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Jizya is a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens, who meet certain criteria.

The tax is/was to be levied on able bodied adult males of military age and affording power, (but with specific exemptions, From the point of view of the Muslim rulers, jizya was a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjection to the state and its laws, "just as for the inhabitants it was a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes." In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, to be exempted from military service and the zakat taxes obligatory upon Muslim citizens. It is also worth mentioning here that the word Jizya is derived from the root word that refers to part, hence taken from a part of the wealth of the non-Muslim citizens. In fact, the use of the word jizya was not even necessary. AlTabari wrote that some members of the Christian community asked the companion Umar bin al-Khatab if they could refer to the jizya as sadaqah which literally means charity, which he approved of. Jizya, also spelled jizyah, Arabic jizyah , head or poll tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from their non-Muslim subjects. Islamic law made a distinction between two categories of non-Muslim subjectspagans and dhimmis (protected peoples, or peoples of the book; i.e., those peoples who based their religious beliefs on sacred texts, such as Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians). The Muslim rulers tolerated the dhimmis and allowed them to practice their religion. In return for protection and as a mark of their submission, the dhimmis were required to pay a special poll tax known as the jizya. The rate of taxation and methods of collection varied greatly from province to province and were greatly influenced by local pre-Islamic customs. In theory the tax money was to be used for charitable purposes and the payment of salaries and pensions. In practice, however, the revenues derived from the jizya were deposited in the private treasuries of the rulers. The Ottomans usually used the proceeds of the jizya to pay their military expenses. Jizyah was a tax imposed upon the People of the Book who had decided to refuse the Truth even though it had been proven to them beyond a shadow of doubt. Muslim Jurists have stipulated several conditions regarding its imposition: it should not be paid by the women and children of the Book. Only men (of the Book) who have reached puberty are to pay it. Jizyah can be paid in the shape of a service, for instance, if the men serve in the military then this service may be considered as a form of payment of Jizyah. As for the rate at which Jizyah can be imposed, there is a significant difference of opinion in this regard among the Muslim Jurists. Zaka'h has a different function and therefore cannot be compared with Jizya which is a Divine Injunction to humble people who deliberately rejected the Truth. Zaka'h is a tax imposed by an Islamic state on its Muslim citizens. It is to be paid by every Muslim man and woman who owns wealth or herds over and above a particular limit or produces any thing over and above a particular limit. To sum up, Jizyah and Zaka'h are, in fact, incomparable: Firstly, Jizyah ended after the reign of the Banu Ishmael, Zaka'h is still observed by Muslims; and secondly, Jizyah was, in fact, a part of the punishment imposed upon the rejecters among the people of the Book, while Zaka'h was a tax imposed on the Muslim citizens of a Muslim state. The Jizya or poll tax is a personal tax levied on non-Moslems in a Moslem State, and as such it resembles the Zakat (Alms Tax) which is levied on Moslem citizens by the Moslem State. The poll tax is levied so that all the capable nonMoslem citizens of the State can contribute, each from his own money, to the general welfare of the State, and that in return for this, they can enjoy their rights as nationals of this State, including compensation from the Moslem Exchecquer when they are in need. Valour and mercy are not forgotten here, as the poll tax is not collected from the weak and poor. In his message to the people of Hira, Khaled Ibn Al-Walid says, "When a person is too old to work or suffers a handicap, or when he falls into poverty, he is free from the dues of the pull tax; his sustenance is provided by the Moslem Exchequer." In his book "Al-Kharaj," Abu Yusuf says, "No Jizya is due on females or young infants." When the dues of the poll tax are paid by these people, they have to be supported, protected, granted a freedom of faith, and treated on a footing of justice and equality with Moslems. They are called "Zimmis" (the Arabic origin, "Zimma," meaning security, protection and custody) because the said rights are guaranteed by God and His Apostle, and such was the custom the Moslem leaders followed in dealing with the Zimmins. In his book "Futooh Al-Buldan" (Conquests of Countries), Al-Balathiri comments on this saying, "Khaled Ibn Al-Walid, on entering Damascus as a conqueror, offered a guarantee of security to its people and their properties and churches, and promised that the wall of the city would not be pulled down, and none of their houses be demolished. It was a guarantee of God, he said, and of the Caliph and all believers to keep them safe and secure on condition they paid the dues of the Jizya."

The poll tax is a small sum of money indeed when compared to the services the Moslem State offers to protect the Zimmis and support the army in charge to keep them safe from others' assaults. In his book "Al-Kharaj," Abu Yusuf gives the following reports: "After getting on peaceful terms with the people of Syria and collecting the dues of the Jizya and the Kharaj, news reached Abu 'Ubeida that the Byzantines had amassed their troops to attack him. The effect of this was great on Abu 'Ubeida and the Moslesm. He sent messages to the rulers of cities with whose citizens he had made peace, asking them to return to their subjects the paid dues of the Jizya and Kharaj, with an instruction to tell these: 'We hereby return to you the money you have paid us, because of the news of the enemy troops amassed to attack us, but, if God grants us victory against the enemy, we will keep up to the promise and covenant between us.' When this was delivered to the Zimmis and their money returned to them, they told the Moslems: May God bring you back to us and grant you victory over them!" In his book, "The Spirit of Laws," on dealing with the taxes levied by the government, Montesqieu says, "Such levied taxes were one reason for the strange facility which the Moslems faced during conquests. People, then, preferred -instead of being subjected to an endless series of fines which entered the rich imagination of greedy rulers -- to submit to the payment of a minimal tax which can be fulfilled and paid with ease."
Chapter 9, verse 29 of the Qur'an reads: "Fight those of the People of the Book who do not [truly] believe in God and the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, who do not obey the rule of justice, until they pay the tax and agree to submit." It's important to note that the Arabic word that is translated to tax is "jizya", which means 'payment in return'. Muslims pay what is called Zakah, which every adult that is mentally stable, and financially able is required to pay to certain groups of people as outlined in the Qur'an chapter 9 verse 60: "Alms are meant only for the poor, the needy, those who administer them, those whose hearts need winning over, to free slaves and help those in debt, for God's cause, and for travelers in need. This is ordained by God; God is all knowing and wise." People of the Book living in Muslim territories were required to pay jizya. As stated above, jizya means 'payment in return'. What they're getting in return is protection by the Muslim state along with all the benefits and exemptions from military service. They were also exempt from paying the Muslim tax (zakah). This jizya tax was only required of able-bodied men that have attained puberty, and exempted monks. This tax was ridiculously low (one dinar per year.) So basically it was a situation where the state protected the Jews and Christians, gave them all the benefits, didn't make them risk their lives as the Muslims did, and didn't require them to pay the zakah tax, which is 2.5% of total savings, jewelry and property at the end of the year. Three quick points: 1. If a Muslim country came under attack , Muslims were required to defend it. Christians and Jews didn't need to ever raise a sword, but were still protected because their payment of jizya earned them the protection of the Muslims. 2. While Muslims were required to pay 2.5% of their savings, jewelry, and property, Christians and Jews were not required to pay jizya on property, livestock, crops or produce, and only paid at all if they could afford it. Who do you think has the more difficult burden? 3. It comes down to this. Muslims pay the higher Zakah tax and are required to defend their country (including Jews and Christians.) Jews and Christians paid a lower tax and didn't need to ever fight. So the jizya tax wasn't a penalty or meant as punishment, it was a tax that helped run the state. If we refuse to pay taxes in the U.S., we end up in prison. The argument that everyone has to pay the same tax could be made, but again, the tax on Christians and Jew was low, and not required of those that couldn't afford it. And everyone was taxed. Muslims with any decent or semi-decent amount of savings were required to pay much more than Christians and Jews. Some countries today execute tax evaders (China). How can Christians and Jews demand all the rights of Muslims, plus protection without ever needed to step into a battlefield for nothing in return, while Muslims that do fight to defend the country, including Christians and Jews are required to pay zakah, which in most cases is much higher than jizya anyway? The Romans at the time levied high taxes trying to support their military conquests. The following is from: "There is no simple explanation for the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, but several interconnected elements provide some answers. The demands of the military and the growing bureaucracy forced the

government to seek more income. When the elite avoided taxes, the burden fell on the peasantry, who had barely enough to feed themselves and no surplus to pay taxes. When farmers fled the land, incomes declined still further and manpower shortages forced the military to hire German mercenaries." Unlike the Roman Government, the Muslim states protected the poor, women, children, and monks while exempting them from having to pay the jizya tax. Christian and Jews were also given equal rights, and allowed to practice their religion. Also, they were allowed to build houses of worship, and their monks were tax exempt. That is tolerance. The following comes from Wikipedia: Under Caliph Umar the Zoroastrian Persians were given People of the Book status, and jizya was levied on them. Christian Arab tribes in the north of the Arabian Peninsula refused to pay jizya, but agreed to pay double the amount, and calling it sadaqa, a word meaning "alms" or "charity". According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi the name change was done for the benefit of the Christian tribesmen, "out of consideration for their feelings".[11] Fred Donner, however, in The Early Islamic Conquests, states that the difference between sadaqa and jizya is that the former was levied on nomads, whereas the latter was levied on settled non-Muslims. Donner sees sadaqa as being indicative of the lower status of nomadic tribes, so much so that that Christian tribesmen preferred to pay the jizya. Jabala b. al-Ayham of the B. Ghassan is reported asked Umar "Will you levy sadaqa from me as you would from the [ordinary] bedouin (al-'arab)?" Umar acceded to collecting jizya from him instead, as he did from other Christians.[12] Sir Thomas Arnold, an early 20th century orientalist, gives an example of a Christian Arab tribe which avoided paying the jizya altogether by fighting alongside Muslim armies "such was the case with the tribe of al-Jurajimah, a Christian tribe in the neighborhood of Antioch, who made peace with the Muslims, promising to be their allies and fight on their side in battle, on condition that they should not be called upon to pay jizya and should receive their proper share of the booty".[13] In his message to the people of Al-Hirah, Khalid bin Walid is recorded as saying (in reference to the jizya), "When a person is too old to work or suffers a handicap, or when he falls into poverty, he is free from the dues of the poll tax; his sustenance is provided by the Muslim Exchequer."[14] A letter attributed to Khalid bin Walid said that "This is a letter of Khalid ibn al-Waleed to Saluba ibn Nastuna and his people; I agreed with you on al-jezyah and protection. As long as we protect you we have the right in al-jezyah, otherwise we have none.[15] According to Muslim accounts of Umar, in his time some payers of the jizya were compensated if they had not been cared for properly. The accounts vary, but describe his meeting an old Jew begging, and assisting him; according to one version: Umar said to him, "Old man! We have not done justice to you. In your youth we realized Jizyah from you and have left you to fend for yourself in your old age". Holding him by the hand, he led him to his own house, and preparing food with his own hands fed him and issued orders to the treasurer of the Bait-al-mal that that old man and all others like him, should be regularly doled out a daily allowance which should suffice for them and their dependents. [16] If Jizya is unfair on anyone, it would be the Muslims. They were, after all, required to pay higher taxes, and protect those that paid Jizya. Still, you never hear them complain, because that is what God ordered.

Jizya and Quran: The concept of jizya is seen in the Quranic verse 9:29. YUSUFALI: Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. PICKTHAL: Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low. SHAKIR: Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection. Now, irrespective of the spin that the likes of Zakir Naik and Bilal Philips use (by calling Jizya a normal tax to be paid by Non Muslims), the verse clearly points to the payment of jizya as a form of subjugation. The key words from the above translations are subdued, being brought low, state of subjection etc. So, jizya, is a

form of subjugation of non-Muslims by the Muslims. And the bottomline is that Muslims, in the above verse, are being mandated to fight non-Muslims till the non-Muslims pay jizya. Jizya and Hadiths: Jizya is found in many places in the Hadiths and the consistent theme being that this tax is levied on nonMuslims by Muhammad himself or by Caliphs after Muhammad as a way out, for the non-Muslims, against death enforced by Muslim commanders or battle against a Muslim army or continuance as a non-Muslim. While there are a number of verses from Hadiths that can be quoted on jizya, here are a few for starters. Sahih Muslim: Book 19, Number 4294 states that Muhammad commanded his military leaders to demand jizya from non-Muslims if they refused to accept Islam, and to fight them if they refused to pay. Book 32, Number 6328 states that Hisham passed by Syrian farmers who had been detained for jizya and made to stand in the sun, and Number 6330 states that he came by some Nabateans who had been detained in connection with the dues of jizya. Book 42, Number 7065 states that that Muhammad collected jizya from the people of Bahrain. Sahih Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386 states that Muhammad commanded Al-Mughira and his army to fight non-Muslims until they worshiped Allah alone or gave jizya. Volume 2, Book 24, Number 559 states that the King of Aila wrote to Muhammad that his people agreed to pay the jizya tax in return for being allowed to stay in their place. Sunan Abu-Dawud: Book 19, Number 3031 states that Muhammad captured Ukaydir, the Christian prince of Dumah, and spared his life and made peace with him on the condition that he paid jizya Al-Muwatta: Al-Muwatta of Malik Book 17, Number 17, 24, 42 states that Muhammad collected jizya from the Magians (Zoroastrians) of Bahrain, Umar ibn al-Khattab from Magians of Persia, and Uthman ibn Affan from the Berbers. Book 17, Number 17.24.44 states that Umar ibn al-Khattab imposed a jizya tax of four dinars on those living where gold was the currency, and forty dirhams on those living where silver was the currency. As well, they had to provide for the Muslims and receive them as guests for three days.

Approval from Islamic Scholars

The Muslims do not fight anyone until they have told them about the religion of Allaah and given them the choice between two things, either accepting Islam or, if they refuse Islam and keep their own religions, paying the Jizyah (tax) to the Muslims in return for protection. If they refuse both of these choices, then they are to be fought. Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid If some people persist in rejecting the religion of Allaah and stand in the way of ruling by that which Allaah has revealed on earth, or they fight against the call to Allaah, then we give them the choice of three things: Either they become Muslim; or if they refuse they pay the jizyah (whereby they pay a specified amount to the Muslims in return for being allowed to remain their land, and the Muslims undertake to protect them); or, if they refuse that, there is nothing left but the way which they themselves have chosen, which is fighting and dealing violently with those who have persecuted the Muslims and put obstacles in the path of the Islamic dawah. In this way the Muslims will gain the upper hand and the enemies will be humiliated; then when we have killed and wounded many of them and gained the upper hand over them, we may take prisoners and bind a bond firmly on them. Ahkaam al-Sijn wal-Sujana wa Muaamalat al-Sujana fil-Islam by Hasan Abil-Ghuddah, 256 "Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi, Imam of the mosque of King Fahd Defense Academy, discussed the coming Muslim conquest of the Vatican. Citing a Hadith in an article posted on the Kalemat website in 2002, he stated:"[2]

" We will control the land of the Vatican; we will control Rome and introduce Islam in it. Yes, the Christians, who carve crosses on the breasts of the Muslims will yet pay us the Jiziya [poll tax paid by nonMuslims under Muslim rule], in humiliation, or they will convert to Islam" Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi "It may happen that the enemies of Islam may consider it expedient not to take action against Islam, if Islam leaves them alone in their geographical boundaries to continue the lordship of some men over others and does not extend its message and its declaration of universal freedom within their domain. But Islam cannot agree to this unless they submit to its authority by Jizyah..." Milestones (Ma'alim 'ala Al-Tariq) p.73 Sayyid Qutb This is the aim of Jihad with the Jews and the Christians and it is not to force them to become Muslims and adopt the `Islamic Way of Life.' They should be forced to pay Jizyah in order to put an end to their independence and supremacy so that they should not remain rulers and sovereigns in the land. These powers should be wrested from them by the followers of the true Faith, who should assume the sovereignty and lead others towards the Right Way, while they should become their subjects and pay jizyah... [The Islamic State] cannot allow that they should remain supreme rulers in any place and establish wrong ways and impose them on others. As this state of things inevitably produces chaos and disorder, it is the duty of the true Muslims to exert their utmost to bring to an end their wicked rule and bring them under a righteous order. As regards the question, "What do the non-Muslims get in return for Jizyah?" it may suffice to say that it is the price of the freedom which the Islamic State allows them in following their erroneous ways, while living in the jurisdiction of Islam and enjoying its protection. The money thus collected is spent in maintaining the righteous administration that gives them the freedom and protects their rights. This also serves as a yearly reminder to them that they have been deprived of the honor of paying Zakat in the Way of Allah, and forced to pay jizyah instead as a price of following the ways of error. Commentary on Qur'an Chapter 9:29 Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Tafhim al-Qur'an

[edit] Jizyah in History

"Not only Alamgir compiled Fatawa-u-Alamgiri, he re-imposed jizya (a tax on non-Muslims for protection under Muslim rule) that had been suspended by Akbar, destroyed some unauthorized temples and checked proselytizing activities of the Hindus." The Historical Roots of Islamic Militancy in Pakistan and current scenario: Amicus Mohammed Yousuf, May 19, 2005 Once Muhammad Bin Qasim had established himself in Sindh he sent a letter to the Muslim Caliph in Damascus, seeking instruction as to how he should deal with the Hindus and Buddhists of the conquered area. The reply came that they be treated in accordance with the Quranic commandments relating to the People of the Book (Ahl-i-Kitab), the Jews and the Christians. Accordingly, the Buddhists and the Hindus of Sindh were to be given full freedom to practise their faiths, and their lives and property, including temples, were to be protected. In return, they were to pay a tax, the jizya. The old, the sick, children and priests were to be exempted from the tax. The non-Muslims were not obliged to perform military service, unlike the Muslims. Following these dictates, Muhammad Bin Qasim thus set a precedent which several other Muslim rulers after him followed. Idolatry and the Taliban

[edit] Jizyah in the Modern World

"The general plan of Hamas also includes the imposition of a special tax, called al-jeziya, upon all of the nonMuslim residents in the Palestinian territories. This tax revives the one applied through all of Islamic history to the dhimmi, the second-class Jewish and Christian citizens."

The Mayor of Bethlehem is Christian, but Its Hamas Thats in Charge Sandro Magister, Chiesa News, December 29, 2005 "In the recent violence, residents of the Baghdad neighborhood of Dora said gunmen knocked on the doors of Christian families, demanding they either pay jizya a special tax traditionally levied on non-Muslims or leave. The jizya has not been imposed in Muslim nations in about 100 years." Christians Fleeing Violence in Iraq The Associated Press, Fox News, May 07, 2007 The Taliban in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) have issued an ultimatum against local Hindus and Sikhs: either you pay jizya, an Islamic poll tax for religious minorities that is akin to protection money, or you leave. Many (more than 400)Hindu and Sikh families have already left for Peshawar and neighbouring provinces. Threats against Sikhs and Hindus are but the latest in a series of warnings against religious minorities in the NWFP, including Christians who have had to pay jizya and submit to Sharia. We were living under fear: fear of the Taliban, fear of Lashkar-e-Islam and fear of other armed groups, a Sikh man told the Daily Times Hindus and Sikhs threatened by the Taliban and Sharia Fareed Khan, Asia News, July 28, 2009 Eight members of the minority Christian community have been kidnapped in Pakistan's troubled Waziristan tribal region, reports said today. Militants and criminals in Pakistan's lawless tribal belt have targeted minorities like Hindus, Sikhs and Christians. There have been several instances of members of minority communities being abducted for ransom or forced to pay 'jiziya', a tax levied on non-Muslims. 2009 - Eight Christians kidnapped in Pakistan, Jizya May be Behind Abductions A human rights organization has learned that a Christian businessman was shot eight times in the legs while driving through Lahore, Pakistan after refusing to pay protection money to a Muslim. Mobeena, [the Christians sister], told ICC, Suqlain is still free and hanging around. The government has done nothing to help us, even though my brother is a prominent businessman. We feel insecure, our children are too scared to go out anymore - please help us, we need justice. Christian Shot Eight Times for Refusing to Pay Protection Money Jeremy Reynalds, ASSIST News Service, July 22, 2009 According to the [Chaldean Cultural Association for Peace in Iraq] associations survey, property of at least 500,000 Christians were taken away and 200,000 Christians were forced to pay extortion money, while dozens others were kidnapped then released for ransom. Before 2003, there were around 2.1 million Christians in Iraq, but now there are not more than 500,000 of them, Masho said. He criticized the Iraqi government for being unable to protect Christians, and said that it did not even fulfill its promises to compensate them. 1960 Christians killed in Iraq since 2003 survey Aswat al-Iraq, December 26, 2009 This past year there have been several disturbing incidents in the neighborhood of outer Nrrebro. In October, a refugee from Africa had his door kicked in several times and was threatened by a group of youths who accused him of being both black and Christian. He was given a deadline of less than a week to pay them 10,000 kroner (1,800 USD) if he wanted to live in the area. Police told him that they could no longer guarantee his safety in Mjlnerparken [Muslim ghetto in Copenhagen, Denmark]. When Lejerbo (the company renting out apartments in the area) found him, he was crying and had slept on the street. On the other side of the fence Nicolai Sennels (Translator), Weekendavisen (Danish daily, not online), March 1, 2012

[edit] Disguised Jizyah

In Denmark, Muslims make up 5% of the population but receive 40% of social-welfare outlays. Their preachers have told them, Mr. Bawer reports, that only a fool would not take maximum advantage of the bounty that Western Europe offers and that it is perfectly legitimate to cheat and lie. The benefits they receive are a kind of jizya, the tribute that infidels in Muslim-occupied countries have to pay to preserve their lives. (The subsidized-radical situation in Britain and Germany is not much different: The four suicide bombers in London last year had raked in close to a million dollars in social benefits before going on their murderous mission.) A Dire Continental Drift: While Europe Slept by Bruce Bave Walter Laqueur, Wall Street Journal, February 18, 2006 The Jizyah has "not been imposed" since European pressure and power has been brought to bear. But nonMuslims have been subject to a disguised Jizyah. Despite the supposed reforms that were to bring complete legal equality to non-Muslims in Turkey, in World War II the Varlik Vergesi was a large tax imposed by the government on non-Muslim citizens, who despite Kemalism, or perhaps because of it, have never been considered "Turks" equal to Muslim "Turks." In Malaysia the non-Muslims have been subject to the disguised Jizyah of the Bumiputra system, which favors economically the Muslims, and essentially involves a transfer of wealth from the more industrious and entrepreneurial non-Muslims (Chinese and Hindus) to Muslims (Malays, but not the members of the indigenous tribes, which were christianized, or remained pagan -- and only now are being islamized through intense pressure and Da'wa campaigns). Elsewhere, as in Pakistan and Bangladesh, the Hindus and Christians live in a state of permanet physical danger, and that danger also is one of losing their property to Muslim looters and marauders who cannot be sued or brought to justice on the say-so of a non-Muslim. The Jews of the Arab world fled -- nearly one million of them -- leaving their property, which was the last transfer of wealth. In Egypt, under Nasser, the property of most Jews and the Levantine Christains -- Greeks, Italians, and others -- were "nationalized" as Nasser put it. But this was nothing more than the seizure of Infidel property by Muslim governments. Copts in Egypt do not pay a direct Jizyah. But there are other ways to force local Christians, constantly fearful for their own well-being, to have them pay off, or take as local partners, Muslims who may protect them. There is no security for the property of non-Muslims in Muslim lands, and there are various ways in which the "protection money" that is the Jizyah is paid, often in indirect, informal, and disguised ways, when the more direct imposition would attract too much unwanted Western attention and, presumably, outrage.