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Typhoon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about Pacific tropical cyclones.

For other uses, see Typhoon (disambiguation).

Three different typhoons spinning over the western Pacific Ocean on August 7, 2006 A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean between 180 and 100E. This region is referred to as the northwest Pacific basin.[1] For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern (North America to 140W), central (140W to 180), and western (180 to 100E). Identical phenomena in the eastern north Pacific are called hurricanes, with tropical cyclones moving into the western Pacific re-designated as typhoons. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Honolulu (the Joint Typhoon Warning Center), the Philippines, and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated amongst 18 countries, including the United States, who have territories threatened by typhoons each year. The Philippines uses their own naming list for systems which approach the country. Within the northwestern Pacific there are no official typhoon seasons as tropical cyclones form throughout the year. Like any tropical cyclone, there are six main requirements for typhoon formation and development: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a preexisting low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear. The majority of storms form between June and November whilst tropical cyclone formation is at a minimum between December and May. On average, the northwestern Pacific features the most numerous and intense tropical cyclones globally. Like other basins, they are steered by the subtropical ridge towards the west or northwest, with some systems recurving near and east of Japan. The Philippines receive a brunt of the landfalls, with China and Japan being impacted slightly less. Some of the deadliest typhoons in history have struck China. Southern China has the longest record of typhoon impacts for the region, with a thou-

sand year sample via documents within their archives. Taiwan has received the wettest known typhoon on record for the northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basin. Contents [hide]

1 Etymology 2 Genesis 3 Frequency 4 Paths 5 Basin monitoring


5.1 Name sources

6 Records 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

[edit] Etymology The term Typhoon is related to Chinese (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tifng), meaning great (ti, ) and wind (fng, ), and in Japanese (tai-fu). In plural, one can add an "s" at the end in English although in Chinese, "Tifng", as with "Taifu" in Japanese, is always pronounced the same for both singular and plural. Predating its Chinese use, the etymology of typhoon is from the Greek (typhein), to smoke, which later made its way into the Arabic language (as Tufn) to describe the cyclonic storms of the Indian Ocean.[2] Typhoon is the regional name in the northwest Pacific for a severe (or mature) tropical cyclone,[3] with hurricane the regional term for the northeast Pacific, northern Atlantic, and south Pacific east of the 160th meridian east. Elsewhere, storms of similar strength are termed tropical cyclone, severe tropical cyclone, or severe cyclonic storm.[4] [edit] Genesis

Depth of 26 C isotherm on October 1, 2006 See also: Tropical cyclogenesis There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear. While these conditions are necessary for tropical cyclone formation, they do not guarantee that a tropical cyclone will form. Normally, an ocean temperature of 26.5C (79.7F) spanning through a depth of

at least 50 metres (160 ft) is considered the minimum to maintain the special mesocyclone that is the tropical cyclone. These warm waters are needed to maintain the warm core that fuels tropical systems. A minimum distance of 500 km (300 miles) from the equator is normally needed for tropical cyclogenesis.[5] Whether it be a depression in the intertropical covergence zone (ITCZ) or monsoon trough, a broad surface front, or an outflow boundary, a low level feature with sufficient vorticity and convergence is required to begin tropical cyclogenesis. About 85 to 90 percent of Pacific typhoons form within the monsoon trough.[6] Even with perfect upper level conditions and the required atmospheric instability, the lack of a surface focus will prevent the development of organized convection and a surface low. Vertical wind shear of less than 10 m/s (20 kt, 22 mph) between the ocean surface and the tropopause is required for tropical cyclone development.[5] Typically with Pacific typhoons, there are two outflow jets: one to the north ahead of an upper trough in the Westerlies, and a second towards the equator.[6] In general, westerly wind increases associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation lead to increased tropical cyclogenesis in all tropical cyclone basins. As the oscillation propagates from west to east, it leads to an eastward march in tropical cyclogenesis with time during that hemisphere's summer season.[7] On average, twice per year twin tropical cyclones will form in the western Pacific ocean, near the 5th parallel north and the 5th parallel south, along the same meridian, or line of longitude.[8] There is an inverse relationship between tropical cyclone activity in the western Pacific basin and the north Atlantic basin, however. When one basin is active, the other is normally quiet, and vice versa. The main reason for this appears to be the phase of the Madden-Julian oscillation, or MJO, which is normally in opposite modes between the two basins at any given time.[9] [edit] Frequency Storm Frequency Tropical storms and Typhoons by month, for the period 19592005 (Northwest Pacific) Month Count Average Jan 28 0.6 Feb 15 0.3 Mar 26 0.6 Apr 39 0.8 May 64 1.4 Jun 96 2.0 Jul 215 4.6 Aug 312 6.6 Sep 262 5.6 Oct 219 4.7 Nov 134 2.9 Dec 75 1.6 Annual 1484 31.6 [10] Source: JTWC

Nearly one-third of the world's tropical cyclones form within the western Pacific. This makes this basin the most active on Earth.[11] Pacific typhoons have formed year round, with peak months from August to October. The peak months correspond to that of the Atlantic hurricane seasons. Along with a high storm frequency, this basin also features the most globally intense storms on record. One of the most recent busy seasons was 2004. Tropical cyclones form in any month of the year across the northwest Pacific ocean, and concentrate around June and November in the northern Indian ocean. The area just northeast of the Philippines is the most active place on Earth for tropical cyclones to exist. Across the Philippines themselves, activity reaches a minimum in February, before increasing steadily through June, and spiking

from July through October, with September being the most active month for tropical cyclones across the archipelago. Activity falls off significantly in November.[12] The most frequently impacted areas of the Philippines by tropical cyclones are northern Luzon and eastern Visayas.[13] A ten year average of satellite determined precipitation showed that at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines could be traced to tropical cyclones, while the southern islands receive less than 10 percent of their annual rainfall from tropical cyclones.[14] [edit] Paths

Tracks of all tropical cyclones in the northernwestern Pacific Ocean between 1980 and 2005. The vertical line to the right is the International Date Line. Most tropical cyclones form on the side of the subtropical ridge closer to the equator, then move poleward past the ridge axis before recurving north and northeast into the main belt of the Westerlies.[15] When the subtropical ridge position shifts due to El Nio, so will the preferred tropical cyclone tracks. Areas west of Japan and Korea tend to experience much fewer September-November tropical cyclone impacts during El Nio and neutral years. During El Nio years, the break in the subtropical ridge tends to lie near 130E which would favor the Japanese archipelago.[16] During La Nia years, the formation of tropical cyclones, along with the subtropical ridge position, shifts westward across the western Pacific ocean, which increases the landfall threat to China. [16] Those that form near the Marshall Islands find their way to Cheju Island, Korea.[17] Typhoon paths follow three general directions.[11]

Straight track (or straight runner). A general westward path affects the Philippines, southern China, Taiwan, and Vietnam. A parabolic, recurving track. Storms recurving affect eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. Northward track. From point of origin, the storm follows a northerly direction, only affecting small islands.

[edit] Basin monitoring Within the Western Pacific, RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center, part of the Japan Meteorological Agency has had the official warning responsibility for the whole of the Western Pacific since 1989,[18] and the naming responsibility for systems of tropical storm strength or greater since 2000.[19] However each National Meteorological and Hydrological Service within the western Pacific has the responsibility for issuing warnings for land areas about tropical cyclones affecting their country, such as the Joint Typhoon Warning Center for United States agencies,[20] the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical

and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) for interests in the island archipelago nation,[19] and the Hong Kong Observatory for storms which come close enough to cause the issuance of warning signals.[21]

[edit] Name sources

The list of names consists of entries from 17 East Asian nations and the United States who have territories directly affected by typhoons. The submitted names are arranged into five lists; and each list is cycled with each year. Unlike tropical cyclones in other parts of the world, typhoons are not named after people. Instead, they generally refer to animals, flowers, astrological signs, and a few personal names. However, PAGASA retains its own naming list, which does consist of human names.[22] Therefore, a typhoon can possibly have two names. Storms that cross the date line from the central Pacific retain their original name, but the designation of hurricane becomes typhoon. In Japan, typhoons are also given a numerical Total Tropical Super designation according to the seYear Typhoons Storms Storms Typhoons quence of their occurrence in the cal39 1964 13 19 7 endar year.[18] 1965 14 10 11 [edit] Records 35 1967 15 16 4 1971 11 16 4 The most active Western Pacific ty34 1994 14 14 6 phoon season was in 1964, when 33 1996 12 15 6 39 storms of tropical storm strength 32 1974 16 16 0 formed. The least activity seen in the 1989 10 15 6 northwest Pacific ocean was during 31 1992 9 17 5 the 2010 Pacific typhoon season, 1962 7 17 6 when only 14 tropical storms and 1966 10 17 3 seven typhoons formed. In the 30 1972 8 20 2 Philippines, the most active season, 1990 9 17 4 since 1945, for tropical cyclone 2004 10 13 7 strikes was 1993 when nineteen trop[23] ical cyclones moved through the country. There was only one tropical cyclone which moved through the Philippines in 1958.[24] The 2004 Pacific typhoon season was the busiest for Okinawa since 1957.[25] Within Guangdong in southern China, during the past thousand years, the most active decades for typhoon strikes were the 1660s and 1670s.[26] The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which reached a minimum pressure of 870 hectopascals (26 inHg) and maximum sustained wind speeds of 165 knots (85 m/s, 190 mph, 310 km/h).[27] The deadliest typhoon of the 20th century was Typhoon Nina killed nearly 100,000 in China in 1975 due to a flood that caused 12 reserviors to fail.[28] After Typhoon Morakot landed in Taiwan at midnight on August 8, 2009, almost the entire southern region of Taiwan (Chiayi County/Chiayi City, Tainan County/Tainan City (now merged as Tainan), Kaohsiung County/Kaohsiung City (now merged as Kaohsiung), and Pingtung County) and parts of Taitung County and Nantou County were flooded by record-breaking heavy rain. The rainfall in Pingtung County reached 2,327 millimetres (91.6 in),[29] breaking all rainfall records of any single place in Taiwan induced by a single typhoon,[30] and making the cyclone the wettest known typhoon.

[edit] See also

Tropical cyclones portal

China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology Effects of tropical cyclones Tropical cyclone Typhoons in the Philippines

[edit] References 1. ^ Chris Landsea (2010-06-01). "Subject: F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones and who is responsible for forecasting there?". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 2. ^ Anatoly Liberman (2009). Word Origins And How We Know Them: Etymology for Everyone. Oxford University Press. pp. 141142. ISBN 9780195387070. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 3. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Typhoon". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 4. ^ Chris Landsea (2010-06-01). "Frequently Asked Questions Subject: A1) What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone?". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 5. ^ a b Chris Landsea (2010-06-01). Subject: A15) How do tropical cyclones form ? National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2011-03-24. 6. ^ a b Roger Graham Barry and Andrew Mark Carleton (2001). Synoptic and dynamic climatology. Psychology Press. pp. 520521. ISBN 9780415031158. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 7. ^ John Molinari and David Vollaro (September 2000). "Planetary- and Synoptic-Scale Influences on Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclogenesis". Monthly Weather Review 128 (9): 3296307. doi:10.1175/15200493(2000)128<3296:PASSIO>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2006-10-20. 8. ^ Roger Graham Barry and Richard J. Chorley (2003). Atmosphere, weather, and climate. Psychology Press. p. 271. ISBN 9780415271707. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 9. ^ E. D. Maloney and D. L. Hartmann (September 2001). "The Madden Julian Oscillation, Barotropic Dynamics, and North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Formation. Part I: Observations" (PDF). Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 58 (17): 25452558. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2545:TMJOBD>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 10. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2005). "2005 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Western Pacific". United States Navy. Retrieved 2007-08-26.

11. ^ a b James B. Elsner and Kam-Biu Liu (2003-10-08). "Examining the ENSO-Typhoon Hypothesis". Climate Research 25: 43. doi:10.3354/cr025043. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 12. ^ Ricardo Garca-Herrera, Pedro Ribera, Emiliano Hernndez and Luis Gimeno (2006). "Typhoons in the Philippine Islands, 1566-1900". Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (D6): 40. doi:10.1029/2006JD007370. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 13. ^ Colleen A. Sexton (2006). Philippines in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 16. ISBN 9780822526773. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 14. ^ Edward B. Rodgers, Robert F. Adler, and Harold F. Pierce (October 2000). "Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites". Journal of Applied Meteorology (American Meteorological Society) 39 (10): 1662. doi:10.1175/15200450(2000)039<1658:COTCTT>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 15. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2006). "3.3 JTWC Forecasting Philosophies". United States Navy. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 16. ^ a b M. C. Wu, W. L. Chang, and W. M. Leung (2003). "Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation Events on Tropical Cyclone Landfalling Activity in the Western North Pacific". Journal of Climate 17 (6): 14191428. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1419:IOENOE>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 200702-11. 17. ^ David J. Nemeth (1987). The architecture of ideology: neo-Confucian imprinting on Cheju Island, Korea. University of California Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780520097131. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 18. ^ a b Japan Meteorological Agency (2001-05-25). "Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo Typhoon Center: 2000". pp. iii,11. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 19. ^ a b Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services Administration (2004). "Mission/Vision". Retrieved 2011-03-11. 20. ^ Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (2011). "Products and Service Notice". United States Navy. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 21. ^ Hong Kong Observatory (September 2010). "Tropical Cyclones in 2009". pp. 1819. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 22. ^ "How typhoons are named". USA Today. 2007-11-01. Retrieved 200808-18. 23. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2009). "Member Report Republic of the Philippines". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2010-0414. 24. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1959). "1958". United States Navy.

25. ^ Erik Slavin (2005-05-30). "Preparation critical for Japan's coming typhoon season". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 26. ^ Kam-Biu Liu, Caiming Shen, and Kin-Sheun Louie (2001). "A 1,000Year History of Typhoon Landfalls in Guangdong, Southern China, Reconstructed from Chinese Historical Documentary Records". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91 (3): 453464. doi:10.1111/0004-5608.00253. ISSN 00045608. 27. ^ George M. Dunnavan, John W. Diercks (1980). "An Analysis of Super Typhoon Tip (October 1979)". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 108 (11): 1915-1923. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 28. ^ Anderson-Berry, Linda J.; Weyman James C. (2008-02-26). "Fifth International Workshop on Tropycal Cyclones: Topic 5.1: Societal Impacts of Tropical Cyclones.". World Meteorological Organization. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 29. ^ Arizona State University (2009-08-12). "Taiwan Rainfall Record Investigation". Retrieved 2011-03-06. 30. ^ "Record rains in south". The China Post. 2009-08-09. Retrieved 200908-09. [edit] External links

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