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DNV Marine Operations’ Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

DNV Marine Operations’ Rules for Subsea Lift Operations Simplified Methods for Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces Tormod
DNV Marine Operations’ Rules for Subsea Lift Operations Simplified Methods for Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces Tormod

Simplified Methods for Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

Tormod Bøe DNV Marine Operations 29th November 2011

Content

Content

Brief overview of relevant DNV publications

DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996,

Pt.2 Ch.5 Lifting Capacity Checks

Simplified Methods for prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

o

in Splash Zone, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.4

o

in Deepwater, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.5

Relevant DNV Publications

Relevant DNV Publications

Lifting- and subsea operations :

DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of

Marine Operations 1996

DNV-OS-H101 Marine Operations, General - 2011

’Specially planned, non-routine operations of

limited durations, at sea. Marine operations are

normally related to temporary phases as e.g. load transfer, transportation and installation.’

and

load transfer, transportation and installation.’ and Specially planned non-routine operations DNV-OS-E402

Specially planned non-routine operations

DNV-OS-E402 Offshore

Standard for Diving Systems October 2010

Offshore Standard for Diving Systems October 2010 DNV Standard for Certification No.2.22 Lifting Appliances

DNV Standard for Certification

No.2.22 Lifting Appliances

October 2011

Certification No.2.22 Lifting Appliances October 2011 DNV Standard for Certification No. 2.7-3 Portable Offshore

DNV Standard for Certification No. 2.7-3 Portable Offshore Units May 2011

for Certification No. 2.7-3 Portable Offshore Units May 2011 Routine operations DNV Marine Operations' Rules for

Routine operations

2.7-3 Portable Offshore Units May 2011 Routine operations DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Relevant DNV Publications - Other

Relevant DNV Publications - Other
Relevant DNV Publications - Other  DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads October 2010 
Relevant DNV Publications - Other  DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads October 2010 

DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads October 2010

Conditions and Environmental Loads October 2010  DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in Marine and Subsea
Conditions and Environmental Loads October 2010  DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in Marine and Subsea

DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in

Marine and Subsea Operations, January

2003

DNV-RP-H102 Marine Operations during

Removal of Offshore Installations,

April 2004

DNV-RP-H103 Modelling and Analysis of

Marine Operations, April 2011

Relevant DNV Publications - WebSite

Relevant DNV Publications - WebSite

Most DNV publications can be downloaded for free at:

http://www.dnv.com

The 1996 DNV Rules for Marine Operations is not in the DNV intranet site.

Content

Content

Brief overview of relevant DNV publications

DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996,

Pt.2 Ch.5 Lifting Capacity Checks

Simplified Methods for prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

o

in Splash Zone, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.4

o

in Deepwater, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.5

Capacity Checks - DNV 1996 Rules

Capacity Checks - DNV 1996 Rules

Part 2

Chapter 5

Dynamic loads, lift in air

Crane capacity

Rigging capacity,

(slings, shackles, etc.)

Structural steel capacity

(lifted object, lifting points,

spreader bars, etc.)

(lifted object, lifting points, spreader bars, etc.) Dynamic loads for subsea lifts are estimated according to

Dynamic loads for subsea lifts are estimated according to DNV-RP-H103

Capacity Checks DAF for Lift in Air

Capacity Checks – DAF for Lift in Air

Dynamic loads are accounted for by using a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF).

DAF in air may be caused by e.g. variation in hoisting speeds or motions of crane vessel and lifted object.

The given table is applicable for

offshore lift in air in minor sea states,

typically Hs < 2-2.5m.

DAF must be estimated separately for lifts in air at higher seastates and for

subsea lifts !

for lifts in air at higher seastates and for subsea lifts ! Table 2.1 Pt.2 Ch.5

Table 2.1

Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.2.2.4.4

Capacity Checks - Crane Capacity

Capacity Checks - Crane Capacity

The dynamic hook load, DHL, is

given by:

DHL = DAF*(W+Wrig) + F(SPL)

ref. Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.2.4.2.1

W is the weight of the structure, including a weight inaccuracy factor

The DHL should be checked against available crane capacity

The crane capacity decrease when the lifting radius increase.

crane capacity decrease when the lifting radius increase. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Capacity Checks - Sling Loads

Capacity Checks - Sling Loads

Example :

Capacity Checks - Sling Loads Example : The maximum dynamic sling load, Fsling, can be calculated

The maximum dynamic sling load, Fsling,

can be calculated by:

Fsling = DHL∙SKL∙kCoG∙DW / sin φ

ref. Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.2.4.2.3-6

where:

SKL = Skew load factor extra loading

caused by equipment and fabrication tolerances.

kCoG = CoG factor inaccuracies in estimated position of centre of gravity.

DW = vertical weight distribution DWA = (8/15)∙(7/13) in sling A.

e.g.

φ = sling angle from the horizontal plane.

e.g.  φ = sling angle from the horizontal plane. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea

Capacity Checks - Slings and Shackles

Capacity Checks - Slings and Shackles

The sling capacity ”Minimum breaking load”, MBL, is checked by:

F

sling

MBL

sling

γ sf

The safety factor is minimum sf 3.0.

(Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.3.1.2)

”Safe working load”, SWL, and ” MBL, of the shackle are checked by :

a) F sling < SWL∙ DAF

and

b)

F sling < MBL / 3.3

Both criteria shall be fulfilled (Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.3.2.1.2)

Both criteria shall be fulfilled ( Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.3.2.1.2) DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift
Both criteria shall be fulfilled ( Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.3.2.1.2) DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Capacity Checks Structural Steel

Capacity Checks – Structural Steel

Lifting points:

The load factor f = 1.3, is increased by a consequence factor, C = 1.3, so that total design faktor, design , becomes:

design = cf = 1.3 ∙ 1.3 = 1.7

The design load acting on the lift point becomes:

Fdesign = design∙ Fsling = 1.7∙ Fsling

A lateral load of

minimum 3% of the design load shall be included. This load acts in the shackle bow !

(ref. Pt.2.Ch.5 Sec.2.4.3.4)

load of minimum 3% of the design load shall be included. This load acts in the

Other lifting equipment:

A consequence factor of C = 1.3

should be applied on lifting yokes,

spreader bars, plateshackles, etc.

Structural strength of Lifted Object:

The following consequence factors

should be applied :

Structural strength of Lifted Object: The following consequence factors should be applied :

Table 4.1

Pt.2 Ch.5 Sec.4.1.2

Capacity Checks Summary

Capacity Checks – Summary

Check

Compute

Apply

DAF

Capacity Checks – Summary Check Compute Apply DAF DHL F sling  Lift in air: VMO

DHL

Capacity Checks – Summary Check Compute Apply DAF DHL F sling  Lift in air: VMO

F sling

Lift in air: VMO Rules Pt.2 Ch.5

Subsea lift: DNV-RP-H103

Crane

capacity

Pt.2 Ch.5  Subsea lift: DNV-RP-H103 Crane capacity  Weight of lifted object and lifting equipment

Weight of lifted object and lifting equipment

Capacity of lifting

equipment

Skew load, CoG and sling angle

Safety factors

 Skew load, CoG and sling angle  Safety factors DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea

Content

Content

Brief overview of relevant DNV publications

DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996,

Pt.2 Ch.5 Lifting Capacity Checks

Simplified Methods for prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

o

in Splash Zone, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.4

o

in Deepwater, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.5

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - DNV-RP-H103

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - DNV-RP-H103

The Recommended Practice; DNV-RP- H103 Modelling and Analysis of Marine

Operationswas issued april 2009. Latest

revision is april 2011.

A Simplified Method for calculating hydrodynamic forces on objects lifted through wave zone is included in chapter 4.

This Simplified Method supersedes the calculation guidelines in DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996, Pt.2 Ch.6.

in DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996, Pt.2 Ch.6. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Assumptions

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Assumptions

The Simplified Method is based upon the

following main assumptions:

the horizontal extent of the lifted object is small compared to the wave length

the vertical motion of the object is equal the vertical crane tip motion

vertical motion of object and water dominates

other motions can be disregarded

The intention of the Simplified Method is to

give simple conservative estimates of the forces acting on the object.

conservative estimates of the forces acting on the object. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

New Simplified Method - Assumptions

New Simplified Method - Assumptions
New Simplified Method - Assumptions Time-domain analysis: • Coupled multi-body systems with individual forces and

Time-domain analysis:

Coupled multi-body systems with individual

forces and motions.

Wind, wave and current forces.

Geometry modelled.

Motions for all degrees

of freedom computed.

Non-linearities included.

Coupling effects.

Continous lowering simulations.

Varying added mass.

Statistical analysis of responses.

Visualization of lift.

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Crane Tip Motions

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Crane Tip Motions

The Simplified Method is unapplicable if the crane tip oscillation period or the wave period is close to the resonance period, Tn , of the hoisting system

to the resonance period, Tn , of the hoisting system T n 2   M

T n

2

M  A 33 K
M  A
33
K

Heave, pitch and roll RAOs for the vessel should be combined

with crane tip position to find

the vertical motion of the crane tip

If operation reference period is within 30 minutes, the most probable largest responses may

be taken as 1.80 times the

significant responses

Unless the vessel heading is fixed, vessel response should be analysed for wave directions at

least ±15° off the applied vessel

heading

at least ±15° off the applied vessel heading DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Wave Periods

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Wave Periods

There are two alternative approaches:

Alt-1) Wave periods are included:

Analyses should cover the following zero- crossing wave period range:

8.9

H s g
H s
g

T

z

13

A lower limit of Hmax=1.8·Hs=λ/7 with wavelength λ=g·T z 2 /2π is here used.

with wavelength λ=g·T z 2 /2π is here used. Alt-2) Wave periods are disregarded: Operation procedures

Alt-2) Wave periods are disregarded:

Operation procedures should in this case reflect that the calculations are only valid for

waves longer than:

T

z

10.6

H S g
H
S
g

A lower limit of Hmax=1.8·Hs=λ/10 with wavelength λ=g·T z 2 /2π is here used.

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Wave Kinematics

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Wave Kinematics
Alt-1) Wave periods are included: The wave amplitude, wave particle velocity and acceleration can be
Alt-1) Wave periods are included:
The wave amplitude, wave particle
velocity and acceleration can be taken as:
 a
 0.9  H
S
4
2 d
2
T g
z
e
4
2 d
2
2
T g
z

 

2

v w

a

  

T

z

 

2

e

a w

a

  

T

z

a w   a      T z  d : distance

d

:

distance from water plane to CoG of

submerged part of object

Alt-2) Wave periods are disregarded:

The wave particle velocity and acceleration can

be taken as:

 0 . 30  g Hs e  0.35 d  0.10 g e
0 . 30
g Hs e
0.35 d
0.10 g e
H s

0 . 35 d

H s

v

w

a

w

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

Slamming impact force

Slamming forces are short-term impulse forces that acts when the structure hits the water surface.

A S is the relevant slamming area on the exposed structure part. Cs is slamming coeff.

The slamming velocity, v s , is :

is slamming coeff. The slamming velocity, v s , is : v s 2 ct 
is slamming coeff. The slamming velocity, v s , is : v s 2 ct 

v s

v s 2 ct  v 2 w  v  v c

2

ct

v

2

w

v v

c

vc = lowering speed

vct = vertical crane tip velocity

vw = vertical water particle velocity at water surface

Varying buoyancy force

Varying buoyancy, Fρ , is the change in

buoyancy due to the water surface

elevation.

δV is the change in volume of displaced water from still water surface to wave crest or wave trough.

water from still water surface to wave crest or wave trough. F    

F

V g

~ 2 ct 2   w a  V  A  

~

2

ct 2

w

a

V A

ζa = wave amplitude

ηct = crane tip motion amplitude

Ãw = mean water line area in the wave surface zone

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

Drag force

Drag forces are flow resistance on submerged

part of the structure. The drag forces are related to relative velocity between object and water particles.

The drag coefficient, CD, in oscillatory flow for complex subsea structures may typically be CD ≥ 2.5.

Relative velocity are found by :

be C D ≥ 2.5. Relative velocity are found by : 2 v r  v
be C D ≥ 2.5. Relative velocity are found by : 2 v r  v
2 v r  v  v  v 2 c ct w
2
v r
 v 
v
 v
2
c
ct
w

vc = lowering/hoisting speed

vct = vertical crane tip velocity

vw = vertical water particle velocity at water depth , d

Ap = horizontal projected area

Mass force

“Mass force” is here a combination of inertia force, Froude-Kriloff force and diffraction

force.

Crane tip acceleration and water particle acceleration are assumed statistically independent.

particle acceleration are assumed statistically independent.   F    2   M
  F    2   M  A  a 


F 
2
M
 A
 a
 V  A
 a
2
M
33
ct
33
w
 M = mass of object in air

A33 = heave added mass of object

act = vertical crane tip acceleration

V = volume of displaced water relative to the still water level

aw = vertical water particle acceleration at water depth, d

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Basics

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Basics

Properties:

Mass, M [kg]

Volume, V [m 3 ]

Added mass, A 33 [kg]

Forces:

Weight [N]

Buoyancy [N]

A 3 3 [kg] Forces: • Weight [N] • Buoyancy [N] Weight = M*g moon Buoyancy
Weight = M*g moon
Weight = M*g moon
Buoyancy = ρ*V*g Weight = M*g
Buoyancy = ρ*V*g
Weight = M*g

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Hydrodynamic added mass for flat plates

Zone - Added Mass Hydrodynamic added mass for flat plates Example: Flat plate where length, b

Example:

Flat plate where length, b, above breadth, a, is

b/a = 2.0 :

where length, b , above breadth, a , is b/a = 2.0 :  4 2

4

2 b

A

3 3

0.76

a

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Added Mass Increase due to Body Height

The following simplified approximation of the

added mass in heave for a three-dimensional body with vertical sides may be applied :

A

3 3o

  2 1      1  A 3 3 
2
1 
1
A 3 3
2( 1
 2 )
where

and

A p h  A p
A
p
h
 A
p

A33o = added mass for a flat plate with a shape equal to the horizontal projected

area of the object

h = height of the object

Ap = horizontal projected area of the object

Added Mass Increase due to Body Height 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1+SQRT((1-lambda^2)/(2*(1+lambda^2))) 1.2
Added Mass Increase due to Body Height
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1+SQRT((1-lambda^2)/(2*(1+lambda^2)))
1.2
1.1
1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
ln [ 1+ (h/sqrt(A)) ]
A33/A33o
1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 ln [ 1+ (h/sqrt(A)) ] A33/A33o DNV Marine Operations'

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Added Mass from Partly Enclosed Volume

A volume of water partly enlosed within large plated surfaces will also contribute to the added mass, e.g.:

The volume of water

inside suction anchors

or foundation buckets.

The volume of water between large plated mudmat surfaces and roof structures.

between large plated mudmat surfaces and roof structures. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Added Mass

Added Mass Reduction due to Perforation

Recommended reduction:

A

33

A

33

S

1.0

if p < 5

A

33

A

33

S

0.7

0.3 cos( p 5 ) / 34

A

33

A

33

S

10 p

e

28

if

5 < p < 34

if

34 < p < 50

A 33S = added mass for a non- perforated structure.

Effect of perforation on added mass 1 e^-P/28 BucketKC0.1-H4D-NiMo BucketKC0.6-H4D-NiMo 0.9 BucketKC1.2-H4D-NiMo
Effect of perforation on added mass
1
e^-P/28
BucketKC0.1-H4D-NiMo
BucketKC0.6-H4D-NiMo
0.9
BucketKC1.2-H4D-NiMo
BucketKC0.5-H0.5D-NiMo
BucketKC1.5-H0.5D-NiMo
0.8
BucketKC2.5-H0.5D-NiMo
BucketKC3.5-H0.5D-NiMo
PLET-KC1-4
Roof-A0.5-2.5+
0.7
Hatch20-KCp0.5-1.8
Hatch18-KCp0.3-0.8
BucketKC0.1
0.6
BucketKC0.6
BucketKC1.2
RoofKCp0.1-0.27
0.5
RoofKCp0.1-0.37
DNV-Curve
Mudmat CFD
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Perforation
0
10
20
30
40
50
Added Mass Reduction Factor

No reduction applied in added mass when perforation is small. A significant drop in the added mass for larger perforation rates. Reduction factor applicable for p<50.

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Hydrodynamic Forces

The hydrodynamic force is a time dependent function of slamming impact force, varying buoyancy, hydrodynamic mass forces and drag forces. In the Simplified Method the forces may be combined as follows:

F

hyd

( F  F ) 2  ( F  F ) 2 D slam
(
F
F
)
2
(
F
F
)
2
D
slam
M

The structure may be divided into main items and surfaces contributing to the hydrodynamic force

Water particle velocity and acceleration are related to the

vertical centre of gravity for each

main item. Mass and drag forces contributions are then summarized :

F

M

F

M i

i

F

D

F

D i

i

FMi and FDi are the individual force contributions from each main item

are the individual force contributions from each main item DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example

The static and hydrodynamic force should be calculated for different stages. Relevant

load cases for deployment of a protection structure could be:

Load Case 1

Still water level beneath top of ventilated buckets

Slamming impact force, Fslam, acts on top of buckets. Inertia force to be included.

Varying buoyancy force, Fρ , drag force, FD and hydrodynamic part of mass force, FM are negligible.

Load Case 2

Still water level above top of buckets

Slamming impact force, Fslam, is zero

Varying buoyancy, Fρ , drag force, FD and mass force, FM, are calculated. Velocity and acceleration are related to CoG of submerged part of structure.

are related to CoG of submerged part of structure. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift
are related to CoG of submerged part of structure. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example

Load Case 3

Still water level beneath roof cover.

Slamming impact force, Fslam, acts on the roof cover.

Varying buoyancy, Fρ , drag force, FD and mass force, FM are calculated on the rest of the structure. Drag- and mass forces acts mainly on

the buckets and is related to a depth, d, down to CoG of submerged part of the structure.

Load Case 4

Still water level above roof cover.

Slamming impact force, Fslam, and varying buoyancy, Fρ, is zero.

Drag force, FD and mass force, FM are calculated

individually. The total mass and drag force is

sum of the individual load components, e.g. :

FD= F Droof + F Dlegs + F Dbuckets applying correct CoGs

the

+ F D b u c k e t s applying correct CoGs the DNV Marine
+ F D b u c k e t s applying correct CoGs the DNV Marine

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example
Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Load Cases Example DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Static Weight

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Static Weight
Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Static Weight  In addition, the weight inaccuracy factor should be
Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Static Weight  In addition, the weight inaccuracy factor should be

In addition, the weight inaccuracy factor should be applied

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - DAF

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - DAF

Capacity Checks

The capacities of crane, lifting equipment and lifted object are checked as for lift in air. The following relation should be applied:

DAF

F total

Mg

where

Mg : weight of object [N]

Ftotal : is the characteristic total force on the (partly or fully) submerged object. Taken as the

largest of;

F total = F static-max + F hyd

or

F total = F static-max + Fsnap

+ F hyd or F total = F static-max + Fsnap  F static-max is the

Fstatic-max is the maximum static weight of the submerged object including flooding and weight inaccuracy factor

Fhyd is the hydrodynamic force

Fsnap is the snap load (normally to be avoided)

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Slack Slings

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Slack Slings

The Slack Sling Criterion.

Snap forces shall as far as possible be avoided. Weather crietria should be adjusted to ensure this.

The following criterion should be

fulfilled in order to ensure that snap loads are avoided:

F hyd

0.9 F

static min

Fstatic-min = weight before flooding, including a weight reduction implied by the weight inaccuracy factor.

a weight reduction implied by the weight inaccuracy factor. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift
a weight reduction implied by the weight inaccuracy factor. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Results

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Results

Tables can be computed giving an overview of

operable

seastates

Maximum allowable Fhyd

is derived from

max allowable

DAF and the slack sling criterion

Red results are above installation limit

”Outside” means non-existent seastates

Hydrodynamic force on object, Fhyd Tz\Hs 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Hydrodynamic force on object, Fhyd
Tz\Hs
0.5
1.0 1.5
2.0 2.5
3.0 3.5
4.0

2.0

12.24

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

8.33

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

6.14

20.45

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

Outside

3.29

10.19

20.89

26.17

39.52

2.87

8.73

17.76

2.57

7.70

15.57

85.00
85.00
85.00

85.00

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.5

13.0

2.35

6.92

13.90

23.30

2.16

6.27

12.53

20.94

2.00

5.72

11.36

18.92

1.85

5.24

10.34

17.17

35.10

49.32

65.96

31.49

44.18

59.02

76.01

28.40

39.79

53.10

68.33

25.72

35.98

47.97

61.68

1.73

4.82

9.46

15.65

23.39

32.68

43.52

55.91

1.62

4.45

8.68

14.32

21.36

29.81

39.66

50.91

1.52

4.13

8.01

13.17

19.60

27.31

36.30

46.56

1.43

3.84

7.42

12.16

18.06

25.13

33.37

42.76

1.36

3.59

6.90

11.27

16.71

23.22

30.79

39.44

1.29

3.37

6.43

10.48

15.51

21.53

28.52

36.50

1.23

3.17

6.02

9.78

14.45

20.03

26.51

33.90

1.17

2.99

5.66

9.16

13.50

18.69

24.71

31.58

1.12

2.83

5.33

8.60

12.65

17.49

23.10

29.50

1.07

2.69

5.03

8.09

11.89

16.41

21.65

27.62

1.03

2.55

4.75

7.63

11.19

15.42

20.34

25.93

 
 

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Summary

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Summary

Check

Compute

Apply

No slack slings

F d, F m, F slam and F ρ

Apply No slack slings F d, F m, F slam and F ρ F hyd DAF

F hyd

No slack slings F d, F m, F slam and F ρ F hyd DAF 

DAF

Object motion equal crane tip

Wave kinematics dependent on assumed Hs,Tz seastate

Different deployment levels

Structure divided in main items

deployment levels  Structure divided in main items DAF within capacity requirements DNV Marine
deployment levels  Structure divided in main items DAF within capacity requirements DNV Marine

DAF within capacity

requirements

divided in main items DAF within capacity requirements DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations
divided in main items DAF within capacity requirements DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Summary

Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Summary The simplified method assumes that: • Vertical motion of structure
Simplified Method, Splash Zone - Summary The simplified method assumes that: • Vertical motion of structure

The simplified method

assumes that:

Vertical motion of structure is equal to the crane tip motion.

The horizontal

extension of the structure is small.

Only vertical motion is present.

More accurate

calculations can be performed applying:

Regular design wave approach (Ch. 3.4.2)

Time domain

analyses

CFD analyses

Content

Content

Brief overview of relevant DNV publications

DNV Rules for Marine Operations, 1996,

Pt.2 Ch.5 Lifting Capacity Checks

Simplified Methods for prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

o

in Splash Zone, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.4

o

in Deepwater, DNV-RP-H103 Ch.5

Deepwater Operations - Challenges

Deepwater Operations - Challenges

Challenges :

Static weight at crane tip

increases linearly with cable

length.

The resonance period of the

lifting system increases with cable length. Dynamic forces may increase due to resonant amplification induced by the

vertical crane tip motion.

amplification induced by the vertical crane tip motion. DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations

Dynamic Forces Vertical resonance

Dynamic Forces – Vertical resonance
Dynamic Forces – Vertical resonance DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations 29. November 2011

Simplified Method, Deepwater - Assumptions

Simplified Method, Deepwater - Assumptions

DNV-RP-H103 Chapter 5 includes a simplified

method for estimating dynamic response of

lowered object.

The following main assumptions are applied:

the subsea structure is lowered into deepwater and is unaffected by wave forces

the vertical motion of crane tip and subsea structure dominates → other motions can be disregarded

Offset due to current forces is disregarded

Heave compensation systems are not taken into account

 Heave compensation systems are not taken into account DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Case Study Main Data

Case Study – Main Data

The subsea structure mass is 97 tonnes

Water depth is 3000 m

The crane cable is a conventional steel wire

No heave compensation system

a conventional steel wire  No heave compensation system DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift
a conventional steel wire  No heave compensation system DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Case Study Crane Tip Motion

Case Study – Crane Tip Motion

Lift at side of crane vessel

Wave heading

15° off bow

RAO in heave,

pitch and roll are combined in

order to find the

vertical motion at the crane tip

Vessel’s natural period in roll at

T=9s dominates

 Vessel’s natural period in roll at T=9s dominates DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift

Case Study Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Case Study – Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Comparison with a

non-linear time-

domain FE analysis

Dynamic amplification 20% higher at natural period T 0 =9s

Dynamic amp. at T=1.5s due to longitudinal pressure waves

No wave energy at T=1.5s, hence deviation is acceptable

No wave energy at T=1.5s, hence deviation is acceptable Cable length L=2750m DNV Marine Operations' Rules

Cable length L=2750m

Case Study Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Case Study – Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Transfer functions

for dynamic load

in cable and crane tip motion are combined with a wave

spectrum S(ω)

Jonswap wave spectrum with Hs=2.0m and Tp=9s is applied

Most probable

largest response for dynamic force in cable is found by:

largest response for dynamic force in cable is found by: A duration time t =30 minutes
largest response for dynamic force in cable is found by: A duration time t =30 minutes

A duration time t =30 minutes gives F d =530kN in this case

Case Study Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Case Study – Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Calculations are repeated for a range of seastates

Hs=2.0m gives acceptable dynamic loads for all wave periods

Natural period of the lifting system is

T 0 =9s

 Natural period of the lifting system is T 0 =9s DNV Marine Operations' Rules for

Case Study Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Case Study – Dynamic Load at Lifted Object

Calculations are repeated for a range of cable

lengths

Max Fd for all Tz values

Fd<0.9*Fstatic

in order to avoid

risk of snap

loads due to slack slings; Fd < 68t

Capacity

requirement of

crane and cable

governs for cable lengths above L>2250m due to weight of

cable

Non-operable seastates
Non-operable
seastates

Simplified Method, Deepwater - Summary

Simplified Method, Deepwater - Summary

DNV-RP-H103 chapter 5 contains a simplified method for

establishing dynamic loads and limiting weather criteria during

deepwater lifting operations

Most probable largest dynamic load in the lifting line is computed

taking into account dynamic amplification due to resonance

effects

The simplified method is well suited for common spreadsheet

programs or other computer software for engineering

calculations.

Questions ??

Questions ??
Questions ?? DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations 29. November 2011 Slide 49
DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations 29. November 2011 Slide 50
DNV Marine Operations' Rules for Subsea Lift Operations 29. November 2011 Slide 50