CAE. You can now edit this le in the Abaqus Scripting Interface using functions from the new caePrefsAccess scripting module. Reference:
Abaqus Scripting Users Manual

Editing display preferences and GUI settings, Section 8.4

15.4

Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When you launch Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer from a command line, you can now control whether your actions in the user interface are recorded in a log le. Description: Abaqus can record your actions in the user interface into a le named abaqus.guiLog, which enables you to create a record of your actions in the GUI and can help you capture and replay common activities in Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer for demonstration or training purposes. You can also run .guiLog les from the Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE).

152

Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE

When you launch Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer from the command line, you can now enable this recording for your session by using the new command line option guiRecord. The recording of user interface actions is also enabled by default when the ABQ_CAE_GUIRECORD environment variable is set on your system; you can override this setting and disable recording by using the new command line option guiNoRecord. References:
Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Abaqus/CAE execution, Section 3.2.4 Abaqus/Viewer execution, Section 3.2.5

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Starting Abaqus/CAE (or Abaqus/Viewer), Section 2.1.1

Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide

Recording all user interface actions in a log le, Section 5.1.4

15.5

Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE

Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE) now provides improved control over watch list variables, enabling you to delete them from the list, change their string format, and stop program execution when the variable changes. Description: The Watch List dialog box in the Abaqus PDE now includes the following enhancements that provide greater control over watch variables:

You can remove a variable from the watch list. You can switch a variables display format between repr and str formats. The repr() function returns a string that is better suited to being read by the Python interpreter, while the str() function returns a string better suited to printing. You can stop program execution upon a change to the selected watch variable. If this option is selected, the Abaqus PDE pauses execution at the line after a change to the value of the specied watch variable.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: FileAbaqus PDE: click mouse button 3 on a variable in the Watch List: select one of the following: Delete watch var variable name Display repr (not str) value of variable name and Display str (not repr) value of variable name Stop on change to variable name

153

Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE

Reference:
Abaqus Scripting Users Manual

Using the debugger, Section 7.3.3

154

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

16.

Summary of changes

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the items that dene an Abaqus model, including elements, keywords, user subroutines, and output variables. For more information on these modications, refer to the preceding chapters. The following identiers are used: new mod rem (S) (E) (C) New in Abaqus 6.11. Existed in Abaqus 6.10 but has been modied or enhanced in Abaqus 6.11. Existed in Abaqus 6.10 but has been removed in Abaqus 6.11. New, modied, or removed in Abaqus/Standard. New, modied, or removed in Abaqus/Explicit. New, modied, or removed in Abaqus/CFD.

16.1

Changes in Abaqus elements

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the elements that can be used in an Abaqus model. new (S) new (S) new (E) C3D4P 4-node linear coupled pore pressure element. C3D6P 6-node linear coupled pore pressure element. EC3D8RT 8-node thermally coupled linear brick, multimaterial, reduced integration with hourglass control. EMC2D3 3-node triangular zero-order electromagnetic element. EMC2D4 4-node quadrilateral zero-order electromagnetic element. EMC3D4 4-node tetrahedral zero-order electromagnetic element. EMC3D8 8-node hexahedral zero-order electromagnetic element.

new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S)

161

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (C) new (E) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S)

FC3D6 6-node triangular prism uid element. PC3D 1-node smoothed particle hydrodynamic element. Q3D4 4-node linear displacement, electric potential, and temperature. Q3D6 6-node linear displacement, electric potential, and temperature. Q3D8 8-node trilinear displacement, electric potential, and temperature. Q3D8H 8-node trilinear displacement, electric potential, and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure. Q3D8R 8-node trilinear displacement, electric potential, and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control. Q3D8RH 8-node trilinear displacement, electric potential and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure. Q3D10M 10-node modied displacement, electric potential, and temperature tetrahedron, with hourglass control. Q3D10MH 10-node modied displacement, electric potential, and temperature tetrahedron, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure. Q3D20 20-node triquadratic displacement, trilinear electric potential, and trilinear temperature. Q3D20H 20-node triquadratic displacement, trilinear electric potential, trilinear temperature, hybrid with linear pressure. Q3D20R 20-node triquadratic displacement, trilinear electric potential, trilinear temperature, reduced integration.

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

162

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (S)

Q3D20RH 20-node triquadratic displacement, trilinear electric potential, trilinear temperature, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure.

16.2

Changes in Abaqus options

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the options that dene an Abaqus model. new (S)(E) mod (S) *ADJUST Adjust user-specied nodal coordinates to lie on a given surface. *AMPLITUDE The SCALEY and SHIFTY parameters are no longer supported for amplitudes dened by user subroutines. *AQUA This option can now be used in Abaqus/Explicit to dene the steady uid eld for submerged structures. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION Use the new LUMPED parameter to specify the mass matrix that will be used for linear Timoshenko beam elements in frequency extraction and modal analysis procedures. Use the new TAPER parameter to dene linear section behavior of tapered crosssections. mod (S) *BEAM SECTION Use the new LUMPED parameter to specify the mass matrix that will be used for linear Timoshenko beam elements in frequency extraction and modal analysis procedures. *CAVITY DEFINITION Use the new PARALLEL DECOMPOSITION parameter to allow cavities to be decomposed and processed by all CPUs during a parallel job execution. *CECURRENT This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *CFD Computational uid dynamics analysis. *CFILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

mod (E)

mod (S)

mod (S)

mod (S) new (C) mod (S)

163

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*CFLUX Use the new FILE, STEP, and INC parameters to read concentrated nodal uxes from a previous Abaqus output database. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *CLOAD Load types TSB, TFD, TWD, and TSI are now available in Abaqus/Aqua working with Abaqus/Explicit. Use the new FILE, STEP, and INC parameters to read concentrated nodal loads from a previous Abaqus output database.

mod (S)(E)

mod (E) mod (E)

*CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT The default value for the TYPE parameter is now ENHANCED EDGE TRACKING. *CONTACT OUTPUT Use the new SECOND SURFACE parameter to write contact output limited to a pair of contact surfaces. *CONTACT PERMEABILITY Specify uid permeability contact property. *CONTOUR INTEGRAL Use the new RESIDUAL STRESS STEP parameter to include the effect of residual stress gradients on the contour integral evaluation. Set this parameter equal to the step number from which the stress data in the last available increment of the specied step will be considered as residual stresses. *CONTROLS A new value is available for the TYPE parameter. Set TYPE=FSI to set the parameters that will be used in an Abaqus/CFD to Abaqus/Standard or to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation. Use the new DISTORTION CONTROL parameter in an Abaqus/CFD analysis to activate or deactivate a constraint that acts to prevent negative element volumes in the CFD meshing movement.

new (S) mod (S)

mod (C)

mod (S)

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT Use the new ELECTRICAL parameter to perform a coupled thermal-electricalstructural analysis. *CRADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *D EM POTENTIAL Specify distributed surface magnetic vector potential.

mod (S) new (S)

164

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*DAMAGE EVOLUTION Use the new FAILURE INDEX parameter to dene the damage evolution laws corresponding to each failure mechanism specied in a user-dened damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. *DAMAGE INITIATION A new value is available for the CRITERION parameter. Set CRITERION=USER to specify a user-dened damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. Use the new FAILURE MECHANISMS parameter to dene the total number of failure mechanisms to be specied in a user-dened damage initiation criterion. Use the new PROPERTIES parameter to dene the number of material constants being specied for a user-dened damage initiation criterion.

mod (S)

mod (S)

*DEBOND Use the new DEBONDING FORCE parameter to specify how a debonding force between the two surfaces is released after the VCCT fracture criterion is met. *DECURRENT This option has been enhanced to allow the specication of distributed volume current density vectors in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Use the new REAL and IMAGINARY parameters to specify the in-phase (real) and out-of-phase (imaginary) parts, respectively, of the volume current density vector. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *DISTRIBUTION A distribution of membrane thickness can now be specied on the data lines. *DLOAD Load types PB, FDD, FDT, FD1, FD2, WDD, WD1, WD2, FI, FI1, and FI2 are now available in Abaqus/Aqua working with Abaqus/Explicit. *DSECURRENT This option has been enhanced to allow the specication of distributed surface current density vectors in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Use the new REAL and IMAGINARY parameters to specify the in-phase (real) and out-of-phase (imaginary) parts, respectively, of the surface current density vector. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *DSFLUX This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *DYNAMIC Use the new SINGULAR MASS parameter in Abaqus/Standard to control velocity

mod (S)

mod (S) mod (E)

mod (S)

mod (S) mod (S)(E)

165

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

and acceleration adjustments if a singular global mass matrix is detected during initialization or during contact impact/release computations. The improved element time estimation method in Abaqus/Explicit is now applied to three-dimensional continuum elements, in addition to elements with plane stress formulations. mod (E) *DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT The improved element time estimation method is now applied to threedimensional continuum elements, in addition to elements with plane stress formulations. *ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY This option can also be used to specify the electrical conductivity of conductor regions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Use the new FREQUENCY parameter to specify electrical conductivity as a function of frequency. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. new (S) mod (S)(E) *ELECTROMAGNETIC Electromagnetic response based on harmonic excitation. *ELEMENT OUTPUT Use the new EXTERIOR parameter for both eld and history output to dene an element output set consisting of all the exterior elements in the model. *ELSET Use the new UNSORTED parameter to allow elements to be assigned to the set in the order in which they are given. *FILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *FILM PROPERTY This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *FLUID BEHAVIOR This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. Use the new USER parameter in an Abaqus/Standard analysis to specify that the uid behavior is dened in user subroutine UFLUID. new (C) mod (S) *FLUID BOUNDARY Specify boundary conditions for uid ow analyses. *FLUID CAVITY This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses.

mod (S)

mod (S)(E)(C)

mod (S) mod (S) mod (S)

166

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)(E)

*FLUID EXCHANGE Use the new CAVITY PRESSURE parameter in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis to apply the uid pressure on the uid exchange surface or to model uid exchange through a vent and apply the uid pressure as an equivalent load on the perimeter of the surface. This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *FLUID EXCHANGE PROPERTY This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *FRACTURE CRITERION The NORMAL DIRECTION parameter can now be used in conjunction with TYPE=FATIGUE for enriched elements. *GAP ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE Use the new PRESSURE parameter to dene the gap electrical conductance as a function of gap pressure. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *HEAT GENERATION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *INELASTIC HEAT FRACTION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *INITIAL CONDITIONS Use the new DRIVING ELSETS parameter to dene the source region from where the temperatures are read from a previous analysis and the target region onto which the temperatures are mapped in the current analysis. The STEP parameter is now optional. Initial values of void ratio can now be dened from the output database (.odb) le of a previous Abaqus/Standard soil analysis.

mod (S) mod (S)

mod (S)

mod (S) mod (S) mod (S)

mod (S) mod (E)

*JOULE HEAT FRACTION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *LOW DENSITY FOAM Use the new LATERAL STRAIN DATA parameter to specify if lateral strain data are provided as part of the denition of the uniaxial response of the material in tension and compression; this allows modeling Poisson effects in the material. *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY Specify magnetic permeability. *MASS ADJUST Adjust and/or redistribute the mass of an element set.

new (S) new (E)

167

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*MATRIX GENERATE Use the new SOLID INFINITE FORMULATION parameter to select the static or dynamic formulation for solid innite elements. Use the new ELEMENT BY ELEMENT parameter to generate local element matrices. Use the new ELSET parameter to generate matrices for a part of a model.

mod (S)

*MATRIX INPUT Use the new MATRIX parameter to dene the matrix to be read from the SIM database. *MATRIX OUTPUT Output generated matrices in various forms. *MEDIA TRANSPORT Activate or deactivate periodic media. *MEMBRANE SECTION Use the new MEMBRANE THICKNESS parameter to dene membrane thicknesses using distributions. *MOLECULAR WEIGHT This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *MOMENTUM EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the momentum equations in an Abaqus/CFD analysis. *NODE OUTPUT Use the new EXTERIOR parameter for both eld and history output to dene a node output set consisting of all the exterior nodes in the model. *PERIODIC MEDIA Specify a periodic media. *PRESSURE EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the pressure equation for incompressible ows. *RADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *RESPONSE SPECTRUM Two new values are available for the COMP parameter. Set COMP=R40 or R30 to use the 40% rule or 30% rule, respectively, for summing directional excitation components as recommended by the ASCE 498 standard.

new (S) new (E) mod (S)

mod (S) new (C)

mod (S)(E)

new (E) new (C)

mod (S) mod (S)

168

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Two new values are available for the SUM parameter. Set SUM=DSC to use the double sum combination method. Set SUM=GRP to use the grouping method. mod (S)(E)(C) *RESTART When you request that restart information is written for a co-simulation, the recommended method for synchronizing restart information is to specify the NUMBER INTERVAL parameter. In this case Abaqus always sets the TIME MARKS parameter on the *RESTART option to NO to write restart information at the co-simulation target time immediately after the time dictated by the NUMBER INTERVAL parameter. *SECTION CONTROLS This option now allows the specication of a scale factor for the drill stiffness of shell elements in Abaqus/Explicit. For Eulerian EC3D8R elements, the pure viscous form of hourglass control is the default form and the integral viscoelastic form of hourglass control is not supported. Two new optional data lines allow for specic controls for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. mod (S) mod (E) *SFILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *SHELL GENERAL SECTION This option now allows the specication of a distribution to dene composite layer thickness for conventional shell elements in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. *SHELL SECTION This option now allows the specication of a distribution to dene composite layer thickness for conventional shell elements in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. *SOLUTION TECHNIQUE The TYPE=CONTACT ITERATIONS setting has been removed. *SOLVER CONTROLS The ILU factorization ll-in level (soils and geostatic analyses only) can now be specied on the data line. *SPECTRUM Use the new ABSOLUTE, AMPLITUDE, CREATE, DAMPING GENERATE, EVENT TYPE, FILE, RELATIVE, and TIME INCREMENT parameters to create a spectrum from a user-specied amplitude that describes a dynamic event. *SRADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

mod (E)

mod (E)

mod (S) mod (S)

mod (S)

mod (S)

169

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*STEP The NLGEOM parameter can now be used in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *SURFACE OUTPUT Specify surface variables to be written to the output database. *SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT The PROPERTY=FEATURE EDGE CRITERIA setting can now be used in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *TEMPERATURE Use the new DRIVING ELSETS parameter to dene the source region from where the temperatures are read from a previous analysis and the target region onto which the temperatures are mapped in the current analysis. *TRANSPORT EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the transport equations in an Abaqus/CFD analysis. *TURBULENCE MODEL Specify turbulence models for uid analyses. *UNIAXIAL TEST DATA When used in combination with the low-density foam material model, this option now allows the specication of lateral strain data as part of the denition of the uniaxial response of the material in tension and compression. *WAVE This option is now available in Abaqus/Explicit to dene the wave eld for submerged structures. Use the new PROPERTIES parameter to dene the number of constant properties required for a user-dened wave. Use the new DEPVAR parameter to dene the number of state variables required for a user-dened wave.

new (C) mod (S)

mod (S)

new (C)

new (C) mod (E)

mod (E)

mod (E)

*WIND This option is now available in Abaqus/Explicit to dene the wind eld for submerged structures.

16.3

Changes in Abaqus user subroutines

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to user subroutines that can be used in an Abaqus model.

1610

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

GAPELECTR The gap electrical conductance can be dened as a function of gap pressure. Two new variables can be dened for coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses: SIGMA(4), derivative of the gap electrical conductance with respect to the clearance between the bodies, and SIGMA(5), derivative of the gap electrical conductance with respect to the pressure between the bodies. The variable for the separation between the interface surfaces that is passed in for information has been renamed D(1). The new variable D(2), pressure transmitted across the surfaces, can be passed in for information.

new (S)

UDECURRENT User subroutine to specify nonuniform volume current density vector in a timeharmonic eddy current simulation. UDEMPOTENTIAL User subroutine to specify surface-based nonuniform magnetic vector potential in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. UDMGINI User subroutine to dene the damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. UDSECURRENT User subroutine to specify nonuniform surface current density vector in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. UEL The LFLAGS(1) array can now take values of 102, 103, and 104 for coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

new (S)

new (S) new (S)

mod (S)

new (E)

VWAVE User subroutine to dene wave kinematics for an Abaqus/Aqua analysis.

16.4

Changes in Abaqus output variable identifiers

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to output variable identiers used in Abaqus.
Whole element variables

mod (E)

CA The connector relative acceleration, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for eld output.

1611

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (E)

CDIP The components of connector plastic motion-based damage initiation criterion in all directions, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for eld output. CFAILST The all ags for connector failure status, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for eld output. CP The connector relative position, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for eld output.

mod (E)

mod (E)

mod (E)

CUPEQ Equivalent plastic relative motion for a coupled plasticity denition is now available in addition to equivalent plastic relative displacements and rotations in all directions. CUPEQC Equivalent plastic relative motion for a coupled plasticity denition is no longer available for eld output. CV The connector relative velocity, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for eld output.

mod (E)

mod (E)

new (S) mod (S)

CYCLEINIXFEM Number of cycles to initialize the crack at the enriched element. ELJD Total electrical energy dissipated due to ow of current. This variable is now also available for a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. ENRRTXFEM Strain energy release rate when the XFEM-based LEFM approach is used. FLUXS Current values of distributed (heat or concentration) uxes (not available for nonuniform uxes), including those imported using the HFL co-simulation eld ID.

new (S) mod (S)

Element integration point variables

mod (S)

FV Predened eld variables, including those imported using the FVi co-simulation eld ID.

1612

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (S)(E)

LOCALDIRn Direction cosines of the local material directions for an anisotropic hyperelastic material model. MISESONLY Mises equivalent stress. When MISESONLY is requested instead of MISES, the stress components are not written to the output database (.odb) le; consequently, the size of the database is reduced. PRESSONLY Equivalent pressure stress. When PRESSONLY is requested instead of PRESS, the stress components are not written to the output database (.odb) le; consequently, the size of the database is reduced. TEMPMAVG Temperature, computed as a mass fraction weighted average of all materials in the element.

new (S)

new (S)

new (E)

Element centroidal variables

new (S)

EMB Magnitude and components of the magnetic ux density in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. EMBF Magnetic body force intensity vector (force per unit volume per unit time) due to ow of current. EMCD Magnitude and components of the eddy current vector in conducting regions of a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. EME Magnitude and components of the electric eld in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. EMH Magnitude and components of the magnetic eld in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. EMJH Rate of Joule heating (amount of heat per unit volume per unit time) due to ow of current.

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

new (S)

1613

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Surface variables

new (C) new (C) new (C) new (S) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C)

AVGPRESS Area-averaged surface pressure. AVGTEMP Area-averaged surface temperature. AVGVEL Area-averaged surface velocity vector. CSDMG Damage variable for bond failure. FORCE Total uid force components on the surface. HEATFLOW Integrated normal heat ux on a given surface. HFL Heat ux vector on a surface. HFLN Normal heat ux on a surface. MASSFLOW Integrated mass ow rate across a given surface. NTRACTION Fluid normal traction on a surface. PRESSFORCE Fluid pressure force on a given surface. STRACTION Fluid surface (or shear) traction on a surface. SURFAREA Area of a surface. TRACTION Fluid total traction on a surface. VISCFORCE Fluid viscous force on a given surface.

1614

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C)

VOLFLOW Integrated volume ow rate across a given surface. WALLSHEAR Fluid shear stress magnitude on a surface. YPLUS Wall-normal distance measured in viscous lengths or wall units. YSTAR Wall-normal distance scaled using turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity.

Integrated variables

new (E) new (E)


Element variables

MASSEUL Total mass of each Eulerian material instance in the element set. VOLEUL Total volume of each Eulerian material instance in the element set.

new (C) new (C)


Nodal variables

TURBEPS Energy dissipation rate. TURBKE Turbulent kinetic energy.

mod (S)

CF All components of point loads and concentrated moments, including loads imported using the CF co-simulation eld ID.

mod (S)

CFF Concentrated uid ow at a node, including those imported using the CFLOW cosimulation eld ID.

mod (S)

CFL All concentrated ux values, including those imported using the CFL co-simulation eld ID. CSTRESSERI Error indicators for contact stress components. NT All temperature values at a node, including those imported using the TEMP cosimulation eld ID.

new (S) mod (S)

1615

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (C) new (C)

TURBEPS Energy dissipation rate. TURBKE Turbulent kinetic energy.

Element face variables

mod (S)

P Uniformly distributed pressure load on element faces, including those imported using the PRESS co-simulation eld ID.

Whole and partial model variables

mod (S)

ALLJD Electrical energy dissipated due to ow of electrical current. This variable is now also available for a time-harmonic eddy current analysis.

1616

PRODUCT INDEX

I.

Product Index

Abaqus/Standard
Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Section 3.3 Section 3.4 Section 3.5 Section 3.6 Section 3.7 Section 4.5 Section 4.6 Section 4.7 Section 4.13 Section 4.14 Section 5.3 Section 6.1 Section 6.2 Section 6.5 Section 6.7 Section 6.8 Section 6.9 Section 6.10 Section 6.11 Section 6.12 Section 6.13 Section 6.14 Section 6.15 Section 6.16 Section 6.18 Section 6.19 Section 6.20 Section 6.21 Section 6.22 GPGPU direct solver acceleration Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient delity dynamic analyses Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation Co-simulation execution procedure Mapping thermal and magnetic loads Surface-based uid cavities in Abaqus/Standard Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis Time-harmonic eddy current analysis Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis AMS eigensolver performance improvement Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints Matrix generation enhancements Matrix input enhancements Dening a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE Creating a spectrum from a user-specied amplitude in Abaqus/Standard New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure Contact iterations solution technique no longer available Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Including the effect of a residual stress eld on contour integral evaluation Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit

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PRODUCT INDEX

Section 6.23 Section 7.3 Section 8.1 Section 8.2 Section 8.6 Section 8.7 Section 9.1 Section 9.5 Section 9.8 Section 10.2 Section 11.1 Section 11.2 Section 11.4 Section 11.5 Section 11.6 Section 11.7 Section 11.8 Section 13.3 Section 13.13 Section 13.14 Section 14.1 Section 14.3 Section 15.1

New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization Material models for electromagnetic problems Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements Electromagnetic elements Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Improvement to coupling denition Parallel cavity radiation Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact Accounting for friction coefcient changes in default choice of solution scheme De-emphasized contact controls Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore uid diffusion Output database size reduction Contact stress output improvements Contact stress error indicators Dening damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus

Abaqus/Explicit
Section 3.6 Section 4.6 Section 4.7 Section 4.8 Section 4.15 Section 5.3 Section 6.3 Section 6.4 Section 6.17 Section 6.19 Section 6.22 Section 7.4 Section 8.4 Section 8.5 Co-simulation execution procedure Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit Low-density foam model with Poisson effects Eulerian heat transfer element Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element

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PRODUCT INDEX

Section 9.5 Section 9.6 Section 9.9 Section 10.2 Section 11.3 Section 13.3 Section 13.15 Section 14.2 Section 15.1

Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Application of uid cavity pressure on the uid exchange surface Improvement to coupling denition Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement Output database size reduction General contact output enhancements Dening wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus

Abaqus/CFD
Section 3.6 Section 6.6 Section 6.19 Section 8.3 Section 9.7 Section 13.2 Co-simulation execution procedure New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for uid dynamic analysis Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Triangular prism for uid ow problems Dening a spatially varying velocity for uid boundary conditions Streamlines

Abaqus/CAE
Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 Section 4.1 Section 4.2 Section 4.3 Section 4.4 Section 4.7 Section 4.9 Section 4.10 Section 4.11 Section 4.12 Section 4.14 Section 4.16 Section 4.17 Section 5.1 Section 5.2 Section 5.3 Section 5.4 Section 6.6 Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE Copying step-dependent objects to a different step Substructures in Abaqus/CAE Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE Mapped analytical elds in Abaqus/CAE Adjusting nodal coordinates Enhancements to the offset, extend, and blend face tools Creating a wire-from-edge feature Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature Adding a mirror feature to a part Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Selecting elements by topology Suppressing or deleting multiple features Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Exporting models in OBJ format New RNG kepsilon turbulence model for uid dynamic analysis

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PRODUCT INDEX

Section 6.12 Section 6.14 Section 6.15 Section 6.20 Section 6.23 Section 7.1 Section 7.2 Section 8.1 Section 8.2 Section 8.3 Section 8.4 Section 9.1 Section 9.2 Section 9.3 Section 9.4 Section 9.7 Section 10.1 Section 11.6 Section 12.1 Section 12.2 Section 12.3 Section 12.4 Section 12.5 Section 12.6 Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 Section 13.4 Section 13.5 Section 13.6 Section 13.7 Section 13.8 Section 13.9 Section 13.10 Section 13.11 Section 13.12 Section 13.14 Section 15.1 Section 15.2 Section 15.3

Dening a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Including the effect of a residual stress eld on contour integral evaluation New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Triangular prism for uid ow problems Eulerian heat transfer element Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Expanded predened eld support in Abaqus/CAE Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions Total force distribution option for pressure loads Dening a spatially varying velocity for uid boundary conditions Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints De-emphasized contact controls Tetrahedral meshing enhancements Mesh stack orientations Partitioning faces by projecting edges Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds Enhancements to bottom-up meshing New tools for editing orphan mesh parts Plotting contours for beam geometry Streamlines Output database size reduction Enhanced query options for probing the model Displaying constraints in the Visualization module Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots Plotting XY data from free body denitions Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization Saving and operating on history output XY data simultaneously Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system Contact stress error indicators Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Setting the last main le to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface

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PRODUCT INDEX

Section 15.4 Section 15.5

Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE

Abaqus/AMS
Section 6.8 AMS eigensolver performance improvement

Abaqus/Aqua
Section 6.22 Section 9.6 Section 14.2 Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Dening wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE

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About SIMULIA

SIMULIA is the Dassault Systmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions including the Abaqus product suite for Unified Finite Element Analysis; multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems; and lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property. By building on established technology, respected quality, and superior customer service, SIMULIA makes realistic simulation an integral business practice that improves product performance, reduces physical prototypes, and drives innovation. Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA, with R&D centers in Providence and in Vlizy, France, SIMULIA provides sales, services, and support through a global network of regional offices and distributors. For more information, visit www.simulia.com.

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As a world leader in 3D and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) solutions, Dassault Systmes brings value to more than 100,000 customers in 80 countries. A pioneer in the 3D software market since 1981, Dassault Systmes develops and markets PLM application software and services that support industrial processes and provide a 3D vision of the entire lifecycle of products from conception to maintenance to recycling. The Dassault Systmes portfolio consists of CATIA for designing the virtual product, SolidWorks for 3D mechanical design, DELMIA for virtual production, SIMULIA for virtual testing, ENOVIA for global collaborative lifecycle management, and 3DVIA for online 3D lifelike experiences. Dassault Systmes shares are listed on Euronext Paris (#13065, DSY.PA), and Dassault Systmes ADRs may be traded on the US Over-The-Counter (OTC) market (DASTY). For more information, visit www.3ds.com.

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