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Presented to the

LIBRARY of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

by

Mr. J. R. McLeod

"V,.

A TREATISE

ON THE

MATHEMATICAL THEORY

OF

ELASTICITY

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,

C. F. CLAY, Manager.

EonSon: FETTER LANE, E.G.

SUugoia: M. WELLINGTON STREET.

Itipjifl: F. A. BR0CKHAU8.

fiiitt gotk: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

JSombag an* ealtulta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.

[^{2 Right* reterved.]

A TREATISE

ON THE

MATHEMATICAL THEORY

OF

ELASTICITY

BY

A. E. H. LOVE, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.

FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

HONORARY FELLOW OF QUEEN's COLLEGE, OXFORD

SEDLEIAN PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

SECOND EDITION

Cambridge :

at the University Press

1906

CTambrtliBe:

PBINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE CNIVEBSITY PRESS.

PREFACE.

rpHIS book is a second edition of one with the same title which was

-*-

published by the Cambridge University Press in two volumes bearing

the dates 1892 and 1893.

At the time, about five

years ago, when it first

became necessary to think seriously about a new edition, a number of friends

had sent me criticisms of particular sections of the book and suggestions for

improvement in matters of detail. Among these friends Prof W. J. Lewis

and Prof. W. M'^F. Orr must be named with especial gratitude.

I knew then

that two or three Chapters ought to be rewritten, and that the results of

several new researches ought to be incorporated, but I did not contemplate a

very extensive revision. The task of rearranging the old matter, with some

considerable additions and a few slight omissions, became so distasteful, and

the result appeared so unsatisfactory, that at length I abandoned the attempt,

and wrote a new book containing some extracts from the old one.

The

science of Elasticity the mechanics of solid bodies as they really are is

so important in itself, and the physical notions and analytical processes

belonging to the theory are .so widely used in other branches of Physics,

that no apology seems to be necessary for the course that has been pursued. In the selection, and the mode of presentation, of the matter three objects

have been kept in view :

to make the book useful to engineers, or others,

whose aims are chiefly practical, to emphasize the bearing of the theory on

general questions of Natural Philosophy, to afford a reasonably complete

picture of the state of the science as it is to-day.

The desire to be useful

has led me to undertake some rather laborious arithmetical computations,

physical interest has prompted something more than a passing reference to

several matters which lie outside the strict scope of the mechanical theory,

completeness has required the inclusion of some rather long analytical

At the same time, purely technical matters, such as descrip-

investigations.

tions of apparatus and calculations relating to particular structures, have

been excluded ; related subjects, such as the production of strain by unequal

VI

PREFACE

heating, the rendering of glass doubly refracting by strain, the theory of the

luminiferous medium regarded as an elastic solid, have received but a slight

measure of attention ; detailed discussion of problems of which the interest

is mainly mathematical has been kept within rather narrow bounds.

Numerous references to authorities on these, as well as on other, matters

have, however, been introduced.

One change which has been made may perhaps require a word of defence. The notation for components of stress and components of strain is different

from that adopted in the first edition. A wish for this change was expressed

to me in several quarters, and I have myself been much impressed with the advantages of a notation which conveys its own meaning. Although I still

think that Kelvin and Tait's notation, which was adopted before, has many

merits, yet I did not feel that I should be justified in neglecting the repre-

sentations that had been made to me.

The student to whom the subject is new is advised to turn as early as possible to Chapter V, where he will find a condensed recapitulation of the

most essential parts of previous Chapters, some indications of the kind of

problems which can be treated mathematically, and of methods of dealing

with them, and a number of results of which

investigation, will be useful to him as exercises.

the verification, or direct

It remains to attempt to express my thanks to those who have helped

me with this book.

Three friends have laid me under especially heavy

obligations : Prof. J. Larmor and Prof. H. Lamb have read most of the proofs,

and have sent me many kindly criticisms and many helpful suggestions in regard to matters of principle ; and Prof. H. M. Macdonald has read all the

proofs, and his vigilance has detected many misprints and errors of detail.

Dr A. Timpe, who is translating the book into German, has also kindly

called my attention to a few passages which needed correction ; and the

scrupulous care which he has bestowed upon the translation leads me to

hope that few serious errors remain.

To the Syndics of the Press my thanks

are due for their kindness in acceding to my proposal to print the new

edition in a single volume, and the readiness with which the staff of the

Press have met all my wishes in regard to printing and diagrams deserves

more than a word of recognition.

OxFOBD, December, 1905.

A. E. H. LOVE.

CONTENTS.

Historical Introduction.

PAGE

1

Scojje of Hi.story. Galileo's enquiry. Enunciation of Hooke's Law.

Mariotte's in-

vestigation.s.

The problem of the elastica. Euler's theory of the stability of

struts. Researches of Coulomb and Young. Euler's theory of the vibrations of

bars. Attempted theory of the vibrations of bells and plates. Value of the

researches made before 1820. Navier's investigation of the general equations.

Imi)ulse given to the theory by Fresnel. Cauchy's first memoir. Cauchy and

Poi.sson's investigations of the general equations by means of the "molecular"

hypothesis. Green's introduction of the strain-energy-function. Kelvin's appli- cation of the laws of Thermodynamics. Stokes's criticism of Poisson's theory.

The controvei-sy concerning the number of the "elastic constants." Methods of solution of the general problem of equilibrium. Vibrations' of solid bodies.

Propagation of waves. Technical problems. Saint-Venant's theories of torsion

and flexiu-e. Equipollent loads. Simplifications and extensions of Saint-Venant's

theories. Jouravski's treatment of shearing stress in beams. Continuous beams.

Kirchhoff's theory of springs.

Criticisms and applications of Kirchhoff's theory.

Vibrations of bars.

Impact.

Dynamical resistance.

The problem of plates.

The KirchhofF-Gehring theorj". Clebsch's modification of this theory. Later

researches in the theory of plates. Conclusion.

The problem of shells.

Elastic stability.

Chapter I. Analysis ok strain.

ART,

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Extension

Pure Shear

Simple Shear

Displacement

Displacement in simple extension and simple shear

Homogeneous strain

Relative displacement Analysis of the relative displacement Strain corresponding with small displacement

Components of strain

The strain quadric

Transformation of the components of strain

32

3.3

33

3.5

3,5

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

viii

CONTENTS

ART.

13. Additional methods and results

14 Tyjies of strain, {a) Uniform extension, (6) Simple extension, (t) Shearing strain, \d) Plane strain

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

Relations connecting

the dilatation, the rotation and the displacement

Resolution of any strain into dilatation and shearing strains

Identi&il relations between components of strain

Displacement corresponding with given strain

.

.

Cur\ilinear orthogonal

Comjwuents of strain i-eferred to curvilinear orthogonal coordinates

coordinates

.

Dilatation

Cylindrical and polar coordinates

and rotation referred to curvilinear orthogonal coordinates .

.

.

.

.

.

I'AGK

-13

44

46

.47

49

50

51

.53

.54

56

Appendix to Chapter I. The general theory of strain.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

Introductory

Strain corresponding with any displacement

Cubical dilatation

Reciprocal strain ellipsoid

Angle between two curves altered by strain

Strain ellipsoid

Alteration of direction by the strain

Application to cartography

57

57

59

.60

60

61

62

63

31.

Conditions satisfied by the displacement

63

32.

Finite homogeneous strain

64

33.

Homogeneous pure strain

65

34.

Analysis of any homogeneous strain into a pure strain and a rotation .

.

.67

35.

Rotation

67

36.

Simple extension

68

37.

Simple shear

68

38.

Additional results relating to shear

69

39.

Comiwsition of strains

69

40.

Additional results relating to the composition of strains

70

Chapter II. Analysis of stress.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

Introductory . Traction across a plane at a point

Surface tractions and body forces

Equations of motion Equilibrium

Law of equilibrium of surface tractions on small volumes

Specification of stress at a point

Mea.sure of stress

Transformation of stress-components The stress quadric

Tyi)e8 of streas.

(a) Purely normal stress, (6) Simple tension or jiressure,

(c) Shearing stress, {d) Plane stress

72

72

73

74

76

75

75

.77

78

79

79

AllT.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

CONTENTS

Resolution of any stress-system into uniform tension and shearing sti-ess

Additional results

The stress-equations of motion and of equilibrium

Uniform stress and uniformly varying stress

Observations concerning the stress-equations

Graphic representation of stress

Stress-equations referred to curvilinear orthogonal coordinates

Special cases of stress-equations referred to curvilinear orthogonal coordinates

IZ

PAGE

81

81

82

84

85

86

87

89

Chapter III. The elasticity of solid bodies.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

69.

70.

71.

Introductory Work ;iud energy

E.xistence of the strain-energy -function

Indirectness of e.xperimental results

Hooke's Law

Form of the strain-energy-function

Elastic constants

Methods of determining the stress in a body

Form of the strain-energy-function for isotropic solids

Elastic constants and moduluses of isotropic solids

Observations concerning the stress-strain relations in isotropic solids

Magnitude of elastic constants and moduluses of some isotropic .solids

.

.

.^

/"T

^

,-

72. Elastic consfamts in general

73.

Moduluses of elasticity

'

.

.

74. Thermo-elastic equations

75.

Initial .stress

.

.

.

.

.

90

90

.92

.

.

.

.

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

103

103

104

106

107

Chapter IV. The relation between the mathematical

theory of elasticity and technical mechanics.

I

76.

77.

78.

79.

80.

81.

82.

83.

84.

Limitations of the mathematical theory

Stress-strain diagrams . Elastic Hmits

Time-eflfects.

Plasticity

Viscosity of solids

.

jEolotropy induced by permanent set

Repeated loading

Hypotheses concerning the conditions of rupture

Scope of the mathematical theory of elasticity .

110

111

113

114

116

116

lie

117

119

Chapter V. The equilibrium of isotropic ela.stic solids.

85.

86.

Recapitulation of the general theory

Uniformly varying stress, (a) Bar stretched by its own weight, (b) Cylinder

immersed in fluid, (c) Body of any form immersed in fluid of same density,

(rf) Round bar twisted by couples

122

123

X

CONTENTS

AKT.

87.

88.

89.

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

Biir bent by couples Discussion of the .solution for the bending of a bar by terminal couple

Saint-Venant's principle

Bectaugular plate bent by couples

Equations of equilibrium in terms of displacements

Equilibrium under surface tractions only

Various methods and results

Plane strain and plane stress

Bending of narrow rectangular beam by terminal loa<l

Equations referred to orthogonal cm-vilinear coordinates .

Polar coordinates

Radial displacement. Spherical shell under internal and external pressure.

.

.

.

.

Compression of a sphei-e by its own gravitation

Displacement symmetrical about an axis

Tube under pressure

Application to gun construction

Rotating cylinder. Rotating shaft. Rotating disk

.

.

.

.

.

I'AGE

124

.127

129

129

130

132

133

134

136

138

138

139

140

141

.143

143

Chapter VI. Equilibrium of .eolotkopic elastic solid bodies.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.

Symmetry of structure

Geometrical symmetry

Elastic symmetry

Isotropic solid

Symmetry of crystals

Clas.sification

of crystals

Elasticity of crystals

Various tyjws of symmetry

Material with three rectangular planes of symmetry. Moduluses

Extension and bending of a bar

Elastic constants of crystals. Results of experiments

Curvilinear asolotropy

Chapter VII. General theorems.

115.

116.

117.

118.

119.

120.

121.

122.

123.

124.

125.

126.

127.

128.

The variational equation of motion

Applications of the variational equation

The general problem of equilibrium

Uniqueness of solution

Theorem of minimum energy

.

Theorem concerning the i)0tential energy of deformation .

 

.

The reciprocal theorem

Determination of average strains

Average strains in an isotropic solid body

The general problem of vibrations. Uniqueness of solution

 

Flux of energy in vibratory motion

Free vibrations of elastic solid bodies

General theorems relating to free vibrations

.

.

.

.

Load suddenly applied or suddenly reversed

146

147

148

152

152

154

156

157

 

.

.

.158

 

159

160

161

163

164

166

167

 

.

168

.

.

.

170

 

170

171

172

173

174

175

.

.

.177

178

CONTENTS

XI

Chapter VIII. The transmission of force.

ART.

129.

130.

131.

132.

133.

134.

135.

136.

137.

138.

139.

140.

141.

142.

Introductory

Force at a point

First type of simple solutions Typical nuclei of strain

Local perturbations

Second type of simple solutions

Pressure at a point on a plane boundary Distributed pressure

Pressure between two bodies in contact. Gleometrical preliminaries

Solution of the problem of the pressure between two bodies in contact Hertz's theory of impact

Impact of spheres

Effects of nuclei of strain referred to polar coordinates

Problems relating to the equilibrium of cones

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

FAQS

180

180

182

183

186

187

188

189

190

192

195

197

198

200

Chapter IX. Two-dimensional elastic systems.

143.

144.

145.

146.

147.

148.

149.

150.

151.

Introductory Displacement corresponding with plane strain Displacement corresponding with plane stress

Generalized plane stress

Introduction of nuclei of strain

Force operative at a point Force operative at a point of a boundary Case of a straight boundary

Additional results (i) the stress function, (ii) normal tension on a segment of

a straight edge, (iii) force at an angle

152.

153.

Typical nuclei of strain in two dimensions

Transformation of plane strain

154. Inversion

201

201

203

206

205

206

207

208

208

209

211

212

155.

156.

Equilibrium of a circular disk under forces in its plane, (i) Two opposed forces at points on the rim. (ii) Any forces applied to the rim. (iii) Heavy

disk on horizontal plane .

.

.

.

Examples of transformation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.213

216

Chapter X. Theory of the integration of the equations

OF equilibriu.\i of an isotropic elastic solid body.

157.

158.

159.

160.

161.

162.

Nature of the problem

Re-sume of the theory of Potential

Description of Betti's method of integration

Formula for the dilatation

Calculation of the dilatation from surface data

Formula: for the components of rotation .

217

218

220

221

223

SS4

xil

CONTENTS

ART.

163. Calculation of the rotation from surface data

164.

165.

166.

167.

168.

169.

170.

Body

bounded by plane FormulsB for the dilatation

Body bounded by jilane Given surface displacements

Body bounded by plane Given surface tractions

Historical Note

Body bounded by plane Additional results

Formula) for the displacement and strain .

Outlines of various methods of integration

.

PAGE

224

225

227

228

230

231

232

234

Chapter XI. The equilibrium of an elastic sphere and

RELATED PROBLEMS.

171.

172.

173.

174.

175.

176.

177.

178.

179.

180.

181.

182.

183.

184.

185.

186.

187.

188.

189.

Introductory

Solution in spherical harmonics of positive degrees The sphere with given surface displacements

Generalization of the foregoing solution, (i) Integration by means of poly-

nomials,

surface displacement,

by means of series

(ii) Body force required to maintain a state of strain with zero

(iii) General method for integrating the equations

The sphere with given surface tractions

Conditions restricting the prescribed surface tractions

Surface tractions directed normally to the boundary

Solution in spherical harmonics of negative degrees

Sphere subjected to forces acting through its volume. Particular solution

Sphere deformed by body force only

Gravitating incompressible sphere

Deformation of gravitating incompressible sphere by external forces

Gravitating nearly spherical body Rotating sphere

Tidal deformation. Tidal effective rigidity of the Earth

Plane strain in a circular cylinder

Applications of curvilinear coordinates

.

.

.

Symmetrical strain in a solid of revolution

Symmetrical strain in a cylinder

236

236

238

239

240

243

244

245

246

247

248

250

263

263

266

257

259

260

263

Chapter XII. Vibrations of spheres and cylinders.

190.

191.

192.

193.

194.

195.

196.

197.

198.

199.

200.

201.

202.

Introductory

Solution by means of spherical harmonics

Formation of the boundary conditions for a vibrating sphere

Incompres.sible material

Frequency equations for vibrating sphere

Vibrations of the finst class

Vibrations of the second class

Further investigations of the

vibrations of spheres

Radial vibrations of a hollow sphere

Vibrations of a circular cylinder

Torsional vibrations

Longitudinal vibrations

Transverse vibrations

.

.

.

265

266

268

271

271

272

273

274

274

276

276

276

278

CONTENTS

Xiii

Chapter XIII. The propagation of waves in elastic

SOLID MEDIA.

ART.

203.

204.

205.

206.

207.

208.

Introductory

Waves of dilatation and waves of distortion

Motion of a surface of discontinuity.

Motion of a surface of discontinuity. Dynamical conditions

Kinetnatical conditions

Velocity of waves in isotropic medium

Velocity of waves in Eeolotropic solid medium

.

.

209. Wave-surfaces

.

210.

211.

212.

213.

214.

Motion determined by the characteristic equation

Arbitrary initial conditions

Motion due to body forces

Additional results relating to motion due to body forces

Waves propagated over the .surface of an