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learning: as defined by psychologists is a relative permanent change in behaviour, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and

cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation

MODULE 5A: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING classical conditioning: one of the simplest forms of learning an association is made between one stimulus and another stimulus: any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds PAVLOV AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING What was Pavlov's major contribution to psychology? organized and directed research in psych @ the Institute of Experimental medicine in St. Petersburg Russia won Nobel Prize (1904) for digestion experiments studied the conditional reflexes in dogs for rest of his career wrote Conditional Reflexes THE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING The Reflex: We Can't Help It reflex: involuntary response to a particular stimulus conditional: "learned" unconditional: "unlearned", inborn, automatic response The Conditional and Unconditional Stimulus and Response How is classical conditioning accomplished? unconditioned response: unconditioned stimulus: any stimulus that can bring forth an unconditioned response conditioned stimulus: conditioned response: Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery: Gone But Not Forgotten How does extinction occur in classical conditioning? extinction: the weakening and eventual disappearing of a kerned response spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of a response though weaker and shorter Generalization: Responding to Similarities What is MODULE 5B; OPERANT CONDITIONING Skinner and Operant Conditioning How are responses required through operant conditioning? operant conditioning: a method for conditioning voluntary responses doesn't begin with presentation of stimulus to elicit a response b/c response comes first consequences of behaviour are manipulated to to increase/decrease the frequency of a response or to shape a new one reinforcer: anything that strengthens a response or increases the probability that response will occur behaviour that is ignored or punished less likely to be repeated operant conditioning permits learning of many new responses

Shaping Behaviour: Just a Little Bit at a Time How is shaping used to condition a response? shaping: gradually moulding a desired behaviour by reinforcing responses that become progressively

closer to it technique employed by B. F Skinner (authority on operant conditioning) skinner box: soundproof operant conditioning apparatus designed by Skinner

MODULE 5C: COMPARING CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING What processes are compare able in classical and operant conditioning? generalization, discrimination, extinction, and spontaneous recovery occur in both both depend on associative learning classical conditioning -> association formed between two stimuli classical conditioning focus on what is before response / operant conditioning focus on what follows response classical conditioning subject passive responds to environment / operant conditioning subject is active operates on environment exceptions to most general principles MODULE 5D: BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION: CHANGING OUR ACT What is behaviour modification? behaviour modification: method of changing behaviour through a systematic program based on the principles of learning-classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning most programs use the principles of operant conditioning many institutions use behaviour modification use techniques b/c provide restricted environment where consequences of behaviour can be strictly controlled some institutions use a token economy token economy: program that motivates desirable behaviour by reinforcing it w/ tokens tokens exchanged for goods ppl in program know what/how behaviour will be reinforced used effectively in mental hospitals positive behaviour general stops when tokens are discontinued MODULE 5E: COGNITIVE LEARNING cognitive processes: mental processes like thinking, knowing, problem solving, and remembering Observational Learning: Watching and Learning What is observational learning? behaviour/responses learned through observing behaviour of others/consequences (modelling) model = one demonstrating behaviour effectiveness related to status, competence, power other important factors = age, sex, attractiveness, ethnicity performance of learned behaviour depends on whether or not model is rewarded or punished observational learning used to acquire new responses or weaken existing responses useful in unfamiliar situations inhibitions can be weakened or lost ( peer pressure) fears can be acquired Learning Aggression: Copying What We See aggressive behaviour particularly subject to observational learning suggested that aggression and violence on tv/cartoons leads to aggression in children