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ELE806 Al t er nat i ve Ener gy Syst ems


Topi c 7
Doubl y Fed I nduc t i on Gener at or WECS
Bi n Wu Professor
Dept of Electrical & Computer Eng.
Ryerson University
Cont ac t I nf o
Tel: (416) 979-5000 ext: 6484 Tel: (416) 979-5000 ext: 6484
Email: bwu@ee.ryerson.ca
Nordex N100, 2.5MW DFIG
1. Introduction
DFI G WECS
Mai n Topi c s
2. Super and Subsynchronous Operation
3. Steady State Model of DFIG
4. Unity Power Factor Operation
5. Leading and Lagging Power Factor Operation
2
6. Stator Voltage Oriented Control of DFIG WECS
7. DFIG WECS Startup and Experiments
2
I nt r oduc t i on
Syst em Conf i gur at i on
2MW(example)
0.6MW 0.6MW
3
BlockdiagramofDFIGWECS
Note: Converterpowerrating:0.3xgeneratorratedpower
2MW
I nt r oduc t i on
Syst em Conf i gur at i on
690V
DFIG
GB
Grid
0.6MW 0.6MW
RSC GSC
DFIGWECSwith2levelVSC
4
3
Rotorspeedrange:(0.6~1.2)
s
or(0.7~1.3)
s

s
isthesynchronousspeedofthegenerator
I nt r oduc t i on
Power -speed Char ac t er i st i c s
Subsynchronousspeed
operation:

r
<
s
Supersynchronousspeed
ti

3
r m
P e
operation:

r
>
s
5
Assumptions:
PowerlossesinDFIGand
convertersareignored.
I nt r oduc t i on
Power Fl ow i n DFI G WECS
P
m
mechanicalpower
P
s
statorpower
P
r
rotorpower
P
g
gridpower
Note:Powerflowintherotorandconvertersarebidirectional
Q:
Isittoomuchforthe
stator?
6
4
I
s
jX
ls
jX
lr
R
r
/s I
r
R
s
RSC
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFIGSteadystateEquivalentCircuit
DFI G St eady St at e Model
jX
m V
s
I
m
jX
eq
/s
V
r
/s
R
eq
/s
V
m Z
eq
/s
}
P
ag
Therotorsideconvertercanbe
modeledbyanequivalentimpedanceZ
eq
Q:HowtofindR
eq
andX
eq
?
7
I
s
jX
ls
jX
lr
R
r
/s I
r
R
s
RSC
Q:HowtofindR
eq
andX
eq
?
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
jX
m V
s
I
m
jX
eq
/s
V
r
/s
R
eq
/s
V
m Z
eq
/s
}
P
ag
Step 1 Find I given V and T (or P )
Note:
Thestatoris
connectedtothe
grid.
Step1 FindI
s
givenV
s
,
s
andT
m
(orP
m
)
Step2 FindV
m
andI
m
Step3 FindI
r
andV
r
Step4 FindR
eq
andX
eq
8
5
Theequivalentimpedanceoftheconverterisdefinedby
Dividing by the slip yields:
eq sl eq eq eq eq
L j R jX R Z e + = + =
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
Dividingbytheslipyields:
where
Step1 FindthestatorcurrentI
s
Assumingthatthestatoroperatesataunitypowerfactor,theairgappower
is given by
eq s eq eq sl eq eq
L j s R s L j s R s Z e e + = + = / / / /
s sl
se e =
isgivenby
Theairgappowercanalsobedefinedby
Combiningboth:
s s s s s m ag
I R I V I V P ) ( 3 3 = =
P
T
P
m s
ag
e
=
s s s s
m s
I R I V
P
T
) ( 3 =
e
0
3
2
= +
P
T
I V I R
m s
s s s s
e
(fromtheequivalentcircuit)
(fromthemachinetheory)
9
SolvingforI
s
:
0
3
2
= +
P
T
I V I R
m s
s s s s
e
m s s
s s
s
P
T R
V V
I
3
4
2
e

=
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
Step2 FindV
m
andI
m
Thevoltageacrossthemagnetizingbranchis
3P
s s s s
s
s
R 2
( )
ls s s
s s m L j R I V V e + =
where Note: Thestatorcurrentangleof180
isduetothegeneratingmodeandunitypowerfactoroperation.
Themagnetizingcurrentis
Z = Z = 180 and 0
s s s s
I I V V
m s
m
m
L j
V
I
e
=
10
6
m s r I I I =
Step3 FindI
r
andV
r
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
lr s
r
r m r L j
s
R
I V s V e /
( )
lr s r
r m r L js R I V s V e + =
I
s
jX
ls
jX
lr
R
r
/s I
r
R
s
I
m
RSC
R
eq
/s
}
jX
m V
s
jX
eq
/s
V
r
/s
q
V
m Z
eq
/s
}
P
ag
11
jX R
s V r
/ /
/
Step4 FindR
eq
andX
eq
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
fromwhich
s jX s R
I
eq eq
r
r
/ / + =
r
r
eq eq
I
V
jX R = +
}
12
7
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
Q: Physicalmeaningofpositiveand
negativeR
eq
fromthepowerflow
pointofview?
A:
R
eq
>0rotordeliverspowertothe
grid,supersynchmode;
R
eq
>0
R
eq
<0rotorabsorbspowerfrom
thegrid,subsynchmode;
SeeFig.8.36onSlide70
13
R
eq
<0
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
Consider:
DFIG:1.5MW/690V/1068A/50Hz/1750rpm
Q: Number of pole pairs?
DFI G St eady St at e Model
ParametersgiveninTableB5ofAppendixB
GeneratoroperateswithanMPPTscheme
MechanicaltorqueT
m
isproportionaltothesquareoftherotorspeed
Unitystatorpowerfactoroperation
Investigate relationshipbetweentherotorvoltage,rotorcurrent,andthe
Q: Numberofpolepairs?
A: P =2
equivalentimpedanceoftherotorsideconverterwhen
a)DFIGoperatesatsupersynchronousspeedof1750rpm
b)DFIGoperatesatsynchronousspeedof1500rpm,and
c)DFIGoperatesatsubsynchronousspeedof1200rpm.
14
8
a)DFIGoperatingatsupersynchronousspeed(1750rpm,rated)
Statorcurrent
Q: Synchronousspeed?
A: 1500rpm
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFI G St eady St at e Model
where
Voltageacrossthemagnetizingbranch
omitted) A 10 1.514 solution other (the A 2 . 1068
2
3
4
5
2
= =

=
s
s
s m s
s s
s
I
R
P
T R
V V
I
e
. 2 and m 25 . 6 , rad/sec 50 2 N.m, 1 . 8185 , V 3 / 690 = = = = = P R T V
s s m s
t e
A: 1500rpm.
Ratedtorqueduetotheratedrotorspeedof1750rpm
g g g
( )
3
690 / 3 0 1068.2 180 (0.00625 100 0.1687 10 )
401.2 56.6 405.2 8 V
s m s
s s ls
V V I R j L
j
j
e
t

= +
= Z Z +
= + = Z
15
Magnetizingcurrent
A 0 82 6 235 26 233 92 32 Z = = = j
V
I
m
m
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Therotorcurrent
Therotorvoltage
A 0 . 82 6 . 235 26 . 233 92 . 32 Z = = = j
L j
I
m s
m
e
A 0 . 168 6 . 1125 26 . 233 1 . 1101 Z = + = = j I I I m s r
( ) Z = + = 9 . 164 97 . 67
lr s r
r m r L js R I V s V e
wheretheslipis
Finally,theequivalentimpedancecanbecalculatedby
1667 . 0 / ) ( = =
s r s
s e e e
2751 . 0 05375 . 0 / j I V Z
r
r
eq
+ O = =

O =
O =
02751 . 0
05375 . 0
eq
eq
X
R
16
9
b)DFIGoperatingatthesynchronousspeed(1500rpm)
Statorcurrent
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFI G St eady St at e Model
where
Voltage across the magnetizing branch
omitted) A 10 1.511 solution other (the A 3 . 786
2
3
4
5
2
= =

=
s
s
s m s
s s
s
I
R
P
T R
V V
I
e
kN.m 0135 . 6 1851 . 8 ) 1750 / 1500 (
2
= =
m
T
Ratedvalues
(withMPPT)
Voltageacrossthemagnetizingbranch
( ) Z = + = + = 9 . 5 6 . 402 7 . 41 5 . 400 j L j R I V V
ls s s
s s m e
17
Magnetizingcurrent
A 1 . 84 1 . 234 82 . 232 23 . 24 Z = = = j
L j
V
I
m s
m
m
e
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Therotorcurrent
Therotorvoltage
where
j
m s
A 0 . 164 28 . 843 82 . 232 50 . 810 Z = + = = j I I I m s r
( ) V 16 2178 . 2 Z = = + =
r
r
lr s r
r m r R I L js R I V s V e
0 / ) ( = =
s r s
s e e e
Finally,theequivalentimpedanceis
O + = Z = = 0 . 0 00263 . 0 180 00263 . 0 / j I V Z
r
r
eq

= =
O = =
0
00263 . 0
eq sl eq
r eq
L X
R R
e
Q: Maindifferencesbetweena) andb)?
A: PayattentiontothecalculationofT
m
andslip.
18
10
c)DFIGoperatingatthesubsynchronousspeedof1200rpm
Calculatedresultsforthethreeoperatingmodes:
Case St udy 1 Equi val ent I mpedanc e of RSC
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Rotor Speed (rpm) 1200 1500 1750 (rated)
Slip 0.2 0 -0.1667 (rated)
T
m
[kN.m]

-3.849 -6.014 -8.185
r
V [V] Z 2 . 6 756 . 83 Z 0 . 16 218 . 2 Z 9 . 164 965 . 67
r
I [A]
Z 9 . 155 285 . 569 Z 0 . 164 281 . 843 Z 0 . 168 566 . 1125
Subsynch Synchronous Supersynch
R
eq
[] -0.126989 -0.00263 0.053751
X
eq
[] -0.074293 0 0.027513
19
Tor que Speed c har ac t er i st i c of DFI G
Toobtaintorquespeed
curves,usethesame
d i T i 3
DFI G St eady St at e Model
procedureasinTopic3
(generators),butinclude
theRSCequivalent
impedanceZ
eq
Note:
Different curves are Differentcurvesare
obtainedfordifferent
valuesofR
eq
andX
eq
20
11
St eady-st at e anal ysi s
Considerthesteadystateequivalentcircuit
DFI G St eady St at e Model
Neglectingrotationallosses,thetransferredanddissipatedpowersare

+ =
eq r r m
s s R R I P / ) 1 )( ( 3
2

=
=
=
=
s s s s
s s s cu
r r r cu
eq r r
eq r r m
I V P
R I P
R I P
R I P
cos 3
3
3
3
) )( (
2
,
2
,
2

+
=
mode synchronou - sub for
mode synchronou - super for
r s
r s
g
P P
P P
P
Powertransferredtothegrid
21
St eady-st at e anal ysi s
Powerflowdiagrams
DFI G St eady St at e Model
22
12
Considerthe1.5MW/690V DFIGoperatingunderthesameconditionsasthoseinCase
Study1.Investigatethesupersynchronous,synchronousandsubsynchronousmodes
ofoperation.
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1
Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
p
a)Operationattherotorspeedof1750rpm (supersynchronousmode)
WithrotorcurrentcalculatedinCaseStudy1,themechanicalpoweroftheDFIGcanbe
calculatedby
( )( )
( )( ) ( ) 1667 0 / 1667 0 1 263 00 0 05375 0 6 1125 3
/ 1 3
2
2
+ + =
+ = s s R R I P
r eq r m
(fromtheequivalentcircuit)
Alternatively,
( )( ) ( )
kW 1500
1667 . 0 / 1667 . 0 1 263 00 . 0 05375 . 0 6 . 1125 3
=
+ +
kW 1500 /60 2 1750 8185.1 = = = t e
m m m
T P (fromthemachinetheory)
23
Therotorpower
kW 29 . 204 05375 . 0 6 . 1125 3 ) ( 3
2
= = =
eq r r
R I P
Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1
Therotorandstatorwindinglosses
Thestatoractivepower
kW 0 . 10 ) ( 3
2
,
= =
r r r cu
R I P
kW 07 . 9 ) ( 3
2
,
= =
s s s cu
R I P
kW 64 . 1276 ) 180 cos( 2 . 1068 3 / 690 cos 3 = = =
s s s s
I V P
Generatingmode
withunityPF
Totalpowerdeliveredtothegrid
) (
s s s s

kW 1480.93 = + =
r s g
P P P
% 7 . 98 1500 / 93 . 1480 / = = =
m g
P P q
Efficiency:
24
13
b)OperationoftheDFIGatsynchronousandsubsynchronousmodes
Followingthesameproceduresina),thecalculatedresultsaregivenby

Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1
Operating Mode
Sub-synchronous
Operation
Synchronous
Operation
Super-synchronous
Operation

m
[rpm] 1200 1500 1750 (rated)
s Slip 0.2 0 -0.1667 (rated)
|T
m
| [kN.m] 3.849 6.014 8.1851
R
eq
[] -0.126989 -0.002630 0.053751
X
eq
[] -0.074293 0 0.027513
I
s
[A] 504.16 786.28 1068.22
I
r
[A] 569.29 843.28 1125.57
V
r
[V] 83.76 2.22 67.97
|P
m
| [kW] 483.64 944.61 1500.0
|P
r
| [kW] 123.47 5.61 204.29
P
cu,r
[kW] 2.56 5.61 10.0
P
cu,s
[kW] 2.02 4.92 9.07
|P
s
|

[kW] 602.53 939.69 1276.64
|P
g
|

[kW] 479.06 934.08 1480.93
25
PowerversusspeedcurvesoftheDFIGoperatingatsupersynchronous,synchronous
andsubsynchronousmodes
Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1
26
14
c) Simplifiedcalculations
Inlargewindgenerators,thestatorresistanceissmall(<0.01pu)
Wh i i h i ( ) f h i b
Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1
Whenoperatingwithunity(stator)powerfactor,theairgappowercanbe
calculatedby
Thestatorcurrentcanthebecalculatedby
s s s s s s ag
I V I R I V P 3 ) ( 3 ~ =
s
s m
s
V
P T
I
3
/ e
=
WithI
s
calculated,allotheranalysiscanbeperformed.
Note: Thisisamuchsimplermethod,whichcanbeusedtofacilitate
analysisofnonunitypowerfactoroperationaswell.
s
27
Comparisonbetweennormalandsimplifiedcalculations
Operating Mode
Sub-synchronous
Operation
Super-synchronous
Operation
1200 rpm 1750 rpm
Uni t y Power Fac t or Oper at i on
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s w i t h PFs = 1

m
[rpm]
1200 rpm 1750 rpm
Method 1 Method 2 Error |%| Method 1 Method 2 Error |%|
s Slip 0.2 0.2 N/A -0.1667 -0.1667 N/A
|T
m
| [kN.m] 3.849 3.849 N/A 8.185 8.185 N/A
R
eq
[] -0.12699 -0.12671 0.22 0.05375 0.05339 0.26
X
eq
[] -0.07429 -0.07398 0.31 0.02751 0.02735 0.57
I
s
[A] 504.2 505.8 0.32 1068.2 1075.8 0.71
I
r
[A] 569.3 570.9 0.28 1125.6 1133.2 0.68
V
r
[V] 83.6 83.7 0.12 67.9 68.0 0.15
|P | [kW] 483 6 485 3 0 35 1500 1510 7 0 71
Summary: Errorscausedbysimplifiedcalculationsareverysmall.
|P
m
| [kW] 483.6 485.3 0.35 1500 1510.7 0.71
|P
r
| [kW] 123.5 123.9 0.34 204.3 205.7 0.68
P
cu,r
[kW] 2.557 2.571 0.55 9.996 10.13 1.3
P
cu,s
[kW] 2.020 2.034 0.69 9.071 9.201 1.4
|P
s
|

[kW] 602.5 604.5 0.34 1276.6 1285.7 0.71
|P
g
|

[kW] 479.0 480.6 0.33 1480.9 1491.4 0.77
28
15
d)Calculationswithleadingandlaggingpowerfactor
WithleadingorlaggingPF,thestatorcurrentcanbecalculatedby
s m
s
P T
I
e /
=
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s
Leadi ng and Laggi ng PF Oper at i on
Followingthesameprocedures,theresultsforsub,super andsynchronous
modeswithleadingandlaggingPFareasfollows:
s s
s
V cos 3
Stator PF

m
(rpm) 1200 1500 1750
s (Slip) 0.2 0 -0.1667
Leading PF
(0.95)
= 8 161
r
V [V] Z 7 . 5 89 . 86 Z 6 . 31 514 . 2 Z 3 . 165 67 . 73
r
I [A] Z 2 . 142 3 . 659 Z 4 . 148 9 . 955 Z 7 . 151 3 . 1259
= 8 . 161
s


R
eq
[] -0.0957 -0.00263 0.04277
X
eq
[] -0.0906 0 0.03992
Lagging PF
(0.95)
= 8 . 161
s

r
V [V] Z 9 . 6 65 . 80 Z 5 . 2 146 . 2 Z 1 . 164 30 . 62
r
I [A] Z 3 . 173 2 . 525 Z 5 . 177 9 . 815 Z 3 . 173 2 . 1117
R
eq
[] -0.1493 -0.00263 0.0550
X
eq
[] -0.0360 0 0.0089
29
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s
Leadi ng and Laggi ng PF Oper at i on
TorqueslipcurvesofDFIGoperatingwithaleading statorPFof0.95
30
16
Case St udy 2 St eady-st at e Anal ysi s
Leadi ng and Laggi ng PF Oper at i on
Tm (pu)
-2.0
Tm s curve
(R X )
Tm s curve
Req, Xeq (pu)
0 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.3 s (slip)
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0
Req = 0
Xeq = 0
with Req2, Xeq2
(Req1,Xeq1)
31
TorqueslipcurvesofDFIGoperatingwithalagging statorPFof0.95
0 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.3
Req, Xeq (pu)
Req
Xeq
s (slip)
-1.0
-0.5
0
0.5
1.0
Req2 = -0.165pu
Xeq2 = -0.029pu
Req1 = 0.098pu
Xeq1 = 0.024pu
Req
Xeq
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC
ThestatoroftheDFIGisdirectlyconnectedtothegrid.
Sincestatorvoltageisfixedbythegrid,itisconvenienttousevoltageoriented
control(VOC)insteadoffieldorientedcontrol(FOC)
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
s
v

dr
i
qr
i
( ) ( )
SpacevectordiagramofDFIGwithSVOCinthesupersynchronousmode
Statorvoltagevectoraligned
withthedaxisofthesynch
frame:
0 =
qs
v
s ds
v v =
r
i
qr
v
dr
v
r
v

s
i

Speedoftherotatingframe:
Slipangle:
s s
f t e 2 =

sl
=
s

r
32
17
DFIG
GB
RSC
Grid
~
GSC
v
s
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC syst em bl ock di agr am
PWM PWM
VOC
Controller
PI
dq/abc
PI
i
dr
i
qr
iar, ibr
v
dc

s
Calculator
abc/dq
r
s
sl
sl
v
dr
*
v
qr
*
v
ar,
v
br,
v
cr
* * *
v
as,
v
bs
v
dc
*
Q
*
GSC
v
ds
33
Q
i
qr
*
i
dr
*
GSC
MPPT

m T
e
ds m
s s
v PL
L
3
2e
m s
ds
L
v
e
*
m ds
s
L v
L
3
2
*
s
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC
Electromagnetictorqueisgivenby
) (
2
3
qs ds ds qs e
i i
P
T =
(8.53)intextbook
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Thestatorfluxlinkagesare
fromwhich

+ =
+ =
qr m qs s qs
dr m ds s ds
i L i L
i L i L


=
s
dr m ds
ds
L
i L
i

(8 55)
Substituting(8.56)into(8.54)yields


=
s
qr m qs
qs
L
i L
i

) (
2
3
qs dr ds qr
s
m
e
i i
L
PL
T + = (8.56)
(8.55)
34
18
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC
Thedqaxisstatorfluxlinkagescanalsobewrittenas


=
qs s qs
ds
i R v

St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol


Substituting(8.59)to(8.56),andassumingR
s
=0andv
qs
=0for
SVOC,wehave


=
s
ds s ds
qs
s
ds
i R v
e

PL 3
(8.59)
ds dr
s s
m
e
v i
L
PL
T
e 2
3
=
Note:
Withafixedstatorvoltage,torquecanbecontrolledbydaxisrotorcurrent.
(8.62)
35
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC
Bydefinition,theactiveandreactivepowerare

+ = ) (
2
3
qs qs ds ds s
i v i v P
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
With forSVOC,
Substituting(8.55)into(8.64)yields

= ) (
2
3
qs ds ds qs s
i v i v Q

=
=
qs ds s
ds ds s
i v Q
i v P
2
3
2
3
0 =
qs
v (8.64)
g ( ) ( ) y

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
qr m qs
ds s
s
dr m ds
ds s
L
i L
v Q
L
i L
v P

2
3
2
3
(8.65)
36
19
Pr i nc i pl es of SVOC
From(8.65)

+ =
ds s
d
s
dr
L
P
L v
L
i
1
3
2
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Theaboveequationcanberewrittenas

+ =
qs
m
s
m ds
s
qr
m m ds
L
Q
L v
L
i
L L v

1
3
2
3

= (a)
3
2

s
m ds
s
dr
P
L v
L
i
(8.66)

= (b)
3
2
m s
ds
s
m ds
s
qr
m ds
L
v
Q
L v
L
i
e
Note:Thestatoractiveandreactivepowercanbecontrolled
throughrotorcurrentsandvoltages!
(8.68)
37
DFIG
GB
RSC
Grid
~
GSC
v
s
Cont r ol Scheme
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
PWM PWM
VOC
Controller
PI
dq/abc
PI
i
dr
i
qr
iar, ibr
v
dc

s
Calculator
abc/dq
r
s
sl
sl
v
dr
*
v
qr
*
v
ar,
v
br,
v
cr
* * *
v
as,
v
bs
v
dc
*
Q
*
GSC
v
ds
Q
i
qr
*
i
dr
*
GSC
MPPT

m T
e
ds m
s s
v PL
L
3
2e
m s
ds
L
v
e
*
m ds
s
L v
L
3
2
*
s
(8.68b) (8.62)
38
20
Cont r ol Scheme
DFIG
GB
RSC
Grid
~
GSC
v
s
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
PWM
RSC
PWM
VOC
Controller
dq/abc
i
dr
i
qr
iar, ibr
v
dc

s
Calculator
abc/dq
r
s
sl
sl
v
dr
*
v
qr
*
v
ar,
v
br,
v
cr
* * *
GSC
v
as,
v
bs
* *
v
ds
39
PI PI
Q
i
qr
*
i
dr
*
v
dc Q
*
GSC
MPPT

m T
e
ds m
s s
v PL
L
3
2e
m s
ds
L
v
e
*
m ds
s
L v
L
3
2
*
s o
|
u
v
v
s
1
tan

=
(
(
(


=
(

cs
bs
as
v
v
v
v
v
2 / 3 2 / 3 0
2 / 1 2 / 1 1
3
2
|
o
(8.68b) (8.62)
Cont r ol Scheme
DFIG
GB
RSC
Grid
~
GSC
v
s
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
PWM
RSC
PWM
VOC
Controller
dq/abc
i
dr
i
qr
iar, ibr
v
dc

s
Calculator
abc/dq
r
s
sl
sl
v
dr
*
v
qr
*
v
ar,
v
br,
v
cr
* * *
GSC
v
as,
v
bs
* * v
d
(8.68b) (8.62)
PI PI

s
Q
i
qr
*
i
dr
*
v
dc Q
*
GSC
MPPT

m T
e
ds m
s s
v PL
L
3
2e
m s
ds
L
v
e
v
ds
*
m ds
s
L v
L
3
2
*
s
KeepV
dc
constant
Gridsidereactivepowercontrol
VOCController:
RefertoTopic4fordetails
40
21
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
Transientsfromsupersynchronoustosubsynchronousoperation
Consider:
1.5MW/690V DFIG
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Stepchangeinwindspeedareinvestigatedfrom1.0puto0.7pu
Rotationallossesareneglected(T
e
=T
m
insteadystate)
Systemparameters:
Induction generator
Generator ratings:
1.5MW/690V/50Hz/1750rpm/8.185kN.m
Generator parameters:
Table B-5 (Appendix B)
Torque reference at t = 0 pu) (1.0 kN.m 185 . 8
*
=
e
T
System input variables Reactive Power Reference for GSC 0
*
=
GSC
Q
DC link voltage reference
*
dc
v = 436.2 V
Control scheme Stator Voltage Oriented Control (SVOC) Fig. 8-14
41
Systemparameters(continued)
Converter type Two-level VSC
Modulation scheme Space vector modulation
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
Rotor-side converter
p
Switching sequence Seven segment; Table 4-4
Switching frequency 4 kHz
AC harmonic filter NO
dc link filter Capacitor 130.73 mF
Grid-side converter The same as RSC
Voltage/Frequency 690V/50Hz
Electric Grid
Voltage/Frequency 690V/50Hz
Line inductance (harmonic filter) 0.0775 mH
Moment of inertia Reduced for short simulation time 98.26 kg.m
2
(H=1.1 sec)
Reference Frame
Transformation
abc/dq transformation Eq. (3.1), Chapter 3
dq/abc transformation Eq. (3.2), Chapter 3
42
22
Torqueversusspeedcharacteristics
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
43
Powerversusspeedcharacteristics
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
44
23
Speedandtorquedynamicresponse
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Att=0.5s,mechanicaltorquegoesfromA toB duetostepchangeinwindspeed
ElectromagnetictorquecannotchangeabruptlysinceitdependsonMPPTwhichchanges
accordingtospeed(speedchangesslowlyduetoinertia)
45
Speedandtorquedynamicresponse
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Speeddecreasessincemechanicaltorquehasbeenreduced
SpeedreachessteadystatewhenTe isequaltoTm.
46
24
Rotorvoltage,rotorcurrent,andstatorcurrent
Rotorfrequencyvarieswith
speed
Case St udy 3 Dynami c per f or manc e of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
p
Aroundt=1ssystem
crossessynchronousspeed
Rotorfrequencyis0
RotorcurrentisDC
Rotorvoltageiszerosince
thereisnodropinL
eq
andL
lr
Rotorphasea currentleads
h b i phaseb currentinsuper
synchronousmode,butthis
reversesinthesub
synchronousmode
Valuesofstatorcurrentwill
becheckedinsteadystate
analysis.
47
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
With the same parameters ofCaseStudy 3andat0.7pu wind speed
Themechanicaltorqueofthegeneratoris
N m 7 4010 8185 ) 7 0 ( ) (
2 2
= = = T T e
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
The statorcurrentcanbecalculatedby
where
N.m 7 . 4010 8185 ) 7 . 0 ( ) (
, pu ,
= = =
R m m m
T T e
omitted) A 10 1.509 ( A 3 . 525
2
3
4
5
2
= =

=
s
s
s m s
s s
s
I
R
P
T R
V V
I
e
2 and m 25 6 rad/sec 50 2 V 3 / 690 = = = = P R V t e
Thevoltageofthemagnetizingbranchis
. 2 and m 25 . 6 , rad/sec 50 2 , V 3 / 690 P R V
s s s
t e
( )
3
690 / 3 0 525.3 180 (0.00625 100 0.1687 10 )
399.8 27.8 400.7 4.0 V
s m s
s s ls
V V I R j L
j
j
e
t

= +
= Z Z +
= + = Z
48
25
Themagnetizingcurrentiscalculatedby
Z = = = 0 . 86 0 . 233 42 . 232 19 . 16 j
L j
V
I
m
m
e
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Therotorcurrentis
Therotorvoltageisdeterminedby
L j
m s
e
Z = + = = 8 . 156 27 . 589 42 . 232 50 . 541 j I I I m s r
( ) Z = + = 5 . 6 99 . 76
lr s r
r m r L js R I V s V e
where
Thentheslipfrequencyatthe0.7purotorspeedis
rad/sec 58 . 57 50 2 1833 . 0 = = = t e e
s sl
s
1833 . 0 / ) ( = =
s r s
s e e e
(9.165Hz)
49
Thepeakvaluesoftherotorvoltageandrotorcurrentare

= = = pu) (0.664 A 25 . 833 27 . 589 2 2


r r
I i
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Therotorpowerfactorangleis
Theequivalentimpedancefortherotorsideconverteris

= = = pu) (0.273 V 9 . 108 99 . 76 2 2


r r
V v
= = 3 . 150 8 . 156 5 . 6
r

O + O = = 06472 . 0 11351 . 0 / j I V Z
r
r
eq
fromwhich

O =
O =
06472 . 0
11351 . 0
eq
eq
X
R
50
26
Themechanicalpowerofthegeneratoris
( )( )
( )( ) ( )
/ 1 3
2
2
+ = s s R R I P
r eq r m
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
Alternatively,
Therotorpoweris
The rotor and stator winding losses are
( )( ) ( ) kW 50 . 514 1833 . 0 / 1833 . 0 1 263 00 . 0 11351 . 0 27 . 589 3
2
= + + =
kW 50 . 514 /60 2 7 . 0 1750 7 . 4010 = = = t e
m m m
T P
kW 24 . 118 ) 11351 . 0 ( 27 . 589 3 ) ( 3
2 2
= = =
eq r r
R I P
Therotorandstatorwindinglossesare
Thestatoractivepoweris
, kW 74 . 2 ) ( 3
2
,
= =
r r r cu
R I P kW 19 . 2 ) ( 3
2
,
= =
s r s cu
R I P
kW 81 . 627 ) 180 cos( 89.27 5 3 / 690 cos 3 = = =
s s s s
I V P
Note:theDFIGoperatesasa
generatorwithunityPF
51
Thetotalpowerdeliveredtothegridis
kW 509.57 24 . 18 1 81 . 27 6 = = =
r s g
P P P
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
TheefficiencyoftheDFIGisthen
Thegridcurrentiscalculatedby
The peak grid current is
% 0 . 99 50 . 514 / 57 . 509 / = = =
m g
P P q
A 37 . 426
4 . 398 3
10 6 . 509
3
3
=


= =
g
g
g
V
P
I
Q:Whyisthegridcurrent
lower than stator current?
Thepeakgridcurrentis
Thepeakstatorcurrentis
pu) (0.48 A 0 . 603 37 . 426 2 2 = = =
g g
I i
(0.59pu) A 9 . 742 3 . 525 2 2 = = =
s s
I i
lowerthanstatorcurrent?
A: Becausethegridpoweris
equaltothestatorminusthe
rotorpowerinthesubsynch
mode
52
27
Verifyingsteadystatevaluesbysimulation
Case St udy 4 St eady-st at e anal ysi s of SVOC
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
53
Case St udy 5 Anal ysi s based on phasor di agr am
SameparametersasCaseStudy4.TheDFIGisoperatedat0.7purotorspeed(sub
synchronousmode)andunitystatorpowerfactor
Steadystatedqframephasordiagram
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
daxisalignedwiththestatorvoltagephasor
s
V
Note: dq axesinthisdiagramarestationaryforsteadystateanalysis
54
28
Thepeakvaluesoftherotorvoltageandcurrentarecalculatedby

= = = pu) (0.273 V 9 . 108 99 . 76 2 2


r r
V v
Case St udy 5 Anal ysi s based on phasor di agr am
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
whereV
r
andI
r
arethermsvaluescalculatedinCaseStudy4
Basedonthephasordiagram,therotordqaxisvoltagesare

= = = pu) (0.664 A 4 . 833 3 . 589 2 2


r r
I i

= =
= =
pu) (0.031 V 33 . 12 ) 5 . 6 sin( 9 . 108
pu) (0.272 V 2 . 108 ) 5 . 6 cos( 9 . 108
qr
dr
v
v
Therotordqaxiscurrents

pu) (0.03 V 33 . ) 5 . 6 s ( 9 . 08
qr
v

= =
= =
pu) (0.262 A 3 . 328 ) 8 . 156 sin( 4 . 833
pu) (-0.61 A 0 . 766 ) 8 . 156 cos( 4 . 833
qr
dr
i
i
55
Verificationwithsimulationresults
Case St udy 5 Anal ysi s based on phasor di agr am
St at or Vol t age Or i ent ed Cont r ol
56
29
St ar t up Pr oc ess
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
Systemblockdiagram
Step 1 Initial parking state
Wind peed is below cutin speed or above cutout speed
Switches SW1 and SW2 are open (usually electromechanical switches)
The turbine blades are pitched out of the wind
No torque is generated by the turbine
57
Step 2 Turbine acceleration and stator voltage generated
Wind speed surpasses cutin speed or reduces below cutout speed
St ar t up Pr oc ess
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
The turbine blades are pitched to produce starting torque (turbine rotates)
SW2 closes and power converters are energized
GSC controls dclink voltage to rated value
RSC provides excitation to the rotor, producing a rotating magnetic flux
A 3phase balanced voltage is induced in the stator
The stator voltage is monitored for synchronization with the grid
Torque reference is set to zero
No power is generated
58
30
Step 3 Synchronization of the voltage/frequency with the grid
During the rotor speed acceleration, both stator voltage and
St ar t up Pr oc ess
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
frequency are fully controlled by the rotorside converter
When the generator reaches a speed consistent with the MPPT of
the measured wind speed, the stator voltage, frequency and
phase angle are adjusted to match those of the grid for
synchronization synchronization
When the synchronization is achieved, SW1 is closed
The DFIG WECS is connected to the grid
59
Step 4 Power generation and optimal pitch angle
The torque or power reference is increased from zero to a value
St ar t up Pr oc ess
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
generated from the MPPT algorithm according to the measured
wind speed
The blade pitch angle is also adjusted to its optimal value
Maximum wind energy conversion efficiency is achieved
The startup process is completed.
60
31
St ar t up Pr oc ess Ex per i ment al Resul t s
Startupprocesswithrotorspeedat0.8pu(Steps1and2achieved)
ResultsshowStep3atwhichSW1isclosed
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
Statorcurrentdoesnotincreasedueto
perfectsynchronization
Rippleappearsinstatorcurrentdueto
switchingharmonics
61
St ar t up Pr oc ess Ex per i ment al Resul t s
Rotorcurrentsduringtransitionfromsuper tosubsynchronousspeed
Super synch S b h
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
Super-synch Sub-synch
i
ar
i
br
i
ar
i
br
TherotorcurrentsareDCwhen
crossingsynchronousspeed
ThePhasea rotorcurrentgoes
fromlaggingtoleadingthephaseb
rotorcurrentlikeseeninCase
Study4
500ms/div
62
32
Anglesofstatorvoltagevector,rotorpositionandslip
St ar t up Pr oc ess Ex per i ment al Resul t s
DFI G St ar t up and Ex per i ment s
Note: Therotorfrequencyisslowerthanthestatorfrequency;
TheDFIGisinsubsyncmodeofoperation.
63
Pr obl ems
DFIGunitypoweroperation:81,82
DFIGleading/laggingpoweroperation:813,814
DFIG steady state analysis of dq axis voltages/currents : 8 19 8 20
DFIGstatorvoltageorientedcontrol(SVOC):822,823
DFIGsteadystateanalysisofdqaxisvoltages/currents:819,820
64
33
65 65
65