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Plant Design for Production

of
n-Butyraldehyde
by
Hydroformylation of Propylene
Session: 2005-2009
P r o je c t A d v is o r s
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Noon
Mr. Muhammad Faheem P r o je c t
M e m b ers
Hafiz Sajid Sattar 2005-Chem-62
Muhammad Waqas 2005-Chem-86
Saeed Ur Rehman 2005-Chem-98
Saad Ullah Mirza 2005-Chem-74
D E P AR T M E N T OF C H E MI C A L E N GI N EE R I N G
UNIVERISITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
PLANT DESIGN FOR Production of
n-Butyraldehyde by
Hydroformylation of Propylene
This report is submitted to department of Chemical
Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology
Lahore- Pakistan for the partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the
Bachelors Degree
In
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Internal Examiner: Sign :
Name:
External Examiner Sign :
Name:
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERISITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
LAHORE-PAKISTAN
DEDICATED TO
Our Beloved Parents,
Respected Teachers,
And Sincere Friends!
Page i
ACKNOW LEDGEMENT
All praises to ALMIGHTY ALLAH, who provided us with the strength
to accomplish the final year project. All respects are for His HOLY
PROPHET (PBUH), whose teachings are true source of knowledge &
guidance for whole mankind.
Before anybody else we thank our Parents who have always been a
source of moral support and driving force behind whatever we do. We are
indebted to our project advisor Professor Dr. Muhammad Zafar Noon
for his worthy discussions, encouragement, inspiring guidance,
remarkable suggestions, keen interest, constructive criticism & friendly
discussions which enabled us to complete this report. He spared a lot of
his precious time in advising & helping us in writing this report. Without
his painstaking tuition, kind patronization, sincere coaching and
continuous consultation, we would not have been able to complete this
arduous task successfully.
We are also grateful to Prof. Dr. A.R. Saleemi , Dr. Ing. Naveed
Ramzan, Mr. Muhammad Faheem and Hafiz Zaheer Aslam for their
profound gratitude and superb guidance in connection with the project.
We are also thankful to librarians of National Library of Engineering
Sciences and Departmental Library.
Authors
Page ii
PREFACE
n-Butyraldehyde, also known as n butanal, is a colourless, flammable liquid
with a characteristic aldehydic ordourm. It was discovered shortly after 1860
and was prepared by the reduction of crotonaldehyde as early as 1880.
Butyraldehyde became a commercial chemical in the decade following World
War II. It is used chiefly as an intermediate in the production of synthetic
resins, rubbers accelerators, solvents and plasticizers. Because of large number of
condensation and addition reactions it can undergo, it is useful starting
material in the production of wide variety of compounds containing at least six to
eight carbon atoms. N-butanal also finds its application in Pakistan for vriety of
purposes.
Keeping these points in mind we urged to work & we are feeling great
to present our work on Production of n-Butanal by catalytic hydroformylation of
propylene . This report is divided in different sections. First of all the
introduction of n-butanal is given, which highlights its importance. Next are
different manufacturing processes for n-butanal production. Detailed
description of Production of n-Butanal by catalytic hydroformylation of
propylene is presented in preceding chapter. Afterwards material and energy
balance is presented.
In preceding chapters introduction to different equipments of plant along
with their designing procedure and specification sheets is presented.
Instrumentation & Control, HAZOP Study, EIA and Cost Estimation for
this plant are also included in this report.
A compact disc is also provided with report which includes soft copy of
this report and HYSYS simulation of this plant and other softwares.
Page iii
Table of Contents
CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER -2 PROCESS SELECTION 4
CHAPTER -3 CAPACITY SELECTION 9
CHAPTER -4 MATERIAL BALANCE 11
CHAPTER -5 ENERGY BALANCE 23
CHAPTER -6 DESIGN OF EQUIPMENTS 37
CHAPTER -7 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL 104
CHAPTER -8 HAZOP STUDY 116
CHAPTER -9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 125
CHAPTER -10 COST ESTIMATION 133
References 138
Page iv
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Normal-Butyraldehyde, also known as Aldehyde butyrique (French), Aldeide butirrica
(Italian), Butal, Butaldehyde, Butalyde, Butanal, n-Butanal (Czech), Butanaldehyde,
Butyl aldehyde, n - Butyl aldehyde, Butyral, Butyraldehyd (German) occurs naturally
in small quantities. It is isolated in small quantities in the essential oils of several
plants. It is also detected in oil of Lavender and Eucalyptus globules of california, in
tobacco smoke, in tea leaves and in other leaves.
Normal-Butyraldehyde is a colourless, flammable liquid with a characteristic
aldehydic ordourm. It is used chiefly as an intermediate in the production of synthetic
resins, rubbers accelerators, solvents and plasticizers. Because of large number of
condensation and addition reactions it can undergo, it is useful starting material in the
production of wide variety of compounds containing at least six to eight carbon atoms.
Butyraldehyde became a commercial chemical in the decade following World War II.
It was discovered shortly after 1860 and was prepared by the reduction of
crotonaldehyde as early as 1880.
Normal butyraldehyde is miscible with all common organic solvents, e.g.,
alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, glycols, and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons,
but is only sparingly soluble in water. It is an extremely flammable liquid and vapor.
The vapor may cause a flash fire.
N-butyraldehyde may irritate the skin and burn the eyes. Upon degradation,
peroxides are formed. Inhalation of vapors and mists may cause a narcotic effect.
Page 1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Property Description Butyraldehyde
Melting Point (
0
C) -99
Boiling Point (
0
C) 75.7
Density (g/cm
3
) 0.8048
Vapour Density (Air=1) 2.48
Refractive Index (n) 1.3843
Flash Point (
0
C) -9.4
Viscosity at 20 (
0
C) 0.433
Heat of Formation (KJ/mol) 240.3
Specific Heat (J/kg.K) 2121
Heat of Vaporization at boiling poinjt (J/g) 436
Heat of combustion (KJ/mol) 2478.7
Dipole Moment (vap.) C.m 9.07 x 10
-30
Surface tension (mN/m) at 24 (
0
C) 29.9
Vapour Pressure (kPa) at 20 (
0
C) 12.2
Page 2
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
APPLICATIONS OF N-BUTANAL
n-Butanal is a widely used organic compound and its consumption is
approxemately
65% of whole oxo chemicals consumption.
i. The primary use for n-butyraldehyde is as a chemical intermediate in producing
other chemical commodities such as 2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH) and n-butanol.
ii. Other products requiring n-butyraldehyde include trimethylolpropane (TMP),
n- butyric acid, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and methyl amyl ketone.
iii. Smaller applications include intermediates for producing pharmaceuticals,
crop protection agents, pesticides, synthetic resins, antioxidants, vulcanization
accelerators, tanning auxiliaries, perfumery synthetics and flavors.
Page 3
CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION
CHAPTER -2
PROCESS SELECTION
DIFFERENT PRODUCTION ROUTS
1. Fermentation
N- butyraldehyde was exclusively produced by bacterial fermentation of
carbohydrate contating materials until the early 1930s. Pullicker industries
were using this process. However this technology is very old and selectivity of process
is also very low.
2. Aldol Condensation
The aldol route from acetaldehyde was formerly the dominant synthetic route
to n- butyraldehyde.It has been shut down in favour of the more economical oxo route
in 1950s. Celanese in United States has been using this process.
3. Hydroformylation
Hydroformylation which is also known as oxo synthesis was discovered in
1938 by Otto Roelen. He detected this new chemical reaction when he aimed at
increasing the chain length of Fisher-Tropsch hydrocarbons by passing a mixture of
ethylene and synthesis gas over cobalt containing catalyst at 150
0
C and 100 bar in the
laboratories of Ruhrchemie AG at Oberhausen, Germany.
In hydroformylation olefinic double bond reacts with synthesis gas (carbon
monoxide and hydrogen) in the presence of transition metal catalyst to form linear (n)
and branched (b) aldehydes containing an additional carbon atom as primary products
shown below.
RCH
2
= CH
2
+ CO + H
2
RCH
2
CH
2
CHO + RCH(CH
3
)CH
Starting from mid 1950s hydroformylation gained an importance. In 1997 the
total worldwide oxo production capacity was 6.5x10
6
t/year for aldehydes and
Page 4
CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION
alcohols. Today hydroformylation is the largest scale application of
homogeneous organo-metallic catalysis.
DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES OF HYDROFORMYLATION
The basic classification of Hydroformylation techniques in based on the
selection of catalyst.
1. Cobalt based catalyst
2. Rhodium based catalyst
The comparison of these two techniques is given in the table below.
Catalyst Metal Cobalt Rhodium
Variant Ligand Unmodified
None
Modified
Phosphines
Unmodified
None
Modified Phosphines
Process 1 2 3 4 5
Active Catalyst RCo(CO)4 Hco(CO)3(L) HRh(CO)4 HRh(CO)(L)3 HRh(CO)(L)3
Temperature deg. C 150-180 160-200 100-140 60-120 110-130
Pressure (bar) 200-300 50-150 200-300 10--50 40-60
Catalyst to Olefin % 0.1-1 0.6 0.0001-0.01 0.01-0.1 0.001-1
Products Aldehydes Alcohols Aldehydes Aldehydes Aldehydes
By Products High High Low Low Negligible
n/b ratio 80/20 88/12 50/50 92/8 43/1 45/1
Selectivity to Poison No No No yes No
Process 1: BASF Process
Process 2: Shell Process
Process 3: Ruhrchemie
Process
Process 4: Union Carbide Process
Process 5: RCH/RP Process
Page 5
CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION
The most important of rhodium based processes on an industrial scale uses the so -
called phosphine modified catalyst system. The unmodified rhodium carbonyl
complex is used for the reaction of special olefins.
As the reaction products consist of roughly equal amount of branched and
linear aldehydes, this catalyst is only applicable if both aldehyde are valuable products
or if the formation of the branched aldehyde is impossible (e.g., hydroformylation of
ethylene to give propanal). Up until the mid 1970s cobalt was used as catalyst metal in
commercial processes (e.g., by BASF, Ruhrchemie, Kuhlmann). Because of instability
of cobalt carbonyl, the reaction conditions were harsh with the pressure range of 200-
350 bar to avoid decomposition of the catalyst and deposition of the metallic cobalt.
The ligand modification introduced by Shell Researchers was
significant progress in hydroformylation. The replacement of carbon monoxide with
phosphines (or arsines) enhances the selectivity towards linear aldehyde (n/b) and the
stability of cobalt carbonyl, leading to reduced carbon monoxide pressure.
In 1974-1976 Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and Celanese Corporation,
independently of one another, introduced rhodium based catalysts on an industrial
scale. These processes combined the advantages of ligand modification with the use of
rhodium as a catalyst metal. As the reaction conditions were much milder, the process
was named as low-pressure oxo (LPO).
Then low-pressure oxo (LPO) processes took the leading role and despite the
higher price of rhodium, cobalt catalysts for the hydroformylation of propene was
replaced in nearly all major plants by rhodium catalysts. Higher price of rhodium was
offset by mild reaction conditions, simpler and therefore cheaper equipment, high
efficiency and high yield of linear products and easy recovery of the catalyst. In
addition, with respect to raw material utilization and energy conversation, the LPO
processes were more advantageous than the cobalt technology, thus leading to their
rapid growth.
In 1980s elegant solution with respect to catalyst recovery was offered by the
Ruhrchemie / Rhone-Poulenc (RCH/RP) process. Idea of two phase catalysis was
applied to hydroformylation by using water soluble rhodium as a catalyst.
Page 6
CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION
Trisulfonated triphenylphosphine (TPPTS, as sodium salt) as the ligand yields the
water soluble catalyst HRh(CO)(TPPTS)3. The biphasic but homogeneous reaction
system exhibits distinct advantages over the conventional one phase processes.
Because of mutual insolubility, the separation of the aqueous catalyst phase and
reaction products, including high-boiling by-products, is achieved most simply and
efficiently.
However, the application of this process is limited to low molecular mass
olefins which have adequate water solubility. The commercial hydroformylation of
higher olefins (C
6
or larger) is performed exclusively with cobalt carbonyl catalyst.
Several approaches have been developed for the hydroformylation of high olefins:
1. Anchoring of rhodium catalyst to resins, polymeric or mineral support.
2. Homogeneous catalyst with amphiphilic complexes which can be extracted in another
phase at the end of the reaction.
3. Aqueous organic biphasic catalyst involving use of particular ligands, co-solvent
4. Supported hydrophilic liquid phase or aqueous phase catalysis.
F
-
1
0
1
F
-
1
0
4
F
-
1
0
3
V
-
1
0
1
26
1
5
Ruhrchemie/Rhone-Poulenc (RCH/RP)
Process
RCH/RP process is based on a water soluble rhodium catalyst, namely
HRh(CO)(TPPTS)3 complex. The use of a water soluble catalyst system brings
substantial advantages for industrial practice, because the catalyst can be considered to
be heterogeneous. The separation of catalyst solution and reaction products, including
high-boiling by-products, is achieved most simply and efficiently. Losses of the
rhodium in the crude aldehyde stream are negligible. High-boiling by-products are
also negligible by using this aqueous catalyst. Purification of synthesis gas and
propene is not necessary, because the catalyst is not sensitive to oxo poisons that may
enter with the feed. The following figure shows the flow sheet of RCH/RP process.
Page 7
CHAPTER 2 PROCESS
SELECTION
Process Flow Diagram for RCH/RP Process for Hydroformylation of Propylene.
1
K-101
27
M-101
25
29
E-106 E-107 E-108
E-109
28
30
2
32 33
34 35
Water
E-101
Water
E-105
24
K-107 K-108 K-109 K-110
Water
31
Water
Water
Water
36
3
23
K-102
18
5
V
-
1
0
2
F
-
1
0
2
S
-
1
0
1
C
-
1
0
1
14
21
22
39
V-103
38
37
K-103 4
6
R-101
16
E-104
M-102
20
40
43
E-111
M-103
45
E-102
Water
7
13
R K-104
8
Water
12
11
17
K-106
Water
19
E-110 E-112
Steam
41
Water
D-101
44
Water
E-103
9
K-105
10
Steam
E-113
42
The hydroformylation plant has major four units. Propylene is compressed in
compressors K-
101 and K-102 with an intercooler E-101 and sent to reactor R-101 for reaction. Synthesis
gas is compressed in compressors K-103, K-104 and K-105 with intercoolers E-102 and E-
103 and sent to the stripper S-101, where it strips out the unreacted Propylene from
aldehyde products coming from reactor R-101. Unreacted propylene and synthesis gas is
compressed in K-106 and recycled back to reactor R-101. From reactor R-101 gases
leaving contain n-butanal and iso-butanal, which are separated by several flashing
after compression and cooling in compressor K-107, K-108, K-109, K-110 and in
cooler E-106, E-107, E-108, E-109 respectively and mixed with n-butanal and iso-
butanal coming from reactor in mixer M-102. After this the mixture of n-butanal and iso-
butanal is heated in heat exchanger E-112. After passing through heat exchanger E-
112 it is sent to distillation column C-101 where n-butanal is obtained as bottom
product and iso-butanal and some impurities are obtained from top of the distillation
column. The condenser in distillation column is
partial condenser because some gases are present in top
product stream.
Page 8
CHAPTER 3
CAPACITY SELECTION
CHAPTER -3
CAPACITY SELECTION
CAPACITY SELECTION
In order to select the capacity of plant, we needed to have the knowledge of following
Material In
Material Out
Stream 1 = 8827.9 kg/hr
Stream 5 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.6 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.05 kg/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
1. Consumption of n-Butanal in different industrial sectors of Pakistan.
2. Current production of n-Butanal in Pakistan.
3. Import of n-Butanal from different countries to Pakistan.
Consumption of n-Butanal
Main uses of n-Butanal in Pakistan are listed below.
1. Production of n-Butanol by catalytic hydrogenation of n-Butanal. It is widely used as
a solvent and as an esterifying agent. For example its ester with acrylic acid is used in
paint, adhesive and plastic industries.
2. It is used in production of 2-Ethylexanol which is a colorless liquid and it is one of the
chemical used for producing PVC plasticizers, trimethylolpropane (TMP), n-butyric
acid, polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and methyl amyl ketone.
3. Smaller applications include intermediates for producing pharmaceuticals, crop
protection agents, pesticides, synthetic resins, antioxidants, vulcanization accelerators,
tanning auxiliaries, perfumery synthetics, and flavors.
The overall use of n-Butanal in different industries in Pakistan is estimated.
1. Paint industries 40%
2. Plastic industries 60%
Production n-Butanal in Pakistan
Currently there is no plant for production of n-Butanal in Pakistan.
Page 9
CHAPTER 3 CAPACITY
SELECTION
Import of n-Butanal to Pakistan
Data obtained from Lahore chamber of commerce shows that in year 2001-2002
import of n-Butanal was about 52468MTPY from countries China, . And in year 2002-
2003 it was about 57954MTPY.
Amount of n-Butanal imported in recent years according to the data obtained from
Lahore chamber of commerce is listed below.
Material In
Material Out
Stream 1 = 8827.9 kg/hr
Stream 5 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.6 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.05 kg/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
Material In
Material Out
Stream 16 = 14364.9 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
=
Stream 17 = 14329.44 kg/hr
Stream 18 = 35.46 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
Year
Amount of n-Butanal
imported (MTPY)
Year
Amount of n-Butanal
imported (MTPY)
1997-1998 32235 2000-2001 46589
1998-1999 36524 2001-2002 52468
1999-2000 41524 2002-2003 57954
A graph is potted and is extrapolated up to year 2010 as shown blow.
According to graph the amount of n-Butanal required up to 2010 is more than
100000MTPY so we selected the capacity of our plant 100000MTPY.
Page 10
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
CHAPTER -4
MATERIAL BALANCE
Material In
Material Out
Stream 1 = 8827.9 kg/hr
Stream 5 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.6 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.05 kg/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
Material In
Material Out
Stream 16 = 14364.9 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
=
Stream 17 = 14329.44 kg/hr
Stream 18 = 35.46 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
Capacity of plant = 100,000 MT/Year of 98.8% n-Butanal
Selectivity of n/iso = 43.4/1
So total production of Butanal= 105284.4 MT/Year
Production of butanal = 14622.84 kg/hr
= 202.79 kmol/hr
Production of n-butanal = 198.2 kmol/hr
= 14290.5 kg/hr
Production of i-butanal = 4.59 kmol/hr
= 331 kg/hr
Conversion is 95%
2C
3
H
6
+ 2H
2
+ 2CO nC
4
H
8
O + iso C
4
H
8
O
By calculating the recycled propylene and butanal the propylene needed
Propylene (99.5%) needed = 209.7 kmol/hr
= 8927 kg/hr
Syn. Gas and Propylene ratio = 2.66
Syn. Gas needed = 536.8 kmol/hr
= 8712 kg/hr
Butanal to purification plant = 733.9 kg/hr
98.8% butanal achieved = 13889 kg/hr
= 100,000 MT/year
Page 11
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE OF PLANT
Material In
Material Out
Stream 1 = 8827.9 kg/hr
Stream 5 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.6 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.05 kg/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kg/hr
Total = 17539 kg/hr
Material In
Material Out
Stream 16 = 14364.9 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
=
Stream 17 = 14329.44 kg/hr
Stream 18 = 35.46 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
Stream number
16
17
18
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.55
1.88
1.67
CO (kg/hr)
80.79
48.60
32.20
Propylene (kg/hr)
202.49
201.83
0.66
Propane (kg/hr)
43.73
43.61
0.12
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13718.63
13717.85
0.79
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.70
315.67
0.03
Total (kg/hr)
14364.90
14329.44
35.46
Basis : 1 hour Process
Stream number 1 5 42 44 45
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 0.00 549.04 0.00 0.00 140.27
CO (kg/hr) 0.00 8162.96 0.00 0.02 2483.30
Propylene (kg/hr) 8781.69 0.00 0.00 1.96 246.47
Propane (kg/hr) 46.24 0.00 0.00 0.66 45.23
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00 13722.02 275.16 291.88
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00 166.64 135.25 30.42
Total kg/hr 8827.91 8712 1388.6 413.05 3237.57
Page 12
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
Material In
Material Out
Stream 16 = 14364.9 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
=
Stream 17 = 14329.44 kg/hr
Stream 18 = 35.46 kg/hr
Total = 14364.9 kg/hr
Stream number
16
17
18
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.55
1.88
1.67
CO (kg/hr)
80.79
48.60
32.20
Propylene (kg/hr)
202.49
201.83
0.66
Propane (kg/hr)
43.73
43.61
0.12
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13718.63
13717.85
0.79
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.70
315.67
0.03
Total (kg/hr)
14364.90
14329.44
35.46
Material In
Material Out
Stream 21 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
=
Stream 22 = 13753.6 kg/hr
Stream 23 = 85.91 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND REACTOR
Stream number 4 13 14 15
0.00 547.35 3.55 135.02
CO (kg/hr) 0.00 8142.78 80.79 2382.38
Propylene (kg/hr) 8781.69 199.84 202.49 246.59
Propane (kg/hr) 46.24 42.35 43.73 44.87
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 260.44 13718.63 830.25
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 8.63 315.70 25.22
Total (kg/hr) 8827.91 9201.39 14364.90 3664.32
Material In Material Out
Stream 4 = 8827.9 kg/hr Stream 14 = 14364.9 kg/hr
Stream 13 = 9201.4 kg/hr Stream 15 = 3664.32 kg/hr
Total = 18029 kg/hr = Total = 18029 kg/hr
Page 13
CHAPTER 4
Stream number
16
17
18
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.55
1.88
1.67
CO (kg/hr)
80.79
48.60
32.20
Propylene (kg/hr)
202.49
201.83
0.66
Propane (kg/hr)
43.73
43.61
0.12
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13718.63
13717.85
0.79
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.70
315.67
0.03
Total (kg/hr)
14364.90
14329.44
35.46
Material In
Material Out
Stream 21 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
=
Stream 22 = 13753.6 kg/hr
Stream 23 = 85.91 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
Stream number
21
22
23
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.58
0.08
3.49
CO (kg/hr)
68.76
2.16
66.60
Propylene (kg/hr)
1.18
1.09
0.09
Propane (kg/hr)
0.90
0.84
0.06
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13458.03
13442.88
15.16
I-butanal (kg/hr)
307.06
306.55
0.51
Total (kg/hr)
13839.50
13753.60
85.91
Material In
Material Out
Stream 36 = 3283.17 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
=
Stream 37 = 3178.46 kg/hr
Stream 38 = 104.70 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND FLASH SEPARATOR
Stream number
16
17
18
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.55
1.88
1.67
CO (kg/hr)
80.79
48.60
32.20
Propylene (kg/hr)
202.49
201.83
0.66
Propane (kg/hr)
43.73
43.61
0.12
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13718.63
13717.85
0.79
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.70
315.67
0.03
Total (kg/hr)
14364.90
14329.44
35.46
Material In
Material Out
Stream 21 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
=
Stream 22 = 13753.6 kg/hr
Stream 23 = 85.91 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
Stream number
21
22
23
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.58
0.08
3.49
CO (kg/hr)
68.76
2.16
66.60
Propylene (kg/hr)
1.18
1.09
0.09
Propane (kg/hr)
0.90
0.84
0.06
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13458.03
13442.88
15.16
I-butanal (kg/hr)
307.06
306.55
0.51
Total (kg/hr)
13839.50
13753.60
85.91
Material In
Material Out
Stream 36 = 3283.17 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
=
Stream 37 = 3178.46 kg/hr
Stream 38 = 104.70 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
Stream number
36
37
38
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
140.18
140.16
0.02
CO (kg/hr)
2481.10
2480.61
0.49
Propylene (kg/hr)
243.75
240.86
2.89
Propane (kg/hr)
44.26
43.63
0.62
n-butanal (kg/hr)
360.47
262.65
97.82
I-butanal (kg/hr)
13.41
10.55
2.85
Total (kg/hr)
3283.17
3178.46
104.70
Page 14
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND FLASH SEPARATOR
Stream number 25 26 27
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 135.02 0.00 135.02
CO (kg/hr) 2382.38 0.07 2382.31
Propylene (kg/hr) 246.59 3.59 243.00
Propane (kg/hr) 44.87 0.79 44.08
n-butanal (kg/hr) 830.25 485.72 344.53
I-butanal (kg/hr) 25.22 12.35 12.87
Total (kg/hr) 3664.32 502.52 3161.80
Material In Material Out
Stream 25 = 3664.32 kg/hr Stream 26 = 502.52 kg/hr
Stream 27 = 3161.8 kg/hr
Total = 3664.32 kg/hr = Total = 3664.32 kg/hr
Material In
Material Out
Stream 21 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
=
Stream 22 = 13753.6 kg/hr
Stream 23 = 85.91 kg/hr
Total = 13839.5 kg/hr
Stream number
21
22
23
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.58
0.08
3.49
CO (kg/hr)
68.76
2.16
66.60
Propylene (kg/hr)
1.18
1.09
0.09
Propane (kg/hr)
0.90
0.84
0.06
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13458.03
13442.88
15.16
I-butanal (kg/hr)
307.06
306.55
0.51
Total (kg/hr)
13839.50
13753.60
85.91
Material In
Material Out
Stream 36 = 3283.17 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
=
Stream 37 = 3178.46 kg/hr
Stream 38 = 104.70 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
Stream number
36
37
38
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
140.18
140.16
0.02
CO (kg/hr)
2481.10
2480.61
0.49
Propylene (kg/hr)
243.75
240.86
2.89
Propane (kg/hr)
44.26
43.63
0.62
n-butanal (kg/hr)
360.47
262.65
97.82
I-butanal (kg/hr)
13.41
10.55
2.85
Total (kg/hr)
3283.17
3178.46
104.70
Page 15
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND FLASH SEPARATOR
Stream number
21
22
23
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
3.58
0.08
3.49
CO (kg/hr)
68.76
2.16
66.60
Propylene (kg/hr)
1.18
1.09
0.09
Propane (kg/hr)
0.90
0.84
0.06
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13458.03
13442.88
15.16
I-butanal (kg/hr)
307.06
306.55
0.51
Total (kg/hr)
13839.50
13753.60
85.91
Material In
Material Out
Stream 36 = 3283.17 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
=
Stream 37 = 3178.46 kg/hr
Stream 38 = 104.70 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
Stream number
36
37
38
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
140.18
140.16
0.02
CO (kg/hr)
2481.10
2480.61
0.49
Propylene (kg/hr)
243.75
240.86
2.89
Propane (kg/hr)
44.26
43.63
0.62
n-butanal (kg/hr)
360.47
262.65
97.82
I-butanal (kg/hr)
13.41
10.55
2.85
Total (kg/hr)
3283.17
3178.46
104.70
Page 16
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND FLASH SEPARATOR
Stream number
36
37
38
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
140.18
140.16
0.02
CO (kg/hr)
2481.10
2480.61
0.49
Propylene (kg/hr)
243.75
240.86
2.89
Propane (kg/hr)
44.26
43.63
0.62
n-butanal (kg/hr)
360.47
262.65
97.82
I-butanal (kg/hr)
13.41
10.55
2.85
Total (kg/hr)
3283.17
3178.46
104.70
Material In
Material Out
Stream 17 = 14339.44 kg/hr
Stream 10 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
=
Stream 11 = 9201.94 kg/hr
Stream 19 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
Page 17
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND MIXER
1 8
2 3
M - 1 0 1
2 8
2 7
Stream number 18 23 27 28
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 1.67 3.49 135.02 140.18
CO (kg/hr) 32.20 66.60 2382.31 2481.10
Propylene (kg/hr) 0.66 0.09 243.00 243.75
Propane (kg/hr) 0.12 0.06 44.08 44.26
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.79 15.16 344.53 360.47
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.03 0.51 12.87 13.41
Total (kg/hr) 35.46 85.91 3161.80 3283.17
Material In
Material Out
Stream 17 = 14339.44 kg/hr
Stream 10 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
=
Stream 11 = 9201.94 kg/hr
Stream 19 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
Stream number
17
10
11
19
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
1.88
549.04
547.35
3.58
CO (kg/hr)
48.60
8162.96
8142.80
68.76
Propylene (kg/hr)
201.83
0.00
200.65
1.18
Propane (kg/hr)
43.61
0.00
42.71
0.90
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13717.85
0.00
259.82
13458.03
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.67
0.00
8.61
307.06
Total (kg/hr)
14339.44
8712.00
9201.94
13839.50
Material In Material Out
Stream 18 = 35.46 kg/hr Stream 28 = 3283.17 kg/hr
Stream 23 = 85.91 kg/hr
Stream 27 = 3161.8 kg/hr
Total = 3283.17 kg/hr = Total = 3283.17 kg/hr
Page 18
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND MIXER
2 2
2 6
M -1 0 2
4 0
3 9
Stream number 22 26 39 40
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.11
CO (kg/hr) 2.16 0.07 0.49 2.72
Propylene (kg/hr) 1.09 3.59 2.89 7.57
Propane (kg/hr) 0.84 0.79 0.62 2.25
n-butanal (kg/hr) 13442.88 485.72 97.82 14026.42
I-butanal (kg/hr) 306.55 12.35 2.85 321.76
Total (kg/hr) 13753.60 502.52 104.70 14360.82
Material In
Material Out
Stream 17 = 14339.44 kg/hr
Stream 10 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
=
Stream 11 = 9201.94 kg/hr
Stream 19 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
Stream number
17
10
11
19
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
1.88
549.04
547.35
3.58
CO (kg/hr)
48.60
8162.96
8142.80
68.76
Propylene (kg/hr)
201.83
0.00
200.65
1.18
Propane (kg/hr)
43.61
0.00
42.71
0.90
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13717.85
0.00
259.82
13458.03
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.67
0.00
8.61
307.06
Total (kg/hr)
14339.44
8712.00
9201.94
13839.50
Material In
Material Out
Stream 41 = 14360.82 kg/hr
Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.66 kg/hr Stream 43 = 59.10 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.06 kg/hr Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
Material In Material Out
Stream 22 = 13753.6 kg/hr Stream 40 = 14360.82 kg/hr
Stream 26 = 502.52 kg/hr
Stream 39 = 104.70 kg/hr
Total = 14360.82 kg/hr = Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
Page 19
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND MIXER
3 7
M - 1 0 3
4 5
4 3
Stream number 37 43 45
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 140.16 0.11 140.27
CO (kg/hr) 2480.61 2.69 2483.30
Propylene (kg/hr) 240.86 5.62 246.47
Propane (kg/hr) 43.63 1.59 45.23
n-butanal (kg/hr) 262.65 29.23 291.88
Material In
Material Out
Stream 17 = 14339.44 kg/hr
Stream 10 = 8712 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
=
Stream 11 = 9201.94 kg/hr
Stream 19 = 13839.5 kg/hr
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
Stream number
17
10
11
19
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
1.88
549.04
547.35
3.58
CO (kg/hr)
48.60
8162.96
8142.80
68.76
Propylene (kg/hr)
201.83
0.00
200.65
1.18
Propane (kg/hr)
43.61
0.00
42.71
0.90
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13717.85
0.00
259.82
13458.03
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.67
0.00
8.61
307.06
Total (kg/hr)
14339.44
8712.00
9201.94
13839.50
Material In
Material Out
Stream 41 = 14360.82 kg/hr
Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.66 kg/hr Stream 43 = 59.10 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.06 kg/hr Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
I-butanal (kg/hr) 10.55 19.86 30.42
Total (kg/hr) 3178.46 59.10 3237.57
Material In Material Out
Stream 37 = 3178.46 kg/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kg/hr
Stream 43 = 59.10 kg/hr
Total = 3237.57 kg/hr = Total = 3237.57 kg/hr
Page 20
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND STRIPPER
Stream number
17
10
11
19
Hydrogen (kg/hr)
1.88
549.04
547.35
3.58
CO (kg/hr)
48.60
8162.96
8142.80
68.76
Propylene (kg/hr)
201.83
0.00
200.65
1.18
Propane (kg/hr)
43.61
0.00
42.71
0.90
n-butanal (kg/hr)
13717.85
0.00
259.82
13458.03
I-butanal (kg/hr)
315.67
0.00
8.61
307.06
Total (kg/hr)
14339.44
8712.00
9201.94
13839.50
Material In
Material Out
Stream 41 = 14360.82 kg/hr
Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.66 kg/hr Stream 43 = 59.10 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.06 kg/hr Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
? P
Page 21
CHAPTER 4
MATERIAL BALANCE
MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND DISTILLATION COLUMN
Stream number 41 42 43 44
0.11 0.00 0.11 0.00
Material In
Material Out
Stream 41 = 14360.82 kg/hr
Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
=
Stream 42 = 13888.66 kg/hr Stream 43 = 59.10 kg/hr Stream 44 = 413.06 kg/hr Total = 14360.82 kg/hr
? P
CO (kg/hr) 2.72 0.00 2.69 0.02
Propylene (kg/hr) 7.57 0.00 5.62 1.96
Propane (kg/hr) 2.25 0.00 1.59 0.66
n-butanal (kg/hr) 14026.42 13722.02 29.23 275.16
I-butanal (kg/hr) 321.76 166.64 19.86 135.25
Total (kg/hr) 14360.82 13888.66 59.10 413.06
Page 22
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
CHAPTER -5
ENERGY BALANCE
According to law of conservation of energy
[Rate of Accumulation of Energy within system =Rate of Energy entering the system
Rate of energy leaving the system + Rate of Energy generation]
For steady state system there is no accumulation of mass or energy within system. So
by modifying above equation, the energy balance around all equipments is as under.
For case of energy balance across each equipment to determine the enthalpy of
? P
streams we used reference temperature equal to 25
0
C.
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND THE COMPRESSOR K-101
Propylene Gas P
1
= 101.325Kpa T
1
=25
o
C
Propylene Gas P
2
= 2945Kpa T
2
=?
Inlet flow rate = 209.7 kmol/hr = 0.0583 kmol/s
Inlet volumetric flowrate
m

_
T

T

P
2

2 1

Where
n=0.0583 kmol/s
1 ,
R=0.0821 m
3
atm/kmol K
P= 1 atm
T=298.15 K
V=1.356 m
3
/s
From fig 3.6 Coulson Vol. 6 for this flow rate centrifugal compressor would be used
with efficiency E
P
=78%
Page 23
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
Outlet temperature
m


_
T


P
2

2 1

Where T
1
=25
o
C P
1
=101.325Kpa
P
2
=2945 Kpa
1 ,

? ? P ???
m
-1 _

= 0.137
=1.12
T
2
= 200.5
o
C
Work per kmol

E
P ,

n 1
n
Z T R


n _


2
1
1
W =
1 1


n -1 P 1

1
,

]
Where
n



1 _
= 1.16
Z
1
=1

1- m
,
R=8.314
kJ/kmolK
By putting values W=10622 kJ/kmol
Power requirement
Power

kmol/h
E
P
1
3600
= 793 KW = 0.793MW
Similarly by putting the values in Excel Data Sheet we can calculate the power of all
compressors which is given as:
Compressor Power Compressor Power Compressor Power
K-102 0.129 MW K-105 0.694 MW K-108 0.289 MW
K-103 1.024 MW K-106 0.004 MW K-109 0.119 MW
K-104 0.794 MW K-107 0.114 MW K-110 0.022 MW
Page 24
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND REACTOR
Stream number 4 13 14 15
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 0.00 547.35 3.55 135.02
CO (kg/hr) 0.00 8142.78 80.79 2382.38
Propylene (kg/hr) 8781.69 199.84 202.49 246.59
Propane (kg/hr) 46.24 42.35 43.73 44.87
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 260.44 13718.63 830.25
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 8.63 315.70 25.22
Total (kg/hr) 8827.91 9201.39 14364.90 3664.32
Temperature
0
C 105 45 120 120
Pressure kPa 5010 5000 5000 5000
Heat Flow kJ/hr 5.35E+06 -3.26E+07 -4.42E+07 -1.12E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 4 = 5.35E+06 kJ/hr Stream 14 = -4.42E+07 kJ/hr
Stream13= -3.26E+07 kJ/hr Stream 15 = -1.12E+07 kJ/hr
Total = -2.72E+07 kJ/hr Total = -5.55E+07 kJ/hr
Cooling Duty Qp = -2.82E+07 kJ/hr
Page 25
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND HEAT EXCHANGER E-101
Stream number 2 3
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00
CO (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00
Propylene (kg/hr) 8781.69 8781.69
Propane (kg/hr) 46.24 46.24
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.00 0.00
Total (kg/hr) 8827.91 8827.91
Temperature
0
C 200 77
Pressure kPa 2945 2925
Heat flow kJ/hr 7.02E+06 4.90E+06
Heat Flow In Heat Flow out
Stream 2 = 7.02E+06 kJ/hr Stream 3 = 4.90E+06 kJ/hr
Cooling Duty Q
p
= -2.12E+06 kJ/hr
Page 26
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
Temperature of Cooling water in = 25
0
C, Temperature of Cooling water out = 30
0
C
Mass Flow rate of cooling water = m = Q/(T.Cp) = 101313.7 kg/hr
Mass Flow rate of Steam = m = Q/ = 3957 kJ/kg. K
Similarly for the other heat exchanger in flow sheet we can calculate the heat
duty and mass flow rate of water or steam need to cool or heat the process fluid with
the help of spread sheet.
For all these calculations we have used:
Temperature of cooling water in = 25
o
C
Temperature of cooling water out = 30
o
C
Temperature of Steam in () = 120
o
C
Temperature of Steam out = 120
o
C
Heat Exchanger Heating/Cooling Duty kJ/hr CW/Steam Flow Rate kg/hr
E-102 -3.53E+06 168899.54
E-103 -2.65E+06 126794.26
E-104 -2.76E+06 132256.42
E-105 -9.15E+05 43786.35
E-106 -2.72E+05 13022.23
E-107 -8.15E+05 38983.59
E-108 -3.13E+05 14979.65
E-109 -2.41E+05 11553.60
E-110 -2.96E+06 141596.05
E-111 -9.12E+06 436456.74
E-112 2.75E+06 694.97
E-113 9.34E+06 2360.37
Page 27
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND VAPOR LIQUID SEPARATOR
Stream number 16 17 18
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 3.55 1.88 1.67
CO (kg/hr) 80.79 48.60 32.20
Propylene (kg/hr) 202.49 201.83 0.66
Propane (kg/hr) 43.73 43.61 0.12
n-butanal (kg/hr) 13718.63 13717.85 0.79
I-butanal (kg/hr) 315.70 315.67 0.03
Total (kg/hr) 14364.90 14329.44 35.46
Temperature
o
C 40 40 40
Pressure kPa 4968 4968 4968
Heat Flow kJ/hr -4.70E+07 -4.69E+07 -1.29E+05
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 16 = -4.70E+07 kJ/hr Stream 17 = -4.69E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 18 = -1.29E+05 kJ/hr
Total = -4.70E+07 kg/hr = Total = -4.70E+07 kg/hr
Page 28
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND VAPOR LIQUID SEPARATOR
Stream number 25 26 27
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 135.02 0.00 135.02
CO (kg/hr) 2382.38 0.07 2382.31
Propylene (kg/hr) 246.59 3.59 243.00
Propane (kg/hr) 44.87 0.79 44.08
n-butanal (kg/hr) 830.25 485.72 344.53
I-butanal (kg/hr) 25.22 12.35 12.87
Total (kg/hr) 3664.32 502.52 3161.80
Temperature
o
C 1.43E+01 1.43E+01 1.43E+01
Pressure kPa 3.00E+02 3.00E+02 3.00E+02
Heat Flow kJ/hr -1.21E+07 -1.68E+06 -1.05E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 25 = -1.21E+07 kJ/hr Stream 26 = -1.68E+06 kJ/hr
Stream 27 = -1.05E+07 kJ/hr
Total = -1.21E+07 kJ/hr = Total = -1.21E+07 kJ/hr
Page 29
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND VAPOR LIQUID SEPARATOR
Stream number 21 22 23
3.58 0.08 3.49
CO (kg/hr) 68.76 2.16 66.60
Propylene (kg/hr) 1.18 1.09 0.09
Propane (kg/hr) 0.90 0.84 0.06
n-butanal (kg/hr) 13458.03 13442.88 15.16
I-butanal (kg/hr) 307.06 306.55 0.51
Total (kg/hr) 13839.50 13753.60 85.91
Temperature
o
C 2.47E+01 2.47E+01 2.47E+01
Pressure kPa 3.00E+02 3.00E+02 3.00E+02
Heat Flow kJ/hr -4.64E+07 -4.61E+07 -3.14E+05
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 21 = -4.64E+07 kJ/hr Stream 22 = -4.61E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 23 = -3.14E+051 kJ/hr
Total = -4.64E+07 kJ/hr = Total = -4.64E+07 kJ/hr
Page 30
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND VAPOR LIQUID SEPARATOR
Stream number 36 37 38
140.18 140.16 0.02
CO (kg/hr) 2481.10 2480.61 0.49
Propylene (kg/hr) 243.75 240.86 2.89
Propane (kg/hr) 44.26 43.63 0.62
n-butanal (kg/hr) 360.47 262.65 97.82
I-butanal (kg/hr) 13.41 10.55 2.85
Total (kg/hr) 3283.17 3178.46 104.70
Temperature
o
C 80 80 80
Pressure kPa 4990 4990 4990
Heat Flow kJ/hr -1.06E+07 -1.03E+07 -3.28E+05
Material In Material Out
Stream 36 = -1.06E+07 kJ/hr Stream 37 = -1.03E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 38 = -3.28E+05 kJ/hr
Total = -1.06E+07 kJ/hr Total = -1.06E+07 kJ/hr
Page 31
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND MIXER
1 8
2 3
M -1 0 1
2 8
2 7
Stream number 18 23 27 28
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 1.67 3.49 135.02 140.18
CO (kg/hr) 32.20 66.60 2382.31 2481.10
Propylene (kg/hr) 0.66 0.09 243.00 243.75
Propane (kg/hr) 0.12 0.06 44.08 44.26
n-butanal (kg/hr) 0.79 15.16 344.53 360.47
I-butanal (kg/hr) 0.03 0.51 12.87 13.41
Total (kg/hr) 35.46 85.91 3161.80 3283.17
Temperature
o
C 40 25 14 15
Pressure kPa 4968 300 300 300
Heat Flow kJ/hr -1.29E+05 -3.14E+05 -1.05E+07 -1.09E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 18 = -1.29E+05 kJ/hr Stream 28 = -1.09E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 23 = -3.14E+05 kJ/hr
Stream 27 = -1.05E+07 kJ/hr
Total = -1.09E+07 kJ/hr Total = -1.09E+07 kJ/hr
Page 32
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND MIXER
22
26
M-102
40
39
Stream number 22 26 39 40
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.11
CO (kg/hr) 2.16 0.07 0.49 2.72
Propylene (kg/hr) 1.09 3.59 2.89 7.57
Propane (kg/hr) 0.84 0.79 0.62 2.25
n-butanal (kg/hr) 13442.88 485.72 97.82 14026.42
I-butanal (kg/hr) 306.55 12.35 2.85 321.76
Total (kg/hr) 13753.60 502.52 104.70 14360.82
Temperature
o
C 25 14 74 25
Pressure kPa 300 300 300 300
Heat Flow kJ/hr -4.61E+07 -1.68E+06 -3.28E+05 -4.81E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 22 = -4.61E+07 kJ/hr Stream 40 = -4.81E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 26 = -1.68E+06 kJ/hr
Stream 39 = -3.28E+05 kJ/hr
Total = -4.81E+07 kJ/hr = Total = -4.81E+07 kJ/hr
Page 33
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND MIXER
3 7
M - 1 0 3
4 5
4 3
Stream number 37 43 45
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 140.16 0.11 140.27
CO (kg/hr) 2480.61 2.69 2483.30
Propylene (kg/hr) 240.86 5.62 246.47
Propane (kg/hr) 43.63 1.59 45.23
n-butanal (kg/hr) 262.65 29.23 291.88
I-butanal (kg/hr) 10.55 19.86 30.42
Total (kg/hr) 3178.46 59.10 3237.57
Temperature
o
C 80 90 80
Pressure kPa 4990 260 260
Heat Flow kJ/hr -1.03E+07 -1.50E+05 -1.04E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 37 = -1.03E+07 kJ/hr Stream 45 = 3237.57 kJ/hr
Stream 43 = -1.50E+05 kJ/hr
Total = 3237.57 kJ/hr = Total = 3237.57 kJ/hr
Page 34
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND STRIPPER
Stream number 17 10 11 19
Hydrogen (kg/hr) 1.88 549.04 547.35 3.58
CO (kg/hr) 48.60 8162.96 8142.80 68.76
Propylene (kg/hr) 201.83 0.00 200.65 1.18
Propane (kg/hr) 43.61 0.00 42.71 0.90
n-butanal (kg/hr) 13717.85 0.00 259.82 13458.03
I-butanal (kg/hr) 315.67 0.00 8.61 307.06
Total (kg/hr) 14339.44 8712.00 9201.94 13839.50
Temperature
o
C 40 211 44 115
4968 5000 4965 4990
-4.69E+07 -2.92E+07 -3.26E+07 -4.35E+07
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 17 = -4.69E+07 kJ/hr Stream 11 = -3.26E+07 kJ/hr
Stream 10 = -2.92E+07 kJ/hr Stream 19 = -4.35E+07 kJ/hr
Total = -7.61E+07 kJ/hr Total = -7.61E+07 kJ/hr
Page 35
CHAPTER 5
ENERGY BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE AROUND DISTILLATION COLUMN
Stream number 41 42 43 44
0.11 0.00 0.11 0.00
CO (kg/hr) 2.72 0.00 2.69 0.02
Propylene (kg/hr) 7.57 0.00 5.62 1.96
Propane (kg/hr) 2.25 0.00 1.59 0.66
n-butanal (kg/hr) 14026.42 13722.02 29.23 275.16
I-butanal (kg/hr) 321.76 166.64 19.86 135.25
Total (kg/hr) 14360.82 13888.66 59.10 413.06
105 112 90 90
280 300 260 260
-4.54E+07 -4.37E+07 -1.50E+05 -1.33E+06
Heat Flow In Heat Flow Out
Stream 41 = -4.54E+07 kJ/hr Stream 42 = -4.37E+07 kJ/hr
Reboiler Duty = 9.34E+06 kJ/hr Stream 43 = -1.50E+05 kJ/hr
Stream 44 = -1.33E+06 kJ/hr
Condenser Duty = 9.12E+06 kJ/hr
Total = -3.61E+07 kJ/hr Total = -3.61E+07 kJ/hr
Page 36
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
CHAPTER -6
DESIGN OF EQUIPMENTS
CHEMICAL REACTOR
Reactor is the heart of a chemical plant. Chemical reactors are the vessels that
are designed for a chemical reaction to occur inside them. The design of a chemical
reactor deals with multiple aspects of chemical engineering. It is the job of a chemical
engineer to ensure that the reaction proceeds with the highest efficiency towards the
desired output product, producing the highest yield of product while requiring the least
amount of money to purchase and operate.
Normal operating expenses include energy input, energy removal, raw material
costs, etc. energy changes can come in the form of heating or cooling, pumping to
increase pressure, frictional pressure loss. However, in searching for the optimum it is
not just the cost of the reactor that must be minimized. Rather, the economics of the
overall process must be considered.
Reactor Selection
With the variety of reactors available, some engineers believe that reactor
classification is not possible. No matter how incomplete a classification may be,
however, the designer needs some guidance, even though there may be some reactor
types that do not fit into any classification. Accordingly, we will classify reactors
using the following criteria:
1. Form of energy supplied
2. Phases in contact
3. Catalytic or noncatalytic
4. Batch or continuous
Page 37
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Form of Energy Supplied
In hydroformylation of propylene we use thermal energy for reaction
completion.
Phases in Contact
The next consideration is classifying the reactors according to the phases in
contact.
These are:
1. gas-liquid
2. liquid-liquid
3. gas-solid
4. liquid-solid
5. gas-liquid-solid
After specifying the energy form, the catalyst and the phases in contact, the next task
is to decide whether to conduct the reaction in a batch or continuous mode. In the
batch mode, the reactants are charged to a stirred-tank reactor (STR) and allowed to
react for a specified time. After completing the reaction, the reactor is emptied to
obtain the products. This operating mode is unsteady state. Other unsteady-state
reactors are:
(1) Continuous addition of one or more of the reactants with no product withdrawal,
and (2) All the reactants added at the beginning with continuous withdrawal of
product.
At steady-state, reactants flow into and products flow out continuously without
a change in concentration and temperature in the reactor.
Our system is gas-liquid. So for gas liquid continuous flow we can use tank
reactor or tubular counter current reactor. Now we have to select either CSTR or PFR.
There are two ideal models for developing reactor-sizing relationships: the plug flow
and the perfectly stirred-tank models. In the plug-flow model, the reactants flowing
through the reactor are continuously converted into products. During reaction there is
R
e
s
i
d
e
n
c
e

T
i
m
e

s
Page 38
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
no radial variation of concentration, backmixing or forward mixing. In a perfect STR,
the reactants are thoroughly mixed so that the concentration of all species and
temperature are uniform throughout the reactor and equal to that leaving the reactor.
10
6
10
5
10
4
Batch Reactor
Backmix Reactor
Cascade
Backmix
10
3
10
2
10
Tubular Reactor
1
10
-1
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
1 10 10
2
10
3
Production Rate kg/s
From Reaction time and Production we have selected the CSTR for our process.
Page 39
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
CSTR (Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor)
In a CSTR, one or more fluid reagents are introduced into a tank reactor
equipped with an impeller w hile the reactor effluent is removed continuously. The
impeller stirs the reagents to ensure proper mixing. The contents of the reactors are
completely mixed so that the complete contents of the reactors are at the same
concentration and temperature as the product stream. Since the reactor is designed for
steady state, the flow rates of the inlet and outlet streams, as well as the reactors
conditions, remain unchanged with time. Simply dividing the volume of the tank by
the average volumetric flow rate t hrough the tank gives the residence time, or the
average amount of time a discrete quantity of reagent spends inside the tank.
In short CSTR has following properties.
Mixing of reactants
Good temperature control
High heat and mass transfer efficiencies
Useful for slow reactions requiring large hold up time
Uniform composition though out the reactor
Distribution of catalyst
In our process carbon monoxide, hydrogen and propylene are converted to
n-butyraldehyde in an aqueous phase containing a water soluble rhodium catalyst. The
reaction, therefore, system consists of three different phases: the aqueous phase, the
organic phase and the gas phase. It has been shown that mass transfer plays an
important role in this reaction system. In order to transfer the gas to the reaction site
and to make the separate organic phase as dispersed phase we need agitation. Keeping
these points in view CSTR has been selected.
Agitation
Agitation is a mean whereby mixing of phases can be accomplished and by
which mass and heat transfer can be enhanced between phases or with external
surfaces. In its most general sense, the process of mixing is concerned with all
combinations of phases of which the most frequently occurring ones are.
Gases with gases
Page 40
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Gases with liquids
Gases with granular solids
Liquids into gases
Liquids with granular solids
Pastes with each other
Solids with solids
The dimensions of the liquid content of a vessel and the dimensions and
arrangement of impellers, baffles and other internals are factors that influence the
amount of energy required for achieving the required amount of agitation or quality of
mixing. The internal arrangements depend on the objectives of the operation: whether
it is to maintain the homogeneity of reacting mixture or to keep a solid suspended or a
gas dispersed or to enhance heat or mass transfer. A basic range of design factors,
however can be defined to cover the majority of cases, for example as in figure.
Gaseous Product
Liquid Product
Feed
The Vessel
A dished bottom requires less power than a flat one. When a single impeller is
to be used, a liquid level equal to the diameter is optimum, with the impeller located at
the center for all liquid systems. Economic and manufacturing considerations,
however often dictate higher ratios of depth to diameter.
Page 41
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Baffles
Except at very high Reynolds numbers, baffles are needed to prevent vortexing
and rotation of the liquid mass as a whole. A baffle width one-twelfth the tank
diameter, W=D/12; a length extending from one half the impeller diameter, d/2, from
the tangent line at the bottom to the liquid level, but sometimes terminated just above
the level of the eye of the uppermost impeller. When solids are present or when heat
transfer jacket is used, the baffles are offset from the wall a distance equal to one
sixth, W/6 the baffles width. Four radial baffles at equal spacing are standard; six are
only slightly more effective, and three appreciably less so. When the mixer shaft is
located off center, the resulting flow pattern has fewer swirls, and baffles may not be
needed, particularly at low viscosities.
Draft Tubes
A draft tube is a cylindrical housing around a slightly larger in diameter than
Partial pressure of Propylene
Concentration of Rhodium
P
E
C
Rh
= 13.5 bar
= 0.92 mol/m
3
Concentration of Ligands
C
Lig
= 22.08 mol/m
3
as CRh:CLig = 1:24
Conversion of Reaction
X
A
= 95%
Initial Flow rate of Propylene
F
A0
= 58 mol/sec
Temperature of Reaction
T
= 393.15 K
Reaction Pressure
P
= 50 bar
Rate of Reaction Volume of Reaction Volume of Catalyst
r
A
Vr Vcat
= 0.485 mol/m
3
.sec
= F
A0
x
XA
/r
A
= 110.63 m
3
= 16.38 m
3
Page 45
the impeller. Its height may be little more than the diameter of the impeller or it may
extend the full depth of the liquid, depending on the flow pattern that is required.
Usually draft tubes are used with axial impellers to direct suction are discharge
streams. An impeller draft tube system behaves as an axial flow pump of somewhat
low efficiency. Its top to bottom circulation behavior is of particular value in deep
tanks for suspension of solids and for dispersion of gases.
Impeller Types
The typical impellers used in transitional and turbulent mixing are listed in
Table 6-1. These have been divided into different general classes, based on flow
patterns, applications, and special geometries. The classifications also define
application types for which these impellers are used. For example, axial flow impellers
are efficient for liquid blending and solids suspension, while radial flow impellers are
best used for gas dispersion. Up/down impellers can be disks and plates, are
considered low-shear impellers, and are commonly used in extraction columns. The
pitched blade turbine, although classified as an axial flow impeller, is sometimes
referred to as a mixed flow impeller, due to the flow generated in both axial and radial
Page 42
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
directions. Above a D/T ratio of 0.55, pitched blade turbines become radial flow
impellers.
Flow Pattern Impeller
Axial Flow Propeller, Pitched Blade Turbine, Hydrofoils
Radial Flow Flat-blade Impeller, Disc Turbine (Rushton), Hollow-blade Turbine
High Shear Cowles, Disc, Bar, Pointed blade Impeller
Specialty Retreat Curve Impeller, Sweptback Impeller, Spring Impeller
Up/Down Disks, Plate, Circles
Impeller Size
This depends on the kind of impeller and operating conditions described by the
Reynolds, Froude, and Power numbers as well as individual characteristics whose
effects have been correlated. For the popular turbine impeller, the ratio of diameters of
impeller and vessel falls in the range, d/D = 0.3 0.6, the lower vales at high rpm, in
Partial pressure of Propylene
Concentration of Rhodium
P
E
C
Rh
= 13.5 bar
= 0.92 mol/m
3
Concentration of Ligands
C
Lig
= 22.08 mol/m
3
as CRh:CLig = 1:24
Conversion of Reaction
X
A
= 95%
Initial Flow rate of Propylene
F
A0
= 58 mol/sec
Temperature of Reaction
T
= 393.15 K
Reaction Pressure
P
= 50 bar
Rate of Reaction Volume of Reaction Volume of Catalyst
r
A
Vr Vcat
= 0.485 mol/m
3
.sec
= F
A0
x
XA
/r
A
= 110.63 m
3
= 16.38 m
3
Page 45
gas dispersion.
Impeller Location
Expert opinions differ somewhat on this factor. As first approximation, the
impeller can be placed at 1/6 the liquid level off the bottom. In some cases there is
provision for changing the position of the impeller on the shaft. For off-bottom
suspension of solids, am impeller location of 1/3 diameter off the bottom may be
satisfactory. A rule is that a second impeller is needed when the liquid must travel
more than 4 ft before deflection.
Impeller Selection
For gas dispersion radial flow impellers are commonly used so from table we
have selected flat blade impeller.
Modeling of mass transfer and chemical reaction
The model that is used in this section takes both the mass transfer and the
chemical reaction into account. The governing equations that determine the flux of the
three gasses (A = H2, B = CO and E = propylene) into the aqueous liquid phase are:
Page 43
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Partial pressure of Propylene
Concentration of Rhodium
P
E
C
Rh
= 13.5 bar
= 0.92 mol/m
3
Concentration of Ligands
C
Lig
= 22.08 mol/m
3
as CRh:CLig = 1:24
Conversion of Reaction
X
A
= 95%
Initial Flow rate of Propylene
F
A0
= 58 mol/sec
Temperature of Reaction
T
= 393.15 K
Reaction Pressure
P
= 50 bar
Rate of Reaction Volume of Reaction Volume of Catalyst
r
A
Vr Vcat
= 0.485 mol/m
3
.sec
= F
A0
x
XA
/r
A
= 110.63 m
3
= 16.38 m
3
Page 45
From these equations the flux of the different gasses into the liquid can be
calculated
according to:
The average flux in time can be determined using the penetration
model:
In the reactor model a constant partial pressure of the gaseous reactants was
assumed and the overall loss of CO, H2 and propylene from the liquid phase
is neglected. In the steady state the fluxes of all components are then equal to the
total reaction rate in the solution:
The bulk concentrations of the three different reactants can be determined
from this equation.
Page 44
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Kinetics
The kinetics of the hydroformylation reaction in the presence of a RhCl(CO)
(TPPTS)2/TPPTS complex catalyst were experimentally determined by Yang et al.
Partial pressure of Propylene
Concentration of Rhodium
P
E
C
Rh
= 13.5 bar
= 0.92 mol/m
3
Concentration of Ligands
C
Lig
= 22.08 mol/m
3
as CRh:CLig = 1:24
Conversion of Reaction
X
A
= 95%
Initial Flow rate of Propylene
F
A0
= 58 mol/sec
Temperature of Reaction
T
= 393.15 K
Reaction Pressure
P
= 50 bar
Rate of Reaction Volume of Reaction Volume of Catalyst
r
A
Vr Vcat
= 0.485 mol/m
3
.sec
= F
A0
x
XA
/r
A
= 110.63 m
3
= 16.38 m
3
Page 45
(2002). These authors varied the propylene concentration, the initial pressure, the
H2/CO ratio, the temperature, the rhodium concentration and the ligand to rhodium
ratio in an orthogonal experimental design to obtain the following rate expression:
The constants are defined in Table 6.2:
SIZING OF CSTR
In sizing of CSTR first of all we should have rate expression 6.7 which, we have
already developed.
VOLUME OF REACTOR
Partial pressure of Hydrogen P
A
= 17.1 bar
Partial pressure of Carbon monoxide P
B
= 19.4 bar
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Head Volume V
H
= 12.70 m
3
Volume of Reactor V = 139.7 m
3
LENGTH AND DIAMETER
For CSTR Length to diameter ratio is 1.
So L/D = 1
Since
V = ( / 4) L D
2
=127 m
3
Where
L = Length of the reactor
D = Diameter of the reactor
After putting L/D = 1 calculated that
Length L = 5.45 m
Diameter D = 5.45 m
WALL THICKNESS
For the calculation of wall thickness we have to calculate the total pressure
which is the sum of static pressure inside the reactor.
Static Pressure can be calculated as:
Static pressure = Ps =
g h
Putting the values and found that
Ps = 940 9.81 5.45 = 50196 Pa = 50.19 kPa
Pressure in the reactor P
1
= 5000 kPa
Total pressure = Pt = Ps+ P
1
= 50.19 + 5000 = 5050.19 kPa
Maximum allowable internal pressure = 1.1 P = 5555 kPa
For cylindrical Shells thickness of wall can be found as:
t

r
i
SE
j
0.6P
+ C
c
Page 46
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Where
t = minimum wall thickness, m
P = maximum allowable internal pressure, kPa
r
i
= inside radius of shell before corrosion allowance is added, m
S = maximum allowable working stress, kPa
C
c
= corrosion allowance and its value is taken 3 mm
E
j
= efficiency of joints expressed as a friction and its value is 0.85
Putting the values of all variable
t


5555

2.72
(96105.2 0.85) (0.6 5555)
+ 0.003
t = 132.9 + 3.0 = 135.9 mm
OUTSIDE DIAMETER
Outside Diameter D
0
= D
i
+ 2t = 5.45 + 2(0.135.9) = 5.72 m
REACTOR HEAD
There are three types of head:
1. Ellipsoidal head
2. Torispherical head
3. Hemispherical Heead
Ellipsoidal head is used for pressure greater than 150 psig and for less than that
pressure we use Torispherical head. Thats why we have selected Ellipsoidal head.
Head thickness = t
H
=
P
D D
i
2S E
j
0.2P
D
+ Cc =
5555 x 5.45
2 x 137895 x 0.85 (0.2 x 5555 )
+ .003
= 132.74 mm
Page 47
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
AGITATOR DESIGN
Viscosity of Mixture at 393K = = 0.45 cp
Shape Factors are
S1 = D/T = 1/3
S2 = E/T = 1/3
S3 = L/D = 1/4
S4 = W/D = 1/5
S5 = J/T = 1/10
Agitator Dimensions are:
Impeller Diameter
Impeller Height above Vessel floor
D
E
= T/3
= T/3
= 1.82 m
= 1.82 m
Length of Impeller Blade
Width of Impeller Blade
L
W
= 0.25D
= D/5
= 0.45 m
= 0.36 m
Page
48
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Width of Baffle J = T/10 = 0.54 m
Length of Sparger Ls = T/3 = 0.36 m
For Gas-liquid-liquid mixture and reaction with heat transfer:
Tip Velocity = 10 20 ft/sec
Tip Velocity = 5 m/sec
Tip Velocity = x Da x N
Form this equation we can fine speed of Impeller as:
Speed of Impeller N = 5/( x 1.82) = 53 RPM
POWER CALCULATIONS
Power required by the impeller is given by following equation
P = N
P
x

x N
3
D
5
Where
P = Power, watts
N
p
= Dimensionless power number
= average density, Kg/m
3
N = no. of revolutions per min of impeller, RPM
D = diameter of the impeller, m
Power number is related with the Reynolds number of the impeller.
REYNOLDS NUMBER:
Reynolds no. of impeller is given by following equation
Page 49
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
2
EQUIPMENTS
N


ND
a

Re

N
Re
= 6.04 10
6
For such a high Reynolds number, which is greater than 10
5
we use the relation for
power requirement as:
Power P = K
T
x N
3
x D
5
x /g
c
K
T
from literature for six blade disc turbine = 5.75
Putting these values in above equation we get:
Power P = 7346 Watts = 9.9886 hp
Power consumption by gas sparger
Gas mass flow rate = 8828 kg/hr
Compressor efficiency = 0.78
Pressure difference due to sparger = 10 kPa
Gas density = 19.8 kg/m
3
Power consumption by sparger = (m
G
x x P)/
G
Power consumption by sparger = 0.966 watts = 0.0013hp
Total Power consumption = (0.0013+9.9886) = 9.989 hp
It is assumed that gear derive requires 5% of the impeller horsepower and system
variations require a minimum of 10% of this impeller horsepower
Thus
Actual minimum motor horsepower =impeller required hp/0.85
= 9.989/0.85 = 11.75 hp
m2
Page 50
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SHAFT DESIGN
Continuous average rated torque on the agitator shaft,
Tc = (hp x 360 x 60)/ (2 N)
= (11.75 x 360 x 60)/ (2 x 53)
= 775.5 Kg m
Polar modulus of the shaft,
Zp = Tm/fs
Tm = 1.5 Tc
fs shear stress = 550 kg/cm
2
Zp = (1.5 x 776 x 100) /550
= 211.5 cm
3
d
3
/16 = 211.5
d = 10 cm
Diameter of shaft = 10 cm
Force, Fm = Tm/3.61Rb
Rb Radius of blade
Fm = (1.5 x 158 x 100) / (3.61 x 45)
= 711.6 Kg
Maximum bending momentum
M = Fm x l.3
= 701 x 1.3
= 925 Kg-m
Equivalent bending moment
M
e
=
1
2
[M + M
1
+ T
2
]
2 2
M
e
=
2
[925 + 925
+ (776 1.5) ]
Me = 1206 kg. m
The stress due to equivalent blending
F = Me/Z
Z = d
3
/ 32 = x 10
3
/ 32 = 98.13
F = (1206 x 100)/98.13 = 1229 Kg/cm
2
This is within the allowable limits of stress.
Overhang of agitator shaft between bearing and agitator I = 130 cm
Page 51
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Modulus of elasticity E = 19.5 x 10
5
kg/cm
2
Shaft deflection = (Fm x I
3
)/(3E x x D
4
/64)
= 0.54 cm
HUB AND KEY DESIGN
Hub diameter of agitator = 2 x shaft diameter = 20 cm
Length of the hub = 2.5 x 36.3 = 90.82 cm
Length of key = 1.5 x shaft dia = 15 cm
HEAT TRANSFER IN REACTOR
Cooling Jacket area available A = DH + D
2
/4
= ( x 5.42 x 5.42) + ( x 5.42
2
/4)
= 153.29 m
2
CW inlet temp = 28
o
C
CW outlet temp = 33
o
C
Approaches;
T
1
= 120 28 = 92
T
2
= 120 33 = 87
LMTD = 89.47
0
C
Heat, removable by jacket
Q = UAT
M
= 590 x 153.29 x 89.47 = 2.9e+7 KJ/hr
This heat is Sufficient, so we can use jacket
Now Cooling water Flow rate can be calculated as:
Heat to be remove from reactor = 2.82 x 10
7
m = Q/( CpT
M
) = 77892 kg/hr
Page 52
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SPECIFICATION SHEET
Identification
Item Reactor
Item Number R-101
Number of Item 1
Operation Continuous
Type Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
Design Data
Volume 139.71 m
3
Width of baffles 0.545 m
Length 5.45 m Impeller above bottom 0.363 m
Diameter 5.45 m Length of sparger 1.089 m
Number of Baffles 4 Speed of impeller 52.6 RPM
Type of Impeller Disc turbine Diameter of shaft 10 cm
Number of blades 6 Hub diameter 20 cm
Wall thickness 135.9087 mm Length of hub 90.82 cm
Head thickness 132.7441 mm Length of key 15 cm
Impeller Diameter 1.82 m Power requirements 11.75 hp
Length of blade 0.45 m Jacket area 153.29 m
2
Width of Blade 0.363 m Water requirements 77891.86 kg/hr
Page 53
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
A Heat Exchanger is a heat transfer device that is used for transfer of internal
thermal energy between two or more fluids available at different temperatures. In most
of the exchangers the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface and ideally
dont mix with each other.
CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER
In general industrial heat exchangers are classified according to their:
Construction
Transfer processes
Degrees of surface compactness
Flow arrangements
Pass arrangements
Phase of the process fluid
Heat transfer mechanism
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS
The selection process includes a number of factors, depending upon heat transfer
application. These are as follows:
Space Operating temperature
Efficiency Flow rates
Availability Flow arrangements
Ease of construction. Intended application
Operating pressure Fouling tendencies
Material Compatibility Types and phases of fluids
Material of construction Fabrication technique
Operational maintenance Overall economy
Page 54
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Thermal requirement and repair
possibilities
Maintenance, inspection,
cleaning, extension,
Environmental, health, and safety considerations and
regulations
Performance parameters-- thermal effectiveness and
pressure drops
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat exchangers are commonly used in a wide variety of industrial, chemical,
and electronics processes to transfer energy and provide required heating or cooling.
Industrial types of heat exchangers are common in everyday equipment such as
Boilers Reaction vessels. Cooling towers
Furnaces Chillers Coolers
Refrigerators Evaporators Condensers
Dryers Pre heaters Distillation
In fact, every air conditioning system and refrigeration system has at least two
heat exchangers o ne for the cooling side, and one to expel the heat. In the majority of
chemical processes heat is either given out or absorbed, and fluids must often be either
heated or cooled in a wide range of plant.
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
In process industries, shell and tube exchangers are used in great numbers, far
more than any other type of exchanger. More than 90-95% of heat exchangers used in
industry are of the shell and tube type. The shell and tube heat exchangers are the
work horses of industrial process heat transfer.
They are the first choice because of well-established procedures for design and
manufacture from a wide variety of materials, many years of satisfactory service, and
availability of codes and standards for design and fabrication. They are produced in
the widest variety of sizes and styles. There is virtually no limit on the operating
temperature and pressure.
Page 55
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
We employed shell and tube heat exchanger due to following reasons:
It occupies less space.
Its maintenance is easy.
Its compactness is more.
They can tolerate dirty fluids.
It is used for high heat transfer duties.
These are mostly employed in industry.
Means of directing fluid through the tubes.
Means of controlling fluid flow through the shell.
Used where large heat transfer surfaces are required
Consideration for ease of maintenance and servicing.
Inlet Temperature
= T1
= 120
0
C
Outlet Temperature
= T2
= 40
0
C
Consideration for differential thermal expansion of tubes and shell.
It can be fabricated with any type of material depend up fluid properties.
They can be operated at higher temperature difference b/w coolant and gas.
Shell and Tube heat exchangers are used on applications where the demands
on high temperatures and pressures are significant.
Shell and tube (or tubular) heat exchangers are used in applications where high
temperature and pressure demands are significant. These heat exchangers consist of a
bundle of parallel sanitary tubes with the ends expanded in tube sheets. The bundle is
contained in a cylindrical shell. Connections are such that the tubes can contain either
the product or the media, depending upon the application. The major limitation is that
they cannot be used to regenerate, but they can transfer lots of heat due to the surface
area. There are many different types or designs of shell and tube heat exchangers to
meet various process requirements. Shell and Tube heat exchangers can provide
steady heat transfer by utilizing multiple passes of one or both fluids. Tubular heat
exchangers are also employed when fluid contains particles that would block the
channels of a plate heat exchanger.
Page 56
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
DESIGN STANDARDS FOR SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
There are two major standards for designing shell and tube heat exchangers:
TEMA standards
ASME Standards
TEMA STANDARDS
The Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
describe these various components of shell and tube heat exchanger in detail. An
STHE is divided into three parts: the front head, the shell, and the rear head. Figure
illustrates the TEMA nomenclature for the various construction possibilities.
Exchangers are described by the letter codes for the three sections for example; a
Inlet Temperature
= T1
= 120
0
C
Outlet Temperature
= T2
= 40
0
C
BFL exchanger has a bonnet cover, a two-pass shell with a longitudinal baffle, and a
fixed tube sheet rear head.
CLASSIFICATION OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Three principal types of shell and tube heat exchangers are:
Fixed tube-sheet exchangers
U-tube exchangers
Floating head exchanger.
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The points for designing a shell and tube heat exchanger are:
Flow rates of both streams inlet and outlet temperatures of both streams.
Operating pressure of both streams. This is required for gases, especially if the gas
density is not furnished; it is not really necessary for liquids, as their properties do
not vary with pressure.
Allowable pressure drop for both streams. This is a very important parameter for
heat exchanger design. Generally, for liquids, a value of 0.50.7 kg/cm
2
is
permitted per shell. A higher pressure drop is usually warranted for viscous
liquids, especially in the tube side. For gases, the allowed value is generally 0.05
0.2 kg/cm
2
, with 0.1 kg/cm
2
being typical.
Page 57
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Fouling resistance for both streams. If this is not furnished, the designer should
adopt values specified in the TEMA standards or based on past experience.
Physical properties of both streams. These include viscosity, thermal conductivity,
density, and specific heat, preferably at both inlet and outlet temperatures.
Viscosity data must be supplied at inlet and outlet temperatures, especially for
liquids, since the variation with temperature may be considerable and is irregular
(neither linear nor log-log).
Heat duty. The duty specified should be consistent for both the shell side and the
tube side.
Inlet Temperature
= T1
= 120
0
C
Outlet Temperature
= T2
= 40
0
C
Type of heat exchanger. If not furnished, the designer can choose this based upon
the characteristics of the various types of construction described earlier. In fact, the
designer is normally in a better position than the process engineer to do this.
Line sizes. It is desirable to match nozzle sizes with line sizes to avoid expanders
or reducers. However, sizing criteria for nozzles are usually more stringent than
for lines, especially for the shell side inlet.
Nozzle sizes must sometimes be one size (or even more in exceptional
circumstances) larger than the corresponding line sizes, especially for small lines.
Maximum shell diameter. This is based upon tube-bundle removal requirements
and is limited by crane capacities. Such limitations apply only to exchangers with
removable tube bundles, namely U-tube and floating-head. For fixed-tube sheet
exchangers, the only limitation is the manufacturers fabrication capability and the
availability of components such as dished ends and flanges. Thus, floating-head
heat exchangers are often limited to a shell I.D. of 1.41.5 m and a tube length of 6
m or 9 m, whereas fixed tube sheet heat exchangers can have shells as large as 3 m
and tube length up to 12 m or more.
Materials of construction. If the tubes and shell are made of identical materials, all
components should be of this material. Thus, only the shell and tube materials of
construction need to be specified. However, if the shell and tubes are of different
metallurgy, the materials of all principal components should be specified to avoid
any ambiguity. The principal components are shell (and shell cover), tubes,
channel (and channel cover), tube sheets, and baffles.
Page 58
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Tube sheets may be lined or clad.
TUBE SIDE AND SHELL SIDE FLUID ALLOCATION
The criteria for fluid allocation in shell and tube heat exchangers are:
Specific pressure drop.
The most corrosive to be tube side
The higher pressure fluid to be tube side.
Shell side boiling or condensation is usually preferred.
Inlet Temperature
= T1
= 120
0
C
Outlet Temperature
= T2
= 40
0
C
Severe fouling fluids shall be allocated the side which is accessible.
PRELIMINARY THERMO- HYDRAULICS DESIGN STEPS
Following are the Coulsons Design Steps for shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Defining heat-transfer rate, fluid flow-rates and temperatures.
Collect physical properties data.
Decide the type of exchanger.
Select a trial value for the overall coefficient U.
Calculate the LMTD required.
Calculate the area required.
Calculate the individual coefficients
Calculate the overall coefficient and compare with trial value. If the calculated
value differs significantly from estimated value, substitute the calculated value for
estimated value.
Calculate the exchanger pressure drop, if unsatisfactory, change exchanger
configuration.
THERMO-HYDRAULICS CALCULATIONS
SHELL SIDE DATA
Raw Butanal data
Process Conditions
Page 59
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Mean temperature = T
m 80
o
C
Mass Flow Rate = m
h
= 31420 kg/hr
Physical Properties
Specific Heat = C
p = 1.923 kJ/kg
o
C
Thermal Conductivity = k = 0.125 W/m
o
C
Density = = 866 kg/m
3
Viscosity = = 0.34 x10
-3
kg/m.s
TUBE SIDE DATA
Cooling Water data
Inlet Temperature = t
1 = 30
o
C
Outlet Temperature = t
2 = 37
o
C
Mean temperature = t
m = 33.5
o
C
Physical Properties
Specific Heat = C
p
= 4.23 kJ/kg
o
C
Thermal Conductivity = k = 0.61 W/m
o
C
Density = = 1015 kg/m
3
Viscosity = = 0.72 x10
-3
kg/m.s
DESIGN CALCULATIONS
Calculation of Heat Duty
From Energy Balance across heat exchanger E-14 we have Heat load
q = 2.76 x 10
6
kJ/hr
Mass flow rate of water needed = 93300 kg/hr
Calculation of LMTD
Calculate the LMTD
T
log mean
=
T
1
T
2
T
1
ln (
T
2
)
Page 60
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
T
log mean
=
83 10
80
Correction Factor Calculation
ln (
10
)
= 34.5
0
C
R = [T
h,i
- T
h,o
] / [T
c,o
- T
c,i
]
R = 11.4
P = [T
c,o
- T
c,i
] / [T
h,i
-T
c,i
]
P = 0.08
Correction Factor F = 0.89
Corrected LMTD = 30.7
0
C
SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER
Selection Criteria according to, Plant design and Economics for Chemical Engineers
by Max Peter
1. Heat Duty of Exchanger q = 2.76 x 10
6
J/s
2. Mass cooling water needed m = 93300 kg/hr
3. Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) = 30.72
o
C
4. Average Value of U
D [
= 1245 W/m
2
K
5. Area at average overall heat transfer coefficient = 50 m
2
For this area :
Approx. Cost of multiple-pipe heat exchanger = $16500
Approx. Cost of U-tube Heat exchanger = $ 9095
Approx. Cost of fixed tube heat exchanger = $ 18190
Approx. Cost of floating head heat exchanger = $ 55000
The most suitable from these exchangers is U-tube heat exchanger.
Assumption of overall dirt Heat Transfer Coefficient
Assume:
U
d
= 700 W/m
2
K
Tube Specifications
Standard tube specification are taken from D.Q.Kern, Tabel 10
Page 61
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Tube side dimensions(cold fluid)
BWG=14
OD=0.019m
ID=0.0148m
Inside Surface Area/m=0.047m
2
/m
Triangular pitch= 0.0254m
No. of passes=2
Tube Wall Thickness = 0.0021m
TUBE SIDE CALCULATIONS
Flow Area
Flow area/tube =A
C
= 0.00017 m
2
Heat Transfer Area for assumed U
D
Area =A = 35.64 m
2
Outside surface Area of Tube
Outside surface Area = A
ot
= 3.14 d
o
L
= 0.292 m
2
For this area number of tubes = A/A
0t
= 122 tubes
Nearest number of tubes from literature = 138 tubes
Corrected Heat Transfer Coefficient U
dc
= 619 W/m
2
K
Corrected Heat transfer area = A
C
= 40 m
2
Mass Velocity
Velocity
G
t
= m
c
/ (A
C
x no of tubes per pass)
= 93300/(0.00017 x 69 x 3600)
= 2209 kg/m
2
-s
V
t
= G
t
/(density)
Page 62
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
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Heat Transfer Coefficient
= 2209/1015= 2.18 m/s (within the range)
h
i
from literature for water = 10000 W/m
2
K
h
i,o
= h
i
x (ID/OD) = 7787 W/m
2
K
Reynolds Number
Reynolds number = G
t
ID/
= 2209 x 0.0148/0.00072
= 45519 (turbulent flow)
SHELL SIDE CALCULATIONS
Flow Area
Mass Velocity (G
s
)
A
CS
= (ID x P
d
x L
b
)/P
t
= (0.54 x 0.108 x 0.00635)/0.0254
= 0.0145 m
2
G
S
= m
h
/(flow area x 3600)
= (14380)/(0.0145 x 3600)
= 532 kg/m
2
s
Viscosity at Wall Temperature
t
Viscosity at wall temperature =
w
= 0.00042 kg/ms
Equivalent Diameter of Shell
D
e
= 4(0.86 x P
2
- 3.14 x D
0
2
/4)/(3.14 x D
0
)
Reynolds Number
D
e
= 0.01805 m
Re = (G
s
x D
e
)/
= (532 x 0.01805)/0.00034
= 28270 (turbulent region)
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CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
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Prandtl Number
P
r
= (C
p
x )/k
=3.06 x 0.00034/0.000124
= 8.33
Heat transfer coefficient
h

= 0.36 x (k/D
i
) x (R
e
)
0.55
x (P
r
)
0.33
( /
w
)
0.14
= 1399.5 W/m
2
K
Overall Clean Heat transfer coefficient U
C
h
i ,o
h
o
U
C
=
h
i ,o
+ h
o
U
C
= 1186 W/m
2
K
Overall Dirt Heat transfer coefficient U
D
R
D
factor from literature = 0.0006 m
2
K/W
Using this R
D
value and clean coefficient:
U
D
= 693 m
2
K/W
Check for Assumed U
D
Check for U
D
0<(U
Dcal
U
Das
)/U
Das
< 30% (U
Dcal
U
Das
)/U
Das
x 100 = 1%
So, Calculated U
D
is reasonable.
PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS
Tubes side
f
i
= 0.046(Re)
-0.2
= 0.0054
G
i
= 2209 kg/m
2
sec
Page 64
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
D
i
= 0.014834 m
L = 4.88 m
np = 2

i
= 1015 kg/m
3
B
i
= 1.0001

i
= 1.099
P=2(1.0001 x 0.0045 x 2209
2
x 4.88 x 2)/(1015 x 0.0148 x 1.099)
s
Shell side
Kern method
P = 34 kPa
P
s
=(4f x G
2
f = 0.05
D
s
(N
B
+1))/[2
h
x D
e
x (/
w
)
0.14
]
G
s
= Mass Velocity = 532 kg/m
2
s
D
s
= 0.387 m
N
B
= Number of Baffles = 44

h
= Density of Hot Fluid = 866 kg/m
3
D
e
= Equivalent Diameter = 0.018 m
= Viscosity of Hot Fluid = 0.00034 kg/m.s

w
= Viscosity at wall temp. = 0.00042 kg/m.s
P
s
= 4(0.05 x 532
2
x 0.387 x 44)/(2 x 866 x 0.018 x (0.81)
0.14
)
P
s
= 13.5 kPa
Page 65
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SPECIFICATION SHEET
Name of equipment Shell and Tube heat exchanger
Type 1-2 pass U-tube heat exchanger
No. of equipment 1
Heat transfer area 40 m
2
No. of tubes 138
Type of tube BWG 14, SS-405
Tube dimensions ID-0.0148m, OD-0.01905m, 0.0021m thick, 4.88m long
Tube pitch & clearance 0.0254m, 0.00635m respectively
Shell dimensions ID- 0.387 m
No. of baffles 44
P tube side 34 kPa
P shell side 13 kPa
Page 66
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
DESIGN OF STRIPPING COLUMN
Before going in details of stripping column design first we see what is
stripping and what its industrial uses are.
STRIPPING
Unit operation where one or more components of a liquid stream are removed
by being placed in contact with a gas stream that is insoluble in the liquid stream.
OR
Stripping is a physical separation process where one or more components are
removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream. In industrial applications the liquid
and vapor streams can have co-current or countercurrent flows. Stripping is usually
carried out in either a packed or tray column.
THEORY
Stripping works on the basis of mass transfer. The idea is to make the
conditions favorable for the more volatile component in the liquid phase to transfer to
the vapor phase. This involves a gas-liquid interface that the more volatile component
must cross.
EQUIPMENT USED FOR STRIPPING
Stripping is mainly conducted in trayed towers (plate columns) and packed
columns, and less often in spray towers, bubble columns and centrifugal contactors.
PLATE COLUMN
Packed columns consist of a vertical column with liquid flowing in from the
top and flowing out the bottom. The vapor phase enters from the bottom of the column
and exits out of the top. Inside of the column are trays or plates. These trays force the
liquid to flow back and forth horizontally while forcing the vapor bubbles up through
holes in the trays. The purpose of these trays is to increase the amount of contact area
between the liquid and vapor phases.
Page 67
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
PACKED COLUMN
Packed columns are similar to plate columns in that the liquid and vapor flows
enter and exit in the same manner. The difference is that in packed towers there are no
trays. Instead, packing is used to increase the contact area between the liquid and
vapor phases. There are many different types of packing used and each one its
advantages and disadvantages. The gas liquid contact in a packed bed column is
continuous, not stage-wise, as in a plate column. The liquid flows down the column
over the packing surface and the gas or vapor, counter-currently, up the column. In
some gas-absorption columns co-current flow is used. The performance of a packed
column is very much dependent on the maintenance of good liquid and gas
distribution throughout the packed bed, and this is an important consideration in
packed-column design.
CHOICE OF PLATE OR PACKED COLUMN
The choice between a plate and packed column for a particular application can
only be made with complete assurance by costing each design. However, this will not
always be worthwhile or necessary, and the choice can usually be made on the basis of
experience by considering main advantages and disadvantages of each type; which are
listed below:
1. Plate columns can be designed to handle a wider range of liquid and gas flow-
rates than packed columns.
2. Packed columns are not suitable for very low liquid rates.
3. The efficiency of a plate can be predicted with more certainty than the
equivalent term for packing (HETP or HTU).
4. Plate columns can be designed with more assurance than packed columns.
There is always some doubt that good liquid distribution can be maintained
throughout a packed column under all operating conditions, particularly in
large columns.
5. It is easier to make provision for cooling in a plate column; coils can be
installed on the plates.
Page 68
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
6. It is easier to make provision for the withdrawal of side-streams from plate
columns.
7. If the liquid causes fouling, or contains solids, it is easier to make provision for
cleaning in a plate column; manways can be installed on the plates. With small
diameter columns it may be cheaper to use packing and replace the packing
when it becomes fouled.
8. For corrosive liquids a packed column will usually be cheaper than the
equivalent plate column.
9. The liquid hold-up is appreciably lower in a packed column than a plate
column. This can be important when the inventory of toxic or flammable
liquids needs t be kept as small as possible for safety reasons.
10. Packed columns are more suitable for handling foaming systems.
11. The pressure drop per equilibrium stage (HETP) can be lower for packing than
plates; and packing should be considered for vacuum columns.
12. Packing should always be considered for small diameter columns, say less than
0.6 m, where plates would be difficult to install, and expensive.
Packed column is selected for our operation.
TYPES OF PACKING
The principal requirements of a packing are that it should:
Provide a large surface area: a high interfacial area between the gas and
liquid.
Have an open structure: low resistance to gas flow.
Promote uniform liquid distribution on the packing surface.
Promote uniform vapor gas flow across the column cross-section.
Many diverse types and shapes of packing have been developed to satisfy these
requirements. They can be divided into two broad classes:
1. Packings with a regular geometry: such as stacked rings, grids and proprietary
structured packings.
2. Random packings: rings, saddles and proprietary shapes, which are dumped
into the column and take up a random arrangement.
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CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
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Grids have an open structure and are used for high gas rates, where low pressure
drop is essential; for example, in cooling towers. Random packings and structured
packing elements are more commonly used in the process industries.
RANDOM PACKING
The principal types of random packings are shown
R a s ch ing R ings P a ll R in g s
B e r l S ad d les I n t a lo x S ad d le s
S uper I nt alo x S add les Met al H ypac
Page 70
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Raschig rings are one of the oldest specially manufactured types of random
packing, and are still in general use. Pall rings are essentially Raschig rings in which
openings have been made by folding strips of the surface into the ring. This increases
the free area and improves the liquid distribution characteristics. Berl saddles were
developed to give improved liquid distribution compared to Raschig rings. Intalox
saddles can be considered to be an improved type of Berl saddle; their shape makes
them easier to manufacture than Berl saddles. The Hypac and Super Intalox packings
shown in can be considered improved types of Pall ring and Intalox saddle
respectively.
Ring and saddle packings are available in a variety of materials: ceramics,
metals, plastics and carbon. Metal and plastics (polypropylene) rings are more
efficient than ceramic rings, as it is possible to make the walls thinner.
Raschig rings are cheaper per unit volume than Pall rings or saddles but are
less efficient, and the total cost of the column will usually be higher if Raschig r ings
are specified. For new columns, the choice will normally be between Pall rings and
Berl or Intalox saddles.
The choice of material will depend on the nature of the fluids and the operating
temperature. Ceramic packing will be the first choice for corrosive liquids; but
ceramics are unsuitable for use with strong alkalies. Plastic packings are attacked by
some organic solvents, and can only be used up to moderate temperatures. So are
unsuitable for distillation columns. Where the column operation is likely to be
unstable, metal rings should be used, as ceramic packing is easily broken.
PACKING SIZE
In general, the largest size of packing that is suitable for the size of column
should be used, up to 50 mm. Small sizes are appreciably more expensive than t he
larger sizes. Above 50 mm the lower cost per cubic meter does not normally
compensate for the lower mass transfer efficiency. Use of too large a size in a small
column can cause poor liquid distribution.
Page 71
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Recommended size ranges are:
Column diameter Use packing size
<0.3 m <25 mm
0.3 to 0.9 m 25 to 38 mm
>0.9 m 50 to 75 mm
STRUCTURED PACKING
The term structured packing refers to packing elements made up from wire
mesh or perforated metal sheets. The material is folded and arranged with a regular
geometry, to give a high surface area with a high void fraction. A typical example is
shown below.
Str uct ur ed P acking
Structured packings are produced by a number of manufacturers. The basic
construction and performance of the various proprietary types available are similar.
The advantage of structured packings over random packing is their low HETP
(typically less than 0.5 m) and low pressure drop (around 100 Pa/m). They are being
increasingly used in the following applications:
1. For difficult separations, requiring many stages: such as the separation of
isotopes.
2. High vacuum distillation.
3. For column revamps: to increase capacity and reduce reflux ratio requirements.
The applications have mainly been in distillation, but structured packings can
also be used in absorption; in applications where high efficiency and low pressure
Page 72
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
drop are needed. The cost of structured packings per cubic meter will be significantly
higher than that of random packings, but this is offset by their higher efficiency.
Selected packing is random because its cheaper and there are no difficult or
vacuum separation requirements.
CHOICE OF RANDOM PACKING
Factors to be considered
1. Void fraction
2. Effective surface
3. Packing size
4. Maximum operating temperature
5. Mechanical strength
6. Material selection
Packing used here is 0.038m ceramic intalox saddle because
1. One of the most efficient packings
2. Little tendency to nest and block areas of bed
3. Gives a fairly uniform bed
4. Higher flooding point
5. Lower pressure drop
PACKING PROPERTIES
Nominal size
1.5"
0.038mm
Packing factor F 170 Specific gravity (g/cm
3
) 2.3
Package density (kg/m
3
) 580 Water absorption (%) <0.3
Free volume (%) 80 Acid resistance (%) >99.6
Surface area (m2/m
3
) 180 Max operating temp. 1100
Page 73
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
MATERIAL BALANCE
Component 10 17 11 19
Propylene 202 201.23 0.80
Hydrogen 549 1.88 547.27 3.64
n-Butanal 13726.88 266.37 13460.5
Iso-Butanal 315.94 8.83 307.11
CO 8163 48.64 8141.61 69.98
propane 44.40 43.76 0.633
Total
8712.00 14339.44 9201.94 13839.50
Material In = Material Out
Stream 10 + Stream 17 = Stream 11 + Stream 19
Total = 23041.44 kg/hr = Total = 23041.44 kg/hr
STRIPPER FEED (17)
Mass flow rate= 14339.44kg/hr Molar flow rate= 203.53kgmol/hr Mole Fraction:
Propylene: 0.023 n-Butanal: 0.936
iso-Butanal: 0.021
STRIPPED GAS (11)
Mass flow rate=9201.94kg/hr Molar flow rate= 574.1kgmol/hr Mole Fraction:
Propylene: 0.0083
Hydrogen: 0.476
CO: 0.506
STRIPPING GAS (10)
Mass flow rate= 8712kg/hr
Molar flowrate= 566.04kgmol/hr
Mole Fraction: Hydrogen: 0.484
CO: 0.516
Product (19)
Mass flow rate= 13839.5 kg/hr Molar flowrate= 195.57kgmol/hr Mole Fraction:
N-Butanal: 0.956
Iso-Butanal: 0.0218
Propylene: 0.000097
Page 74
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Stream Temperature (K) Mass Flowrate (kg/hr)
Liquid Inlet 313 14339.79
Liquid Outlet 388 13842
Gas Inlet 483 8712
Gas Outlet 317 9209
Components\Mole 10 17 11 19
fraction
Propylene 0.0236 0.00834 0.00009
Hydrogen 0.4849 0.00463 0.4767 0.00932
n-Butanal 0.9366 0.00644 0.9559
Iso-Butanal 0.02155 0.00021 0.02180
CO 0.5150 0.00853 0.50655 0.01278
Propane 0.00495 0.00173 0.00007
DESIGN APPROACH
1. Determining the diameter of column.
2. Determining the HETP of packing
3. Determining Number of transfer units for the required separation.
4. Determining the height of overall transfer units.
5. Determining the total height of column.
6. Determining the flooding velocity.
7. Verifying the pressure drop across the column.
8. Mechanical Design
Page 75
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
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DIAMETER OF COLUMN
The column diameter is calculated by following formula
G= Mass flowrate of gas
G= Mass flux of gas
= .

..

To find G first find the flow parameter X as followed


L= Mass flow rate of liquid stream

g
= Density of gas

l
= Density of liquid
x = 0.236
Pressure drop range for strippers and absorbers is 147Pa to 490Pa.
Pressure drop of 294 Pa/m of a packed bed is selected.
Value of gas mass flux G from figure 12 Chapter 1 Rule of thumbs for chemical
engineers 3ed.
G=0.7 kg/m
2
s Diameter of packed column is 0.603m.
Page 76
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
HEIGHT EQUIVALENT OF THEORETICAL PLATE (HETP)
HETP is calculated as
HETP =
Where
A= Size of packing = 38mm
= Surface tension of liquid = 29.2 mN/m
= Overall viscosity of feed stream = 0.000414 Pa s
HETP = 0.0357m
NUMBER OF TRANSFER UNITS (NTU)
Number of transfer units is calculated as followed.


=


+

Where
=L/HG = 0.0045
L=Molar liquid flow rate = 203 kmol/hr G=Molar
gas flow rate = 566 kmol/hr H=Henrys Law
Constant = 79.52 Pa/mol fraction
x
2
=Solute contents in liquid inlet stream mol fraction = 0.0083
x
1
=Solute contents in liquid exit stream mol fraction = 0.00009
y
1
=Solute contents in gas at bottom mol fraction = 0
N
total
= 4.5 ~ 5
Page 77
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
HEIGHT OF OVERALL GAS TRANSFER UNIT (HOG)
Height of overall gas transfer unit is calculated as followed.

COLUMN HEIGHT
H
og
= 1.45m
Packing height is calculated as followed
H
total
= H
og
x N
total
H
total
= 7.28m
Giving 0.457m allowance for disengagement of vapors at top and at bottom
for liquid. H
total
= 8.194 m
FLOODING VELOCITY
Flooding velocity requires the calculation of the superficial velocity that is
given as
V
og
= G/A
g
V
og
= 5.88m/s
As general rule superficial velocity is 40% to 60% of the flooding velocity.
Taking superficial velocity as 60% of the flooding velocity, then the flooding velocity
is given as
V
F
= 9.8m/s
CHECK FOR PRESSURE DROP
For pressure drop calculation we required flow factor and gas mass velocity.
Flow factor X is calculated as

X = 2.66
Page 78
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Gas mass velocity is calculated with following formula.
m
Where
m
v
= Mass flow rate of gas stream
A = Area of column
G


v
A
G = 0.703 kg/m
2
s
Now the Y ordinate of figure 12 Chapter 1 Rule of thumbs for chemical engineers 3ed
is calculated by the given formula.
=

Y = 0.723
Value of pressure drop for this value of Y is 294Pa/m of packing height.
MECHANICAL DESIGN
THICKNESS OF SHELL
Material selection: Stainless Steel 304
Shell thickness is calculated as given below
t
s
=Thickness of shell
p=Design pressure = O.P. 1.1 = 55.265 N/mm
2
D=Inside diameter = 0.602 m
f=Design stress = 145 N/mm
2
J=Joint efficiency = 85%
c= Corrosion allowance = 2mm
t
s
= 82mm
Page 79
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SHELL WEIGHT
Shell weight is calculated as
Shell Weight = Volume of shell Density of shell material
Shell weight = 12670 kg
HEAD SELECTION AND THICKNESS
2:1 Elliptical head has been selected because it is used for high pressure requirements
and its manufacturing is easy as compared to other types. Material of construction is
low alloy steel.
Thickness of elliptical head is calculated with following formula


=
+
.
Where
t
h
=Thickness of head
p =Design pressure = O.P. 1.1 = 55.25N/mm
2
C
s
=Stress concentration factor = 1.77
R
c
=Crown Radius = 0.602m
F =Design stress = 240N/mm
2
J =Joint efficiency = 85% C =
Corrosion allowance = 2
HEAD WEIGHT
t
h
= 83 mm
Weight of elliptical head is calculated as

W = 58kg
Page 80
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SUPPORT DESIGN
Type of support selected is skirt type support for vertical vessels. Material of
construction is construction stainless steel SS-301.
First we find maximum dead weight of vessel when full of water.
Max. Dead weight = 25.5 kN
Weight of column = 202 kN
Weight of Packing = 2.364 kN
Wind Loading
Where

w= Dynamic wind pressure = 2790N/m


2
x= Length of column = 9.11m
M
s
= 69813 N
Take test thickness of support say 220mm.
Tensile strength of support
??
Where

M
s
= Wind loading
D
s
= Inside diameter of shell
t
s
= Thickness of support

bs
= 0.81 N/mm
2
Test compressive strength of support

( ))))))))))))) ) =

Page 81
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Where
W= Dead weight of column when full of water

ws
(test) = 0.044 N/mm
2
Operational compressive strength of support
?
Where


( ))))))))))))) ) =

W= Total weight of column

ws
(operational) = 0.359 N/mm
2
Maximum tensile strength of support


=


( )
Max
s
(Tensile) = 770 kPa
Maximum compressive strength of support


=




()
Max
s
(Compressive) = 455 kPa
Check for taken thickness of support
Following two conditions must be satisfied.
1.


() <

Where
f
s
= Design stress = 240N/mm
2
J= Joint efficiency = 85%

s
=Base angle (normally taken as 90)
0.0226 < 0.770
Condition 1 is satisfied.
Page 82
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
2.
E= Young Modulus of elasticity = 11.35 N/mm
2
0.455 < 0.518
Condition 2 is satisfied.
So thickness of support = 220mm
PACKING SUPPORT
The best design of packing support is one in which gas inlets are provided
above the level where the liquid flows from the bed; such as the gas-injection type.
These designs have a low pressure drop and no tendency to flooding. They are
available in a wide range of sizes and materials: metals, ceramics and plastics.
Gas-injection type packing support
Page 83
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
LIQUID DISTRIBUTER
The pan-type construction provides liquid level balance. Vapor passage is provided by
circular gas risers as well as around the periphery of the pan.
Pan-type distributer with bottom holes
SPECIFICATION SHEET
Name of equipment Stripper
Type Packed column
No. of equipment 1
Type of packing 0.038m ceramic Intalox saddles
Material of construction Low alloy steel 950X
Diameter of column 0.602m
Area of column 1.138m
2
NTU 5
H
og
1.45m
Height of column 9.11m
Weight of shell 12671kg
Pressure drop 294Pa/m of packing
Page 84
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN
DISTILLATION
Distillation is a separation technique in which the components of a fluid mixture are
separated by heating the mixture.
BASIC PRINCIPLE
Basic principle of separation is the difference in the boiling points of mixture
components or their relative volatilities.
Greater the difference in boiling point or greater the relative volatility, greater
will be the ease of separation. It is easier to separate the components when the relative
volatility is greater than one.
SIGNIFICANCE OF EQUIPMENT
Distillation column is the final equipment in our process flow-sheet. The feed to
distillation column is a mixture of iso-butanal, n-butanal and propylene. Whereas our
required product is 98.8% n-butanal. So the required separation is being brought about
by distillation column.
CHOICE B/W TRAY & PACKED COLUMN
Plate columns are designed to handle wide range of liquid flow rates without
flooding.
Packed columns are not suitable for very low liquid rates.
For large column heights, weight of the packed column is more than plate
column.
Packing should always be considered for small diameter columns <0.6m where
plates are difficult to install.
Page 85
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
It is easier to make provisions for cooling in plate column.
For corrosive liquids a packed column will be cheaper than the equivalent plate
column.
Packed column are suitable for foaming liquids.
The liquid hold up is appreciably lower in a packed column than a plate
column. This can be important when the inventory of toxic or flammable
liquids needs to be as small as possible for safety reasons.
Man-holes are provided for cleaning in tray columns. In packed columns
packing must be removed before cleaning.
Plate columns can be designed with more assured rating.
So on the basis of above-mentioned points, tray column was preferred.
Page 86
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SELECTION OF TRAY TYPE
T y p e s o f
T r a y s
Valve tray
Bubble Cap
tray
Sieve tray
Valve Tray Bubble-cap Tray Sieve Tray
Sieve Tray has been selected because of the following reasons:
High capacity
Easier and cheaper to install
Light in weight
Low pressure drop
Maintenance and cleaning is easy
Cheapest
They can easily handle wide variations in flow-rate
Simple design
Their fundamentals are well-established
Page 87
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
MATERIAL BALANCE
Feed = Top Product + Bottom Product + Vent
F = D + B + V = 192.9 + 1.00 + 5.72 = 199.62 kmol/hr
Feed
Components Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr) Molar Flow Rate (kmol/hr)
n-butanal 14028 194.8
Iso-butanl 321.8 4.471
Propylene 7.22 0.172
Hydrogen 0.1085 0.054
CO 2.71 0.096
Propane 2.02 0.045
Total 14359.8385 199.6
Top Product
Components Mass Flow Rate(kg/hr) Molar folw-rate
n-butanal 29.75 0.413
Iso-butanl 20.1 0.279
Propylene 5.36 0.127
Hydrogen 0.1078 0.053
CO 2.7 0.096
Propane 1.44 0.032
Total 59.4578 1.003
Page 88
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Bottom Product
Components Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr) Molar Flow Rate (kmole/hr)
n-butanal 13722 190.6
Iso-butanl 166.7 2.3
Total 13888.7 192.9
So
Feed = 199.62 kmole/hr
Top Product = 1.00 kmole/hr
Bottom Product = 192.9 kmole/hr
Vent = 5.72 kmole/hr
Hence
Feed = Top Product + Bottom Product + Vent
F = D + B + V = 192.9 + 1.00 + 5.72 = 199.62
MOLE FRACTIONS
Components X
f
X
d
X
B
Hydrogen 2.72E-04 5.37E-02 0.00E+00
CO 4.85E-04 9.61E-02 0.00E+00
Propylene 8.61E-04 1.27E-01 0.00E+00
Propane 2.30E-04 3.26E-02 0.00E+00
n-butanal 0.975993149 0.411943782 0.987997
iso-butnal 2.24E-02 0.278321681 1.20E-02
Total 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E+00
Page 89
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Stream Temperature (K) Pressure (kPa)
Feed 378 280
Top 308.2 260
Bottom 385.2 300
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Top Conditions
Avg. Mol. Weight 72
Vapor Density(kg/m
3
) 4.081
Liquid Density (kg/m
3
) 787.9
Surface Tension (dynes/cm) 25.04
Bottom Conditions
Avg. Mol. Weight 72
Vapor Density (kg/m
3
) 2.075
Liquid Density (kg/m
3
) 824.8
Surface Tension (dynes/cm) 29.76
Average Viscosity of Feed = 0.3206 kg/m.s
Page 90
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
CALCULATION OF RELATIVE VOLATILITY
Antoines Constants:
Components A B C
Hydrogen 13.6333 -164.90 -3.19
CO 14.3686 -530.22 -13.15
Propylene 15.92 -1807.53 -26.15
Propane 16.0384 -2490.48 -43.15
n-Butanal 16.1668 -2839.09 -50.15
Iso-Butanal 15.9888 -2699.107 -51.15
Antoines Equation (Temperature in Kelvin & Pressure in kPa)
= +

+
VAPOUR PRESSURES FROM ANTOINES EQUATION (MM HG)
Components' Vapour Pressures Feed Top Bottom
Hydrogen 536780.0802 526917.1894 541249.6
CO 406502.4511 381681.8715 418097.1
Propylene 48184.00679 38233.64194 53412.42
Propane 5436.012502 3820.372271 6357.301
n-Butanal 1820.884345 1196.5915 2193.315
Iso-Butanal 2277.564862 1524.180165 2721.262
Page 91
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
- VALUES
We know that =

Components Feed Top Bottom


n-Butanal 1 1 1
Iso-Butanal 1.250801495 1.27376817 1.240707
Propylene 26.46187108 31.95212565
Hydrogen 294.79087 440.348431
CO 223.2445197 440.348431
Propane 2.985369453 3.192712193
Light key = iso-butanal
Heavy key = n-butanal
So

top
= 1.27

B
= 1.24

Avg
= 1.255
NATURE OF FEED
Components X
f
K-values K X
f
N-butanal 0.9543 0.9686 0.9243
Iso-butanal 0.0453 1.2992 0.0588
Propylene 0.00021 36.9278 0.00775
Total 1.00 0.9986
Page 92
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
As
(K X
f
) = 1
So
q = 1
STANDARD DESIGN STEPS FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN
Calculation of Minimum Reflux Ratio R
m
.
Calculation of Actual reflux ratio.
Calculation of Theoretical number of stages.
Calculation of Actual number of stages.
Calculation of Diameter of the column.
Calculation of Weeping point.
Calculation of Pressure drop.
Calculation of Entrainment.
Calculation of the Height of the column
CALCULATION OF MINIMUM REFLUX RATIO
Using underwoods equation for calculation of minimum reflux ratio
As
q = 1
So by iteration:
= 1.20
R
min
= 8.1
Page 93
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Now by rule of thumb:
R
Opt
= (1.2-1.5) R
min
So
R
Optimum
= 12.15
CALCULATING MINIMUM NUMBER OF STAGES
??
Using Fenskes equation
+

=


N
min
= 16.55
THEORETICAL NUMBER OF PLATES
Gilliland related the number of equilibrium stages and the minimum reflux ratio and
the no. of equilibrium stages with a plot that was transformed by Eduljee into the
relation;
N N
min
N + 1

0.75

R
min

_
R + 1

0.566
1
1
]
So ideal or theoretical number of stages = 17.42
PLATE EFFICIENCY


= ............. .


= 63.82%
ACTUAL NUMBER OF PLATES

N
actual
= 27 plates
Page 94
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
LOCATION OF FEED PLATE
So feed plate is 9
th
from bottom.
ESTIMATION OF COLUMN HYDRAULICS
We know that
Feed = 200 kmole/hr
Top Product = 1.00 kmole/hr
Bottom Product = 192.9 kmole/hr
R = 12.15
So
Ln R x D 12.21
Vn Ln+D 13.21
Lm Ln+F 211.83
Vm Lm-W 18.94
VAPOUR LOAD

(Q
v
)
top
= 0.0647 m
3
/sec



(Qv)
B
= 0.1825m
3
/sec
Page 95
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
LIQUID LOAD



.


=



(Q
L
)
top
= 0.00031 m
3
/sec



.


=



(Q
L
)
B
=0.00513 m
3
/sec
LIQUID VAPOUR FACTOR

(F
LV
)top = 0.0665
For this C
sb
= 0.0078 m/s

(F
LV
)
B
= 0.5609
For this C
sb
= 0.0094 m/s
FLOODING VELOCITY

(V
f
)
top
= 0.113 m/s
For 80% flooding (V
f
)
top
= 0.0904 m/s

(V
f
)
B
= 0.202 m/s
For 80% flooding (V
f
)
B
= 0.162 m/s
Page 96
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
NET VAPOUR VELOCITY


= .


NET AREA
(V
n
)
top
= 0.0678 m/s


= .

(V
n
)
B
= 0.121 m/s

(A
n
)
top
= 0.954 m
2

(A
n
)
B
= 1.50 m
2
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA

.

(A
c
)
top
= 1.12 m
2


=
.

COLUMN DIAMETER
(A
c
)
B
= 1.76 m
2
=

Diameter at Top = 1.19 m


Diameter at Bottom = 1.49 m
So diameter of column is taken as 1.49 meters q
Page 97
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

E
n
t
r
a
i
n
m
e
n
t

?
FLOODING CHECK

V
n
= 0.135 m/s
=


F = 79.86 %
ESTIMATION OF FRACTIONAL ENTRAINMENT FACTOR
Entrainment correlation for sieve plate
So from graph
= 0.04
As < 0.1
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

E
n
t
r
a
i
n
m
e
n
t

?
So process is satisfactory
Page 98
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
ESTIMATION OF WEEP POINT
(
h
)
min
= 7.85m/s
Actual Minimum Vapour Velocity = (Min. Vapour Rate) / A
h
Actual Minimum Vapour Velocity = 10.5 m/s
As Actual Minimum Vapour Velocity > (
h
)
min
So no weeping
TOTAL ACTIVE & DOWNCOMER AREA
TOTAL PRESSURE DROP
??


= .

A
a
= 1.34 m
2


= .

A
d
= 0.264 m
2


= .

P
t
= 663.96 Pa = 0.66396 kPa
Page 99
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS


=

+

+

+

H
t
= 82.05mm

H
d
= 0.3360 mm


=

U
h
= 1.35 m/s

H
ow
= 16.563 mm
ESTIMATION OF WEIR LENGTH
Weir Length = l
w
= 1.56m
Page 100
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
ESTIMATION OF ORIFICE CO-EFFICIENT
Orifice Co-efficient = C = 0.84
DOWNCOMER CALCULATIONS
Back-up in Downcomer


=

+

H
bc
= 185.46mm = 0.1854m
Page 101
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
Down-comer Height

RESIDENCE TIME
H
dc
= 36.83 mm = 0.03683m


= (


)/

T
r
= 9.56 sec
HOLES CALCULATIONS
Total Number of Holes


=

n
T
= 6837holes
Area of Single Hole

h
= 0.000019635m
2
So Number of Holes/Plate = 250 holes
COLUMN HEIGHT


=



+

H
c
= 14.840 m
HEIGHT TO DIA RATIO
H / D =14.84 /1.49
=9.9
Page 102
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENTS
SPECIFICATION SHEET
Identification:
Item Distillation column
No. required 1
Tray type Sieve tray
Function: To separate n-butanal from feed mixture
Operation: Continuous
Design Data:
Parameters Values Parameters Values
Type of Column Tray Column Material of
Construction
Carbon Steel
Tray Type Sieve Tray Hole Diameter 5 mm
No. of Trays 28 Weir Length 1.56 m
Height of Column 14.84 m Pressure Drop 0.663 kPa
Diameter of
Column
1.5 m Tray Thickness 5 mm
Tray spacing 0.45 m Active Area
2
1.35 m
Flooding 80% Reflux Ratio 12.2
Page 103
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
CHAPTER -7
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
INSTRUMENTS
Instruments are provided to monitor the key process variables during plant
operation. They may be incorporated in automatic control loops or used for the manual
monitoring of the process operation. They may also be part of an automatic computer
data logging system. Instruments monitoring critical process variables will be fitted
with automatic alarms to alert the operators to critical and hazardous situations.
It is desirable that the process variable to be monitored be measured directly;
often, however, this is impractical and some dependent variable that is easier to
measure, is monitored in its place. For example, in the control of distillation columns
the continuous on-line, analysis of the over-head product is desirable but it is difficult
and expensive to achieve reliably, so temperature is often monitored as an indication
of composition. The temperature instrument may form part of a control loop
controlling, say, reflux flow; with the composition of the overheads checked
frequently by sampling and laboratory analysis.
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OBJECTIVE
The primary objective of the designer when specifying instrumentation and
control schemes are:
1) Safer Plant Operation
a) To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
b) To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide alarms and
automatic shut-down systems.
c) To provide inter locks and alarms to prevent dangerous operating
procedures.
Page 104
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
2) Production Rate
To achieve the design product output.
3) Product Quality
To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards
4) Cost
To operate at the lowest production cost, commensurate with the other
objectives.
These are not separate objectives and must be considered together. The order
in which they are listed is not meant to imply the precedence of any objective over
another, other than that of putting safet y first. Product quality, production rate and the
cost of production will be dependent on sales requirements. For example, it may be a
better strategy to produce a better quality product at a higher cost.
In a typical chemical processing plant these object ives are achieved by a
combination of automatic control, manual monitoring and laboratory analysis.
COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM
Process
Any operation or series of operations that produces a desired final result is a
process. In this discussion the process is the n-butanal production.
Measuring Means
Of all the parts of the control system the measuring element is perhaps the
most important. If measurements are not made properly the remainder of the system
cannot operate satisfactorily. The measured available is dozen to represent the desired
condition in the process.
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT VARIABLE TO BE MEASURED
Measured
a) Pressure measurements
b) Temperature measurements
Page 105
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
c) Flow Rate measurements
d) Level measurements
Variables to be Recorded
Indicated temperature, composition, pressure, etc.
Controller
The controller is the mechanism that responds to any error indicated by the
error detecting mechanism. The output of the controller is some predetermined
function of the error.
In the controller there is also and error-detecting mechanism which compares
the measured variables with the desired value of the measured variable, the difference
being the error.
Final Control Element
The final control element. receives the signal from the controller and by some
predetermined relationships changes the energy input to the process.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROLLER
In general the process controllers can be classified as:
a) Pneumatic controllers
b) Electronic controllers
c) Hydraulic controllers
In the n-butanal manufacturing from propylene the controller and the final
control element may be pneumatically operated due to thse following reasons:
i) The pneumatic controller is vary rugged and almost free of maintenance. The
maintenance men have not had sufficient training and background in
electronics, so basically pneumatic equipment is simple.
Page 106
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
ii) The pneumatic controller appears to be safer in a potentially explosive
atmosphere which is often present in the petro-chemical industry.
iii) Transmission distances are short. Pneumatic and electronic transmission
systems are generally equal upto about 250 to 300 feet. Above this distance,
electronic systems begin to offer savings.
MODES OF CONTROL
The various type of control are called "modes" and they determine the type of
response obtained. In other words these describe the action of the controller that is the
relationship of output signal to the input or error signal. It must be noted that it is error
that actuates the controller. The four basic modes of control are:
i) On-off Control
ii) Integral Control
iii) Proportional Control
iv) Rate or Derivative Control
In industry purely integral, proportional or derivative modes seldom occur
alone in the control system.
The On-off controller is the controller with very high gain. In this case the
error signal at once off the valve or any other parameter upon which it sits or
completely sets the system.
ALARMS AND SAFETY TRIPS AND INTERLOCKS
Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous,
deviations in process conditions. Key instruments are fitted with switches and relays to
operate audible and visual alarms on the control panels.
The basic components of an automatic trip systems are:
i) A sensor to monitor the control variable and provide an output signal when a
preset valve is exceeded (the instrument).
Page 107
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
ii) A link to transfer the signal to the actuator usually consisting of a system of
pneumatic or electric relays.
iii) An actuator to carry out the required action; close or open a valve, switch off a
motor.
A safety trip can be incorporated in control loop. In this system the high-
temperature alarm operates a solenoid valve, releasing the air on the pneumatic
activator closing the valve on high temperature.
Interlocks
Where it is necessary to follow the fixed sequence of operations for example,
during a plant start-up and shut-down, or in batch operations-inter-locks are included
to prevent operators departed from the required sequence. They may be incorporated
in the control system design, as pneumatic and electric relays or may be mechanical
interlocks.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTROLLER
Flow Controllers
These are used to control feed rate into a process unit. Orifice plates are by far
the most common type of flow rate sensor. Normally, orifice plates are designed to
give pressure drops in the range of 20 to 200 inch of water. Venturi tubes and turbine
meters are also used.
Temperature Controller
Thermocouples are the most commonly used temperature sensing devices. The
two dissimilar wires produce a millivolt emf that varies with the "hot-junction"
temperature. Iron constrictant thermocouples are commonly used over the 0 to 1300F
temperature range.
Pressure Controller
Bourdon tubes, bellows and diaphragms are used to sense pressure and
differential pressure. For example, in a mechanical system the process pressure force
Page 108
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
is balanced by the movement of a spring. The spring position can be related to process
pressure.
Level Controller
Liquid levels are detected in a variety of ways. The three most common are:
1. Following the position of a float, that is lighter them the fluid.
2. Measuring the apparent weight of a heavy cylinder as it buoyed up more or
less by the liquid (these are called displacement meters).
3. Measuring the difference between static pressure of two fixed elevation, one
on the vapor which is above the liquid and the other under the liquid surface.
The differential pressure between the two level taps is directly related to the
liquid level in the vessel.
Transmitter
The transmitter is the interface between the process and its control system. The
job of the transmitter, is to convert the sensor signal (millivolts, mechanical
movement, pressure differential, etc.) into a control signal 3 to 15 psig air-pressure
signal, 1 to 5 or 10 to 50 milliampere electrical signal, etc.
Control Valves
The interface with the process at the other end of the control loop is made by
the final control element is an automatic control valve which throttles the flow of a
stem that opens or closes an orifice opening as the stem is raised or lowered. The stem
is attached to a diaphragm that is driven by changing air-pressure above the
diaphragm. The force of the air pressure is opposed by a spring.
Page 109
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
CONTROL SCHEME ON DISTILLATION COLUMN
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Objectives
In distillation column control any of following may be the goals to achieve
1. Over head composition.
2. Bottom composition
3. Constant over head product rate. .
4. Constant bottom product rate.
Manipulated Variables
Any one or any combination of following may be the manipulated variables
1. Steam flow rate to reboiler.
2. Reflux rate.
3. Overhead product withdrawn rate.
4. Bottom product withdrawn rate
5. Water flow rate to condenser.
Loads or Disturbances
Following are typical disturbances
1. Flow rate of feed
2. Composition of feed.
3. Temperature of feed.
4. Pressure drop of steam across reboiler
5. Inlet temperature of water for condenser.
Page 110
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
Control Scheme
Overhead product rate is fixed and any change in feed rate must be absorbed
by changing bottom product rate. The change in product rate is accomplished by direct
level control of the reboiler if the stream rate is fixed feed rate increases then vapor
rate is approximately constant & the internal reflux flows must increase.
Advantage
Since an increase in feed rate increases reflux rate with vapor rate being approximately
constant, purity of top product increases.
Disadvantage
The overhead reflux change depends on the dynamics of level control system that
adjusts it.
Figure: Control scheme
Page 111
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
CONTROL SCHEME OF CSTR
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
Objective
In CSTR control any of following may be the goals to achieve
1. Constant Pressure inside the reactor
2. Constant Temperature inside the reactor
3. Constant Level
4. High quality of Product
Reactor Variable
The independent variable for the dryer may be divided into two categories
1. Uncontrolled variables
2. Manipulated variables
3. Controlled Variables
Uncontrolled Variables
The variables, which cannot be controlled by controller, are called uncontrolled
variables. The Uncontrolled variables include
1.Vent gases rate
2.Temperature of feed, etc.
Manipulated Variables
The independent manipulated inputs are variables, which are adjusted to control the
chemical reaction. Any one or any combination of following may be the manipulated
variables
1.Flow rate of cooling water
2.Flow rate of Feed
3.Flow rate of Product stream
Page 112
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
Controlled Variables
Any process variable that is selected to be maintained by a control system is called
a controlled variable. Following are the controlled variables
1.Inside reactor Temperature
2.Inside reactor Pressure
3.Level of reacting mixture in reactor
CONTROL SCHEME
Temperature Control
The simplest method of cooling a CSTR is shown in diagram. Here we measure the
reactor temperature and manipulated the flow of cooling water to the jacket. Using a
jacket for cooling has two advantages. First, it minimizes the risk of leaks and thereby
cross contamination between the cooling system and the process. Second, there are no
internals to obstruct an agitator from providing effective mixing.
A temperature sensor measure the inside reactor temperature and transfer
signal to temperature transducer, transducer convert these signals in other form and the
output of transducer is accepted by controller and controller transfer its signal to final
control element. Final control element takes step to overcome these disturbances.
Pressure Measurement
Similarly as temperature controller, there is a pressure control loop, which
controls the pressure inside the reactor. This controller takes action on two valves at a
same time. One at the valve of feed stream and other at the valve of product stream. If
pressure is high in the reactor then product stream valve will open and feed valve will
close and vice versa.
Level Measurement
A sensor measures level of reacting materials inside the reactor and these signals
are transferred to transducer and controller takes action on solvent valve. If inside
level is below the required level then valve will open and vice versa.
Page 113
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
CSTR CONTROL CONFIGURATION
Figure: Control Scheme
Control Loop around Heat Exchanger
Single Loop
Page 114
CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL
Double Loop
Cascade Control
Page 115
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
CHAPTER -8
HAZOP STUDY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Background
A HAZOP study identifies hazards and operability problems. The concept
involves investigating how the plant might deviate from the design intent. If in the
process of identifying problems during a HAZOP study, a solution becomes apparent,
it is recorded as part of the HAZOP result; however, care must be taken to avoid trying
to find solutions which are not apparent, beause the prime objective for HAZOP is
problem identification.
The Guide-Word HAZOP is the most well known of the HAZOP;
however, several specializations of this basic method have been developed.
INDUSTRIES IN WHICH THIS TECHNIQUE IS EMPLOYED
HAZOP were initially invented by ECI in the United Kindom, but the
technique only started to be more widely used within the chemical process industry
after the Flixborogh disaster in which a chemical plant explosion killed twenty eight
people, many of which were ordinary householders living nearby. Through the general
exchange of ideas and personnel, the system was then adopted by the petroleum
industry, which has a similar potential for major disasters. This was then followed by
the food and water industries, where the hazard potential is a great, but a different
nature, the concerns being more to do with contamination rather than explosions or
chemical releases.
THE REASON FOR SUCH WIDE SE OF HAZOP
Safety and reliability in the design of plant initially relies upon the application
of various codes of practice, or design codes and standards. Such application is usually
backed up by the experience of the engineers involved, who might well have been
previously concerned with the design, commissioning or operation of similar plant.
Page 116
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
However, it is considered that although codes of practice are extremely
valuable, it is important to supplement then with an imaginative anticipation of
deviations which might occur because of, for example, equipment malfunction or
operator error. In addition, most companies will admit to the fact that for a new plant,
design personnel are under pressure to keep the project on schedule. This pressure
always results in errors and oversights. The HAZOP Study is an opportunity to correct
these before such changes become too expensive, or impossible to accomplish.
Although no statistics are available to verify the claim, it is believed that the
Hazop methodology is perhaps the most widely used aid to loss prevention. The
reason for this can most probably be summarized as follows:
It is easy to learn
It can be easily adapted to almost all the operations that are carried out within
process industries.
No special level of academic qualification is required. One does not need to be
a university graduate to participate in a study.
CONCEPT
The best time to conduct a HAZOP is when the design is fairly firm. At this
point, the design is well enough defined to allow meaningful answers to the questions
raised in the Hazop process. Also, at this point it is still possible to change the design
without a major cost. However, HAZOP can be done at any stage after design is nearly
firm.
The success or failure of the HAZOP depends on several factors:
The completeness and accuracy of drawing and other data used as a basis for
the study.
The ability of the team to used the approach as an aid to their imagination in
visualizing deviations, causes, and consequences.
The technical skills and insights of the team.
The ability of the team to concentrate on the more serious hazards which are
identified.
The process is systematic and it is helpful to define the terms that are used:
Page 117
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Study Nodes
Intention
Deviations
Causes
Consequences
Guide Words
The guide words shown in table are the ones most often used in a HAZOP Study.
Guide Words Parameter Deviation
NO FLOW NO FLOW
MORE PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE
AS WELL AS ONE PHASE TWO PHASE
OTHER THAN OPERATION MAINTENANCE
Guide Words Meaning
No Negation of the design intent
Less Quantitative Decrease
More Quantitative Increase
Part of Qualitative Decrease
As Well As Qualitative Increase
Reverse Logical Opposite of the intent
Other Than Complete Substitution
GUIDELINES FOR USING PROCEDURE
The concepts presented above are put into practice in the following steps:
Define the purpose, objectives, and scope of the study
Select the team
Prepare for the study
Carry out the team review
Record the results
Page 118
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Define the Purpose, Objectives, and Scope of the Study
Reasons for a study might be to:
Check the safety of a design
Decide whether and where to build
Develp a list of questions to ask a supplier
Check operating/ safety procedures
Improve the safety of an existing facility
Verify that safety instrumentation is reacting to best parameter
It is also important to define what specific consequences are to be considered:
Employee safety
Loss of plant or equipment
Loss of production (lose competitive edge in market)
Liability
Insurability
Public Safety
Environmental Impacts
Select the Team
A team might include:
Design Engineer
Process Engineer
Operations Supervisor
Instrument design Engineer
Chemist
Maintenance Supervisor
Safety Engineer
Prepare for the Study
Obtain the necessary data.
Convert the data into a suitable form and plan the study sequence.
Arrange the necessary meetings
Page 119
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Carry out the Team Review
?
1
?
? ?
?
???
?
2
k ?1
Page 120
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Record the Results
The recording process is an important part of the HAZOP. It is impossible to
record manually all that is said, yet it is very important that all ideas are kept. The
success of this process demands a good recording scheme.
HAZOP STUDY ON THE BUTANAL PLANT
?
1
?
? ?
?
???
?
2
k ?1
o

The study is carried out according to the HAZOP procedure shown in figure,
where all causes and consequences are considered. Bases on the HAZOP Study,
relevant safety measurements are taken to prevent hazards, some safety precautions
are discussed in the following section.
SAFETY MEASUREMENTS
Safety Valves
The objective of this part of the project is to select and size the necessary
safety valves for the design of Butanal production plant.
Page 121
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Safety valves are pressure relieving devices, which automatically relieve a
pressure system of excess pressure when abnormal operating conditions cause the
pressure to exceed a set limit and re-close when the abnormal pressure recedes again
below the set limit.
?
1
?
? ?
?
???
?
2
k ?1
o

Types of Safety Valves
The following types of safety valve are defined in the DIN 3320 standard:
Standard safety valve
Full lift safety valve
Direct loaded safety valve
Proportional safety valve
Diaphragm safety valve
Bellows safety valve
Controlled safety valve
Foil safety valve
Safety valve Selection
Factors governing the selection of specific type of safety are:
Cost: when making cost comparisons, it is imperative to consider that capacity
and nominal size of the valve.
Type of Disposal System: Valves with open bonnet for steam or non-toxic gas
and valves with closed bonnet for gas/liquid applications, where escape to the
atmosphere is not permitted.
Valve construction: Semi-nozzle and material of construction
Operating Characteristics: performance requirements such as overpressure and
blowdown values
Sizing of Safety Valves
The sizing of the safety valves is done in accordance to the standard rules. The
minimum flow area, A
o
to discharge the required mass flow is calculated using the
equations as follows.
The flow coefficient is calculated using the following formulas.
For subcritical pressure condition,

>


and =

2
k

?
1
?
? ?
?
???
?
2
k ?1
do
o

k +1
k
Page 122
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
For supercritical pressure conditions,
>

+
and =
x

k +1
Where P
o
= absolute pressure in the pressure chamber in bar
P
a o
= absolute back pressure in bar
Gases and vapors Applications
For gases and vapors, the smallest flow area is calculated as follows,
q
m
A
o
= 0.1791
p
T . Z
M
Where A
o
is minimum flow area in mm
2
d
o
= minimum flow diameter in mm
q
m
= mass flow to be discharged in kg/hr
Z = Compressibility factor of the medium in the pressure chamber in bar

d
= certified coefficient of discharge given by the manufacturer
Steam Applications
With the aid of pressure medium coefficient x, which takes into account the
properties of the out flowing steam and the conversion of the non-coherent units, the
following is used for calculating the minimum flow area.
x .
q
m
o

A
o
=

d
p
o
For subcritical flow and pressure less than 2 bar the pressure medium coefficient x has
to be calculated with the following equations.
x = 0.6211
p
0
. v

Non Flashing Liquids


For non-flashing liquids the following is applicable.
A = 0.6211
q
m

d
p

Page 123
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY
Where is the density in kg/m
3
p is pressure difference in bars
HAZOP Report
Study Title : Butanal Manufacturing Plant
Study
No. Parameter
Guide
Word Deviation Possible Causes
Section: Feed inlet to Reactor
1 Flow None No flow from Storage Pump fails
2 Less Less flow from Storage Less output from Storage
3 More More flow from Storage Increased feed from storage
4 Temp. More High Recycle rate Compressor Failure
5 Less Side reactions Fresh Feed compressor fails
6 Pressure More Reactor Failure High flow rate of inlet gases
7 Less No flow from reactor Leakage from reactor
Section: Reactor to Stripper
8 Flow None No output from reactor High pressure in the stripper
9 Temp. More Phase Change High synthesis gas flow rate
10 less No stripping Compressor Failure
11 Pressure More No Stripping Throttle valve failure
12 Less No flow High Pressure difference
Section: Stripper to Distillation Column
13 Flow None High Pressure in D.C Blockage
14 More Leakage in the D.C High Pressure control failure
15 Less Less pressure gradient Stripper Leakage
16 Temp. More High condenser duty High Stripping gas Temp.
17 Less High energy cost High syn gas Flow rate
18 Pressure More Feed subcooling Blockage
19 Less No Flow Leakage in the pipeline
Page 124
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
CHAPTER -9
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Environmental Impact Assessment can be defined as: The process of
identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other
relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions be ing taken and
commitments made.
An important procedure for ensuring that the likely effects of new
development on the environment are fully understood and taken into account before
the development is allowed to go ahead.
Environmental Impact Assessment is a process, set down as a repeatable
series of steps to be taken, to allow the environmental consequences of a proposed
development to be assessed.
The environmental consequences have to be those incremental effects which
are due to the proposed development and not those which are due to the passage of
time or other developments not included in the proposal.
PURPOSE OF EIA
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the likely
positive and/or negative influence a project may have on the environment.
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision-makers consider
environmental impacts before deciding whether to proceed with new projects.
EIA is intended to identify the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of a
proposed development prior to decision making.
This means that it is easy to identify:
1. The most environmentally suitable option at an early stage.
Page 125
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
2. The Best Practicable Environmental Option.
3. Alternative processes.
ORIGINS AND HISTORY OF EIA
First formal system of EIA established in the US following the National
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969
NEPA sought to ensure that environmental concerns were considered in the decision-
making of Federal Government agencies
It is required for agencies to prepare a detailed statement on the environmental
impact of proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly
affecting the quality of the human environment
STEPS INVOLVED IN EIA
Page 126
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS
Eye contact:
Immediately flush eyes or skin with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.
Assure adequate flushing of the eyes by separating the eyelids with fingers, and seek
medical advice.
Skin contact:
Immediately flush skin with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes while
removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Inhalation:
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration. If breathing
is difficult, give oxygen.
If swallowed:
Wash out mouth with water provided the person is conscious. Call a physician.
Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
Chronic Exposure:
Marked impairment of vision has been reported. Repeated or prolonged exposure may
cause skin irritation.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired liver or kidney
function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.
FIRST AID MEASURES
Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately.
Ingestion:
Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything
by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention immediately.
Page 127
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
Skin Contact:
Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse.
Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse.
Eye Contact:
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and
upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.
FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
Fire:
Flash point: 262 K
Auto ignition temperature: 503 K
Flammable limits in air 1.4% - 12.5% by volume.
Flammable Liquid and Vapor
Flammable vapor and air can form explosive mixtures. Case fire, high-heat
combustion caused the explosion. With the oxidizer reaction will be fierce. In case of
high fever, can occur polymerization reaction and emit heat and large containers
ruptured and caused the explosion. Its vapor is heavier than air, will spread to the
lower Department of considerable local and met the fire will generate a return to
burning. Combustion (decomposition) products: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Extinguishing media
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or appropriate foam
Water may be effective for cooling, but may not effect extinguishment..
Special fire-fighting procedures
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to prevent
contact with skin and eyes.
Extremely flammable.
Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers.
Page 128
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
Unusual fire and explosion hazards
Vapor may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back,
Container explosion may occur under fire conditions.
Forms explosive mixtures in air.
ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Evacuate personnel to safe areas.
Keep people away from and upwind of spill/leak.
Shut off all sources of ignition.
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus, rubber boots and heavy rubber
gloves.
Cover with an activated carbon adsorbent take up and place in closed
containers. Transport outdoors.
Ventilated and wash spill site after material pickup is complete.
HANDLING AND STORAGE
Handling: Use only in well-ventilated areas. Do not breathe vapors or spray mist.
Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Take necessary action to avoid static
electricity discharge (which might cause ignition of organic vapors.)
Storage: Keep tightly closed in a dry, cool and well-ventilated place. Keep away from
heat and sources of ignition. Store in original container. Electrical equipment should
be protected to the appropriate standard.
EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION
Wear approved respirator EN141, chemical resistant gloves, safety
goggles, other protective clothing.
Use only in a chemical fume cupboard.
Safety shower and eye bath.
Use non-sparking tools.
Do not breathe vapor.
Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing.
Avoid prolonged or repeated exposure.
Page 129
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
Wash thoroughly after handling.
Keep tightly closed.
Keep away form heat, sparks and open flame.
Store in a cool dry place.
STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Stability:
Stable.
Conditions to avoid:
Heat
Protect from light.
Incompatibilities:
Oxidizing agents.
Strong bases.
Strong reducing agents.
Strong acids.
Hazardous combustion or decomposition products:
Toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Hazardous polymerization:
May undergo autopolymerisation.
TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Acute effects:
Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin.
Page 130
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
Butanal is extremely destructive to tissue of the mucous membranes and upper
respiratory tract, eyes and skin.
Inhalation may result in spasm, inflammation and oedema of the larynx and
bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema.
Symptoms of exposure may include burning sensation, coughing, wheezing,
and laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause allergic reactions in certain
sensitive individuals.
Toxicity data:
orl-rat LD50:2490 mg/kg
ipr-rat LD50:800 mg/kg
scu-rat LD50:10 gm/kg
ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Data not available yet.
DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber but
exert extra care in igniting as this material is highly flammable.
Observe all EU, Irish and Local Environmental Regulations.
TRANSPORT INFORMATION
Contact chemical supplier for transportation information.
REGULATORY INFORMATION
Classification according to European directive on classification of hazardous
preparations 90/492/EEC
Contains: Butyraldehyde
Symbol(s):
1. Highly flammable
2. Harmful
3. Corrosive
Page 131
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
Risk phrase(s)
R11 Highly flammable.
R20 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R21 Harmful in contact with skin
R22 Harmful if swallowed
R34 Causes burns
Safety phrase(s)
S2 Keep locked-up and out of reach of children.
S9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place
S29 Do not empty into drains
S33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges
Recommended restrictions: Take notice of labels and material safety data sheets for
the working chemicals.
Take necessary action to avoid static electricity discharge (which might cause ignition
of organic vapors.)
PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
Respiratory protection: Incase of insufficient ventilation wear suitable
respiratory equipment.
Hand protection: Neoprene gloves / butylrubber gloves.
Eye protection: Goggles giving complete protection to eyes.
Skin and body protection: Rubber or plastic boots, Chemical resistant apron /
complete suit protecting against chemicals.
Page 132
CHAPTER 10 COST
ESTIMATION
Reactor
171414
Heat Exchanger E-101
19716
Heat Exchanger E-102
32829
Heat Exchanger E-103
24645
Heat Exchanger E-104
25873
Heat Exchanger E-105
8510
Heat Exchanger E-106
2510
Heat Exchanger E-107
7580
Heat Exchanger E-108
2910
Heat Exchanger E-109
2241
Heat Exchanger E-110
27530
Heat Exchanger E-111
84816
Heat Exchanger E-112
25575
Heat Exchanger E-113
86862
Stripper
122500
Distillation Column
154984
CHAPTER -10
COST ESTIMATION
PURCHASED EQUIPMENT COST
Marshall and Swift Equipment Cost Index
Cost index in 2002 = 1116.9
Cost index in 2003 = 1184.6
Cost index in 2004 = 1265.2
Cost index in 2005 = 1350.9
Cost index in 2006 = 1405.4
Cost index in 2007 = 1452.3
Cost index in 2008 = 1491.7
Cost index in 2009 = 1532.4
Present Cost = Orignal Cost
Index value at present
Index value at time orignal cost was obtained
REACTOR
Capacity = 140 m
3
Material of construction = Stainless Steel
Cost of reactor in 2002 = $ 1250000
Cost of reactor in 2009 = 1250000 x (1532.4/1116.9)
= $ 171415
Page 133
Reactor
171414
Heat Exchanger E-101
19716
Heat Exchanger E-102
32829
Heat Exchanger E-103
24645
Heat Exchanger E-104
25873
Heat Exchanger E-105
8510
Heat Exchanger E-106
2510
Heat Exchanger E-107
7580
Heat Exchanger E-108
2910
Heat Exchanger E-109
2241
Heat Exchanger E-110
27530
Heat Exchanger E-111
84816
Heat Exchanger E-112
25575
Heat Exchanger E-113
86862
Stripper
122500
Distillation Column
154984
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION
Compressor k-101
578100
Compressor k-102
475030
Compressor k-103
465900
Compressor k-104
471900
Compressor k-105
107600
Compressor k-106
99900
Compressor k-107
209800
Compressor k-108
103000
Compressor k-109
26400
Compressor k-110
6500
Total Purchased Equipment Cost
= $ 3344630
CAPITAL INVESTMENT ESTIMATION
Direct Costs
Purchased Equipment Delivered Cost
$ 3344630
Purchased Equipment Installation
$ 1571976
Instrumentation and Control
$ 1204066
Piping
$ 2274348
Electrical System
$ 367909
Building
$ 602033
Yard Improvement
$ 334463
Service Facilities
$ 2341241
Total Direct Plant Cost
$ 12040666
CHAPTER 10 COST
ESTIMATION
HEAT EXCHANGER
Type = U-Tube
Area = 40 m
2
Cost of Heat Exchanger in 2002 = $ 18864
Cost of Heat Exchanger in 2009 = 18864 x (1532.4/1116.9)
STRIPPER
= $ 25873
Type = Packed Column
Total Height = 9.11 m
Inside Diameter = 0.604 m
Cost of Stripper in 2002 = $ 82300
Cost of Stripper in 2009 = 82300 x (1532.4/1116.9)
DISTILLATION COLUMN
= $ 122500
Type = Tray Column
Diameter of column = 1.5 m
Type of Tray = Sieve Tray
No. of Trays = 28
Cost of Distillation column in 2002 = $ 110000
Cost of Distillation column in 2009 = 110000 x (1532.4/1116.9)
= $ 150870
Cost of Sieve Trays in 2002 = $ 3100
Cost of Sieve Trays in 2009 = 3100 x (1532.4/1116.9)
= $ 4115
Reactor
171414
Heat Exchanger E-101
19716
Heat Exchanger E-102
32829
Heat Exchanger E-103
24645
Heat Exchanger E-104
25873
Heat Exchanger E-105
8510
Heat Exchanger E-106
2510
Heat Exchanger E-107
7580
Heat Exchanger E-108
2910
Heat Exchanger E-109
2241
Heat Exchanger E-110
27530
Heat Exchanger E-111
84816
Heat Exchanger E-112
25575
Heat Exchanger E-113
86862
Stripper
122500
Distillation Column
154984
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION
Compressor k-101
578100
Compressor k-102
475030
Compressor k-103
465900
Compressor k-104
471900
Compressor k-105
107600
Compressor k-106
99900
Compressor k-107
209800
Compressor k-108
103000
Compressor k-109
26400
Compressor k-110
6500
Total Purchased Equipment Cost
= $ 3344630
CAPITAL INVESTMENT ESTIMATION
Direct Costs
Purchased Equipment Delivered Cost
$ 3344630
Purchased Equipment Installation
$ 1571976
Instrumentation and Control
$ 1204066
Piping
$ 2274348
Electrical System
$ 367909
Building
$ 602033
Yard Improvement
$ 334463
Service Facilities
$ 2341241
Total Direct Plant Cost
$ 12040666
Total Cost of Distillation Column =$ 154984
Page 134
CHAPTER 10 COST
ESTIMATION
COMPRESSOR
hp of compressor = 1005hp
Purchased Cost of compressor in 2007 = $ 450200
Purchased cost in 2009 = 450200 x (1532.4/1452.3)
= $ 475030
TOTAL PURCHASED COST IN 2009
Equipment Purchased Cost ($)
Reactor
171414
Heat Exchanger E-101
19716
Heat Exchanger E-102
32829
Heat Exchanger E-103
24645
Heat Exchanger E-104
25873
Heat Exchanger E-105
8510
Heat Exchanger E-106
2510
Heat Exchanger E-107
7580
Heat Exchanger E-108
2910
Heat Exchanger E-109
2241
Heat Exchanger E-110
27530
Heat Exchanger E-111
84816
Heat Exchanger E-112
25575
Heat Exchanger E-113
86862
Stripper
122500
Distillation Column
154984
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION
Compressor k-101
578100
Compressor k-102
475030
Compressor k-103
465900
Compressor k-104
471900
Compressor k-105
107600
Compressor k-106
99900
Compressor k-107
209800
Compressor k-108
103000
Compressor k-109
26400
Compressor k-110
6500
Total Purchased Equipment Cost
= $ 3344630
CAPITAL INVESTMENT ESTIMATION
Direct Costs
Purchased Equipment Delivered Cost
$ 3344630
Purchased Equipment Installation
$ 1571976
Instrumentation and Control
$ 1204066
Piping
$ 2274348
Electrical System
$ 367909
Building
$ 602033
Yard Improvement
$ 334463
Service Facilities
$ 2341241
Total Direct Plant Cost
$ 12040666
Page 135
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION
Compressor k-101
578100
Compressor k-102
475030
Compressor k-103
465900
Compressor k-104
471900
Compressor k-105
107600
Compressor k-106
99900
Compressor k-107
209800
Compressor k-108
103000
Compressor k-109
26400
Compressor k-110
6500
Total Purchased Equipment Cost
= $ 3344630
CAPITAL INVESTMENT ESTIMATION
Direct Costs
Purchased Equipment Delivered Cost
$ 3344630
Purchased Equipment Installation
$ 1571976
Instrumentation and Control
$ 1204066
Piping
$ 2274348
Electrical System
$ 367909
Building
$ 602033
Yard Improvement
$ 334463
Service Facilities
$ 2341241
Total Direct Plant Cost
$ 12040666
Page 136
CHAPTER 10 COST
ESTIMATION
Indirect Costs
Engineering and Supervision $ 1103727
Contraction Expenses $ 1371298
Legal Expanses $ 133785
Contractors Fee $ 735818
Contingency $ 1471637
Total Indirect Plant Cost $ 4816265
Fixed Capital Investment $ 16856931
Working Capital $ 2528540
Total Capital Investment $ 19385471
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION
Compressor k-101
578100
Compressor k-102
475030
Compressor k-103
465900
Compressor k-104
471900
Compressor k-105
107600
Compressor k-106
99900
Compressor k-107
209800
Compressor k-108
103000
Compressor k-109
26400
Compressor k-110
6500
Total Purchased Equipment Cost
= $ 3344630
CAPITAL INVESTMENT ESTIMATION
Direct Costs
Purchased Equipment Delivered Cost
$ 3344630
Purchased Equipment Installation
$ 1571976
Instrumentation and Control
$ 1204066
Piping
$ 2274348
Electrical System
$ 367909
Building
$ 602033
Yard Improvement
$ 334463
Service Facilities
$ 2341241
Total Direct Plant Cost
$ 12040666
Page 137
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