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Advanced composites

in aero engines
Rising to the repair challenge
The leading international magazine for the manufacturing and MRO sectors of commercial aviation
In my opinion: AFI
president Franck Terner
Electronic fight bags:
A tablet transformation?
New solutions for
landing gear MRO
Delivery and deadlines
supply chain logistics
April - May 2012 Issue 117
AOG CRITICAL ROUTINE
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EDITOR
Jason Holland: Jason.Holland@ubmaviation.com
ASSISTANT EDITOR
Joanne Perry: Joanne.Perry@ubmaviation.com
EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS
Alex Derber, Chris Kjelgaard, Nick Rice
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Front cover image courtesy of AFI KLM E&M
Patrick Delapierre
CONTENTS
April - May 2012 Issue: 117
NEWS UPDATE
4. A round-up of the latest news,
contracts, products and people
movements.
INDUSTRY FOCUS
16. In my opinion:
Frank Terner, president,
Air France Industries
What are the reasons behind the com-
panys success, how is the MRO market
changing, and where does AFI KLM
E&Ms future strategy lie? Jason Holland
asks the questions.
TECHNOLOGY
& INNOVATION
22. Using advanced composites
in aero engines
The increased use of carbon-fibre compos-
ite materials in large commercial aircraft is
well-known, but there could be an even
more revolutionary movement towards
composites in aero engines, reports Chris
Kjelgaard.
48. Overhead aircraft handling
during maintenance events
CTI Systems says it has developed an
innovative solution for overhead aircraft
handling during maintenance and test
procedures.
50. Supply chain logistics
Logistics services are the lifeblood of the
aviation industry, but Joanne Perry discov-
ers that service providers face increasing
time and cost pressures and must imple-
ment integrated IT solutions to cope with
future demand.
58. Component maintenance
The sheer variety of parts on modern air-
craft means that component repair is one
of the trickier capabilities for
maintenance providers to master, says
Alex Derber.
ENGINEERING &
MAINTENANCE
40. Landing gear MRO
What is required to keep landing gear
serviceable and how will maintenance be
impacted by new materials and technolo-
gies such as titanium, composites and
HVOF? Joanne Perry reports.
DATA & DIRECTIVES
70. Industry data: Airbus A320
family
78. FAA AD biweekly summary
listings
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
64. Essential Flying Buddy
the EFB is here to stay
The industry for electronic flight bags
(EFBs) has long been a sleeping giant.
After two decades of limited commer-
cial use, finds Nick Rice, IT innovation
in EFB software and hardware is finally
waking the giant from his slumber.
32. Super sensing: Air data systems
Most air data systems today are digital solu-
tions, as the role of the eyes and ears of an
aircraft continues to expand.
Boeing strong
Lufthansa Technik services for Boeing. Never change a winning team! Over 50 years ago, Lufthansa
started into the jet age with a Boeing. Since then, weve been providing full technical support for Boeing air-
craft, engines and components. With the latest addition being the 747-8 Intercontinental. Lufthansa Technik
and Boeing a partnership with a long tradition and a bright future.
Lufthansa Technik AG, Marketing & Sales
E-mail: marketing.sales@lht.dlh.de
www.lufthansa-technik.com/747-8
Call us: +49-40-5070-5553
More mobility for the world
since 1960.
Launch customer 747-8 Intercontinental
NEWS UPDATE
4 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Rolls-Royces Trent XWB engine com-
pleted a successful first flight on an
A380 flying testbed. The flight began
at the Airbus facilities in Toulouse,
France, and lasted more than five
hours, covering a range of power set-
tings at altitudes of up to 43,000ft.
Sabena technics completed its first
modification for Phoenix Aircraft
Leasing, based in Singapore. The work
on an A310 was conducted at the
Sabena technics facility in Bordeaux,
France, and included livery painting.
Lufthansa Technik has ordered one of
CTT Systems Cair humidifiers to
install on a new VIP BBJ747-8 air-
craft. The Cair system provides
humidification of dry aircraft cabins
without causing condensation.
The heat treatment division of UK-
based Keighley Laboratories has been
certified to the AS9100 revision C
standard, the quality management
system for the aviation, space and
defence industries.
Prime Air has announced that it has
received AS9100-C certification.
Achieved in October 2011, the certifi-
cation was awarded following an
audit by Intertek.
Safety equipment repair station HRD
Aero Systems has expanded its use of
Component Controls Quantum
Control MRO and logistics software.
Prime Air Europe has achieved AS9120-
2009 Rev A standard accreditation, the
highest level of certification available
for aerospace distributors.
European airline group OLT is to
deploy Commsofts OASES mainte-
nance management software across
its entire fleet following its recent
mergers with Polish carriers Yes
Airways and Jet Air.
Non-electric floorpath marking sys-
tem Guideline ColourFit from
Lufthansa Technik has now been cer-
tified for 777 and 747-8 aircraft.
Airbus said the main and nose landing
gear test bench for the A350 XWB is
ready for service at its facility in
Filton, UK.
NEWS UPDATE
INBRIEF NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
BOEING REVEALS 737 MAX DESIGN DETAILS
After months of deliberations, Boeing has revealed details of a number of design decisions it
has made on the 737 MAX including how it will accommodate the larger engines being used.
An eight-inch nose gear extension will lift the aircraft so that the larger engine fan of the CFM
International LEAP-1B engines is able to fit whilst maintaining a similar ground clearance to
todays 737. A new pylon and strut has also been agreed on, and the engines will be integrated
with the wing similar to the aerodynamic lines of the 787 Dreamliner engine with its wing.
As has been speculated, the manufacturer said it was considering a revision to the wing tips
on the MAX, with wind tunnel tests currently taking place but chief project engineer
Michael Teal insisted any new technology would have to show substantial benefits and pres-
ent minimal risks.
Other confirmed design improvements include aft body aerodynamic improvements such as
the tail cone being extended and the section above the elevator thickened to improve steadi-
ness of air flow. Boeing says this eliminates the need for vortex generators on the tail, resulting
in less drag.
Meanwhile, the flight controls will include fly-by-wire spoilers rather than a mechanical sys-
tem, thus saving weight. Boeing says an electronic bleed air system will allow for increased
optimisation of the cabin pressurisation and ice protection systems, resulting in better fuel
burn.
Finally, the manufacturer said it intends to strengthen the main landing gear, wing and fuse-
lage to accommodate the increase in loads due to the larger engines.
Beverly Wyse, VP and GM of the 737 programme, says the new aircraft is now on-track to
deliver substantial fuel-savings to customers starting in 2017. The final design configuration
should be complete by mid-2013 and further announcements and amendments are expected;
in the meantime Boeing will continue to conduct aerodynamic, engine and aircraft trade stud-
ies.
Up here, every advantage counts.
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Material Services Fleet Services Flight Services Information Services
NEWS UPDATE
6 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Precision Aviation Group has gone
live with the Pentagon 2000SQL sys-
tem across multiple business units.
Air traffic control service provider
NATS has selected SITA and Egis
through its subsidiary Egis Avia to
provide it with a data link front-end
processor and Pro-ATN routers.
Russian MRO provider Engineering
LLC has announced it will acquire Epic
Aircraft, the privately-owned aviation
company that specialises in kit aircraft.
Qatar Airways corporate jet division,
Qatar Executive, based at Doha
International Airport, has been named
by Bombardier Aerospace as a line
maintenance facility for its Challenger
300, Challenger 604, Challenger 605
jets and its Global business jets.
Boeing completed flight testing for
the GEnx-powered 787 Dreamliner.
The final flight test was conducted in
February 2012.
Dunlop Aircraft Tyres has struck a
strategic deal with Triplett Aerospace
which will see the Houston-based
company storing and distributing
Dunlop tyres for both narrowbody
and widebody aircraft in the US.
TUG Technologies has signed a deal to
incorporate Corvus Energys lithium
technology into its portfolio of
ground support equipment products.
Indian airline Jet Airways has signed a
lease agreement with WheelTug to
install the companys Aircraft Drive
System on its 737NG aircraft.
Ancra International is to provide
Turkish Airlines with an additional
three A330-200F Integrated Main
Deck Cargo Loading Systems, bring-
ing the total number of orders from
the carrier to five.
Czech Airlines Technics has signed
PDQ Airspares to market in excess of
18,000 stock-lines from its surplus
material.
The structural assembly of the first
A350 XWB aft fuselage has been
completed at Airbus manufacturing
site in Hamburg.
NEWS UPDATE
INBRIEF NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
CSERIES, C919 TO SHARE COMMON COCKPIT
Bombardier and COMAC are to collaborate on four projects which seek to develop commonal-
ities between their respective CSeries and C919 aircraft. This includes exploring common
aspects of crew interfaces in the cockpits of the two aircraft, with COMAC modelling its cockpit
after the CSeries.
The other initiatives involve the electrical system with both companies agreeing deals with
Hamilton Sundstrand; the development of aluminium-lithium standards and specifications;
and areas of customer services in terms of technical publications and co-location of teams. All
four projects are expected to be completed over the next 12 months and in conjunction with the
C919 aircraft development schedule.
The two manufacturers signed a broad exploratory framework agreement of co-operation on
March 24 last year. These four projects represent the first phase of what is intended to be a
longer term relationship.
By developing strong ties with COMAC, Bombardier will surely be hoping to establish more of
a presence in China and ultimately sell more of its CSeries aircraft there. The C919 is larger
than the CSeries, so operators could easily have both aircraft types in their fleets and the
more commonalities there are between the two, the more potential cost savings there are to be
realised. With a common cockpit, for example, an operator could use the same pilot training
for both aircraft. The CSeries is currently scheduled to enter service in late 2013, while the C919
is set to debut in 2016.
FOUR LESSORS SIGN UP TO CFM TRUENGINE PROGRAMME
International Lease Finance, CIT, AerSale, and GE Capital Aviation Services have signed an
agreement with CFM International to include their engines in the manufacturers TRUEngine
programme. CFM says the programme serves as a method for identifying engines that have
been maintained in accordance with CFM-issued recommendations, thus allowing easy evalu-
ation of engine value and re-marketability.
TAT GROUP CHANGES BYLAWS GOVERNING SABENA TECHNICS
Sabena technics has become a limited liability company with a board of directors, after its par-
ent company TAT Group changed the by-laws governing it. TAT Group changed the structure
of Sabena technics by transforming it from a limited liability company with executive and
supervisory boards into a limited liability company with a board of directors.
BOEING TO USE ULTRAMAIN SOFTWARE
Boeing is to provide Ultramain Systems efbTechLogs software in support of its Electronic
LogBook offering. Ultramains software replaces the traditional paper technical log with a fully
electronic log that operates on electronic flight bag (EFB) hardware located onboard aircraft.
The company said the agreement would accelerate the automation of defect reporting, increas-
ing flight safety and reducing maintenance delays.
Our work... flies with you.
Put your components in our hands. Because at Iberia Maintenance we have the capacity
to overhaul and repair over 7,000 kits per year and we know how to care for everything down to the
tiniest detail, so your aircraft will operate faultlessly. But we really like to go that bit further:
we want to take you further, because our work... flies with you.
IBERIA MAINTENANCE Commercial & Development Direction. Madrid - Barajas Airport, La Muoza. 28042 Madrid, Spain.
Phone: +34 91 587 49 71 / Fax: +34 91 587 49 91. E-mail: maintenance@iberia.es
www.iberiamaintenance.com
NEWS UPDATE
8 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TAM MRO has been certified by Brazils
National Civil Aviation Agency ANAC to
provide maintenance services on ATR-
72 aircraft with Brazilian registration.
GE has approved Jet Aviation St.
Louis, in Missouri, as an authorised
service centre for CF34 engines pow-
ering business aircraft.
The European Safety Agency has
granted a supplemental type certifi-
cate to Aviation Partners for its high
Mach blended winglets on Falcon 900
series aircraft.
OASES software from Commsoft has
gone live on nine Airbus aircraft oper-
ated by Hi Fly of Portugal.
Airbus has renewed its Total
Component Support contract with
Lufthansa Technik for services cover-
ing A300-600 ST Beluga aircraft.
Bombardier Aerospace has inaugu-
rated its new office in Shanghai,
which will become home to the com-
mercial aircraft teams working with
the Commercial Aircraft Corporation
of China.
PATS Aircraft Systems has ordered CTTs
Cair system to be installed on one of its
VVIP BBJ3 narrowbody aircraft.
ATR has opened a new training centre
for pilots and maintenance technicians
in Johannesburg. The company said
the centre would support the growing
number of ATR aircraft in Africa and
its associated development potential.
Asco Industries has successfully deliv-
ered the first ship set for the new
A350XWB-900 aircraft to Airbus
Bremen. The work package includes
44 subassemblies and will equip the
first prototype of the A350XWB-900.
Aeroconseil, a subsidiary of AKKA
Technologies Group, has signed a deal
with Presagis to make use of its simula-
tion and embedded graphics software.
Flying Colours of Canada is set to
deliver three Challenger 850 jets to
customers in the Asian region. Each
aircraft was completed at the com-
panys facilities in Canada and the US
over a period of eight months.
NEWS UPDATE
INBRIEF
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY UNITES UNDER
SUSTAINABILITY BANNER
There are times to compete and there are times to co-operate, said Boeing president and CEO
Jim Albaugh of a newly-signed memorandum of understanding between his company, Airbus,
and Embraer to work together on the development of drop-in, affordable aviation biofuels.
The manufacturers agreed they would seek collaborative opportunities to speak in unity to
government, biofuel producers, and other key stakeholders to support, promote and acceler-
ate the availability of sustainable new jet fuel sources. Albaugh commented: Two of the
biggest threats to our industry are the price of oil and the impact of commercial air travel on
our environment. By working [together], we can accelerate their availability and reduce our
industrys impacts on the planet we share.
The aviation industry has already committed to an ambitious 2020 goal of achieving carbon-
neutral growth. Airbus president and CEO Tom Enders said the production and use of sus-
tainable quantities of aviation biofuels would be central to meeting such self-imposed targets.
The three companies accept that working together will achieve results much quicker than if
they embarked on individual agendas; a common sense approach borne out of both financial
and social necessity.
The agreement was signed at the Aviation and Environment Summit in Geneva, where leaders
from 16 global aviation companies and organisations also signed a declaration as a show of
unity on the issue of sustainable development. It reminds world governments of the vital role
the sector plays in economic growth, providing jobs whilst taking its environmental responsi-
bilities seriously.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
GE TESTS NANOTEXTURED ANTIICING SOLUTION
GE Global Research has released new findings relating to the nanotextured anti-icing surfaces
which the company is developing. The surfaces have been found to significantly delay ice for-
mation in simulated atmospheric icing conditions, as well as reducing ice adhesion. Azar
Alizadeh, materials scientist, GE Global Research, believes the technology could one day
reduce and possibly even eliminate the need for existing anti-icing measures.
MARILAKE ENHANCES 737 SUPPORT AND APPROVALS
Marilake Aerosystems, which specialises in avionics and instrument repair, has added a range
of 737 avionics and instruments for exchange, sale or lease as part of its improved workshop
services. The company has also converted to AS9100 Revision C & BS EN ISO 9001:2008
approvals for its post design services, cockpit instrumentation/avionics repair and overhaul
services and cabin display systems. The move is in advance of the deadline set for all organisa-
tions operating within AS9100 to reach this enhanced standard.
NEWS UPDATE
9 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Boeing has been awarded an
amended type certificate from the
Federal Aviation Administration for
its 787-8 Dreamliners equipped with
General Electric GEnx engines.
Noveko has delivered its first air fil-
ters to Air Transat to equip the
Canadian airlines entire A330 fleet.
The Noveko-IDP filters act by purify-
ing recirculated air throughout the
aircraft cabin.
Florida-based STS Component
Solutions has opened a new office in
the UK to support its growing presence
in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.
Dallas Airmotive, part of BBA
Aviation, has announced that its
Singapore Regional Turbine Center
has received its operating certificate
from the countrys Civil Aviation
Authority.
Cessna and Aviation Industry
Corporation of China have signed two
strategic agreements to jointly
develop general and business avia-
tion in the Peoples Republic of China.
Direct Maintenance has commenced a
support programme for the Trent-
powered 777-200 operations of
Malaysia Airlines at Amsterdam
Schiphol Airport.
Northwest Aerospace Technologies is
assisting British Airways with its first-
class cabin retrofit programme for
777-200 and 747-400 aircraft.
Jet Aviation Hong Kong has added
interior refurbishment capabilities to
its maintenance facility, with the open-
ing of a new workshop in Tsuen Wan.
GE Aviation has named Aero-Dienst
as an authorised service centre for its
CF34-3 engine, which powers the
Bombardier Challenger 600 series.
Gama Group has acquired Ronaldson
Airmotive, the Oxford-based engine
and components overhaul company.
The Civil Aviation Maintenance
Association of China (CAMAC) has cer-
tified Guangzhou Aircraft
Maintenance Engineering Company as
a civil aircraft parts distributor.
INBRIEF
AEROINV.COM CONSOLIDATES $150M INVENTORY
Aftermarket aircraft parts company aeroinv.com says it has successfully consolidated an inven-
tory of aircraft component parts worth in excess of $150m in its first six months of trading. The
company has also processed and shipped more than 140,000 individual component parts from
its central distribution hub in Singapore. Collin Trupp, CEO of aeroinv.com, says the company
is firmly onto the front foot to achieve its target of becoming the leading aftermarket sup-
plier of non-rotable parts within the next 24 months.
TAM MRO JOINS AIRBUS NETWORK
TAM MRO, which currently provides services for the A320 and A330/A340 families throughout
South America, has become the newest member of the Airbus MRO Network. The Airbus MRO
Network is designed to provide customers with a worldwide choice of competitive, high-quality
maintenance services from MRO providers with Airbus aircraft experience.
EVERGREEN RENAMED MARANA AEROSPACE SOLUTIONS
Evergreen Maintenance Center has been officially renamed Marana Aerospace Solutions. The
company was acquired by Relativity Capital in 2011, and offers maintenance, repair, painting,
storage and end-of-life services. Its 460-acre facility is located at Pinal Air Park in Marana,
Arizona.
AEROMECHANICAL AWARDED FIRST AFIRS 228 ACTIVATION STC
AeroMechanical Services, under its FLYHT brand name, has received its first activation
Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the Automated Flight Information Reporting System
(AFIRS) 228 on a Bombardier CRJ-900 Series aircraft.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
RECARO TO BUILD CHINA PRODUCTION
FACILITY
Recaro Aircraft Seating is to build a new production facility in Qingdao, China. The company,
which has signed an investment agreement with Chinese authorities, says it will be the first
international aircraft seat supplier in China to manufacture seats for the local market. The first
aircraft seats will be supplied to customers in China as early as 2013.
NEWS UPDATE
10 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
AFI KLM E&M ANNOUNCES CONTRACTS
AFI KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) has received two new maintenance and compo-
nent support contracts from Atlas Air and National Airlines. Atlas Air has signed AFI KLM
E&M to provide component support for its fleet of 747-400s, including repairs and general
component overhauls on a flight-hour basis. Meanwhile, National Airlines has signed AFI KLM
E&M to a multiple-year contract to provide maintenance services for the CF6-80C2 engines
equipping its fleet of 747-400Fs. In addition to engine maintenance, the agreement also
includes the leasing of aircraft engines to ensure availability of National Airlines aircraft during
shop visits.
L3 TO ACQUIRE THALES CIVIL AIRCRAFT SIMULATION BUSINESS
L-3 Communications has entered into an agreement to acquire the assets of Thales Training &
Simulations civil aircraft simulation and training business. The purchase price is $132m. Based
in the UK, the business has an installed base of more than 540 simulators. L-3 anticipates that
the acquisition will be completed in the summer of 2012, subject to customary closing condi-
tions and regulatory approvals. Pending the successful completion of the transaction, Thales
Training & Simulation will be integrated into the L-3 Link Simulation & Training organisation,
part of L-3s electronic systems group.
NTSB CALLS FOR OVERHAUL ON PSU DESIGN AND TESTING
The US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has called on the FAA to modify the cur-
rent design and test requirements related to passenger service units (PSUs) and seatbelts, which
it has deemed a safety hazard. The request has come in response to a number of survivable
accidents in which overhead bins and PSUs on 737NG aircraft became separated from their
attachments during the accident sequences, likely increasing the number of reported occupant
injuries, particularly injuries to the head and face. The NTSB has also called for the FAA to
develop test criteria and performance measures for the negative-g straps that are part of flight
deck seats, and to replace Ipeco-built strap attachment brackets with stronger brackets.
TUI to use Boeings Toolbox
TUI Travel has purchased Boeings
Maintenance Performance Toolbox for
use on its fleet of 737-800, 737 Classic,
757-200, 767-300ER and 747-400 air-
craft. TUIs five-year subscription will
include library, systems, authoring and
tasks modules. We anticipate improv-
ing our maintenance operation effi-
ciencies through better tracking of line
maintenance records and up-to-the-
moment technical information, said
Jason Mahoney, technical director,
Thomson Airways.
Pemco files for bankruptcy
Pemco World Air Services has filed for
chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The
company says a slowdown in demand
for aircraft conversions has forced it to
look for alternatives. Pemco, which
provides MRO services for both wide-
body and narrowbody aircraft and
regional jets, said it was also consider-
ing a closure at its facility in Dothan,
Alabama.
SIAEC and Panasonic launch
IFEC repair centre
SIA Engineering Company (SIAEC)
and Panasonic Avionics Corporation
have opened a facility in Singapore for
the maintenance of Panasonic in-flight
entertainment and communications
(IFEC). Panasonic Avionics Services
Singapore will provide IFEC checks
during aircraft transits at Changi
Airport as well as component repair
services. SIAEC has a 42.5 per cent
share of the JV, while Panasonic has
57.5 per cent.
CAE and APS launch web-
based LOC-I training tool
CAE and Aviation Performance
Solutions (APS) have launched a new
web-based tool designed to help stan-
dardise full-flight simulator (FFS)
instructor knowledge for loss of con-
trol in-flight (LOC-I). LOC-I is
defined as flight that occurs outside of
the normal flight envelope in which
the pilot is unable to control the air-
craft. Lou Nemeth, CAEs chief safety
officer, said: The objective is to pro-
vide an analysis tool for pilots and
instructors to recognise the condi-
tions contributing to an LOC-I upset
situation and a fundamental core
strategy for recovering control and
flying the airplane.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
GE CELEBRATES 1,000TH GE90
GE Aviation has completed the 1,000th GE90 engine at its facility in Peebles, Ohio, eight years
after the type entered into service with Air France. Total orders are over 1,500 for the engine,
which powers 777-300ERs, 777-200LRs and 777 freighters. GE says 2011 was the most successful
year yet for the GE90-115B, which accrued commitments for 400 engines, including a large
order from Emirates Airline. The manufacturer says production levels continue to increase and
that 180 engines will be produced this year, 10 more than last year. A backlog of 800 engines
will be delivered over the next four years.
NEWS UPDATE
11 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
AIRBUS TO PRODUCE 11 A330S EACH MONTH BY 2014
Airbus is expecting to boost its A330 production to 11 aircraft a month in 2Q 2014, so long as its
order book is not too adversely affected by the European Unions emissions trading scheme
(ETS). Currently, Airbus produces nine A330s each month and is on track to build 10 a month
next year. However, there is concern that the possible inclusion of Chinese airlines into the EU
ETS would result in a potential block on widebody aircraft deals by Beijing, which in turn
would upset these production rates. While an order for 10 A380s is attracting the most interest,
six A330 deliveries are also at risk next year and 19 more by the end of 2014, and parts produc-
tion of those is underway.
BOEING TO RELOCATE 7879 TAIL PRODUCTION OUT OF SEATTLE
Boeing has unveiled plans to move production of the horizontal tail of its 787-9 Dreamliners
from Seattle to Salt Lake City, and to Alenia Aermacchi in Italy, by late 2012. At the moment
Boeings centre in Seattle does the development work and initial production on the 787-9 hor-
izontal stabiliser. Boeing said the facility in Salt Lake City would deliver its first stabiliser in Q1
2013, while the date for the first delivery from Alenia is still being finalised.
GMR INAUGURATES MRO FACILITY AT HYDERABAD AIRPORT
Mas GMR Aerospace Engineering (MGAE) has officially inaugurated its new MRO facility at
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad, India. MGAE a JV between Malaysian
Aerospace Engineering and GMR Hyderabad International Airport was formed to develop
an integrated, third party airframe MRO. The Indian MRO facility will provide full aircraft base
maintenance services and will cater to the maintenance needs of both regional and global air-
lines.
ST AEROSPACE TO ADD SIMULATOR CENTRE IN SINGAPORE
ST Aerospace has initiated a $26m expansion programme at Seletar Aerospace Park, Singapore.
The new additions will include a simulator centre, a VIP facility for air charter customers and
a general aviation hangar. The simulator centre will be situated on 23,100m
2
and cater to the
companys commercial pilot and technical training businesses. Equipment will include six full-
flight simulators and one fixed based simulator, plus computing facilities for air transport pilot
licence and entry level ground training. The centre is designed to comply with Singapores
newly legislated multi-crew pilot licence programme and will be ready to launch at the end of
2012.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
Boeing teams with COMAC
for Beijing technology centre
Boeing has signed a collaboration
agreement with Commercial Aircraft
Corporation of China (COMAC) to cre-
ate the Boeing-COMAC Aviation
Energy Conservation and Emissions
Reductions Technology Centre in
Beijing. Funded by both companies,
the centre will focus on research proj-
ects to increase commercial aviations
fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse-
gas emissions. The new facility will be
located at COMACs Beijing Civil
Aircraft Technology Research Centre.
Nippon Carbon forms JV with
GE and Safran
Nippon Carbon Company, GE Aviation
and Safran are set to launch a joint ven-
ture (JV) to manufacture and sell sili-
con carbide (SiC) continuous fibre, or
Nicalon. The new JV, NGS Advanced
Fibers, will be headquartered in Chuo-
ku, Tokyo with facilities in Toyama-shi,
Toyama in Japan. Nippon Carbon will
have a 50 per cent share in the venture
while GE and Safran will each have a 25
per cent share. The ceramic fibre
Nicalon is an important material for
CFMs next generation of aircraft
engine components.
Kuehne + Nagel launch active
mobile sensing
Kuehne + Nagel has introduced active
wireless sensors which record and
transmit the temperature of pharma-
ceutical airfreight shipments through-
out the supply chain. The technology,
which was tested in collaboration with
airlines, makes use of low-emission
devices in order to comply with secu-
rity regulations. Launching the new
service will require the installation of
transmission equipment in the logis-
tics facilities of Kuehne + Nagel and its
airline partners, plus pre- and on-car-
riage vehicles.
Canadian North signs up to
AMOS
Canadian North has become the latest
airline to use AMOS, Swiss Aviation
Softwares (Swiss-AS) MRO manage-
ment software. Canadian North is the
second airline in the Americas region
to use the software since a dedicated
US office was set up through a partner-
ship deal between Swiss-AS and
Lufthansa Systems.
PANASONIC ACQUIRES MAJORITY STAKE IN AEROMOBILE
Panasonic Avionics has become the majority shareholder in AeroMobile Communications. The
transaction underscores Panasonics commitment to AeroMobiles eXPhone product, which it
says is a key element in its long-term in-flight connectivity and communications strategy.
The product allows passengers to use their mobile phones to make and receive voice calls and
SMS text messages in flight, along with data services such as emails. Telenor, which was previ-
ously AeroMobiles sole owner, remains the only other shareholder.
CFM TO PRODUCE 1,800 ENGINES A YEAR BY 2018
CFM International is expecting to produce about 1,800 current and next-generation engines by
2018, following a surge in demand for CFM56- and Leap-powered Airbus and Boeing aircraft.
The increase equates to a new engine rolling off the combined US and French assembly lines
every five hours at parent companies General Electric and Snecma. Engine deliveries are pre-
dicted to grow from 1,260 this year to 1,400 in 2012, 1,500 in 2013, and upwards of 1,600 in 2014.
The figures follow a record number of orders taken in 2011, for 1,500 CFM56s and commitments
for more than 3,050 Leap engines.
NEWS UPDATE NEWS UPDATE
INBRIEF
BOEING, EMBRAER TIEUP PART OF WIDER
DIPLOMACY BETWEEN US AND BRAZIL
Boeing and Embraer have signed a general agreement which will see them co-operate on oper-
ational efficiency, aircraft safety, and productivity. The tie-up between the two manufacturers
has inevitably led to speculation that a new single-aisle aircraft could be jointly developed in
the future.
For now, the companies simply noted that the agreement marked the establishment of an
important relationship. It is the second broad agreement between aircraft OEMs in recent
weeks after Bombardier and COMAC announced they were to collaborate on four separate proj-
ects in late March (see page 6).
Boeing and Embraer will initially seek to jointly investigate commercial aircraft features that
enhance safety and efficiency, while collaborating on research and technology programmes,
including sustainable aviation biofuels. The companies said they would also look at other areas
in which they can work together in the future.
The announcement coincided with the visit of Brazils president to the US and the signing of a
memorandum of understanding on an aviation partnership between the two countries. This
partnership would seek to expand and deepen co-operation between the two countries on civil
aviation, by facilitating the liaison between government agencies and increase private sector
co-operation and awareness, creating economic partnerships and promoting investments.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
There are lots of risky options in life.
Choosing the LEAP engine isnt one of them.
Emrise Corporation has received a
$1.2m order for electronic devices
and subsystems to be used in in-flight
entertainment and connectivity
(IFE&C) systems.
The Italian Civil Aviation Authority
(ENAC) has issued level D (JAR-FSTD
A) certification for the A320 family
full flight simulator at SuperJet
Internationals training centre in
Venice, Italy.
Charter airline CanJet has become
the first Canadian customer of
Boeings landing gear exchange pro-
gramme with a service contract cov-
ering 737-800 aircraft.
LOT Polish Airlines has signed Boeing
Shanghai to perform maintenance on
its fleet of 767-300s for the next two
years.
NEWS UPDATE
COLLAPSING AVEOS HITS OUT AT AIR CANADA
Canadian MRO provider Aveos, which has filed for bankruptcy protection, has blamed main
customer Air Canada for the loss of $16m revenue over the past two months. The company says
Air Canada reduced, deferred and cancelled maintenance work which Aveos was ready and able
to perform. The MRO says the last-minute offer from Air Canada, submitted on March 19 after
long-term negotiations, is not enough to rectify the situation and that restructuring will not be
possible under the Companies Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA). Aveos has ceased
Canadian operations, terminated the employment of its employees across the country and
begun liquidating its assets.
THALES AND CETCA ESTABLISH JV FOR C919 IFE SYSTEM
Thales has entered into a joint venture (JV) with China Electronics Technology Avionics
(CETCA), focusing on the C919 aircraft being developed by Commercial Aircraft Corporation
China (COMAC). The centre of excellence will engage in research development, production,
adaptation and maintenance for the in-flight entertainment (IFE) market. The JV will support
the integration of the Thales TopSeries system in the C919 cabin. TopSeries will offer services
including interactive audio capability and in-seat, on-demand services; a future evolution of
the product is expected to offer Wi-Fi connectivity. The JV operations are due to begin in 3Q,
2012.
EIRTECH ADDS HANGARS IN CZECH REPUBLIC
Irish refinishing services company Eirtech Aviation has expanded into the Czech Republic with
two newly constructed hangars in Ostrava. Offices will also be completed at the new location,
as well as in Dublin, where hangar facilities include widebody capability. The companys engi-
neering and technical asset management services are based in Shannon.
NEWS HIGHLIGHTS
Airbus invests in environ-
mental R&D
Airbus is to invest 2bn in research and
development (R&D) in 2012, with the
company making a firm commitment
to the environment. The manufacturer
said 90 per cent of this budget would
be spent on initiatives beneficial to the
environment.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 awarded
EASA certificate
Sukhoi Civil Aircrafts Superjet 100 has
become the first Russian passenger air-
craft to be approved by the European
Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The
SSJ100 (RRJ-95B) has been awarded the
EASA Type Certificate A-176, which
recognises that the aircraft complies
with EASAs airworthiness and environ-
mental requirements. The certification
means that European airlines and carri-
ers operating in countries that abide by
EASA regulations are now able to oper-
ate the aircraft in their fleets.
LEAP
*CFM, LEAP and the CFM logo are all trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company of Snecma (Safran Group) and GE.
Choosing CFM* to power the A320neo isnt just playing safe, its playing
smart. The CFM history of record-breaking reliability is legendary. Now,
the LEAP engine with its proven architecture and ground-breaking
technology, delivers 15% lower fuel consumption and 15% lower CO2
emissions than the engines it will replace. Dont jump into the unknown.
Leap into the future.Visit www.cfm56.com/leap
NEWS UPDATE
14 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Facoms new E.316 series torque and angle
wrenches have been designed for functionality and
usability, and include an auto-test facility, which
means the wrench tests itself prior to use for
optimum accuracy. Users receive audible and visual
cues when torque is applied and the ability to store
nine preset values allows for staged tightening
procedures. The range is able to withstand
intensive use and will maintain calibration for both
torque and angles to +/- 2%, is resistant to
workshop chemicals, offers USB computer link-up
to download data and preset values.
* Visit our booth at AP&M Europe (F1) for a chance to
win this product.
Abu Dhabi Aircraft Technologies and SR
Technics both part of the Mubadala Aerospace
MRO network have signed BAE Systems to
provide repair services and component support for
their flight critical controls, cabin and cockpit
systems portfolio.
Hamilton Sundstrand and Air France
Industries KLM Engineering and Maintenance
(AFI KLM E&M) have signed a long-term repair
licence agreement for the provision of MRO
services for Hamilton Sundstrand 787 components.
StandardAero and A J Walter Aviation have
signed a three-year consignment agreement. Some
of AJWs engine material inventory will be stored at
the MRO providers facility in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Royal Jet of Abu Dhabi has selected Sabena
technics to conduct a full upgrade for one of its six
BBJs, covering cabin refurbishment, livery painting
and maintenance.
JetBlue Airways has extended its contract with
MTU Maintenance Hannover to cover MRO
services on its IAE V2533 engines.
Norwegian Air Shuttle has signed up for
GoldCare support from Boeing. The 12-year
agreement will cover the airlines future 787 fleet,
consisting of three firm 787-8 orders and
commitments to lease three additional 787s.
Delta Air Lines has signed a range of material
support agreements with CFM International for
almost 400 CFM56-7B engines which the airline
has in service or on order, plus its MRO operations
for third-party airlines.
IndiGo has contracted Lufthansa Technik
Philippines to conduct a series of C4 lease return
checks for seven A320 aircraft. The work will begin
in June 2012 and be completed by the end of the
year.
Airbus has extended its contract with Saab for
the A320 family aileron to cover the life of the
programme.
SriLankan Airlines has selected AFI KLM
E&M to provide A340 and A330 component
support. The contract covers closed-loop repairs for
six of each aircraft type.
Swiftair of Spain has selected AFI KLM E&Mto
provide line maintenance for 737 aircraft
in Edinburgh, UK. AFI KLM E&Ms subsidiary, KLM
UK Engineering, will be responsible for inspecting,
checking and carrying out necessary repairs on the
aircraft on a short-term basis.
First Air has opted to use MRO software from
Trax. The airline will implement e4, the latest
version of Trax Maintenance. The software
incorporates over 20 modules designed to facilitate
material, financial and technical records
management.
CONTRACTS
PRODUCTS
Dublin Aerospace won a three-year contract to
provide Frances Europe Airpost with APU
maintenance for its 737 Classic fleet. The contract
commenced on January 1, 2012.
Indonesias GMF AeroAsia has secured new
aircraft maintenance contracts worth $137m. The
contracts were signed with nine airlines and aircraft
leasing companies, including two Indonesian
carriers, Sriwijaya Air and Travira Air.
Boeing has contracted General Plastics to
supply flight deck and cabin interior components
for all models of its 737, 747, 767, 777 and 787
aircraft. The contract, which was signed in
December 2011, is for three years and includes an
additional one-year option.
Air New Zealand (ANZ) has reached a new
service agreement with StandardAero. The MRO
vendor will carry out turboprop engine MRO work
on all three of ANZs regional airlines Eagle
Airways, Air Nelson and Mount Cook Airlines.
Oakenhurst Aircraft Services has won a
contract to provide repair services for aviation
headset specialist Sennheiser UK.
Polish charter airline OLT Express has awarded
wheels and brakes supplier TP Aerospace Leasing
a five-year component maintenance contract. TP
will provide maintenance, pool access, onsite lease
inventory and a logistics programme for OLT
Express current and planned fleet of A319/A320
aircraft.
RAPCO, and its sister company RAPCO Fleet
Support, have chosen Component Controls
Quantum Control MRO and Logistics software to
simultaneously manage its manufacturing and
MRO operations.
USON is making its pressure decay leak test
calculator available to aerospace engineers and
aerospace component product developers. It is the
first in a family of automated USON NDT test
calculators designed to generate nearly
instantaneous answers to What If modelling of
pressure decay leak testing variables and exact
returns-on-investment from new eight-sensor
concurrent leak testing technology.
Spectroline has launched its MLK-35A MAXIMA
leak detection UV kit, which is designed to pinpoint
the exact source of leaks in hydraulic, engine oil
and aircraft fuel systems. The kit features
MAXIMA ultraviolet lamp which can be used
even in direct sunlight and an 8oz (237ml) bottle
of Aero-Brite universal fluorescent dye, which
locates all leaks in petroleum- and synthetic-based
aviation fluid systems.
Mac Tools has introduced two new additions to its
impact wrench range: the 3/8 drive AWP038, and
AWP050C, a compact version of its
1
2 impact
wrench. The AWP038 produces 525ft lbs (712Nm)
of torque with low vibration levels. The AWP050C
caters for users who require less power and a more
compact design.
NEWS UPDATE
15 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Boeing has extended an agreement with Mxi
Technologies for the IT company to supply its
Maintenix maintenance management software as
part of the GoldCare programme.
CTS Engines has signed a purchase and license
agreement with General Electric for maintenance
support on its CF34-8E and CF34-10E engine
models.
Emirates Airline has extended its existing
partnership agreement with Honeywell until 2019
and signed an additional aftermarket contract with
the company.
AFI KLM E&M has won a contract with Cargo
Air to provide component support and pool access
for the airlines fleet of 737s.
Air Europa has selected Lufthansa Technik
AERO Alzey to support its fleet of General Electric
CF34-10E engines.
US Airways has contracted MTU Maintenance
Hannover to provide engine maintenance on the
CF6-80C2 engines powering its fleet of 767-200
aircraft. The multi-year agreement also includes the
supply of engine accessories.
Monarch Airlines has renewed a contract with
AFI KLM E&M in which the MRO company
provides component support for the airlines fleet
of A330s.
Singapore low-cost airline Scoot has awarded
STG Aerospace a contract to supply its
photoluminescent floorpath marking systems.
Scoot has ordered SafTGlo ColorMatch for its
initial fleet of four 777-200 aircraft, and has taken
options to fit the product on all future aircraft.
Czech Airlines Technics has recently won a
number of new service contracts, including a base
maintenance agreement with NEOS Airlines to
undertake checks and modifications on four of the
carriers 737NG aircraft.
Bombardier Aerospace has chosen Fokker
Services to help increase the availability and
reduce the cost of spare parts for its out-of-
production Dash 8/Q-Series 100/200/300 aircraft.
Under the agreement, Fokker Services has secured
inventory from Bombardier.
Yemenia Airways has extended its A330
component contract with AFI KLM E&M.
Firefly of Malaysia has selected Messier-
Bugatti-Dowty to supply wheels and carbon
brakes for its 737NG fleet. The contract covers 63
737-800 aircraft, both new and retrofitted.
Condor has selected Nayak Aircraft Services
to supply technical assistance as part of its home
base operation in Cologne, Germany.
Lufthansa has awarded Goodrich the contract
to retrofit LED runway turnoff lights on its fleet of
A319/A320/A321 aircraft. The lights, which offer
better illumination and improved reliability and
will reduce costs compared with current LED lights,
will be integrated into the aircraft nose landing gear
in two locations.
GOL Linhas Areas Inteligentes has selected
SITA and its technology partner Flightman to
provide applications and services for the electronic
flight bags (EFBs) on its fleet of 737NG aircraft. The
five-year contract will include e-Aircraft
Application Services from SITA which helps to
integrate EFB technology with airline IT systems.
PEOPLE
[ Following company restructuring, Sabena tech-
nics has appointed Rodolphe Marchais as chair-
man of the board and CEO. In turn, Marchais
named Jean-Luc Fournel as COO customers;
Philippe Rochet as COO production; and
Stphane Burton as COO supply chain & support.
The Sabena technics board paid homage to
Christophe Bernardini, who has served as presi-
dent of the executive board since 2006.
[ Holger Sindemann has been appointed MD and
SVP at MTU Maintenance Hannover, effective May
1, 2012. He takes over from Dr Martin Funk, who
has led the largest of MTU Maintenances compa-
nies for almost three years. Sindemann joined MTU
Aero Engines in Munich at the beginning of 2006
as SVP, corporate development.
[ Nazario Cauceglia has been appointed as CEO of
SuperJet International, succeeding Carlo Logli.
Cauceglia was previously chief technical officer at
Alenia Aeronautica.
[ Albert Li has been appointed general manager
and head of Bombardier Aerospace China, effec-
tive April 2, 2012. Li will succeed Benjamin Boehm,
who has been appointed to the role of VP, business
development and strategy, Bombardier
Commercial Aircraft.
[ CFM International has named Raymond
Scodellaro as VP, contracts. He will be responsible
for the negotiation, execution, and oversight of all
CFM customer contracts.
[ AirVault has named James Brunke, Ronald
Utecht and Peter Bull as members of its advisory
board. Brunke will advise the company on logistics,
the MRO industry and the future of aviation main-
tenance, while Utecht will advise AirVault on the
airline and MRO sectors and on improving the use
of maintenance data in all aviation sectors. Bull will
advise the company on serving the aviation indus-
try in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and on other
strategic and industry matters
Aero, a regional airline based in Lagos, Nigeria,
has entered into a five-year ABACUS programme
with Fokker Services for its Dash 8 300 turboprop
aircraft.
Metrojet has been granted FAA approval to
provide maintenance for Embraers Legacy 600/650
and Lineage 1000 aircraft series in April 2012.
Scandinavian Airlines has chosen Airvault to
provide maintenance records management for its
entire fleet. The carrier has licensed the Airvault
Mx Records Management Solution for all of its 159
aircraft.
Villa Air of the Maldives has selected
Lufthansa Technik AERO Alzey to provide MRO
support for its fleet of PW127F engines.
LOT Polish Airlines has selected Goodrich
Corporation to support the nacelles and thrust
reversers of its E195 aircraft powered by CF34-10E
engines. Under the terms of the five-year contract,
Goodrich will provide nacelle MRO services for
thrust reverser, inlet cowls and nacelle
components, as well as access to large nacelle parts
for lease or exchange.
CAE has secured contracts worth more than
C$90m for seven full-flight simulators (FFSs) and
training equipment, bringing the total number of
FFS sales to 37 for fiscal year 2012.
AirBaltic of Latvia has selected Sabena
technics to support the CFM56-3 thrust reversers
on its 737 aircraft.
Southwest Airlines has selected Goodrich to
supply wheels, carbon brakes, MRO services and
asset management for its new fleet of 737-800
aircraft.
[ Crane has appointed Robert Tavares as presi-
dent of Crane Aerospace & Electronics electronics
group, and David Bender as president of its aero-
space group. Bender was previously president of
both groups. Before joining Crane, Tavares was
president of e2V, a global provider of technology
solutions for high performance systems. Bender
joined Crane in January 2006 as president of the
electronics group, and had previously spent more
than 24 years with Aerojet General.
Robert Tavares David Bender
16 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INDUSTRY FOCUS
In my opinion:
Franck Terner,
president, Air
France Industries
Air France Industries KLM Engineering & Maintenance (AFI KLM E&M) has been growing in strength since
the merger between its parent airlines in 2004. Jason Holland visited Paris to get AFI president Franck
Terners views on topics as diverse as the future strategy of the company, the impact of aircraft OEMs
entering the aftermarket, and why flying Concorde is a Formula 1 experience.
Can you briefly outline your background in
the aviation industry and how this has led
you to your current role?
I began my career in aviation nearly 30 years
ago and have been in charge of quite different
things during that time. In the Air France group,
I have been head of component shops and head
of short- and medium-haul airframe activity. I pi-
loted the Concorde fleet for five years this was
a Formula 1 activity. We were a big team. It was
very exciting to wake up in the morning to work
on this very special aircraft! I also had some ap-
pointments in strategy and planning. I left the
mother company in 2002, and at that time the Air
France regional network was made up of three
small French airlines. When the decision was
made to merge them, I was appointed to re-
build all the maintenance systems of the new
airline, called Regional, at the time a 70-strong
fleet of aircraft, with 400-500 flights a day. So it
was a big thing but it was just the sum of a
number of small things and not a centralised
event. Four years later, I was appointed CEO of
the airline, which is based in Nantes. This was a
good experience as it gave me an insight into a
full company selling plane tickets a B2C activ-
ity. In January 2010, I was asked to take over at Air
France Industries from Alain Bassil.
How has this broad range of experiences
shaped the way you see your role as presi-
dent?
I have had appointments in all areas of the Air
France Industries business as well as being CEO
of an airline up to now. This provides a good view
of the overall airline and the impact of mainte-
nance on day-to-day operations, and the final
customer. When you have this experience you
know exactly what makes up a one minute delay!
And this is a job that requires experience. Main-
tenance activity in general has a big impact on
the final customer and by this I mean the ac-
tual passengers. There is a big interaction with
photo: AFI KLM E&M - Patrick Delapierre
Its simple enough: Trust matters. But when it comes to the maintenance of your
eet, nothing matters more. Thats why you can count on the team at Delta TechOps.
Our certied, experienced technicians, as well as our account managers, are dedicated
to keeping your planes in the air, time and time again. And with our Complete Fleet
capabilities including Airbus and Boeing airframes, 12 engine types, as well as
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service, for an unparalleled reliability. And thats a commitment were willing to
make absolutely.
YOU HANDLE THE ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE.
WELL HANDLE THE ABSOLUTE COMMITMENT.
For an inside look at the advantages
Delta TechOps brings to your aircraft
maintenance, visit DeltaTechOpsMRO.com
or call +1-404-773-5192.
18 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INDUSTRY FOCUS
the airline too; not just our main company Air
France itself, but for many airlines in the world.
As an operator it is very important that we are
thinking about the day-to-day business and the
final customer. In between there is costs and
safety, but the most important thing is that what-
ever I do today, tomorrow morning there will be
someone sitting on a seat on an aircraft and you
should never forget that. Without this customer
you can do whatever you want but there will be
nothing to maintain, as there will be no aircraft
to fly. It is important for me to have experienced
the whole chain of the added value areas in the
airline, from maintaining the aircraft, engineer-
ing, designing documents, to selling tickets.
What has been the highlight of your career
so far?
Every job I have done has brought a big re-
ward. Of course some are particularly exciting
such as flying the Concorde. As far as achieve-
ments are concerned, I have been successful in
merging the airlines, rebuilding a maintenance
system, and on the other side being a key part, I
hope, of the growth of our activities and that is
very exciting. But in my stomach, Concorde was
a great experience and I will never forget that.
What is your personal vision for the company?
I look at AFI KLM E&M with fresh eyes be-
cause I have been working in this environment
for years, but left for eight years. When you leave
something and come back, you have an image
that everything will be the same but thats not
true. In ten years AFI and KLM E&M have dra-
matically evolved. The company as a whole has
been growing by ten per cent per year. There was
the merger, there was a shift to new generation
aircraft products A330s, 777s, 737s, A320s;
there was a positioning of the company on big
engines like the GE90. So overall, when you look
at the structure it is very innovative. For example,
Air France Industries employees are sending
thousands of ideas to an internal website to im-
prove economics, quality, security, health and
other topics. Out of these ideas, 75 per cent are
implemented and lead to a result. We revert to
the people, and tell them if and why the idea is
being implemented if it is, we reward them.
We have people that are focused on innovation
and we encourage that as a structure.
An important thing is that the business itself
is multicultural. Of course, French is French and
Dutch is Dutch. And I didnt count how many na-
tionalities we have inside AFI KLM E&M, but it
is not one or two, that is for sure! If you take Air
France Industries, by the numbers it is bigger
than KLM E&M, but this isnt important. Both
are big, structured businesses with huge histo-
ries. You have to take into account the vision of
your partner and this is a very important thing
because that is the day-to-day life of the business.
This multicultural experience is now one of our
strengths!
How is AFI KLM E&M responding and adapt-
ing to the needs of its airline customers?
You cannot impose your view on the cus-
tomer. Again, this is the way our people are see-
ing the business and we encourage that, and we
try to be adaptive to the customer. The time has
passed when you just sell what you have to sell;
now you have to sell exactly what the customer
requires. This is especially so in our environment
where there are so many differences in the needs
of the customer. A characteristic of our business
is being adaptive to what they want. Nothing is
impossible. We are trying to implement, in the
structure of the business, the ability to adapt to
how the customer wants things done, and I think
we have achieved this thanks to the fact that our
people are minded like this. A good question is
what the customer is seeing as a quality result.
You have to listen to the customer. All these
things describe who we are, not what we do.
Where would you say AFI KLM E&M is posi-
tioned in the MRO market currently? How
would you assess the state of the MRO indus-
try in general?
We are in a very fast growing environment,
which is moving to the East. Anybody can see
that growth will be very high in the East, and
lower in Europe and the US. But never forget that
Europe and the US are still the biggest markets
of the world. If you combine this with our size
and what we do, today we are a key leader of that
market; we are clearly number two in this busi-
ness if we consider the multi-product MROs. My
vision is that in the next ten-fifteen years there
will be key leaders in the market and we will be
amongst them. The clear emerging picture is of
consolidation, of co-operation whatever you
want to call it, but we have to be among the key
leaders.
Is the integration between AFI and KLM
E&M complete and what have the main ben-
efits been so far?
The merger was quite a long time ago now, in
2004, and we have integrated activities quite well.
First we have production centres, activities that
have to be joint going to the customer. If the cus-
tomer needs, say, 737 components that are in
Amsterdam, and engines for the A380 that are in
Paris, what should I do? You could send an Air
France guy one day and a KLM E&M guy another.
No way. We have one product and one portfolio
and we have a strategy offer that makes sense to
the customer. There is just one entity designing
the strategy, and while every entity is bringing his
own inputs, in the end there is one decision and
one strategy, and one joint sales force. Commu-
nication to the outside world is very important;
there is no way we would talk to the outside
world with two voices. We have two big produc-
Component maintenance is an important area of activity at AFI KLM E&M.
source: AFI KLM E&M - Patrick Delapierre
19 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INDUSTRY FOCUS
tion centres but in the middle of that we have
what we call the joint organisation. All this is
working very well. Are we at the end of the inte-
gration process? Probably not, there are still
some improvements to be made, but I think we
are pretty well integrated. The main benefits have
been good growth, the synergies that we can
offer, and to be able to insource many things that
were previously outsourced. One example is the
GE90, which has saved tens of millions.
Has there been any consideration given to
changing the company name to something
shorter, or arguably more catchy?
Thats a good question. The brand is very im-
portant, and although it is not the final product
you offer to the customer, it is something that is
known. If I say I am working for Company XYZ
you dont know who that is. With Air France In-
dustries KLM E&M you know exactly what I am
talking about. The brand is a very powerful thing,
it means something. So I am very reluctant to just
change it. The other thing is that in the brand
today we have both Air France and KLM in it, and
both are powerful brands. In some parts of the
world KLM is a very highly regarded brand. In
other parts of the world, it is Air France that is
highly valued. Ultimately, the value you put on
the words is very important, so I dont know if we
will change the brand. For now our brand is quite
long, but quite valuable too!
What kind of year will 2012 be for AFI KLM
E&M in particular, in terms of general out-
look, trends, and challenges?
In 2011, we had a pretty good year. It was a very
difficult year for the community. Obviously, the
global financial situation has had an impact on
our customers and us too. In 2012, we see a slight
recovery as a continuity of 2011 and we are per-
forming well with good growth. We signed huge
contracts in 2010 and 2011 and this has an impact
and is contributing to our growth so 2012 will
be a mix of capturing more growth and seeing the
continued results of our big contracts. Overall,
we see big pressure on prices, this was true in 2011
and will be even more so in 2012. We see in the
market a big appetite for cash, as cash becomes
an issue after years of crisis. Customers are asking
for giant buybacks of their stocks.
Overall, we are very well oriented with good
products and growth. I think we are the leader in
A330 component support. I think we can also say
that with 777 components, and we are also a key
leader on 737 components. On the A320 there is
no big tender without AFI KLM E&M at least
being involved and competing. I think we are a
key leader on the GE90. We have a big capability
on the CF6-8OE, one of the engines of the A330s,
and on the CFM 56 family. If you add 787 prod-
ucts today and A350 tomorrow, we have good
cards on the table and we must play a good game,
and be clever with them.
Do you see the aircraft OEMs taking a larger
amount of the MRO market by way of their
networks? Will it become important to be a
part of these networks, such as Goldcare or
the Airbus Flight Hour Services programme?
There is a distinction here between OEMs
and what I would call OAMs. First, OEMs
equipment manufacturers it is a mistake to say
they are coming to the market, they have always
been in the market. Then the question is, what
lever do you use to push yourself in the market,
and with this we may see slight problems. The
first thing is intellectual property (IP). Who can
deny the fact that if you invest $100m to design
something then you have intellectual property. I
do not deny that this has value and that you
should pay for that value. But what is the real
value? You could say 100 per cent of the value of
the MRO is the IP of the OEM. In other words,
as an MRO, you dont bring any value to the cus-
tomer but thats just not true. So yes IP has a
value, but it is not the only value. This issue is im-
portant not just for the MROs, but for the final
customer. If OEM X says my IP is $200m upfront
then nobody will pay for that. And there isnt
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20 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INDUSTRY FOCUS
just one OEM on an aircraft. So if you sum up
everything, it becomes a monopoly which is not
good for the final consumer and would not be al-
lowed to happen.
The other actor is brand new, the OAMs
namely the aircraft manufacturers. There are not
so many of these, but lets focus on the two
biggest, Airbus and Boeing what are they
claiming? We sell the aircraft, who better than
us to maintain it. Thats a well-known story in
other industries. In black and white, from where
I am sitting, they cannot maintain aircraft. But
we should look at things in a balanced manner.
Is there room for them to have an offering? Yes.
They will sell, and they already do sell, a small
part of the overall MRO activities. Will they sell
80 per cent of the market? I dont believe so, for
many reasons.
But rather than tell you why they will catch all
the market, I will tell you why we will sell and
keep our market share. What is the added value
of a MRO? When I go to my customers, I come
with a brand, and as an airline one of the key as-
sets we have is that we know exactly what the
final consumer wants. Others might not have
that asset. In addition to that, those new players
are developing networks of subcontractors and
dont insource repairs. Where is the value? And
what is the added value of a network that will add
a margin to another margin, to ultimately just
post the bill to the final customer? This is not our
model, we are insourcing a part of the activity
and relying on partners for other parts. We are
not just an office integrating the work of others,
we are participating in creating the value as an
airline MRO.
Consolidation has occurred in the MRO mar-
ket as a result of mergers and acquisitions,
with AFI KLM E&M an example, but do you
see further consolidation in this market seg-
ment as a result of market forces?
When it comes to consolidation we will see a
mix. I dont wish to see anyone on the market
dying, but the weakest will have trouble I think.
OEMs will put pressure on the weakest. With the
current economic situation, and the growth and
consolidation of the airlines, in the future I be-
lieve MROs will be bigger. By how much? I am
not sure we will see mega-mergers because its
difficult for these to happen, it doesnt take into
account so well a multi-cultural environment.
It is fair to say the Air France group faces eco-
nomic challenges, as reflected in recent fi-
nancial results. What measures and strategies
have you put in place at AFI KLM E&M specif-
ically to ensure a bright financial future?
Our contribution to the group results is very
positive. Although we are impacted by the eco-
nomic situation of the group, and we have to con-
tribute to the recovery trend and the
transformation plan, our role should be to in-
crease our economic contribution by driving
down costs thats always the case increasing
our portfolio, and increasing our customer base.
That is a matter of consistency as we have been
doing this for years. The group will probably in-
crease the efforts put into MRO again because it
is a good activity for us. We could probably see
more co-operation between MROs.
Finally, looking further ahead, in what state
do you see the MRO industry being in 10
years time? And where do you see AFI KLM
E&M within this?
In a nutshell, we could have big networks,
bigger customers, and we will be one of the big
players in a market where airframe maintenance
will probably be more regionalised, with a more
balanced world between East and West. The big
networks will be worldwide; this is the trend.
The most important thing is that whatever I do today,
tomorrow morning there will be someone sitting on a seat on
an aircraft and you should never forget that. Without this
customer you can do whatever you want but there will be
nothing to maintain, as there will be no aircraft to fly.
AFI president Franck Terner says his company is trying to implement, in the structure of the business, the ability to adapt to how the customer wants things done.
source: AFI KLM E&M - Patrick Delapierre
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22 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
Using advanced
composites in aero
engines
The large-scale use of carbon-fibre composite materials in the Boeing 787, Bombardier CSeries and
Airbus A350 XWB has generated massive media attention. But much less attention has been paid to a
similar, perhaps even more revolutionary, move towards using advanced composites in commercial aero
engines. Chris Kjelgaard reports.
A
irframes arent the only commercial-air-
craft parts undergoing a materials revolu-
tion. The media has given extensive
publicity to the widespread use of carbon-fibre re-
inforced plastic (CFRP) structures in new twin-
airline and single-aisle aircraft such as the Boeing
787, the Bombardier CSeries and the Airbus A350
XWB; but the engines powering these aircraft will
also feature CFRP composites to a much greater
degree than previous commercial turbofans.
Polymer-based composite materials have
been used in commercial turbofan engines since
the mid-1980s, when the General Electric CF6-
80C2 entered service with unidirectional-prepreg
outlet guide vanes and shrouds made from
chopped carbon fibre in an injection-moulded
glass-fibre reinforcing matrix. Use of polymer
composites in subsequent generations of turbo-
fans has expanded to the point where the latest
engines use CFRP materials extensively for struc-
tures such as nacelles, fan cases, liners, thrust re-
versers and even fan blades and stators. The
variable stator stages of some engines compres-
sors also feature small polymer-based bushings:
design engineers prefer them to metal bushings
because these press-moulded parts offer low
wear and low friction.
Frank Preli, chief engineer for Pratt & Whit-
ney (P&W) Materials & Processes engineering,
says P&W is using a significant amount of
CFRPs in its commercial engines and that the
utilisation has been steadily increasing over the
last two decades. For this to happen, P&W has
worked to develop advanced manufacturing
processes that ensure high-quality production of
complex, multi-functional, monolithic compos-
ite hardware.
The General Electric (GE) GEnx and the Pratt
& Whitney PurePower PW1000G Geared Turbo-
fan (GTF) are two modern turbofan families
which make extensive use of CFRP materials.
The GTF fan case is made of lightweight carbon
fibre organic matrix composites, notes Preli, for
example. Meanwhile, the GEnx family not only
features CFRP fan cases, but also CFRP fan
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24 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
blades. GEnx fan platforms (which sit between
the fan blades and guide the inner flowpath of
air through the inner area of the fan) are made
from a resin transfer moulding (RTM) CFRP
process.
GE first used composite fan blades in the
GE90 family. The introduction of RTM and vac-
uum-assisted RTM processes about 10 years ago
along with a new braided-fibre fabric archi-
tecture has allowed the company to design its
newest engine with CFRP fan blades that feature
more advanced 3-D-swept airfoils while remain-
ing at least as strong as the fan blades in GE90
engines.
A panel of GE materials experts interviewed
by ATE&M Bob Schafrik, head of GE Avia-
tions materials department; Dale Carlson, man-
ager of engine technology strategies; Les
Langenbrunner, manager of polymeric compos-
ites technology; and materials engineers Matt
Buzcek and Doug Ward estimates GE has
saved 350lb in weight in each GEnx engine by
employing a CFRP fan case rather than a fan case
made from traditional aluminium alloy.
Similarly, the GEnx familys composite fan
blades save about 200lb of weight per engine
compared with titanium-alloy fan blades. CFRP
structures such as the GEnx fan case are only
about half the weight of equivalent metal-alloy
structures. Furthermore, says Schafrik, impor-
tantly for life-cycle cost, they wont corrode and
they last for the complete lifetime of the engine.
Meanwhile, says Preli: There will continue to
be a need to improve fuel burn and efficiency of
jet engines, particularly since the price of oil is
expected to rise over time. Lightweight carbon-
composite structures will help achieve additional
targeted weight reductions, and thus fuel-burn
reductions. The increased effective use of carbon
composites will require a combination of design
innovation and further development of manufac-
turing processes to achieve the desired perform-
ance and affordability metrics required in future
CFRP engine parts.
Some of GEs resin transfer moulding
processes are proprietary for instance, the in-
fusion moulding it performs to make the GEnx
fan case and some arent. But as the company
moves to incorporate third-generation CFRP
manufacturing into its engines, GE like other
major engine manufacturers is already looking
ahead to the fourth generation. It is now looking
The size of CFRP parts is a game-changer for the repair
process, as traditional autoclave repair techniques are made
more difficult due to the limited availability of large
autoclaves at MRO facilities.
Phil Griggs, principal engineer and FAA-designated engineering
representative, Steve Deak, senior engineer, composites repair technologies,
and Brian Graham, manager, repair materials applications engineering, GE.
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26 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
into the possibility of using CFRPs made with
electrospun carbon nanofibres, as well as other
composite materials made with nanoparticles of
clay or silica, for advantages in terms of reduced
weight and increased strength.
Repair of CFRP engine parts
GE and P&W say repairing CFRP parts in en-
gines is of similar complexity to repairing CFRP
airframe parts and requires similar repair meth-
ods. Both types of repairs rely on intimate design
knowledge for the component service loading and
the material systems that satisfy design intent,
remarks GEs Phil Griggs, Steve Deak, and Brian
Graham. (Griggs is principal engineer and FAA-
designated engineering representative; Deak is
senior engineer, composites repair technologies;
and Graham is manager, repair materials applica-
tions engineering.) Repair methods in both cases
must utilise specific toughened matrix systems in
conjunction with the carbon fibre to restore per-
formance properties and design intent.
But both engine manufacturers agree that be-
cause engine CFRP parts are generally smaller
than composite airframe structures and have
more complex geometries, they pose different
MRO challenges. Part features such as flanges,
doublers, stiffeners, and holes all contribute to
the complexity of the repair, notes Lynn Gam-
bill, director of P&W Global Services engineer-
ing. Tooling design and process steps must
accommodate the part size.
With the introduction of composite fan cases,
engine components are quickly increasing in
size, say the GE engineers. The size of CFRP
parts is a game-changer for the repair process, as
traditional autoclave repair techniques are made
more difficult due to the limited availability of
large autoclaves at MRO facilities. As a result,
out-of-autoclave repair materials and tech-
niques will be increasingly utilised in composite
component repair techniques to reduce costs
while increasing the number of MRO shops ca-
pable of repairing large components, they state.
Another difference is that each specific en-
gine component has its own unique set of repairs
since it has its own unique design, the GE engi-
neers add. We can leverage repair processes on
the same part, but each repair may also be unique
based on the condition of the part when it comes
to the MRO shop. Airframers publish structural
repair manuals that include general repairs on
some composite parts.
However, says P&Ws Gambill: The inspection
methods [for engine and airframe CFRP parts] are
likely to be similar, with part use determining the
27 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
composite repair permitted. The typical repair
method for either engine or airframe would involve
removal of damaged plies by taper sanding, clean-
ing the repair area, cutting the pre-impregnated
fabric to size, laying the fabric on the part, vacuum
seal and cure in autoclave, then cosmetic finishing.
MRO shops wont need to learn different
CFRP composite-repair skills and techniques for
engine parts as compared to airframe parts, Gam-
bill believes. However, the skill required to work
with smaller more complex shapes is [at] a higher
level than large flat surfaces. The resin systems,
such as epoxy versus bismaleimide (BMI), change
the techniques and equipment. Epoxy-based car-
bon fibre and BMI-based carbon fibre both exist
in either application, engine or airframe. MRO
shops such as Pratt & Whitney AutoAir are cur-
rently capable of repairing epoxy or BMI parts.
As an executive committee member of the
ATA/IATA/SAE Commercial Aircraft Composite
Repair Committee (CACRC), GEs Griggs empha-
sises the need for standardisation of repair tech-
niques, materials, and training between the
airframers and engine manufacturers. CACRC
has published a series of Aerospace Recom-
mended Practices and Aerospace Material Spec-
ification documents describing standard
techniques and materials that OEMs can incor-
porate into their manuals. MROs then only need
to learn one standard method and will be able to
stock fewer material types.
Inspection and monitoring
Gambill says typical inspection methods for
airframe and engine CFRP parts are common
and include visual inspection and tap testing.
More complex inspection methods may include
a-scan, c-scan, x-ray, laser shearography, and
acoustic impedance. If the engine parts are on-
wing, tap testing would not be possible due to
space constraints.
However, differences exist in how the health
and condition of engine and airframe CFRP parts
are monitored, and the types of damage the two
classes of parts incur, the GE engineers think. An
engines major composite parts are visible. Oper-
ators can identify damage by looking in the inlet
or opening the cowl doors. Even if the damage is
minimal, most of it can be easily spotted, they
note. It is more difficult to see damage on an air-
crafts tail section on a walk-around because of
the distance from the observer to the damage.
Additionally, engine components in the
flowpath may also encounter damage from bird
strikes and ice as well as erosion from grit and
rain, say Griggs, Deaks, and Graham. The full
extent of some damage may not be readily ob-
served from visual inspection and will require
non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to
assess the extent of subsurface damage.
Furthermore, they add, the serviceability re-
quirements may be more stringent than what is
on an airframe because of the speed of the rotat-
ing parts in the engine. While airframe compo-
nents may be repaired using doublers and similar
methods on the non-flowpath surface, engine
components such as the fan blade must be re-
stored to correct dimensional contours on both
convex and concave surfaces for aero perform-
ance, making the repairs more complex. As fibre-
and tape-placement manufacturing techniques
replace traditional ply stack-ups, repair for CFRP
will become more complex.
However, engine and airframe CFRP parts will
usually be monitored and damage incurred
and found in the same ways, believes Gambill.
Wear, lightning strikes, thermal degradation
(burning), broken fibres, and impact can be seen
visually. Delaminations or disbonds typically are
found by tap test. Oversized holes are typically
found by visual or dimensional inspection. It
doesnt make a difference if the part is for an en-
gine or an airframe.
Ceramic matrix composites
Coming generations of turbine engines for
airliners will begin making use of an entirely dif-
ferent class of composite materials not found in
Mach 0.3 burner rig oxidation of cylindrical
Hexoloy monolithic silicon carbide specimens
held in a spinning carousel.
source: NASA Glenn Research Center
28 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
airframes: ceramic matrix composites (CMCs).
When the CFM International LEAP-1A engine
enters service in 2016 and the LEAP-1B in 2017,
both LEAP versions will, at the very least, feature
CMCs in the static shroud structures of their tur-
bine sections, according to GE.
As is normal in the development of aero-engine
technology, CMC research first focused on and
was funded for military jet engines. Engine-ma-
terials engineers first began thinking seriously of
incorporating CMCs into jet engines around 1985.
Now, designers routinely use CMCs in high-thrust
military engines and are increasingly focusing on
using CMC parts in commercial engines.
They are doing so because CMC materials are
very light (a CMC turbine blade would be, for in-
stance, one-third the weight of an equivalent su-
peralloy blade), very strong, and highly
temperature-resistant. Some CMCs also retain
their strength better than do metal superalloys at
the very high temperatures found in the hot sec-
tions of modern jet engines.
Its the toughest design environment in the
world, hotter even than the inside of a nuclear re-
actor, says GEs Schafrik. Without extensive use
of thermal barrier coatings and cooling air bled
from the compressor air which, at several hun-
dred degrees Fahrenheit, is only cool relative to
the temperature of the air flowing from the com-
bustor through the turbine stages todays su-
peralloy parts would simply melt.
The idea is that CMCs would replace current
materials in hot parts of the engine, explains Dr.
Joseph Grady, chief of the Ceramics Branch at
NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland,
Ohio. By virtue of [CMCs] requiring less cooling
air [than do todays superalloy parts in engine
cores], this increases the efficiency of the engine
by decreasing the amount of cooling air and thus
power extracted from the compressor in order
to cool the combustor lining, turbine stages
particularly those in the high-pressure turbine
(HPT) and turbine nozzle.
SiC/SiC looks promising
Several different types of CMC material are
useful for turbine-engine applications. Among
them are composites of carbon fibre in a silicon
carbide matrix, and of silicon oxide-fibre in a sil-
icon oxide matrix. Parts made from oxide-oxide
CMCs have potential uses at the back of the en-
gine where temperatures are lower, but still
quite high as exhaust flaps, seals and mixers.
GE uses a carbon-fibre/silicon carbide CMC to
make exhaust seals in the F414 fighter engine.
But the CMC material which is garnering the
greatest attention is a composite of silicon car-
bide fibres in a silicon carbide matrix. Known as
SiC/SiC, this CMC can resist temperatures of
2,400 degrees Fahrenheit without degrading.
Researchers at the engine companies and at
the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing
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30 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
new environmental barrier coatings (EBCs)
which, when applied over the surface of a
SiC/SiC part, allow it to resist a temperature of
2,700 degrees F. Since temperatures in the cores
of modern turbofan engines reach 3,000 degrees
F, this means the combustor lining, the HPT
stages and turbine nozzle only need to find an
additional 300 degrees F of heat resistance to be
able to withstand the local temperature environ-
ment. This resistance will still need to come
from compressor-derived cooling air but
much less of it will be required than is used for
cooling todays superalloy turbine and combus-
tor parts.
Grady says NASA Glenns calculations show
that using a 2,700-degree-capable CMC material
in the HPT of a subsonic commercial engine
could reduce fuel burn by as much as six per cent.
Even more impressive is the 33 per cent potential
reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) that NASA
Glenn believes is possible from using CMC ma-
terial in turbines and combustor linings. Todays
superalloy combustor linings require lots of cool-
ing air to given them sufficient long-term dura-
bility, and this air reacts with the igniting fuel to
produce NOx. A combustor made of CMC com-
posite material would need less air for cooling, so
less air would be present to react with burning
fuel to form NOx emissions.
According to Grady, in future commercial en-
gines CMC parts could be particularly useful in
replacing metal turbine blades and vanes. Not
only do turbine blades operate in a very-high-
temperature environment, but they rotate very
rapidly round the high- or low-pressure turbine
disks and are subject to extremely high air pres-
sures. The inter-stage turbine vanes, meanwhile,
have to deal with very high air pressures as they
straighten out the airflow from the turbine
stages. All this subjects these parts to very high
stresses, which the combustor with no moving
parts doesnt have.
NASA Glenn has made the turbine its pri-
mary CMC research focus, since the turbine rep-
resents the highest-stress case for CMC
A current focus is on evaluation of the applicability of
existing NDE techniques to the detection of the unique
composite behaviour exhibited by CMCs at their material
limits.
Lynn Gambill, director, P&W Global Services engineering.
GEs GEnx-2B engine during wind tunnel tests at Peebles.
31 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
materials in terms of the combination of oper-
ating temperature and material strength re-
quired. If turbine CMC development and testing
is successful, similar application to the combus-
tor should be feasible.
Together with the weight reductions which
CMC parts in engine hot sections could make
possible, the fundamental cooling flow reduc-
tions they would also produce would have a
pervasive impact on the engines thermal effi-
ciency and cycle, say GEs materials engineers.
Engines could become lighter but much more ef-
ficient, so thrust-to-weight ratios would increase.
Olivier Longeville, VP of strategy and market
for CFM International partner Snecma, suggests
CMC usage in the LEAP engine family could go
beyond static shrouds. Snecma has tested a
CFM56-5C engine with a low-pressure turbine
stage modified by replacement of several alloy
blades with CMC turbine blades, and plan to in-
stall a full stage of CMC blades, as well as vanes,
in future testing.
Longeville says the CFM International partners
have also tested CMC material in the combustor
liner and in the HP core. In the next generation of
the LEAP engine, it is possible this technology
may be used for those parts where cracking hap-
pens, remarks Longeville. He says CFM Interna-
tional is definitely looking at the HP core for
CMC use in future LEAP versions, to improve di-
rectional airflow, efficiency and durability.
CMC repair challenges
CMC engine parts will present the commer-
cial MRO industry with a new set of repair chal-
lenges. Health monitoring and repair
techniques for CMC hardware are at a very early
developmental stage, says Gambill. A current
focus is on evaluation of the applicability of ex-
isting NDE techniques to the detection of the
unique composite behaviour exhibited by CMCs
at their material limits. There is a sound, well-de-
veloped understanding of repair processes for
metal alloy parts. Repair development, both
process and application, are needed for CMC
parts.
However, GE believes health monitoring for
CMCs will be no different than for metallic com-
ponents. Just as we did for metallic material parts,
we have development programmes in place for
unique inspection, cleaning methods, and repair
processes on CMC parts, the GE engineers say.
CMCs, when compared to metal alloys, present
unique challenges for NDE. The focus is to reliably
assess the integrity of the barrier coatings as well
as the CMC substrate in the field. We believe this
will be done in a similar manner as metal-alloy
parts, including borescope, UT, CT and dimen-
sional assessment for continued service.
GE believes that ultimately CMCs will offer
greater value to operators than metal-alloy parts.
CMC parts are capable of withstanding the
harsh engine environment and make the engine
lighter with improved performance capability,
say Griggs, Deak and Graham. This also allows
the wing structure to be lighter. This will drive
down cost of ownership for our customers as well
as engine life-cycle costs.
But current metallic components benefit
from many decades of development, manufac-
turing, and operational experience, Gambill
notes. The challenge is to develop CMCs and the
manufacturing infrastructure to achieve similar
levels of reliability. P&W is investigating the
long-term effects of environmental exposure on
CMCs and the processing steps needed to ensure
robust systems for stability and durability.
Unique degradation modes of CMCs require con-
current material and design development to mit-
igate these effects. The proof will be in the
pudding, as the proverb says.
Call us for a personal demo:
WichiTech Industries, Inc.
(800) 776-4277 Gwww.wichitech.com
(410) 244-1966 GFAX (410) 244-1968
1120 N. Charles Street, Suite 103,
Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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32 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
Super sensing:
Air data systems
Air data systems are the eyes and ears of an aircraft, collecting and processing information about
conditions such as airspeed pressure, altitude pressure, angle of attack (AOA) and temperature in order
to give the pilot a comprehensive picture of the flying environment. Now, the technology is moving
toward digital, electronic and lightweight designs.
I
s it a bird, is it a plane? is the famous line
about Superman. But rather than conflat-
ing aircraft with birds or super heroes, the
most appropriate analogy to use is that of the
shark. These creatures are well known for the ex-
traordinary sensory acuteness which enables them
to negotiate their way through the marine environ-
ment. Similarly, the nose, and to some extent the
body, of an aircraft is loaded with high-tech equip-
ment measuring characteristics such as airspeed
pressure, altitude pressure, angle of attack (AOA)
and temperature. These are the air data systems
(ADS) which provide the flight control system and
the pilot with critically important information
about the condition of the aircraft as it moves
through the sky, thus helping to ensure safe flight.
Air data systems are composed of pitot, static
probes, angle of attack, temperature probes, side
slip angle and pressure sensors which are located
in different parts of the aircraft, explains
Christophe Picco, head of product marketing for
commercial avionics, Thales. In a typical air data
system, the information collected by the sensors
is processed by air data computers (ADCs) or a
combination of air data modules (ADMs) and air
data inertial reference units (ADIRUs). Temper-
ature and pressure are the two main characteris-
tics which are analysed in this way, individually
and in multiple formulations.
An ADC is a single line replacement unit
(LRU) device that uses measurements from
pressure sensors to calculate typical air data
outputs, explains Aileen McDowall, technical
sales director, EMEAI at Honeywell Aerospace.
Meanwhile, an ADM such as the single-sensor
Honeywell application for A320, A330, A340 and
MD-10 aircraft, is an LRU that converts the
sensed pressure into a digital representation
which is electronically transmitted to the
ADIRU to perform the ADC calculations, states
McDowall. In addition to the air data reference
(ADR) component which processes calculations
for airspeed, Mach, AOA, temperature and
barometric altitude data, the inertial reference
(IR) element of the ADIRU handles altitude,
flight path vector, ground speed and positional
data, for which gyroscopes and accelerometers
provide the raw data.
photo: Goodrich
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34 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
There are generally three ADIRUs sitting in
the electronic rack (E-bays) of the aircraft; one
for the pilot, one for the co-pilot and one redun-
dant unit. The ADM-ADIRU combination, plus
a control display unit (CDU) in the cockpit, can
be referred to as the air data inertial reference
system (ADIRS) architecture.
From a maintenance perspective, McDowall
states that the ADMs of large commercial aircraft
can be removed for repair or replacement in ap-
proximately one hour, while periodic pressure
checks can be accomplished without removal.
ADIRUs do not require defined periodic mainte-
nance but can be exchanged swiftly and effi-
ciently in less than five minutes, she says,
courtesy of quick disconnect clamps. A
spokesperson from Rockwell Collins adds that it
is not necessary to access an ADC for the biennial
recertification efforts required by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) in accordance
with federal aviation regulations (FAR).
Which ADS?
From an operational point of view, McDowall
says that the two main options of ADC and ADM-
ADIRU provide the same experience for pilots
and that the true decision [for operators] is that
of architecture preference related to the sophis-
tication of the integration, installation and main-
tenance required.
According to McDowall, the ADM-ADIRU
system tends to feature in highly integrated
avionics packages, with the single-channel
ADMs located in close proximity to the external
pressure probes, thus minimising the pneumatic
connections between the pitot and static probes
and the ADMs. The result is that installation,
leak checking and maintenance may be less com-
plex than most ADC installations, she states.
McDowall reports that the ADMs are, however,
generally highly reliable and require minimal
maintenance, enabling their placement in chal-
lenging locations near the aircraft skin. She says
the more straightforward ADC option is selected
where simplified or point products are used and
in smaller applications, where space is at an ab-
solute premium, with the external probes lo-
cated near the ADC to minimise the pneumatic
tubing.
Picco notes that there is always a tricky
trade-off between the ideal position of the air
data equipment and the availability of space in
the fuselage. He speaks from a position of ex-
perience, as the Thales product line ranges
from business aircraft applications all the way
up to the A350 XWB aircraft which is still in de-
velopment. For the A350 XWB, Thales is sup-
The true decision [for operators selecting ADS] is that of
architecture preference related to the sophistication of the
integration, installation and maintenance required.
Aileen McDowall, technical sales director, EMEAI at Honeywell Aerospace
Left: A pitot sensor from HARCO. Right:An ADIRU from Thales.
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36 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
plying an ADIRU which is based on an inertial
measurement unit technology comprising a
single tri-axis ring laser gyro element called
PIXYZ and three new-generation micro ac-
celerometers (MICAL NG). Together with spe-
cial hybridisation algorithms with global
navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers,
these technologies will allow the aircraft to f ly
very precise and complex trajectories, helping
to minimise fuel use and noise pollution. Picco
says the Topf light ADIRU overcomes the
multi-path and obstacle constraints inherent
to GNSS usage. In particular, the system is
geared up to handle the upcoming Single Euro-
pean Sky Air Traffic Management Research
(SESAR) and NEXTGEN air traffic management
roadmaps.
In contrast to a large widebody such as the
A350 XWB, Picco says that smaller aircraft re-
quire more ingenious system integration. They
do, however, typically need fewer ADMs. Mc-
Dowall says that, while large commercial aircraft
may use as many as eight ADMs, the primary
ADS of business and general aviation aircraft is
composed of two dual-channel ADMs supple-
mented with an independent dual-channel al-
timeter for standby. In summary, McDowall says
the number of ADMs is dependent on several
factors including: aircraft type; the number of
pneumatic channels within each ADM; the pres-
ence or absence of static port cross-plumbing;
and the architecture needed to meet availability
and integrity requirements.
Nathan Brusius, director of air data systems
engineering, Goodrich, observes that ADS re-
quirements are largely driven by an aircrafts
performance needs, rather than size and speed.
He says the ADS architecture is broadly similar
across aircraft types and adapted to meet specific
requirements. Brusius specifies fly-by-wire
(FBW) capability and critical wing stall margin
as two examples of aircraft characteristics which
influence ADS design. Ultimately, the sophisti-
cation of the ADS depends on the wider deci-
sions of the airframe original equipment
manufacturer (OEM). As Brusius notes, if the air-
craft OEM wants to use more of the perform-
ance envelope, the aircraft will need higher
quality air data to keep the aircraft in a safe enve-
lope.
McDowall agrees that, while reliability and
measurement stability are common concerns,
customers might have differing needs for accu-
racy and that air data requirements are based
on the airframers error budget allocation to each
of the constituent elements. This includes static
source error correction (SSEC) quality, pneu-
matic leakage and probe or port wear.
Thales will provide an ADIRU for the A350 XWB.
37 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
Goodrich has developed a trade study analysis
tool to help customers to identify the most ap-
propriate ADS for different aircraft types. Brusius
says the tool is unbiased and that Goodrichs
SmartProbe a combined probe and ADC
is not necessarily the automatic choice of ADS
because some smaller aircraft do not have the
need for the performance level and redundancy
of the SmartProbe.
The latest ADS
The spokesperson for Rockwell Collins states
that, while there are still some analogue ADS in
use which require support, most ADS today are
digital solutions. Whereas analogue signals are
hardwired to their destination, digital signals use
communication buses with standardised
speeds and protocols of transmission. For exam-
ple, the Rockwell Collins ADS-3000 is an all-dig-
ital system with Aeronautical Radio Inc (ARINC)
429 outputs. The spokesperson is confident that
the digital transition will continue, and that
emerging digital technologies are allowing for
improved capability and accuracy. He says that
the companys current product line, encompass-
ing the ADC-3000, ADC-3010 and ADC-3020
models, have incrementally made improve-
ments in accuracy, reduced maintenance cost,
improved reliability, or enhanced performance.
From a big picture standpoint, says Brusius,
electronic rather than pneumatic systems
are the future for ADS. In his opinion, improve-
ments in size, weight and cost reductions are
making the technology more attractive to end
users, and this helps drive economies of scale.
Goodrichs SmartProbe, for example, is a wholly
electronic system which is available for A350,
A380, CSeries, Learjet 85, Phenom and Legacy
aircraft, plus a number of military and helicopter
applications. As the system is electronic, there
are no pneumatic connections, so there is no
need for pressure and leak checks.
According to Brusius, there are a number of
advantages to SmartProbe during installation
and maintenance: interchangeability which elim-
inates the need for on-aircraft calibration; pins
which automatically align the probe; and line re-
placement which is achievable in a matter of min-
utes. Operationally speaking, the probe offers
extra protection from icing by means of an inte-
gral heating monitor as well as an external heating
element. Furthermore, whereas a typical ADS has
triple redundancy, SmartProbe is quadplex,
composed of four independent ADS and two dif-
ferent formats. It can be thought of as two type A
designs with unique software from one design
team, and two type B designs with dissimilar soft-
ware and design, explains Brusius. This adds dis-
similarity and avoids the potential for a common
mode fault, he states. This philosophy improves
both safety and dispatch reliability. Overall,
Goodrichs SmartProbe is billed as delivering a
35 per cent increase in system reliability com-
pared with typical ADS, a 25 per cent improve-
ment in operational readiness, and lifecycle cost
reductions stemming from a maximum compo-
nent count reduction of 65 per cent and a 40 per
cent reduction in maintenance costs. Goodrich
continues to develop the technology and the lat-
est versions of SmartProbe can be used to antic-
ipate gust loads and automatically adjust flight
control surfaces to provide a smoother flight
which is easier on the aircraft as well as the peo-
ple inside of it, says Brusius. Goodrichs ADS of-
fering for the in-development A350 XWB has
built on the mature design on the A380 and fea-
tures similar multi-functionality to reduce LRU
counts, eliminate pneumatic plumbing, cut costs,
and boost reliability. The company expects to cer-
tify its fourth generation SmartProbe in the
third quarter of 2012.
As well as a shift toward electronic systems,
Brusius tips predictive maintenance capability as
a strong candidate for incorporation into the
next product generations, although decisions
about system diagnostics lie with the aircraft
OEM. Currently, he says most ADS perform two
38 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
diagnostic procedures to confirm viability: the
initial power-up self-test which checks memory
and internal functions and continuous built-in
test (CBIT) during operation. ADS feed the
maintenance computer of the aircraft with infor-
mation about any system failures. He says that
improving such diagnostic capability is a con-
tinuous process.
A third ADS trend is a reduction in size and
weight, irrespective of whether the system is elec-
tronic or pneumatic. This development falls into
line with weight-saving efforts being made across
the board by airframers and systems manufactur-
ers. In general, says McDowall, we are con-
stantly challenged to reduce the air data system
weight for each aircraft. Most Honeywell ADMs
and ADCs now weigh less than two pounds versus
previous versions which were over ten pounds,
while Goodrich and Rockwell Collins both say
they can offer 50 per cent weight reductions over
their previous products. In particular, McDowall
says the focus is increasingly moving from ADM
and ADC weight optimisation to air data system
optimisation which includes the plumbing and
wiring associated with the ADMs and ADCs.
Picco says that integration is one of the most
straightforward methods of reducing the
weight of ADS equipment and that multi-func-
tion probe architecture provides an elegant so-
lution to the challenge. Such designs
incorporate within one piece of equipment the
pitot and AOA measurements, pneumatic to dig-
ital data conversion, and sometimes air data cal-
culation or consolidation. Optional configura-
tions include the static pressure and total air
temperature. Picco points out that reducing the
number of pneumatic lines, which simplifies op-
erational maintenance, has a direct impact on
maintenance costs for the airlines. He says this
type of architecture has become an almost de
facto standard on high-end business jets and is
strongly entering into the air transport market on
most recent aircraft.
US-based ADS developer HARCO, for exam-
ple, offers fully integrated probes which eliminate
the need for pneumatic connections and addi-
tional computers, focusing especially on smaller
aircraft. Richard Hoyt, marketing manager at the
company, says that such designs generate cost sav-
ings by reducing the integration time, eliminating
the need for additional LRUs and pneumatic leak
testing and associated troubleshooting.
HARCOs product range includes outside air tem-
perature (OAT) sensors, heated static ports, pitot
probes, pitot angle of attack, pitot static probes
and TAT sensors. The company uses patented
SIMx material to deliver enhanced icing protec-
tion and extend the product lifetime. The probes
include overheat protection, which Hoyt says
makes them ideal for use on composite aircraft.
HARCO also offers a series of ADCs, including
the new Mini ADC for general aviation, unmanned
aerial vehicles (UAVs) and helicopter applications
which weighs around 0.68lbs and has a maximum
Goodrich has invested in a new wind tunnel at its base in Minnesota which will become fully operational by the end of 2012.
Goodrichs fourth generation SmartProbe, which
is due to be certified in the third quarter 2012.
39 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
power consumption of 0.05 amperes. The ADC is
available with either ARINC 429 or RS485 commu-
nication protocol with two independent channels,
with accuracy of AS8002 or RSVM.
The FAA and ADS
OEMs are not the only organisations changing
the shape of the ADS market, with their techno-
logical innovations aimed at making the systems
lighter, more accurate, more reliable and more
economical. As is always the case with aviation
equipment, there is a heavy regulatory aspect in-
volved. One of the biggest threats to the integrity
of an ADS, and thus the aircraft as a whole, origi-
nates from the very conditions the technology is
required to measure: ice. The possible conse-
quences of ice accumulation in such systems were
demonstrated as recently as June 12, 2009, when
Air France flight 447, an A330, crashed into the
ocean off Brazil with no survivors. The incident
was attributed in part to the blocking of the pitot
sensors by thick ice crystals, causing an insulating
effect and false airspeed readings.
The FAA is now moving to expand its icing
certification standards to include a requirement
for aircraft manufacturers to demonstrate safe
operation in the freezing drizzle or rain which is
termed supercooled large drops (SLDs). Within
the new regulations there will be stipulations for
ADS components including AOA and airspeed
indicating systems. These systems would need
to be able to perform in freezing rain, freezing
drizzle, ice crystals and combinations of these
icing phenomena, stated the FAA in June 2010.
Brusius says that Goodrich has been invest-
ing proactively to accommodate the FAAs sig-
nificant expansion of icing standards. This
includes the construction of an icing wind tunnel
at the Goodrich Sensors and Integrated Systems
(SIS) base in Minnesota. The tunnel is currently
undergoing extensive testing, and is expected to
be operational for appendix D (ice crystal) test-
ing at the end of 2012, according to Brian Math-
eis, manager of wind tunnel facilities at
Goodrich. He says the new tunnel will provide
some of the most advanced speed, altitude, and
icing testing capabilities in the world.
Through these kinds of efforts by industry
leaders and the regulatory authorities, it can be
hoped that serious incidents involving the mal-
functioning of ADS equipment will be prevented,
and that the sensors and systems guiding aircraft
through the sky continue to prove themselves su-
pernaturally acute.
Air France flight 447 crashed near Brazil in 2009.
40 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Landing gear MRO
Landing gear support the entire weight of an aircraft on the ground, enduring immense pressure on
take-off and touchdown. In the midst of a market downturn, Joanne Perry asks two OEMs and three
MROs what maintenance is required to keep landing gear serviceable and how this will be impacted by
new materials and technologies such as titanium, composites and HVOF.
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
I
n September last year, the International Air
Transport Association (IATA) released The
Impact of September 11 2001 on Aviation, a
10-year review of the World Trade Center terrorist
attacks. The report states that passenger traffic
and airline revenues, which plummeted in the af-
termath of the disaster, recovered to 2000 levels
in 2004, while profitability returned in 2006. Su-
perficially, it may seem that the main legacy of
September 11 is the stringent airport security
which today burdens both the aviation industry
and the paying public. However, over a decade
later certain sections of the aftermarket are still
experiencing adverse effects on work volume and
revenues; landing gear is one of them.
Mike Secord, VP of aftermarket, Goodrich
Landing Gear, says that demand for commercial
landing gear overhaul is currently in a trough
because the typical time between overhaul
(TBO) is ten years, and aircraft deliveries de-
clined significantly following the events of 9/11,
just over a decade ago. Thierry Schwab, program
and customer support VP at Revima in France
agrees that the market is tough, although he
adds that the company is inducting gears at a
steady rate in comparison with 2011, when it
performed 400-plus overhauls.
Looking in detail at the landing gear market,
however, there are some subtle undercurrents
arising from the shape of the fleets which are cur-
rently in operation. While acknowledging an
overall plateau, Andreas Tielmann, head of
landing gear services, Lufthansa Technik (LHT),
notes significant shifts between aircraft types
and world regions. He gives the example of rising
demand for CRJ-700/-900 and A340-600 landing
gear overhauls while requirements for other
fleets are decreasing. There are also geographic
variations: For [the] E-Jet 170-195, where we see
generally rising demand, we expect this to occur
in North America first and slightly later in Eu-
rope, he states. Charles Thoyer-Rozat, EVP, cus-
tomer support and services, Liebherr-Aerospace
& Transportation, explains that E-Jet gears for
which Liebherr is the original equipment manu-
photo: Lufthansa Technik
42 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
facturer (OEM) are progressively reaching their
TBO, which is a combination of flight cycles and
years of utilisation.
In the opinion of Thoyer-Rozat, the picture
generated by the theoretical worldwide work-
load is complicated by airline business strate-
gies. Some like to anticipate and level-load the
works in order to avoid the risk of going through
a peak, he says, while others will prefer to fly
until they reach the TBO threshold and turn
most of their gears in a short period of time. For
maintenance providers, this not only affects work
volumes but requirements for rotable landing
gears to support overhaul, which can have a
knock-on effect on manufacturers. If those rota-
bles do not exist in the open market, they must
be produced by the OEM, with a typical lead time
of circa 18 months, states Thoyer-Rozat.
Pastor Lopez, GM, AAR Landing Gear Serv-
ices, which normally overhauls between 800 and
900 legs each year, believes maintenance
providers will be feeling the effects of the dip in
demand for another six months to a year, al-
though the market is already softening up a little
bit. He says that when the market does rebound
demand will be much higher than it has been
in recent years.
In connection with the lagged effect on de-
mand, the length of landing gear TBO affects the
types of support supplied by maintenance
providers. Schwab says that because airlines are
generally unwilling to sign up to very long-term
commitments, Revima offers time and materials
contracts for landing gears. He describes this af-
termarket sector as definitely a different busi-
ness model from engine maintenance, for which
power-by-the-hour (PBH) is a popular option.
Similarly, AAR bids an all-inclusive price to air-
lines which covers labour and materials. Thoyer-
Rozat says that, although certain customers still
prefer time and materials contracts, the general
trend is towards fixed rates related to an agreed
basic scope of work with over and aboves that
remain priced on time and material.
According to Secord, Goodrich the OEM
for 737, 747, 767, and 777 landing gears as well as
those for the A380 and the CRJ700/900/1000
offers a range of support contracts. In most
cases, he explains, we contract with the airline
for their fleet of aircraft, and this involves a long-
term contract for basic overhaul/restoration. In
addition to the full services offered in its repair
shops, Goodrich performs on-wing maintenance
for landing gear, although Secord says this is lim-
ited to basic maintenance and removal of simple
parts for repairs. Schwab explains that, outside
the overhaul remit, maintenance providers may
Landing gear is definitely a different business model than
engine maintenance.
Thierry Schwab, program and customer support VP, Revima
Left: A Liebherr E170/190 nose gear in a test rig. Right: An LHT worker tends to a landing gear component.
43 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
be called out on aircraft-on-ground (AOG) mis-
sions to perform inspections or correct problems
such as chrome chips or leaking gaskets, or con-
duct corrosion repairs. AAR, for example, has es-
tablished dedicated Tiger Teams for such
purposes.
LHTs services are offered in the form of Total
Landing Gear Support (TLS) contracts which
cover all landing gear requirements, not only
overhaul but the tracking of life limited parts
(LLPs), line replaceable unit (LRU) scheduling
and AOG assistance. According to Tielmann, the
most common customer requirement is sched-
uled overhaul with forward exchange of a re-
placement gear to prevent any delay in the return
of the aircraft to revenue service. The LHT group,
which has included landing gear specialist
Hawker Pacific Aerospace since 2002, overhauls
about 1,000 legs per year, a good balance be-
tween narrow, wide bodies and regional landing
gears, says Tielmann.
Turnaround times
At the most basic level, the time taken to
overhaul a landing gear is dependent upon the
product type including its broad categorisation
as a regional, narrowbody or widebody compo-
nent. Lopez says that at ARR, regional aircraft
landing gears such as those on CRJs and ERJs can
be overhauled in 20-25 days, while an A320 gear
takes around 25 days and the gear of a widebody
such as a 767 requires about 40 days. Other pri-
mary factors are the age of the gear, as it affects
condition, and the intensity of usage.
From a procedural point of view, turnaround
time (TAT) is governed by the capabilities and or-
ganisation of the maintenance provider. Lopez
says that AAR operates a continuous improve-
ment programme which is led full-time by four
industrial engineers. A key element of this drive
to enhance services is the alignment of the pro-
gramme with the IT resources which are used to
reduce TATs. These include metrics displays in
each department showing the time that a com-
ponent spends in any area of the repair facility.
Based on these measurements, Lopez says AAR
sets up a goal line every month and if we are
able to impact it in a positive manner, then we re-
duce that goal for the following month.
Schwab explains that enterprise resource
planning (ERP) solutions help to establish an ap-
propriate tempo of work, locating parts not
only physically but in the overall schedule, thus
creating a global picture of a gear. At LHT, Tiel-
mann says that since the amount of work re-
quired varies across the landing gear assembly,
the company operates a customised production
scheduling and prioritisation system which en-
ables a focus on critical path items. He says that
Lean principles also reduce waste in all overhaul
processes.
Describing how Revima uses Lean philoso-
phies, Schwab comments: When we enter a
gear into our facility the idea is that the gear is
immediately inspected, washed, dismantled,
inspected and parts which require repairs are
sent to the repair shop as soon as possible. A
high level of technical knowledge enables the
pinpointing of components which require
most attention during maintenance. At the
same time we are already thinking about final
assembly, he says, adding that preparation of
the appropriate documentation begins in ad-
vance. A central tenet of Lean philosophy is to
LHTs services are performed under Total
Landing Gear Support (TLS) contracts.
44 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
ensure that work is performed correctly first
time. In Schwabs words, zero rework is a key
driver.
AAR keeps a tight grip on TATs and the qual-
ity of the end product by performing as many re-
pairs as possible in-house. One of the things
were lucky [with] and were proud of is the fact
that we control our own destiny 99 per cent,
states Lopez. The only things we farm out are
[components] that are proprietary to a specific
OEM. This can include special liners, he says.
But the advantages of avoiding subcontractors on
the whole are clear: the company does not have
to rely on external deliveries and can serve cus-
tomers with confidence.
Key maintenance
considerations
As the point of contact for an entire aircraft
upon touchdown, landing gear must withstand
immense and repeated impact in their daily op-
eration even more so in the case of heavy
freighters, which in Schwabs experience tend to
sustain more damage. In consequence, OEMs
such as Goodrich have introduced smart health
systems which provide information about hard
landings and fluid levels in the shock strut, both
of which are critical to landing gear perform-
ance, says Secord.
According to Schwab, the exposed parts of
any landing gear, such as sliding rods, axles and
working beams, are particularly prone to high
damage rates and are the parts which are most
often replaced during overhaul. However, the
majority of MROs strive to implement repairs
rather than replacements in order to minimise
costs for their customers. We dont have the
OEM mentality, says Lopez. We dont benefit
from scrapping parts. He explains that, as far as
AAR is concerned, 100 per cent of the gear is re-
pairable with the exception of the hardwire
items that need to be replaced at every overhaul,
such as nuts and bolts.
Schwab adds bushing and gaskets to the list
of expendables and says that very often flexible
hoses and conduits must be repaired and rein-
stalled during overhaul. There may also be life
limited parts (LLPs) that need replacing. But he
believes that generalisations about the most
commonly repaired or replaced parts are inadvis-
able because of variations between aircraft types.
For example, AAR finds that it takes longer to
overhaul the main gears of a 767 compared with
the nose gears, while on the 737 the reverse is
true. On the 767 we are finding now that the
cylinders have internal cracks after being in serv-
ice for ten years, and we have to remove those
cracks, Lopez states. He describes the repairs as
a very tedious process because of the need for
We dont have the OEM mentality. We dont benefit from
scrapping parts.
Pastor Lopez, GM, AAR Landing Gear Services
Left: AAR overhauls between 800 and 900 landing gears per year. Right: IT resources are essential for achieving rapid TATs.
photo: Revima
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46 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
repeated non-destructive testing (NDT) followed
by reconstruction to design dimensions using
first nickel then chrome plating. Meanwhile, the
nose gear on the 767 tends to be free of cracks.
On the 737, Lopez says the main gears are typi-
cally pretty clean apart from some degree of cor-
rosion, while the nose gear exhibits greater
damage and requires more rework.
Corrosion, which can lead to crack formation,
is a common problem in landing gear, according
to Secord, particularly for aircraft that have high
cycle rates. This issue is tackled during overhaul
by stripping down the landing gear then inspect-
ing components visually and by NDT. All major
parts, says Tielmann, like inner and outer cylin-
ders and also truck [beams] and axles require full
attention due to their size, complexity and con-
dition. He explains that for landing gear the
NDT is normally fluorescent penetrant inspec-
tion (FPI), magnetic particle inspection (MPI) or
the Barkhausen noise test. According to Lopez,
AAR has six types of NDT in its arsenal for land-
ing gear: MPI; FPI; eddy current; ultra sonic; roll
scan; and nital etch. Parts are subsequently re-
stored using the latest corrosion prevention
methods, explains Secord.
As noted earlier, maintenance providers may
also have to address corrosion and plating issues
outside the context of overhaul. Schwab says that
an AOG situation may involve repairing a chrome
chip by smoothing over the defect in the case of
slight damage or replacing the sliding rod in more
serious cases. From time-to-time, he says, corro-
sion is discovered by an operator during weekly
or monthly inspections, and a MRO is required to
remove the bushing to tackle the corrosion be-
hind it. Corrosion stripping, shot peening and
then cadmium plating are performed before re-
installation of the bushing and axle.
Old problems, new solutions
According to Lopez, it has long been an in-
dustry undertaking to develop more environ-
mentally friendly plating processes than those
involving materials such as chrome. High veloc-
ity oxygen fuel (HVOF) is one such advanced
technique which is being used on certain land-
ing gear components, such as the inner cylinders
of the 767-400, which Lopez says were previ-
ously chrome-plated. However, HVOF is not
widely used at present. Lopez points out that
even the latest aircraft, such as the A320 or the
737 series, still feature chrome-plated parts and
that, as a result, tooling up to cater to HVOF
plating is not an issue at this moment for any
landing gear facility.
Nonetheless, both Lopez and Schwab predict
that HVOF is going to become an increasingly
Left: Landing gears undergo repeated NDT such as FPI during overhaul. Right: Landing gear must be re-plated following repairs.
photo: Revima photo: Revima
47 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
common substitute for chrome in future genera-
tions of aircraft. Tielmann says that LHT wel-
comes and fully supports the development of
alternatives to chrome, while acknowledging that
it will take significant time until such technolo-
gies find their way [into] the overhaul manuals
of all landing gear OEMs. As a result, MROs cur-
rently focus on carefully controlling existing plat-
ing processes by using water treatment and
recovery systems. Schwab adds that the use of
solvent in the final stage of paint application is
also minimised.
Secord explains that HVOF is the coating re-
quired by the titanium parts that are being used
with greater frequency in landing gears, which
are traditionally composed of steel or aluminium.
Lopez says that while the 747-200 was launched
around 30 years ago with only very small tita-
nium parts like the torque links and braces, the
777 has a fairly large number of titanium com-
ponents, including the truck beams. Titanium is
a highly robust yet relatively lightweight material
and one which offers a high resistance to corro-
sion. As Secord points out, it has the capacity to
extend the TBO and overall life of landing gears.
Tielmann and Lopez confirm that titanium parts
require less rework and very little plating.
Maintaining titanium parts requires an in-
spection, bushing replacements and making
sure there is no damage because of impact, ac-
cording to Lopez. Schwab explains that, unlike
other components, if a problem is discovered
with titanium parts they are usually not repaired
but replaced. Unless it is an LLP replacement,
based upon flying hours or cycles, scrapping ti-
tanium is a rare occurrence. Lopez says the only
problem with titanium is the fact that if it does
get scrapped for whatever reason it becomes a
pretty expensive proposition to replace that
part. All in all, though, he describes titanium as
a very good metal for landing gears and be-
lieves that, although some parts cannot be made
out of this material, it will be seen more and
more in upcoming landing gear designs.
Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, for example, is incorpo-
rating titanium and HVOF in the landing gear
of the A350-800/900, alongside high strength
steels. Meanwhile, Liebherr-Aerospace Linden-
berg in Germany is using titanium for its A350
XWB nose landing gear, plus the landing gear
systems of the CSeries, the ARJ21 and the C919.
Parts of Liebherrs E-Jet landing gears also in-
clude titanium.
Composite materials, one of the leading
trends in modern aircraft manufacture, are a dif-
ferent proposition. Lopez notes that composites
have not been as widely introduced in landing
gear as titanium, citing the 787 as one example.
On this aircraft, the OEM Messier-Dowty-
Bugatti used composite braces together with an
industry first titanium main gear inner cylinder.
The composite elements deliver an enhanced
strength/weight ratio, plus higher resistance to
corrosion and fatigue. Messier-Bugatti-Dowty,
also the OEM for the SSJ100 landing gear, says it
will continue to develop the technology for other
large commercial aircraft, focusing on potential
applications for parts with simple load path
structures such as bars, rods and other internal
parts. Meanwhile, Liebherr-Aerospace is investi-
gating the use of composites for structural com-
ponents such as the upper drag brace and the
steering housing on its own landing gear.
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On the maintenance side, Lopez says that al-
though it will be easy to replace the bushing,
composites will likely require expensive NDT and
repairs. Thus far it is difficult to assess the in-ser-
vice performance of composites in landing gear,
since the 787 only launched in September last
year. According to Lopez, testing suggests that
the material will withstand the harsh conditions
under which landing gears operate but his-
tory will tell. For now, the landing gear aftermar-
ket must soldier through what Schwab says will
be another difficult year.
48 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
Overhead aircraft
handling during
maintenance events
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
In collaboration with a renowned European airline, CTI Systems says
it has developed an innovative solution for overhead aircraft
handling during maintenance and test procedures.
C
TI Systems integrated overhead transfer
system for engines was designed to go
hand in hand with the latest, future ori-
ented technology on aircraft engine handling
during manufacturing or MRO procedures. The
company says it offers advantages in both effi-
ciency and safety.
The entire overhaul plant (above) is a brain-
storming result of both the clients operating de-
partment and CTI Systems engineering team. The
co-operation led to the formation of innovative
processes and equipment design. Exceeding the
initial throughput expectations, the installation can
be considered as a first class reference in this field.
Technology has been developed to meet tar-
gets on:
reduced risk of damage of handled parts;
reduced turnaround time;
reduced operating time (SMED = single
minute exchange of die);
increased safety for work personnel;
improved working/access conditions; and
increased work quality.
Overhead transfer and on place
provisioning
The main characteristic of the system is the
overhead arrangement of all handling and transfer
components. By applying other CTI Systems prod-
ucts a complete and integrated overhead transfer
and lift solution can be offered (see figure 1).
Through lifting and fixing on the individual
overhead carrier in the receiving station, aircraft
engines can be transferred either to hospital bays
or to the dismantling, re-work and re-assembly
areas. The Matrix design of the cranes allows the
highest flexible workflows and simplified transfers.
Any station will allow free transfer to any other re-
quired service location, no matter which location
of the system the carrier is currently parked in.
Reduced operating time
For each line a combination of two suspended
rail systems are being installed:
A monorail systemto transport entire engines
or single broken down parts, equipped with a
set of monorail carriers rated from 2t to 15t.
A birail systemto dismantle / re-assemble the
basic group of modules with the highest pre-
cision by applying bi-rail carriers designed
for individual type and engine dimensions.
For the critical modules of breakdown or re-
assembly, a combination of horizontal travel with
lifting movements can be realised. Therefore,
CTI Systems proposed to locate a monorail car-
rier hoist between the bi-rail system, allowing
both the engine and module to be handled and
approached in the smoothest and safest manner
(see figure 2).
Increased personnel safety and
access
The overhead configuration allows unhin-
dered personnel access, all around and even
Figure 2
Figure 1
49 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
WWW.CTISYSTEMS.COM
Preparation work stands
Work platforms for test runs
cti aircraft engine handling
in jet propulsion centers
in test beds
PHONE: +352 2685 2000 CTI@CTISYSTEMS.COM
CTI-patented monorail track
Transfer bridges
Engine carriers
Slewing cranes
below the engines. This system is certified by
Veritas. The ground surface will be kept clear
from any carriers and will grant a free working
environment. By lifting and lowering the engine
with the integrated hoists, optimal individual er-
gonomic work levels are achieved. This improves
work quality and reduces the rate of absenteeism.
Improved work quality
One of the systems major advantages, how-
ever, is the avoidance of any engine discharge or
grapping during transfers, as it will remain fixed
to its dedicated carrier for the entire work se-
quences. Any potential damage resulting from
putting onto/ lifting from ground vehicles or jigs
will no longer be relevant.
References
The displayed pictures show the latest CTI
Systems installations for a European client,
which started operation in June 2010. Installed in
a 10,500 m
2
facility, aircraft engine maintenance
and overhaul is being performed on CFM 56 se-
ries, CF 6-80; GE 90-94 and GE 90-115 - VBE (very
big engines) aircraft engines.
Installation period: 2009/10
Lift heights: 8 metres
Max. load: 15 tons
Due to the proven advantages, on efficiency
and safety, CTI says some engine manufacturers
recently switched to the overhead concept or are
currently planning to do so. The company is sup-
porting them in their strategic planning. CTI says
more than 20 dedicated aircraft engine handling
solutions are successfully in operation worldwide.
Further engine handling
installations
CTI Systems is also a supplier for aircraft en-
gine handling in jet propulsion and test beds:
Two similar, albeit less sophisticated, systems
have been installed for other aircraft engine cen-
tres in the Middle East, combining manually-op-
erated breakdown/build-up lines with motorised
transfer bridges for line and workstation inter-
connections.
50 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
I
ts very straightforward, says Keith
Leonard, regional director of B&H
Worldwide, in answer to the question of
what fundamental criteria a logistics provider
must meet in order to successfully serve the avi-
ation industry. He specifies the importance of of-
fering services across a broad weight range from
one kilo up to top-deck sea freight capability,
24/7/365 availability, rapid reaction capability
and a track record composed of specialist expe-
rience.
But while it may be easy to list the key re-
quirements, it is a different matter to co-ordinate
services to meet those needs consistently and ef-
fectively. As Leonard points out, the necessary
experience doesnt just happen overnight. With
the operations of a multi-billion dollar industry
dependent upon the timely and safe delivery of a
plethora of components, from the smallest
screws to entire engines and aerostructures, the
stakes are high. As Erik Goedhart, SVP aerospace,
Kuehne + Nagel, says, in the case of service fail-
ures or damage, the impact is huge.
There are two broad categories of supply
chain logistics companies serving the aviation in-
dustry: specialists and multi-industry providers
with aviation or aerospace divisions. From the
broad-ranging perspective of Kuehne + Nagels
aerospace segment, Goedhart contrasts the logis-
tical characteristics of the aviation industry with
those of the automotive and high-tech indus-
tries: As a start, this industry is characterised as
low volume and low weight. The main reason is
that the product to the end customer is a service
[a flight] and not a physical product.
As regards the low volume, Goedhart ex-
plains that while a car factory may churn out
thousands of units as a matter of course, Airbus
and Boeing together might produce only 1,000
aircraft per year. And while it may seem counter-
intuitive that an industry which transports mas-
sive aircraft engines, wings and fuselage sections
is considered to be low weight, these items do
not represent the average aircraft component;
according to Goedhart, the majority of parts
weigh less than 40kg. Although the parts may be
small, their financial worth can be considerable.
A flight management computer, says Goedhart,
weighs about 10kg but is worth many thousands
Logistics services are the lifeblood of the aviation industry,
transporting new parts for production operations, spare parts for
maintenance activities and critically important components for the
resolution of AOG situations. Joanne Perry discovers that service
providers face increasing time and cost pressures and must
implement integrated IT solutions to cope with future demand.
Supply chain
logistics
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
of pounds. For this reason, providers such as
Kuehne + Nagel supply dedicated treatment for
aviation components having a flight manage-
ment computer sandwiched between generic
cargo presents too high a risk of damage. Over-
all, then, aviation logistics can be summarised
as follows: low volume; low weight; and high
value.
Manufacturing and
maintenance
The aviation industry is not a uniform body
of logistical needs, however. Manufacturing and
maintenance are two distinct sides of the busi-
photo: Kuehne + Nagel Aerospace
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52 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
ness with, in Goedharts words, different dy-
namics. In aircraft series production, the entire
process is planned and organised to an extraor-
dinary level of detail and foresight, meaning that
contracted logistics providers can have firm
strategies in place to satisfy the needs of the
original equipment manufacturers (OEMs),
with only a little fine-tuning required at a later
stage. Leonard describes the vast supply chain
involved in manufacturing, such as the manage-
ment of Airbus requirements by DHL and
Kuehne + Nagel, as a very different animal
from the logistical needs of in-service fleets. In
the former case, he says that large size can be an
advantage for the logistics provider. Kuehne +
Nagel in fact developed its all-encompassing
Supply the Sky solution around the services it
provides to the Airbus production line in Ham-
burg, Germany. But, rather than catering only to
manufacturing needs, the concept covers the
lifecycle of an aircraft across new and spare parts
supply, reducing stock in the supply chain as
well as total transportation costs.
The maintenance, repair and overhaul
(MRO) side is, as Goedhart says, a little more ad
hoc owing to the difficulty of anticipating the
precise outcome of line maintenance and heavy
maintenance checks, and of course the occur-
rence of unexpected aircraft-on-ground (AOG)
situations. Furthermore, as Goedhart points out,
an airline sometimes makes the decision to
boost its inventory in preparation for mainte-
nance needs, and thus requires additional logis-
tical support. Logistics providers for MRO
operations therefore must exhibit a significant
degree of flexibility to tackle unpredictable and
urgent demands, with the revenues and reputa-
tions of both maintenance providers and airlines
hanging in the balance.
As a company which conducts MRO services
on a worldwide basis, Lufthansa Technik (LHT)
is in an excellent position to judge the logistical
requirements of maintenance providers. Besides
a very high standard in services, costs and perfor-
mance, says Andreas Meisel, managing director,
Lufthansa Technik Logistik Services (LTLS), what
is needed is knowledge of MRO-specific
processes and requirements. Meisel continues:
Only with processes designed to meet the spe-
cific needs of the aviation industry is it possible
to meet these requirements and to be successful
in an industry with such high cost pressure. Con-
sequently, LTLS acts as both a logistics provider
and to a certain level a consultant, shaping sup-
ply chains across transportation, customs, ware-
The much larger manufacturing supply chain is a very
different animal from the logistical support required by an
airline with aircraft in service.
Keith Leonard, regional director, B&H Worldwide
Left: Kuehne + Nagel Aerospaces Supply the Sky concept. Right: The main deck on the cargo floor of an A330-200F.
53 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
housing and material supply activities, as well as
carrying out the fulfilment of the concept.
Central to the reduction of both time and
costs across the supply chain is the implementa-
tion of effective processes and IT for planning,
executing and monitoring transportation and
warehousing solutions, according to Meisel. For
example, LTLS developed a track-and-trace sys-
tem based on timestamp messages which provide
information about transport status, locations,
times, part numbers and purchase orders. The
web-based system interfaces with the MRO sys-
tems of customers and suppliers. Besides the
tracking and tracing of single processes, the sys-
tem offers business process reports that are the
basis for internal TAT [turnaround time] evalua-
tions, explains Meisel, and also for the commu-
nication between LHT/LTLS and their customers
and suppliers.
Meisel says the company also got an early
start on the electronic automated export system
(AES) mandated by the European Union (EU) on
July 1, 2009 by working with partners to develop
a special module which connects the new system
to the existing LTLS IT landscape.
When it comes to LTLS transportation and
warehousing activities on the ground, there are
actually two set-ups to be separated, says Meisel.
For routine material supply or homebase replen-
ishment, the LTLS distribution centre and trans-
portation network combine to cover disparate
locations across the world. According to Meisel,
modern transportation solutions make proximity
to the customer slightly less important for this
type of supply, and fast processes in request han-
dling, warehousing, customs and transportation
far more important. At present, LTLS is focus-
ing on Europe, the United States and the Asia-
Pacific region, in which LTLS operates
distribution centres that realise an optimum
level of customer proximity. Meanwhile, when
supplying parts directly to a maintenance opera-
tion, LTLS establishes warehouses in close prox-
imity to the customer, most often at airports and
with direct airside access. Meisel explains that it
is crucial to have a presence on site; for material
supply to line maintenance, every minute
counts.
Aircraft-on-ground
The ability to react quickly to often complex
demands, offer innovative solutions and world-
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54 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
that service and deliver time after time is the
goal, says Ralph Perkins, managing director at
AOG specialist Aviation Logistics Network
(ALN), which handles about 500 such consign-
ments per day. Founded in 2006, ALN is an inde-
pendent association of international logistics
providers catering to critical and AOG needs
within the aerospace industry, as well as routine
supply. From initial founding partnerships across
the UK, France and Germany, the organisation
has grown to encompass 200 locations across six
continents. Indeed, ALN has recently widened its
presence in the US and, says Perkins, will be in
a position shortly to announce some important
developments within the Middle East.
According to Perkins, the intention of the
founding partners of ALN was to provide an al-
ternative for aviation customers who in many re-
spects have had little choice other than to look at
single entity global forwarding networks. In
Perkins opinion, you do not have to be big to be
good. The idea was, and is, that the collaboration
of high-achieving specialists within local mar-
kets, including small and medium enterprises
(SMEs), enables the delivery of exceptional serv-
ices coupled with cost synergies. The hallmarks
of membership are a common standard of work-
ing practices, quality system management and
dedication to detail.
Based on these principles, ALN offers the
worldwide reach and capabilities to serve an in-
dustry that Perkins describes as truly global in
scope and one which measures downtime in
hours, not always days. ALN continues to
evolve its services, recently introducing Se-
curium an AOG out-of-hours, high-security
night safe concept for small components for
example.
According to Leonard at B&H, on-board
courier is the fastest way that you can get an
AOG [part] from A to B, because you are literally
escorting it and you are not [risking] an offload
or misroute, although he concedes that such
mishaps do not happen often anymore with ship-
ments travelling as cargo. B&H is a member of
the Aerospace Logistics Group (ALG), which was
established in 2007 by a group of international
freight forwarders with an emphasis on rapid-re-
action, around-the-clock services. The associa-
tion has offices and distribution centres in
Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Aus-
tralasia Leonard says both B&H Worldwide
and the ALG network is increasingly being
asked to hold inventory at strategic locations
worldwide on behalf of their customer base.
On the whole, though, Leonard believes that
smaller is better, because of the flexibility. He
says that half a dozen people with appropriate ex-
pertise offer a better solution than larger teams
where clients are passed around numerous
points of contact. It is a sentiment shared by
Perkins at ALN, which counts former commercial
pilots, aeronautical designers, flight engineers
and an SVP of maintenance among its personnel.
Left: DHL assists Airbus with its logistics requirements. Right: Parts are sometimes transported in the cabins of passenger aircraft by on-board couriers.
55 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
0DLQWHQDQFH5HSDLU2YHUKDXO
6ROXWLRQVDW<RXU)LQJHUWLSV
Inventory Locator Service,

LLC
1-901-794-5000 (Worldwide) 1-800-233-3414 (N. America)
marketing@lLSmart.com www.lLSmart.com
Reach a la|geled ma||el ol acl|ve buye|s wheu lhey a|e |eady lo buy.
Adve|l|se lo poleul|a| cuslome|s, wo||dw|de.
L|sl you| NR0 capab|||les ou av|al|ou's mosl acl|ve ou||ue ma||elp|ace.
uole mo|e ell|c|eul|y by hav|ug cu||eul |udusl|y ave|age p||c|ug aud
lu|ua|ouud l|me al you| l|uge|l|ps.
It is important that we have the ability to think
in the same way as our clients do and understand
the commercial world in which they operate,
states Perkins.
It may seem a little unsophisticated to trans-
port an aircraft component in carry-on baggage,
but Leonard says demand for on-board courier
services is rising. The sure-fire method does
have its disadvantages, however, including weight
limitations. The size of the part to be transported
is constrained by baggage restrictions around
20kg in the cabin. Thus, Leonard says, the types
of components transported in this manner are
often high-tech avionics, in-flight entertainment
systems, fuel flow meters and the like.
He says a classic example of on-board couri-
ering occurred a few months ago, when a Sri
Lankan Airlines aircraft grounded in Milan ur-
gently required an 18-24 piece of fuel flow tub-
ing. B&H arranged for a replacement to arrive
from Messier-Dowty in Gloucester, UK, within
two hours and to depart from Heathrow within
another hour. The courier was met in customs by
a representative of the ALG member for Italy.
Heavier escorted components are transported in
the hold, and according to Leonard, negotiating
customs can still be faster than processing the
part through a freight terminal.
Dedicated networks are not the only organi-
sations performing AOG operations, however.
Kuehne + Nagel recently responded to an engine
AOG in Greece. The replacement CFM56 was in
Dsseldorf, Germany, the necessary engine
change kit in Luton, UK, and additional parts to
support the engine change needed to be col-
lected from Stansted Airport. A charter arrange-
ment was selected ahead of other options.
Goedhart admits that the raw logistical expense
It is important that we have the ability to think in the same
way as our clients do and understand the commercial world in
which they operate.
Ralph Perkins, MD, ALN.
A CFM56 engine such as was recently transported by Kuehne + Nagel Aerospace for an AOG in Greece.
56 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
was huge but says it was still less than the cost
of accommodating passengers overnight, acquir-
ing fresh crew and the aircraft sitting on the
ground at a loss of $50,000 per day.
Nonetheless, Goedhart says that in a similar
case in future, Kuehne + Nagel would likely be
able to knock two hours off the lead time now
that an airside warehouse has been opened at
London Heathrow. The new set-up at Heathrow
is part of an expansion plan which will see
Kuehne + Nagel establish closer proximity to its
customers. Goedhart says the company is heav-
ily investing in emerging markets and BRIC
[Brazil, Russia, India and China] countries.
Supply chains present and
future
Looking to the future of aviation supply
chain logistics, B+Hs Leonard sees IT which
provides total visibility within the supply chain
as the biggest challenge. Since the supply chain
has expanded on both the manufacturing and
maintenance sides, the necessary technological
integration will have to happen on a global basis,
incorporating the activities of logistical partners
in the case of networks like ALG. In tomorrows
production operations, says Leonard, parts are
as likely to be coming from China, India and
other rapidly developing economies, whereas
probably 25 years ago most of them came from
the US.
Meanwhile, in catering to aftermarket re-
quirements, B&H has been busy establishing
more de-centralised stores in growing markets
such as Asia. In order to cater to these new de-
mands, the company will continue to develop
its proprietary OnTrack software and will also
roll out an iPhone app which enables engineers
to locate parts within the supply chain while
on-site.
Meisel agrees that IT resources and applica-
tions as well as the execution of IT projects are
crucial to a modern logistics provider. He be-
lieves that, while the supply chain is not neces-
sarily becoming more complex, the integration
of the IT systems required for request handling,
warehousing, planning and purchasing of mate-
rial, transportation, customs processing and
tracking is an important prerequisite to be as
fast and cost efficient as aviation logistics needs
to be today. Goedhart, meanwhile, points out
that Kuehne + Nagels Supply the Sky concept is
effectively an integrated, global IT solution pro-
viding full track-and-trace capability.
Going forward, Goedhart believes that a
strong IT backbone will be vital in the redesign
of the supply chain which he says is necessary for
performance improvement and cost reductions.
He estimates that only $60-80bn of the $100bn of
stock in the aftermarket is actually needed and
that manufacturers have at least one months
supply of parts when one week would be optimal.
Furthermore, with the implementation of tighter
and more innovative IT-led solutions, Goedhart
says that AOG shipments could potentially be re-
duced by 50 per cent.
However, in the enthusiasm to adopt more so-
phisticated IT systems it is important to remem-
ber that there are other crucial factors
contributing to the delivery of efficient supply
chain solutions. Automated systems of course
play a large part in the ever-changing and com-
plex world in which we live, says Perkins. How-
ever, the value of human interaction and
problem solving is as much key to the success of
our business as the most sophisticated tracking
and stock inventory control tools.
Perkins lists the central ongoing issues for the
aviation logistics industry as: continued service
improvement despite reduced profit margins; the
understanding between service providers and
clients that services must be valued as well as
costed whatever the bottom line may say; and
the need for innovation. These challenges, he
says, must be tackled in the broader context of
an industry that is coming under increasing pres-
sure from the high fuel prices which percolate the
supply chain as well as requirements to reduce
waste, downtime and spiralling costs.
Both manufacturing and maintenance supply chains have expanded, and logistics providers must offer
global, integrated services.
58 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
C
omponent maintenance comprises a fifth
of the global MRO market, which will be
worth $50bn in 2012. Team SAI, an ana-
lyst, values the segment at $9.5bn this year, rising
to $13.5bn in a decade, at which point it predicts
the global market will be worth $68bn.
To put that in perspective, component repair
is worth roughly the same annually as the line
maintenance and heavy maintenance sectors.
The lions share, of course, is taken by engine
maintenance, set to be worth $22bn this year.
Unlike engines and airframe heavy checks,
components offer flexibility in where they can be
maintained. Parts can often be replaced imme-
diately at source and then shipped off to a repair
shop halfway round the world. In contrast, the
expense of transporting aircraft and engines the
same distance is prohibitive enough to ensure
they are overhauled locally.
The segment is distinct in other ways, too, as
component maintenance is an umbrella term
that covers a vast array of aircraft items. Many dif-
fer wildly in function, value, complexity and re-
quired repair protocol. Rotables, for instance, are
parts such as pumps and actuators that require
periodic repair, whereas other items, known as
expendables, are thrown away once they reach
the end of their service lives.
Thus, to offer comprehensive component
support a MRO shop needs to be able to repair or
replace everything from in-flight entertainment
systems to onboard coffee makers. Other types
of component include hydraulic and electrical
actuators, lights, valves, and navigation and com-
munication equipment.
Airlines, or the shops they contract their
MRO to, must plan maintenance according to the
type of component. For instance, wheels and
brakes typically require more work during the
summer months, while other items offer rigid
maintenance intervals, as Heinz Freimann, head
of component maintenance at SR Technics (SRT)
explains. Certain products have hard-time lim-
its, which mean they can only be in service for a
specific period of time and must be maintained
within that timeframe, he says. An example of
this would be emergency slides. As we manage
fleet maintenance for airlines we are therefore
able to predict when the component will be in
The four pillars of the aircraft MRO sector are engine, component,
heavy and line maintenance. New technologies and materials in each
of these areas require increasingly sophisticated aftermarket
support, but the sheer variety of parts on modern aircraft means
that component repair is one of the trickier capabilities for
maintenance providers to master, says Alex Derber.
Component
maintenance
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
the shop, as we have a record of when the slide
was last installed.
Hard-time limits can be defined by the man-
ufacturer or the airline. In the latter case, an air-
line may stipulate a maximum in-service period
in order to better predict its maintenance costs.
Conversely, an on-condition programme might
allow extended use of a part provided it meets
specified conditions. However, when you do
have to remove a unit with high hours and cycles
you face higher maintenance costs, which can
make this more costly over time than establishing
a maintenance programme that establishes in-
tervals for removal, warns Tom Covella, execu-
60 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
came of age about six years ago but its been really
successful, rising from less than half of total com-
ponent revenue in less than a decade, says Tim
Butzmann, head of product sales for component
services at the company.
Lufthansas component repair services are
centred on its facilities in Hamburg and Frank-
furt, where the manufacturer supports all major
Airbus and Boeing types, as well as Embraer,
Bombardier and BAE lines. Evidence of the com-
panys commitment to new aircraft can be found
in Spairliners, a joint A380 parts pool it set up in
2005 with Air France Industries, and in a 2011 deal
with Hamilton Sundstrand to provide MRO serv-
ices for the manufacturers 787 components.
We try to focus on newer technologies and
are running a capability build- up programme as
the technology being installed on aircraft like the
747-8 and 787 has obviously changed quite a bit
mostly concerning the avionics, says Oliver
Gillmann, team leader, SRU repair services, LHT.
Many of the capabilities that LHT develops on
the 787 will emerge from those learned on the
777, with which the Dreamliner shares a similar
tive vice president and general manager at
Florida-based STS Component Solutions.
Full support
While hard-time limits help to improve main-
tenance visibility for airlines, the easiest way for
them to predict costs is to outsource all their com-
ponent repair requirements in one go. To accom-
modate this, most of the major MRO companies
offer some form of comprehensive solution: SRT
provides Integrated Component Solutions;
Lufthansa Technik (LHT) has Total Component
Support; and ST Aerospace has its Maintenance-
By-The-Hour programme. The names are differ-
ent, but all tend to offer a similar spectrum of
services, encompassing engineering and repair,
access to parts pools, and logistics support.
Through its partnership with Sanad Aero Solu-
tions, SR Technics is also able to offer component
inventory financing solutions.
Comprehensive solutions have proved popu-
lar, with LHT estimating that about 90 per cent
of its component revenues are now derived from
total support deals. This type of service only
flight deck and Honeywell fly-by-wire control
system. Ease of maintenance should also result
from the 787s Common Core System (CCS), a
central computer that replaces the myriad sys-
tems of previous aircraft with a single unit capa-
ble of 80 different avionics functions. Boeing says
that the CCS has eliminated the more than 100
separate line replaceable units from the cockpit.
SR Technics, which supports more than 50,000
part numbers across Airbus and Boeing types, also
strives to stay abreast of the latest developments
and prepare itself for when components begin to
require MRO. We have a dedicated team of engi-
neers who constantly screen new technologies, get
familiar with these technologies, and make rec-
ommendations about which capabilities to de-
velop and when, says Freimann.
He offers the example of hydraulic test rigs that
SRT used up until 2010. To cope with the increased
hydraulic pressures utilised on new-generation
aircraft the company chose a new 5000psi-capable
rig instead of equivalent replacements. With the
new bench only minor adjustments are needed to
cope with a variety of components from new air-
craft types, such as but not limited to the A380,
787 and A350, Freimann says.
OEM involvement
New aircraft also present a different sort of
challenge to MRO companies, one associated
with a changing business model at large OEMs
like Honeywell and Rockwell Collins who man-
Some lessors are still reluctant to use PMA so in contract
negotiations we have to convince them that it is risk-free and
beneficial. In some cases the OEMs are not happy, but there
are situations where we work together as well.
Tim Butzmann, head of product sales for component services, Lufthansa Technik
Lufthansa Technik estimates that about 90 per cent of its component revenues are now derived from total support deals.
Gregor Schlger / Lufthansa Technik
61 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
ufacture swathes of components installed on
new and old airframes. Like the engine suppliers,
these are increasingly seeking a role in the after-
market by linking sales of new products to long-
term maintenance contracts. A recent example
was a five-year contract, signed in March, for
Honeywell to provide repair and overhaul sup-
port for avionic and mechanic components on
Emirates 777, A330 and A340 fleets.
The OEMs that have a big share of installed
components will certainly look at getting into the
aftermarket. They are already doing repairs for
their own components and for some items they
are the default subcontractor for many MROs
that dont have the capability themselves. I would
expect that to increase, says Butzmann at LHT.
Airframers are also getting in on the act. Boe-
ings Goldcare programme for the 787 integrates
spare parts planning, ordering, supplier manage-
ment, and component repair and overhaul, while
Bombardier launched Smart Services in 2008 to
provide repair and exchange for Q400 compo-
nents and, eventually, non-engine parts on the
CSeries regional jet.
Meanwhile, Thales has TopCare, a by-the-
hour support offering for its TopFlight in-flight
entertainment system, and Avionics++, a com-
prehensive package covering repairs and spares.
The French business has also joined Diehl Aero-
space, Liebherr Aerospace and Zodiac to estab-
lish OEMServices, which charges per flight hour
to support the avionic, hydraulic, flight control,
cabin, engine control, and air system compo-
nents produced across the four companies.
Engineering solutions
The initiatives outlined above show that the
actual repair of parts is only one side of a compo-
nent MRO service, another being the supply of
replacements. LHT, for example, has a pool of
more than 1bn-worth of spares at its bases in
Hamburg and Frankfurt. Alongside that we
must maintain a logistics network in order to
supply our customers at their respective home
bases or line stations, says Butzmann.
Rather than keep their own stock, many airlines
are now giving up their inventories and relying on
centralised pools of spares that are drawn on by
many operators. Those airlines also outsource their
supply chain management to third parties such as
LHT. Aside from tapping into economies of scale,
the advantages of pooling are that it allows airlines
to focus on their core operations and transfer risk
onto specialist supply managers.
Some component service companies do not
even perform repairs themselves, choosing in-
stead to manage the overall MRO process for
their customers, An example is STS Component
Solutions, which supports items including thrust
reversers, flight control surfaces, insulation blan-
kets, nacelle hold open rods, batteries, chargers,
static inverters, switches, and pitot tubes on a
wide range of commercial aircraft.
Although STS does not have the maintenance
capabilities of LHT, the two companies do both
offer engineering services. As a designated design
organisation, LHT can implement product im-
provements and develop its own solutions to
component problems without waiting for OEMs
to take the lead. Similarly, STS Components So-
lutions and STS Engineering Solutions seek to
leverage their skills to reduce maintenance down-
time and cost for customers.
Through our individual in-house capabilities
in the areas of composites and structures, we
have been able to engineer and develop repair
schemes that have saved composites and struc-
tures that would otherwise have been deemed
beyond economical repair or been exposed to
significant over-and-above material replace-
ment charges, says Covella at STS.
62 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
An easy way to pass on cost savings to cus-
tomers is through the use of PMA parts, which
are parts that perform just as well as original
equipment from the big manufacturers, but are
manufactured by third parties. As a result, they
are much cheaper, though OEMs resent their use
as they cut into aftermarket sales of original
equipment. For MRO shops, this can sometimes
mean a delicate balancing act between their var-
ious customers and suppliers.
As a designated engineering representative
we aim to achieve cost advantages that we can
hand on to our customers, so PMA is part of what
Operator Region Total MRO spend (US$)
2010 2011 2012
Africa 316,603 410,523 376,122
North America 3,147,290 3,476,518 3,521,702
Middle East 535,942 734,780 733,81
Western Europe 2,385,775 2,470,057 2,579,717
Eastern Europe 292,768 461,018 501,105
Latin America 633,459 638,184 673,890
Asia-Pacific 1,705,473 1,883,379 1,901,087
China 674,814 852,163 903,635
India 181,052 194,915 217,564
Unknown 15,497 10,289
Source: UBM Aviation
Component MRO spend by region
we do. Some lessors are still reluctant to use PMA
so in contract negotiations we have to convince
them that it is risk-free and beneficial. In some
cases the OEMs are not happy, but there are sit-
uations where we work together as well, com-
ments Butzmann.
Service bulletins (SBs) demonstrate this co-
operation. LHT is currently developing a solution
to a problem with A320 door actuators. It affects
the whole A320 fleet and the OEM wanted a part-
ner who could cover the whole process; we sup-
port the repair, modification, testing, and field
support like a turnkey product, says Gillmann.
STS has performed different work in support
of several SBs concerning 737NG thrust reversers.
Heat damage had been detected on the inner
walls of the thrust reversers, so Boeing recom-
mended drilling a hole through the wall behind
the No. 3 upper compression pad to decrease the
temperature behind the thrust reverser insula-
tion blanket, which should then be replaced. As
a supplier of insulation blankets, STS had to en-
sure that replacements were available to cus-
tomers.
Competition
Only the largest MRO companies are capable
of comprehensive component total solutions
the investment needed in spare parts alone
makes such offerings impossible for smaller com-
panies. Accordingly, multinational MROs mostly
compete with each other for component con-
tracts, especially as holistic support deals have
become their prevalent revenue streams.
Nonetheless, LHTs Butzmann does acknowl-
edge that competition has diversified, both from
OEMs seeking a share of the aftermarket and
smaller companies like STS. Covella, meanwhile,
points out that most of his business is working
with the OEMs whose components STS sup-
plies and develops improvements for rather
than against them. The larger third-party nose-
to-tail MRO providers probably represent a big-
ger threat to us, he concludes.
SR Technics says it supports more than 50,000 part numbers across Airbus and Boeing types.
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64 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
W
ithin the commercial aviation indus-
try, the electronic flight bag (EFB) is
slowly but surely moving towards
that point which globally successful modern
technological devices eventually get to: a tipping
point for uptake. As with mobile phones and
CDs, the technology was there for decades before
everyone unanimously decided they must have
it. Necessary factors gradually converge and sud-
denly the technology is ubiquitous.
Although EFBs are not there yet, current
trends point to that day arriving in the none-too-
distant future. Replacing the original backbreak-
ing flight bag, loaded with around 12,000 sheets
of paper comprising maps, charts, and docu-
ments and weighing 25kg, todays electronic
flight bags greatly surpass their cumbersome
predecessors in capability and functionality, as
well as portability.
Modern EFBs can dramatically streamline op-
erations and save airlines a fortune. They replace
countless tons of paper, meaning much less
weight on board and millions saved in fuel costs,
as well as improving their impact on the environ-
ment. Along with increased operational effi-
ciency and productivity, departments such as
flight operations and maintenance can also be
modernised.
Potential benefits range from the elimination
of low-value, labour intensive processes like up-
dating manuals and navigation charts, through
to improving the availability of time-sensitive
and operationally important information such as
defect reports. Safety is improved, information is
available faster, and it can be simultaneously ac-
cessed and shared by more people to ensure op-
timal performance. Its no wonder theyre
catching on. The paperless cockpit is without
doubt the future of flying across the aviation in-
dustry private, military and commercial. The
question is, which devices and what software will
most airline companies be using?
Tablet transformation?
Enter the newcomer in the industry the
iPad. Apples globally popular gadget has been
grabbing the headlines, passing decompression
tests, and being applied for use as a Class 1 EFB
by the worlds largest airline, United Continental.
More than 10,000 iPads have been deployed to
United and Continental aircraft at a cost of nearly
$5m, with estimated annual savings of around
$1m. This major network airline follows Delta and
Alaska Airlines, who were the first commercial
airlines to use iPads. American Airlines is also
using iPads, and was recently granted US Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) authorisation to
use the devices during all phases of commercial
flight and to mount the iPad in the cockpit an
unprecedented ruling which qualifies it as a Class
2 EFB, rather than a Class 1 that must be stowed
on take off and landing.
As the iPad is being widely considered by
more and more airlines as a potential option over
the more established EFB devices, some con-
tention has arisen in the industry surrounding
The industry for electronic flight bags (EFBs) has long been a
sleeping giant. After two decades of limited commercial use, IT
innovation in EFB software and hardware is finally waking the giant
from his slumber, reports Nick Rice.
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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
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66 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
the iPads suitability, functionality and future. At
the core of the debate is the overlap in the cate-
gorisation of EFB devices as Class 1, 2 and 3.
Class 1 represents the most basic device and
embodies the initial concept of replacing paper
with a device to access and view documents.
These are generally purchased, consumer off-
the-shelf (COTS) devices such as laptops, which
are portable and not connected to an aircrafts
power supply. Class 2 EFBs are still portable but
can be docked and used with the flight deck and
are approved for operation in all phases of flight.
The software functionality goes beyond Class 1
and includes moving maps, real time satellite,
and weather updates. The top range Class 3 EFBs
are a fixed part of the avionic on-board system
and are the only class able to run the most so-
phisticated Type C software. They must also be
certified (at considerable cost) by the FAA via
Supplemental Type Certificate (STC).
Established companies such as Goodrich, a
global supplier of systems and services to the
aerospace industry, acknowledge the impact of
iPads but believe their use to be limited. Jim
Schmitz, director of business development for
Goodrichs cockpit data management products,
states: The iPad and other tablets certainly have
a role to play in many instances where limited
functionality, along with low cost of entry, is con-
cerned. Tablet devices have helped to accelerate
airline interest in EFBs and they may help to
lower the cost of entry to implement a basic, lim-
ited functionality, Class 1 EFB system.
But, he warns: If airlines want to tap into the
much greater savings potential of a fully con-
nected EFB system, they will need to move be-
yond a tablet-based EFB. We have already seen
this in Europe with airlines that have used Class
1 EFBs for years and have already taken the step,
or are considering, upgrading their Class 1 tablet
to a Class 2 or Class 3 EFB system.
Upgrading from Class 1 with products like
Goodrichs SmartDisplay EFB system, means
greater depth in the overall performance of an
EFB. As Schmitz says: These highly customis-
able product suites allow flight crews, flight ops,
maintenance departments, and IT staff to effi-
ciently manage the flow of multiple sources of
electronic information to and from the aircraft,
effectively enabling the aircraft to become an ex-
tension of an airlines IT system.
Knut Aab, EVP of sales and marketing at
EFB hardware provider navAero, concurs with
Schmitz and explains the limitations of the iPad
in contrast to established EFB solutions and
hardware, such as navAeros own t-Bag C2
2
EFB
device.
While the iPad is attracting significant atten-
tion in the North American market as a low cost
technology tool, there is virtually no interest in
this device in Europe, the Middle East or Asia,
he says. These markets are focused on the de-
ployment of purpose built EFB technology be-
cause they see the benefit they will gain from EFB
systems that can be fully integrated with the air-
craft. The iPad will not undercut the Class 2 EFB
hardware market. The iPad is a basic, consumer
product with limited built-in connectivity and
content upload capability. It was never designed
to be used in an aircraft environment and is not
manufactured with aircraft-grade components.
It is a consumer device, not an aircraft device.
Whilst the limitations are clear the iPad is
not a viable contender for the highly integrated
and robust technology platforms that Class 3
EFBs represent they are gaining support for
use in both Class 1 and Class 2 categories. Jeppe-
sen Enterprise Solutions, an aviation navigation
company and subsidiary of Boeing, has been sup-
plying EFB solutions and working with multiple
hardware providers for more than 15 years. Senior
manager Jeff Buhl has plenty of positive things to
say about the adoption of the iPad in the aviation
industry. To date, the iPad has been the most
successful EFB platform with solutions provided
by Jeppesen. It is certainly part of what is re-
defining the EFB solution. 2011 was a great year
for the iPad EFB and we see no signs of it slowing
down, especially among the commercial air-
lines. For many situations, it is the right platform
with the right solution when integrated with
Jeppesen Mobile FliteDeck software, which is
developed by pilots, for pilots.
Jeppesen Enterprise Solutions has been supplying EFB solutions and working with multiple hardware providers for more than 15 years. Pictured is its Mobile
FliteDeck software.
67 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The iPad has also drawn supportive com-
ments from Ultramain Systems. Based in New
Mexico, US, Ultramain has been producing inte-
grated maintenance and logistics software for
more than 20 years. If regulators will allow data
connectivity between the iPad and aircraft sys-
tems then it will no doubt compete with Class 2
EFBs as well, says company president Mark Mc-
Causland. The iPad has already passed FAA
hardware certification requirements and been
approved for use in the cockpit in critical phases
of flight, so its shown itself to be up to aircraft-
grade certification standards.
With regard to the apparent convergence be-
tween the classes, he adds: For safety reasons
there will always be some applications that wont
be permitted on anything less than Class 3 EFB.
The reason is that due to the critical nature of the
applications, certified software and hardware will
be required. Class 3 EFB will always be in a class
by themselves. However, Class 1 and 2 EFBs ap-
pear to be merging.
This blurring between class categorisation
continues to split major players in the industry.
Diogo Serradas, of Flightman, (formerly Aircraft
Management Technologies), which specialises in
connected aircraft solutions and claims to have
the worlds largest market share in providing EFB
software solutions, also recognises the significant
encroachment of the iPad into the aviation in-
dustry. Serradas also suggests more competition
beyond the iPad in the form of other new EFB de-
vices. This new FAA charting legislation is a sig-
nificant milestone within the EFB industry, he
says. If these airlines successfully deploy a com-
plete EFB solution on the iPad, then its quite
possible that 2012 could become a significant
year. At the moment the iPad is a competitor to
other EFB hardware suppliers. However, with the
advent of Windows 8 later this year there will be
a large number of new devices capable of running
existing enterprise applications. We predict more
airlines combining both pilot assigned tablets
with the more established aircraft assigned
EFBs.
New features and new
problems
With more than 20,000 non EFB-equipped
aircraft in use there is all to play for and EFBs will
continue to proliferate across the varying levels
of capability. The technology and application of
EFBs has already far surpassed the original idea
of substituting paper for a screen. The EFB is now
Jeppesen Enterprise Solutions senior manager
Jeff Buhl.
AMOS
A Story of Success
We feel that AMOS is very much alive and keeps pace with the ever
changing aviation industry, says Air Transat.
Read more about the world-class M&E software system at
SWISS-AS.COM
68 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
a functioning supplementary IT system working
in sync with on-board computing. They can com-
plement primary flight instrumentation as an in-
tegral part of an aircrafts functioning.
navAeros Aab sees this as good news for in-
creased airline efficiency. As regulatory author-
ities gain greater assurances as to EFB reliability
and user benefits, we see the potential for nu-
merous ancillary uses that today are authorised
only on computer systems that utilise a DO-178
operating system, he states. This ability to allow
Class 2 technology systems to make the tremen-
dous leap to being a true contributor for increas-
ing operational efficiency goes way beyond
simply displaying the digital version of paper
documentation that was contained in the tradi-
tional leather flight bag.
The future will see more software apps devel-
oped, while hardware providers will battle it out
for which device is the best delivery mechanism.
One symptom that could affect some EFB users
is inundation with new applications could pi-
lots risk becoming hindered with too many op-
tions, potentially losing valuable time whilst
scrolling through pages and pages of apps? With
the almost limitless variations of service that
EFBs can be enabled to perform and provide they
have become an altogether different beast but
is it one that needs to be tamed? Or at least con-
trolled so that it doesnt become a burden?
The challenge is finding the balance between
too many apps and too many features in a single
app, believes Jeppesens Buhl. Mobile devices
are teaching us that targeted applications with a
defined purpose can be easier to learn, train, and
use more effectively on a recurring basis. Ulti-
mately, a relatively limited set of applications can
cover the tool set a pilot needs to replace and far
exceed the notion of the traditional flight bag.
Pilots have also joined the debate, expressing
concerns about the increased and expansive EFB
deployment. Popular pilot forums are full of
opinion on the subject, and when it comes to the
iPad as a new EFB, the overwhelming consensus
appears positive. Some have noted its usefulness
for flight planning purposes, or in quickly im-
proving a pilots situation awareness (SA)
using the iPads touchscreen can be considerably
quicker than finding, unfolding, searching and
planning on paper charts.
Regardless of the stance taken on iPads versus
purpose-built EFB hardware, it is safe to say that
the iPad has found a place in the cockpit as well
as in business lounges and as part of in-flight en-
tertainment services. This is more likely a result
of the tablet being pulled into the sector rather
then Apple pushing it there. Apple doesnt need
The iPad will not undercut the Class 2 EFB hardware market.
The iPad is a basic, consumer product with limited built-in
connectivity and content upload capability. It was never
designed to be used in an aircraft environment and is not
manufactured with aircraft-grade components.
Knut Aab, EVP of sales and marketing, navAero
Goodrich G700 SmartDisplay Class 3 EFB
displaying the Honeywell SmartTraffic ADS-B
in ITP view.
69 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
to penetrate the commercial airline marketplace
they most likely sell more iPads in one week
than the amount required to equip every com-
mercially aircraft flying today.
The issues that could prove a barrier to fur-
ther widespread iPad adoption include the
lithium ion battery (historically ruled a potential
fire hazard by the FAA), aircraft data connectiv-
ity, future upgradeability/expansion of system
capabilities, and, in the US, issues surrounding
NextGen compliance. (NextGen refers to the on-
going transformation of the US National Air-
space System an evolution from a
ground-based system of air traffic control to a
satellite-based system of air traffic management).
Essentially, Type C EFB applications like Auto-
matic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-
B), Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)
or Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC) will have to be to be carried out with a
Class 3 device to be NextGen compliant.
EFB evolution
Whether its a relatively cheap $499 iPad act-
ing as a Class 1 or 2 EFB, or a fully integrated Class
3 supplemental operating platform, what is clear
is that the near future will see the complete evo-
lution of the unwieldy old flight bag into an EFB
on every aircraft. At the top end of the spectrum
they will comprise a real-time, air-to ground
linked system. As Ultramains McCausland as-
serts: To obtain optimal performance, EFBs
need to be connected to ground systems via air-
borne data connectivity. This is not to say bene-
fits cant be gained with Class 1 EFB because they
certainly can, but airborne data connectivity ele-
vates the level of obtainable benefits. Its just a
matter of time before commercial aviation shifts
to EFB use. Its too powerful not to.
The future of EFBs and their increasing func-
tionality remains predicated on the continued ex-
pansion of connectivity to the aircraft. As each
subsequent generation of EFB hits the market, the
need to be constantly connected increases, and
eventually aircraft will become another node
within the IT operations of an aviation network.
Data will move up and down between the aircraft
and the on-ground maintenance, gate personnel
and flight operations departments, all with real-
time connectivity of the EFB to the airlines IT sys-
tem. It will ultimately be the operational efficiency
and multi-faceted services that will define emerg-
ing EFB hardware and software, as their increas-
ingly vital role in aviation continues to evolve.
AMOS
A Story of Success
The best fit in terms of functionality,
price and market standing, states easyJet
Read more about the world-class M&E software system at
SWISS-AS.COM
70 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
ADRIA AIRWAYS SLOVENIA PAX A320 V2500-A1 4831 2 4 9662
AEGEAN AIRLINES GREECE PAX A320 V2500-A5 67801 23 46 135602
AEGEAN AIRLINES GREECE PAX A321 V2500-A5 12342 4 8 24684
AER LINGUS IRELAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 103950 34 68 207901
AER LINGUS IRELAND PAX A321 CFM56-5B 15336 6 12 30673
AERODYNAMICS INC. U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2867 1 2 5734
AEROFLOT RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 42979 15 30 85958
AEROFLOT RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 94553 31 62 189106
AEROFLOT RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 44121 15 30 88242
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2721 1 2 5443
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2867 1 2 5734
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3425 1 2 6849
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5786 2 4 11571
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5492 2 4 10984
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A321 CFM56-5B 3580 1 2 7159
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A321 V2500-A5 2838 1 2 5675
AERVENTURE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A321 V2500-A5 2903 1 2 5805
AFRIQIYAH AIRWAYS LIBYA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 8342 3 6 16684
AFRIQIYAH AIRWAYS LIBYA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2855 1 2 5711
AFRIQIYAH AIRWAYS LIBYA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 27444 9 18 54889
AFRIQIYAH AIRWAYS LIBYA PAX A320 V2500-A1 3185 1 2 6370
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A319 CFM56-5A 1999 1 2 3998
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5769 2 4 11539
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2358 1 2 4717
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5339 2 4 10678
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A321 CFM56-5B 11852 4 8 23703
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A319 V2500-A5 2373 1 2 4745
AIGLE AZUR FRANCE PAX A320 V2500-A5 2457 1 2 4913
AIR ALGERIE ALGERIA PAX A321 V2500-A5 2788 1 2 5576
AIR ARABIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES PAX A320 CFM56-5B 108845 39 78 217689
AIR ARABIA MAROC MOROCCO PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5615 2 4 11230
AIR ASTANA KAZAKSTAN PAX A319 V2500-A5 2614 1 2 5229
AIR ASTANA KAZAKSTAN PAX A319 V2500-A5 5128 2 4 10256
AIR ASTANA KAZAKSTAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 19482 7 14 38965
AIR ASTANA KAZAKSTAN PAX A321 V2500-A5 6319 2 4 12638
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 27719 12 24 55439
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 19023 7 14 38046
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 91245 32 64 182491
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5347 2 4 10694
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5788 4 8 11575
AIR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 V2500-A5 9449 4 8 18897
AIR CAIRO EGYPT PAX A320 CFM56-5B 9529 4 8 19059
AIR CAIRO EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A1 2043 1 2 4086
AIR CALEDONIE INTERNATIONAL NEW CALEDONIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 2406 1 2 4812
AIR CANADA CANADA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 7705 2 4 15410
AIR CANADA CANADA PAX A319 CFM56-5A 109100 33 66 218199
AIR CANADA CANADA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 19334 6 12 38667
AIR CANADA CANADA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 89256 35 70 178512
AIR CANADA CANADA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 35544 10 20 71087
AIR CHINA CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 59762 21 42 119523
Operator fleet listing with engine
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
Aircraft data: Airbus A320 family
71 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
AIR CHINA CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 13388 5 10 26777
AIR CHINA CHINA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 68455 27 54 136909
AIR CHINA CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 32730 12 24 65460
AIR CHINA CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 59226 21 42 118452
AIR COMET SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 4182 3 6 8365
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A318 CFM56-5B 45387 18 36 90774
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A319 CFM56-5A 12545 6 12 25090
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A319 CFM56-5B 96234 39 78 192469
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5B 45736 18 36 91472
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 103365 46 92 206730
AIR FRANCE FRANCE PAX A321 CFM56-5B 50918 23 46 101837
AIR INDIA INDIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 57165 24 48 114331
AIR INDIA INDIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 11463 4 8 22927
AIR INDIA INDIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 38549 20 40 77098
AIR INDIA INDIA PAX A320 V2500-A1 124176 43 86 248353
AIR JAMAICA JAMAICA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 908 1 2 1816
AIR JAMAICA JAMAICA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 21756 7 14 43513
AIR JAMAICA JAMAICA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 10576 3 6 21152
AIR MACAU MACAU PAX A319 V2500-A5 11727 5 10 23454
AIR MACAU MACAU PAX A320 V2500-A5 3426 2 4 6853
AIR MACAU MACAU PAX A321 V2500-A5 17112 7 14 34223
AIR MALTA MALTA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 16604 5 10 33207
AIR MALTA MALTA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 3718 1 2 7435
AIR MALTA MALTA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 22730 7 14 45461
AIR MAURITIUS MAURITIUS PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3429 2 4 6859
AIR MEDITERRANEE [FRANCE] FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 1663 1 2 3326
AIR MEDITERRANEE [FRANCE] FRANCE PAX A321 CFM56-5B 14156 7 14 28312
AIR MEMPHIS EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A5 4768 2 4 9536
AIR MOLDOVA MOLDOVA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 710 1 2 1419
AIR MOLDOVA MOLDOVA PAX A320 V2500-A1 611 1 2 1221
AIR MOLDOVA MOLDOVA PAX A320 V2500-A5 1592 1 2 3184
AIR NEW ZEALAND NEW ZEALAND PAX A320 V2500-A5 45727 12 24 91453
AIR ONE [ITALY] ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5B 41047 26 52 82094
AIR VIA BULGARIAN AIRWAYS BULGARIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 6932 4 8 13863
AIRASIA MALAYSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 323606 95 190 647212
AIRBLUE PAKISTAN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 4687 2 4 9373
AIRBLUE PAKISTAN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 44394 14 28 88789
AIRBLUE PAKISTAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 1733 1 2 3465
AIRBLUE PAKISTAN PAX A320 V2500-A1 3171 1 2 6342
AIRBLUE PAKISTAN PAX A321 V2500-A5 11350 3 6 22699
AIRCRAFT PURCHASE FLEET LTD. (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 10984 4 8 21968
ALAJNIHAH AIRWAYS LIBYA PAX A320 V2500-A5 1321 1 2 2641
ALITALIA ITALY PAX A319 CFM56-5B 26669 12 24 53337
ALITALIA ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8238 3 6 16476
ALITALIA ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5B 47919 17 34 95839
ALITALIA ITALY PAX A321 CFM56-5B 64786 23 46 129572
ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS JAPAN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8767 5 10 17534
ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS JAPAN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 46562 22 44 93125
ALMASRIA UNIVERSAL AIRLINES EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A5 1288 1 2 2576
AMSTERDAM AIRLINES NETHERLANDS PAX A320 V2500-A1 928 1 2 1856
AMSTERDAM AIRLINES NETHERLANDS PAX A320 V2500-A5 2581 1 2 5162
ARMAVIA ARMENIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3029 1 2 6058
ARMAVIA ARMENIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3011 1 2 6021
ARMAVIA ARMENIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 3173 1 2 6347
ARMAVIA ARMENIA PAX A319 V2500-A5 6220 2 4 12441
ASIANA AIRLINES SOUTH KOREA PAX A320 V2500-A5 32611 11 22 65222
ASIANA AIRLINES SOUTH KOREA PAX A321 V2500-A5 39736 13 26 79471
ATLANTIC AIRWAYS [FAEROE ISLANDS] FAEROE ISLANDS PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2893 1 2 5786
ATLAS BLUE MOROCCO PAX A321 CFM56-5B 8968 3 6 17936
ATLASJET INTERNATIONAL TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 3611 2 4 7223
ATLASJET INTERNATIONAL TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 1683 1 2 3366
AUSTRIAN AIRLINES AUSTRIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 21430 7 14 42859
AUSTRIAN AIRLINES AUSTRIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 24507 8 16 49013
AUSTRIAN AIRLINES AUSTRIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 15318 6 12 30636
AVIANCA COLOMBIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 53703 16 32 107407
AVIANCA COLOMBIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 90541 26 52 181081
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2893 1 2 5786
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8238 3 6 16476
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A321 CFM56-5B 2838 1 2 5675
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A319 V2500-A5 2867 1 2 5734
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2842 1 2 5683
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 3171 1 2 6342
AVIATION CAPITAL GROUP (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A321 V2500-A5 4017 1 2 8033
AWAS (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 2971 1 2 5942
AWAS (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8238 3 6 16476
AWAS (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2746 1 2 5492
AWAS (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2842 1 2 5683
AZERBAIJAN AIRLINES AZERBAIJAN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 4979 3 6 9959
AZERBAIJAN AIRLINES AZERBAIJAN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 1862 1 2 3724
BAHRAIN AIR BAHRAIN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5022 2 4 10044
BAHRAIN AIR BAHRAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5614 2 4 11227
BAHRAIN AIR BAHRAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 11164 4 8 22327
BANGKOK AIRWAYS THAILAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3388 1 2 6776
BANGKOK AIRWAYS THAILAND PAX A319 V2500-A5 18074 7 14 36148
BANGKOK AIRWAYS THAILAND PAX A320 V2500-A5 7051 3 6 14103
BELAIR AIRLINES [SWITZERLAND] SWITZERLAND PAX A319 CFM56-5B 1994 1 2 3988
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
72 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
BELAIR AIRLINES [SWITZERLAND] SWITZERLAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5341 2 4 10682
BELLE AIR ALBANIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 1594 1 2 3187
BEST AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 4959 2 4 9917
BETASTREAM LTD. (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 5492 2 4 10984
BH-AIR BULGARIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5716 4 8 11432
BLUE WINGS GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 V2500-A5 2799 1 2 5597
BOC AVIATION PTE LTD. (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2921 1 2 5841
BOC AVIATION PTE LTD. (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3171 1 2 6342
BRITISH AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A318 CFM56-5B 5043 2 4 10086
BRITISH AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5A 9044 5 10 18088
BRITISH AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A319 V2500-A5 76839 33 66 153678
BRITISH AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 V2500-A5 106705 40 80 213410
BRITISH AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 V2500-A5 24378 11 22 48756
BRITISH MIDLAND AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A319 V2500-A5 24599 11 22 49198
BRITISH MIDLAND AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 V2500-A5 28509 10 20 57018
BRITISH MIDLAND AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 V2500-A5 41013 13 26 82026
BRUSSELS AIRLINES BELGIUM PAX A319 CFM56-5A 2565 1 2 5130
BRUSSELS AIRLINES BELGIUM PAX A319 CFM56-5B 10479 3 6 20958
BULGARIA AIR BULGARIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5591 3 6 11182
BULGARIA AIR BULGARIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 4893 3 6 9787
CCM AIRLINES FRANCE PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3375 2 4 6749
CCM AIRLINES FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5359 2 4 10719
CEBU PACIFIC AIR PHILIPPINES PAX A319 CFM56-5B 36242 10 20 72484
CEBU PACIFIC AIR PHILIPPINES PAX A320 CFM56-5B 70037 19 38 140073
CHINA AVIATION SUPPLIES CORPORATION CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 13878 4 8 27756
CHINA AVIATION SUPPLIES CORPORATION CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 13878 4 8 27756
CHINA EASTERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 38085 15 30 76171
CHINA EASTERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 184419 67 134 368838
CHINA EASTERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 40044 15 30 80088
CHINA EASTERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 71498 25 50 142997
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 22246 8 16 44493
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 80786 29 58 161572
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5307 2 4 10615
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 90857 33 66 181715
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 117967 41 82 235934
CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A321 V2500-A5 125218 47 94 250436
CHONGQING AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 8453 3 6 16906
CHONGQING AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 8207 3 6 16413
CIT AEROSPACE CORPORATION (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5492 2 4 10984
CIT AEROSPACE CORPORATION (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2971 1 2 5942
CIT AEROSPACE CORPORATION (ALL ENTRIES) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 5492 2 4 10984
CLICKAIR SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 17270 7 14 34539
CLICKAIR SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 40829 14 28 81658
COMORO ISLANDS AIRLINE COMOROS ISLANDS PAX A320 CFM56-5B 2399 1 2 4798
CONDOR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3437 1 2 6875
CONDOR BERLIN GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5A 39370 11 22 78741
CROATIA AIRLINES CROATIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 8628 4 8 17256
CROATIA AIRLINES CROATIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 4202 2 4 8403
CROATIA AIRLINES CROATIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 4314 2 4 8629
CSA CZECH AIRLINES CZECH REP.(FMR CZSLOVK) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 37465 13 26 74930
CSA CZECH AIRLINES CZECH REP.(FMR CZSLOVK) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 21930 8 16 43860
CSA CZECH AIRLINES CZECH REP.(FMR CZSLOVK) PAX A321 CFM56-5B 4924 2 4 9849
CYPRUS AIRWAYS CYPRUS PAX A319 V2500-A5 8628 3 6 17256
CYPRUS AIRWAYS CYPRUS PAX A320 V2500-A1 16583 6 12 33167
CYPRUS TURKISH AIRLINES CYPRUS PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5231 2 4 10462
CYPRUS TURKISH AIRLINES CYPRUS PAX A320 V2500-A5 2243 1 2 4486
DEER JET CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 34675 12 24 69351
DEER JET CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 24177 8 16 48353
DONBASSAERO UKRAINE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2302 1 2 4605
DONBASSAERO UKRAINE PAX A320 V2500-A1 2312 1 2 4624
DONBASSAERO UKRAINE PAX A320 V2500-A5 4399 2 4 8798
DRAGONAIR HONG KONG PAX A320 V2500-A5 23408 9 18 46815
DRAGONAIR HONG KONG PAX A321 V2500-A5 14687 6 12 29373
DRUK AIR BHUTAN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3555 2 4 7110
EASYJET UNITED KINGDOM PAX A319 CFM56-5B 597575 187 374 1195149
EASYJET UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 71395 26 52 142791
EASYJET UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 V2500-A5 17327 5 10 34655
EASYJET UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 V2500-A5 13358 4 8 26716
EASYJET SWITZERLAND SWITZERLAND PAX A319 CFM56-5B 40964 12 24 81929
EDELWEISS AIR SWITZERLAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 6664 2 4 13328
EGYPTAIR EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A5 19170 5 10 38339
EGYPTAIR EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A1 25487 7 14 50973
EGYPTAIR EGYPT PAX A321 V2500-A5 11472 4 8 22945
ETIHAD AIRWAYS UNITED ARAB EMIRATES PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2921 1 2 5842
ETIHAD AIRWAYS UNITED ARAB EMIRATES PAX A319 V2500-A5 5779 2 4 11558
ETIHAD AIRWAYS UNITED ARAB EMIRATES PAX A320 V2500-A5 45889 16 32 91778
EUROFLY ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5B 18667 6 12 37335
EUROFLY ITALY PAX A320 V2500-A5 9674 3 6 19349
EVA AIRWAYS TAIWAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 3350 1 2 6700
FINNAIR FINLAND PAX A319 CFM56-5B 28521 11 22 57042
FINNAIR FINLAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 30954 12 24 61908
FINNAIR FINLAND PAX A321 CFM56-5B 14907 6 12 29815
FREE BIRD AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A320 CFM56-5A 9746 3 6 19492
FREE BIRD AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 3185 2 4 6371
FREE BIRD AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 5090 2 4 10180
FRONTIER AIRLINES [CO-USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A318 CFM56-5B 35056 10 20 70113
73 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
FRONTIER AIRLINES [CO-USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 135513 38 76 271027
FRONTIER AIRLINES [CO-USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 33166 11 22 66331
G.E.C. CORP (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2721 1 2 5443
G.E.C. CORP (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2893 1 2 5786
G.E.C. CORP (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3545 1 2 7090
G.E.C. CORP (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5942 2 4 11884
G.E.C. CORP (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 13730 5 10 27460
GERMANWINGS GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 32477 12 24 64953
GERMANWINGS GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 V2500-A5 53700 18 36 107401
GO AIRLINES INDIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 58436 19 38 116871
GO AIRLINES INDIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 1964 2 4 3929
GULF AIR BAHRAIN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2890 2 4 5781
GULF AIR BAHRAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 24039 8 16 48078
GULF AIR BAHRAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 36282 13 26 72563
GULF AIR BAHRAIN PAX A321 CFM56-5B 2849 2 4 5697
HAINAN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 29934 11 22 59868
HAINAN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 31259 11 22 62517
HAMBURG INTERNATIONAL GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 35883 12 24 71766
HAMBURG INTERNATIONAL GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 10984 4 8 21968
HELLAS JET GREECE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2091 2 4 4182
HONG KONG AIRLINES HONG KONG PAX A320 V2500-A5 19026 12 12 38052
IBERIA SPAIN PAX A319 CFM56-5B 62066 22 44 124133
IBERIA SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 10855 6 12 21709
IBERIA SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 112446 45 90 224892
IBERIA SPAIN PAX A321 CFM56-5B 56467 19 38 112934
IBERWORLD AIRLINES SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 22497 8 16 44995
INDIGO INDIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 169018 56 112 338035
INDIGO INDIA PAX A321 V2500-A5 31486 14 28 62971
INDONESIA AIRASIA INDONESIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 21489 6 12 42978
INTERJET [MEXICO] MEXICO PAX A320 CFM56-5B 87225 27 54 174450
ILFC (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 2746 1 2 5492
ILFC (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2971 1 2 5942
ILFC (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A321 V2500-A5 2838 1 2 5675
IRAN AIR IRAN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5092 3 6 10185
IRAN AIR IRAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 5582 2 4 11164
ISRAIR ISRAEL PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5582 2 4 11164
ISRAIR ISRAEL PAX A320 V2500-A5 8373 3 6 16745
IZMIR AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A319 V2500-A5 10371 3 6 20741
IZMIR AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 6695 2 4 13389
JAT AIRWAYS SERBIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5229 2 4 10458
JAT AIRWAYS SERBIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 10458 4 8 20916
JAZEERA AIRWAYS KUWAIT PAX A320 CFM56-5B 76930 26 52 153860
JETBLUE AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 V2500-A5 487392 131 262 974785
JETSTAR AIRWAYS AUSTRALIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 124003 33 66 248007
JETSTAR AIRWAYS AUSTRALIA PAX A321 V2500-A5 14760 5 10 29519
JETSTAR ASIA SINGAPORE PAX A320 V2500-A5 20224 5 10 40448
JETSTAR PACIFIC AIRLINES VIETNAM PAX A320 V2500-A5 2541 1 2 5083
JUNEYAO AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5173 2 4 10346
JUNEYAO AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 39914 14 28 79828
KINGFISHER AIRLINES INDIA PAX A319 V2500-A5 7955 3 6 15909
KINGFISHER AIRLINES INDIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 122005 46 92 244011
KINGFISHER AIRLINES INDIA PAX A321 V2500-A5 24422 8 16 48845
KORALBLUE AIRLINES EGYPT PAX A319 CFM56-5B 1010 1 2 2020
KORALBLUE AIRLINES EGYPT PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2506 1 2 5012
KUWAIT AIRWAYS KUWAIT PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3182 1 2 6364
74 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
KUWAIT AIRWAYS KUWAIT PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5264 3 6 10528
KUWAIT FIN. HSE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 3545 1 2 7090
KUWAIT FIN. HSE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5683 2 4 11367
KUWAIT FIN. HSE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8238 3 6 16476
KUWAIT FIN. HSE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 5942 2 4 11884
KUWAIT FIN. HSE (ALL ENT.) UNKNOWN PAX A320 V2500-A5 8238 3 6 16476
LAN AIRLINES CHILE PAX A318 PW6000 39458 15 30 78915
LAN AIRLINES CHILE PAX A319 V2500-A5 76575 22 44 153150
LAN AIRLINES CHILE PAX A320 V2500-A5 55945 16 32 111890
LAN ARGENTINA ARGENTINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 26695 9 18 53390
LAN PERU PERU PAX A319 V2500-A5 6976 2 4 13952
LANEXPRESS CHILE PAX A319 V2500-A5 3341 1 2 6682
LANEXPRESS CHILE PAX A320 V2500-A5 5893 2 4 11787
LAT CHARTER LATVIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 1416 1 2 2832
LIBYAN AIRLINES LIBYA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5280 2 4 10561
LIBYAN AIRLINES LIBYA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 8422 3 6 16845
LIBYAN AIRLINES LIBYA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 11230 4 8 22460
LIVINGSTON ITALY PAX A321 V2500-A5 8345 3 6 16691
LOTUS AIRLINE EGYPT PAX A320 V2500-A5 10338 3 6 20677
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 28929 10 20 57857
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 CFM56-5A 57690 18 36 115380
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 35698 13 26 71395
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A320 CFM56-5A 99199 36 72 198398
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A319 V2500-A5 4312 1 2 8624
LUFTHANSA GERMANY (W. GERM) PAX A321 V2500-A5 168995 61 122 337989
LUFTHANSA ITALIA ITALY PAX A319 CFM56-5A 6058 2 4 12116
LUFTHANSA ITALIA ITALY PAX A319 CFM56-5B 10782 5 10 21563
LUZAIR PORTUGAL PAX A320 V2500-A5 1818 1 2 3636
MAHAN AIR IRAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 2791 1 2 5582
MAHAN AIR IRAN PAX A321 V2500-A5 2748 1 2 5496
MANDALA AIRLINES INDONESIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 6140 2 4 12281
MANDALA AIRLINES INDONESIA PAX A319 V2500-A5 9934 3 6 19868
MANDALA AIRLINES INDONESIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 54472 18 36 108944
MAURITANIA AIRWAYS MAURITANIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2201 1 2 4401
MAZ AVIATION UNITED ARAB EMIRATES PAX A320 CFM56-5B 321 1 2 643
MCA AIRLINES SWEDEN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2746 1 2 5492
MENA JET LEBANON PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2791 1 2 5582
MERIDIANA ITALY PAX A319 CFM56-5B 10011 4 8 20023
METRO BATAVIA INDONESIA PAX A319 V2500-A5 7945 2 4 15891
METRO BATAVIA INDONESIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 2572 1 2 5143
METRO BATAVIA INDONESIA PAX A320 V2500-A1 5876 3 6 11753
MEXICANA MEXICO PAX A318 CFM56-5B 37581 10 20 75162
MEXICANA MEXICO PAX A319 CFM56-5B 78293 21 42 156586
MEXICANA MEXICO PAX A320 CFM56-5B 12225 3 6 24450
MEXICANA MEXICO PAX A320 V2500-A5 14180 4 8 28360
MEXICANA MEXICO PAX A320 V2500-A1 77228 23 46 154456
MIDDLE EAST AIRLINES LEBANON PAX A320 V2500-A5 15465 6 12 30930
MIDDLE EAST AIRLINES LEBANON PAX A321 V2500-A5 17470 6 12 34940
MIHIN LANKA SRI LANKA PAX A320 V2500-A1 3191 1 2 6381
MONARCH AIRLINES UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 7502 2 4 15004
MONARCH AIRLINES UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5A 11055 3 6 22110
MONARCH AIRLINES UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 V2500-A5 57563 17 34 115125
MYAIR.COM ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2746 1 2 5492
MYAIR.COM ITALY PAX A320 V2500-A1 6239 2 4 12478
NATIONAL AIR SERVICES SAUDI ARABIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3585 3 6 7170
NATIONAL AIR SERVICES SAUDI ARABIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 54796 22 44 109591
NIKI LUFTFAHRT AUSTRIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 5446 2 4 10893
NIKI LUFTFAHRT AUSTRIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 38064 13 26 76129
NIKI LUFTFAHRT AUSTRIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 7215 2 4 14430
NILE AIR EGYPT PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5774 2 4 11548
NORTHEASTERN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 2752 1 2 5504
NORTHWEST AIRLINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 CFM56-5A 141556 62 124 283111
NORTHWEST AIRLINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5942 2 4 11884
NORTHWEST AIRLINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5A 167703 68 136 335406
NOUVELAIR TUNISIE TUNISIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 12710 5 10 25420
NOUVELAIR TUNISIE TUNISIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 16990 6 12 33980
NOUVELAIR TUNISIE TUNISIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5248 2 4 10496
NOUVELLE AIR IVOIRE IVORY COAST PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2307 1 2 4615
NOUVELLE AIR IVOIRE IVORY COAST PAX A321 CFM56-5B 2887 1 2 5774
NOVAIR AIRLINES SWEDEN PAX A321 V2500-A5 8513 3 6 17026
OLYMPIC AIRLINES GREECE PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2893 1 2 5786
OLYMPIC AIRLINES GREECE PAX A320 V2500-A5 5672 2 4 11344
ONUR AIR TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 305 1 2 609
ONUR AIR TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 21089 7 14 42177
PHILIPPINE AIRLINES PHILIPPINES PAX A319 CFM56-5B 10097 4 8 20195
PHILIPPINE AIRLINES PHILIPPINES PAX A320 CFM56-5B 61150 20 40 122300
QANTAS AUSTRALIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 66592 21 42 133183
QATAR AIRWAYS QATAR PAX A319 V2500-A5 10451 4 8 20902
QATAR AIRWAYS QATAR PAX A320 V2500-A5 83401 28 56 166802
QATAR AIRWAYS QATAR PAX A321 V2500-A5 36689 12 24 73379
ROSSIYA RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A319 CFM56-5A 3625 2 4 7250
ROSSIYA RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 13994 8 16 27989
ROSSIYA RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5229 2 4 10459
ROSSIYA RUSSIAN AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 6127 2 4 12254
ROYAL AIR MAROC MOROCCO PAX A321 CFM56-5B 3280 1 2 6559
ROYAL BRUNEI AIRLINES BRUNEI PAX A319 V2500-A5 5282 2 4 10563
FACT: Max rotational
speed 2,550 rpm
JUST FACT, NO SPIN
If you want to promote in the 2012 edition of The Engine Yearbook, or if you would like any other information, please
contact: Alan Samuel on Tel: +44 (0) 207 579 4846 or via Email: alan.samuel@ubmaviation.com
AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGYS
annual publication for the
aero-engine professional
76 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
ROYAL BRUNEI AIRLINES BRUNEI PAX A320 V2500-A5 6680 2 4 13360
ROYAL JORDANIAN AIRLINES JORDAN PAX A319 V2500-A5 11958 4 8 23915
ROYAL JORDANIAN AIRLINES JORDAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 13034 4 8 26069
ROYAL JORDANIAN AIRLINES JORDAN PAX A321 V2500-A5 11398 4 8 22796
ROYAL WINGS JORDAN PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2791 1 2 5582
S7 AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A319 CFM56-5A 41245 13 26 82491
S7 AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 20870 7 14 41740
S7 GROUP UNKNOWN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5266 2 4 10533
SATA INTERNATIONAL PORTUGAL PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2953 1 2 5905
SATA INTERNATIONAL PORTUGAL PAX A320 CFM56-5B 7871 3 6 15741
SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES SAUDI ARABIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 44654 16 32 89308
SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES SAUDI ARABIA PAX A321 V2500-A5 293 1 2 586
SCANDINAVIAN AIRLINES SYSTEM SWEDEN PAX A319 V2500-A5 11032 4 8 22063
SCANDINAVIAN AIRLINES SYSTEM SWEDEN PAX A321 V2500-A5 21422 8 16 42843
SEAGLE AIR SLOVAK REPUBLIC PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2410 1 2 4821
SEAGLE AIR SLOVAK REPUBLIC PAX A320 V2500-A5 2725 1 2 5450
SHANGHAI AIRLINES CHINA PAX A321 V2500-A5 26537 10 20 53073
SHENZHEN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 14291 5 10 28582
SHENZHEN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 75406 26 52 150811
SHENZHEN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 79568 28 56 159135
SIBIR AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A319 CFM56-5A 2282 1 2 4564
SICHUAN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 V2500-A5 40695 15 30 81390
SICHUAN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 83303 29 58 166606
SICHUAN AIRLINES CHINA PAX A321 V2500-A5 42264 15 30 84528
SILKAIR SINGAPORE PAX A319 V2500-A5 30217 10 20 60434
SILKAIR SINGAPORE PAX A320 V2500-A5 50610 16 32 101220
SKY AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A320 CFM56-5A 1089 2 4 2178
SKY AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 4253 2 4 8506
SKYSERVICE AIRLINES CANADA PAX A320 V2500-A5 1534 1 2 3069
SKYTRADERS AUSTRALIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2921 1 2 5841
SMARTLYNX AIRLINES LATVIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 4113 2 4 8226
SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA PAX A319 V2500-A5 24659 11 22 49318
SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA PAX A320 V2500-A5 42112 15 30 84224
SPANAIR [SPAIN] SPAIN PAX A320 V2500-A5 52171 19 38 104343
SPANAIR [SPAIN] SPAIN PAX A321 V2500-A5 14522 5 10 29043
SPIRIT AIRLINES [USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 V2500-A5 136280 38 76 272559
SPIRIT AIRLINES [USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 V2500-A5 44565 15 30 89130
SPIRIT AIRLINES [USA] U.S (&TERR.) PAX A321 V2500-A5 8319 2 4 16637
SPRING AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 57083 18 36 114165
SRILANKAN AIRLINES SRI LANKA PAX A320 V2500-A5 2543 2 4 5087
SRILANKAN AIRLINES SRI LANKA PAX A320 V2500-A1 2980 1 2 5960
STAR FLYER JAPAN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 12734 4 8 25468
SWISS INTERNATIONAL AIR LINES SWITZERLAND PAX A319 CFM56-5B 18717 7 14 37434
SWISS INTERNATIONAL AIR LINES SWITZERLAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 2746 1 2 5492
SWISS INTERNATIONAL AIR LINES SWITZERLAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 59856 21 42 119712
SWISS INTERNATIONAL AIR LINES SWITZERLAND PAX A321 CFM56-5B 20080 6 12 40161
SYRIANAIR SYRIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2791 1 2 5582
SYRIANAIR SYRIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 18697 6 12 37395
TACA INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES EL SALVADOR PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3425 1 2 6849
TACA INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES EL SALVADOR PAX A319 V2500-A5 39584 12 24 79168
TACA INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES EL SALVADOR PAX A320 V2500-A5 83425 23 46 166851
TACA INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES EL SALVADOR PAX A321 V2500-A5 20515 5 10 41030
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A319 CFM56-5B 7217 2 4 14435
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A320 CFM56-5B 199836 53 106 399671
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A319 V2500-A5 78538 25 50 157077
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A320 V2500-A1 20047 6 12 40095
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A320 V2500-A5 182006 48 96 364013
TAM LINHAS AEREAS BRAZIL PAX A321 V2500-A5 29158 7 14 58316
TAME ECUADOR ECUADOR PAX A320 CFM56-5B 2807 1 2 5613
TAME ECUADOR ECUADOR PAX A319 V2500-A5 1927 1 2 3854
TAME ECUADOR ECUADOR PAX A320 V2500-A5 4817 2 4 9634
TAP AIR PORTUGAL PORTUGAL PAX A319 CFM56-5B 64851 19 38 129702
TAP AIR PORTUGAL PORTUGAL PAX A320 CFM56-5A 10357 3 6 20713
TAP AIR PORTUGAL PORTUGAL PAX A320 CFM56-5B 47493 13 26 94986
TAP AIR PORTUGAL PORTUGAL PAX A321 CFM56-5B 11236 3 6 22472
TAROM ROMANIA PAX A318 CFM56-5B 8794 4 8 17589
THAI AIRASIA THAILAND PAX A320 CFM56-5B 30679 9 18 61358
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [BELGIUM] BELGIUM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 18431 5 10 36861
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [BELGIUM] BELGIUM PAX A320 V2500-A5 3794 1 2 7587
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [UK] UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 24276 6 12 48552
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [UK] UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 CFM56-5B 12334 4 8 24669
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [UK] UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 V2500-A5 3892 1 2 7784
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES [UK] UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 V2500-A1 14895 4 8 29790
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES SCANDINAVIA A/S DENMARK PAX A320 CFM56-5B 7413 2 4 14826
THOMAS COOK AIRLINES SCANDINAVIA A/S DENMARK PAX A321 CFM56-5B 23470 6 12 46940
THOMSON AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 16993 5 10 33987
THOMSON AIRWAYS UNITED KINGDOM PAX A321 CFM56-5B 6221 2 4 12442
TIGER AIRWAYS SINGAPORE PAX A319 V2500-A5 5353 2 4 10705
TIGER AIRWAYS SINGAPORE PAX A320 V2500-A5 56005 16 32 112011
TIGER AIRWAYS AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 21858 6 12 43717
TRANSASIA AIRWAYS TAIWAN PAX A320 V2500-A5 1532 1 2 3064
TRANSASIA AIRWAYS TAIWAN PAX A321 V2500-A5 8803 5 10 17606
TRAVEL SERVICE AIRLINES CZECH REP.(FMR CZSLOVK) PAX A320 CFM56-5A 2006 1 2 4011
TUNIS AIR TUNISIA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 3754 1 2 7509
TUNIS AIR TUNISIA PAX A319 CFM56-5A 7263 3 6 14526
TUNIS AIR TUNISIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5615 2 4 11230
77 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
Operator fleet listing with engine (cont...)
Operator Operator Equip. Equip. Engine Equip. Aircraft Engine Engine
Country Role Type Family Utilisation Count Count Utilisation
TUNIS AIR TUNISIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 29086 12 24 58172
TURK HAVA YOLLARI TURKEY PAX A321 CFM56-5B 5510 2 4 11021
TURK HAVA YOLLARI TURKEY PAX A319 V2500-A5 12294 4 8 24588
TURK HAVA YOLLARI TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 71473 22 44 142946
TURK HAVA YOLLARI TURKEY PAX A321 V2500-A5 62919 18 36 125838
TURKUAZ AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A321 CFM56-5B 3474 1 2 6948
TURKUAZ AIRLINES TURKEY PAX A320 V2500-A5 2658 1 2 5316
UNITED AIR LINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 V2500-A5 161023 68 136 322046
UNITED AIR LINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 V2500-A5 226343 104 208 452686
UNITED EAGLE AIRLINES CHINA PAX A319 CFM56-5B 1640 3 6 3281
UNITED EAGLE AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 1802 1 2 3604
UNITED EAGLE AIRLINES CHINA PAX A320 V2500-A5 2678 1 2 5356
URAL AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 13358 4 8 26716
URAL AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 23155 10 20 46310
URAL AIRLINES RUSSIA PAX A321 CFM56-5B 2688 1 2 5377
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 137894 54 108 275787
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 89466 29 58 178932
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A321 CFM56-5B 127601 36 72 255203
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 V2500-A5 149602 47 94 299204
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 V2500-A1 44486 15 30 88972
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 V2500-A5 201777 60 120 403553
US AIRWAYS U.S (&TERR.) PAX A321 V2500-A5 100579 28 56 201159
USA 3000 AIRLINES U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 25562 9 18 51123
UZBEKISTAN AIRWAYS UZBEKISTAN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 13166 5 10 26332
VALUAIR SINGAPORE PAX A320 V2500-A5 6490 2 4 12979
VERTIR AIRLINES OF ARMENIA ARMENIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 822 1 2 1645
VIETNAM AIRCRAFT LEASING COMPANY UNKNOWN PAX A321 V2500-A5 2838 1 2 5675
VIETNAM AIRLINES VIETNAM PAX A320 CFM56-5B 19681 10 20 39362
VIETNAM AIRLINES VIETNAM PAX A321 V2500-A5 56429 21 42 112859
VIRGIN AMERICA U.S (&TERR.) PAX A319 CFM56-5B 30446 10 20 60892
VIRGIN AMERICA U.S (&TERR.) PAX A320 CFM56-5B 73195 22 44 146390
VISTAJET LUFTFAHRTUNTERNEHMEN AUSTRIA PAX A319 V2500-A5 11571 4 8 23143
VLADIVOSTOK AIR RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5A 5266 2 4 10533
VLADIVOSTOK AIR RUSSIA PAX A320 CFM56-5B 6458 3 6 12915
VOLARE AIRLINES ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5B 5354 2 4 10709
VOLARIS MEXICO PAX A319 V2500-A5 111845 31 62 223690
VOLARIS MEXICO PAX A320 V2500-A5 8457 2 4 16915
VUELING AIRLINES SPAIN PAX A320 CFM56-5B 51710 17 34 103419
WATANIYA AIRWAYS KUWAIT PAX A320 CFM56-5B 7722 3 6 15444
WHITE AIRWAYS PORTUGAL PAX A319 CFM56-5B 2893 1 2 5786
WHITE AIRWAYS PORTUGAL PAX A319 V2500-A5 758 1 2 1516
WHITE AIRWAYS PORTUGAL PAX A320 V2500-A5 3736 1 2 7472
WIND JET ITALY PAX A319 CFM56-5A 4718 2 4 9435
WIND JET ITALY PAX A320 CFM56-5A 9636 4 8 19272
WIND JET ITALY PAX A319 V2500-A5 5794 3 6 11587
WIND JET ITALY PAX A320 V2500-A1 3922 2 4 7844
WIND JET ITALY PAX A320 V2500-A5 5001 2 4 10002
WIZZ AIR BULGARIA BULGARIA PAX A320 V2500-A5 6064 2 4 12127
WIZZ AIR HUNGARY HUNGARY PAX A320 V2500-A5 170423 61 122 340846
WIZZ AIR UKRAINE UKRAINE PAX A320 V2500-A5 4581 2 4 9162
XL AIRWAYS FRANCE FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5A 1442 2 4 2885
XL AIRWAYS FRANCE FRANCE PAX A320 CFM56-5B 6822 2 4 13644
ZEST AIRWAYS PHILIPPINES PAX A320 V2500-A5 7105 3 6 14210
78 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
FAA airworthiness directives large aircraft
Summary of biweekly listings for the last two months
Biweekly 2012-04
2009-11-02C CFM International CFM56-2, -3, -5A, -5B, -5C, and -7B Remove HPC 4-9 spools from service that have a P/N
and S/N listed in AD before accumulating 8,900
cycles-since-repair at PTLLC or within 1,100 cycles
from the effective date of the AD.
2012-02-14 Boeing 737 series Perform a one-time detailed inspection to determine
the colour of the aero/fire seals of the blocker doors
on the thrust reverser torque boxes on the engines.
For any aero/fire seal having a completely grey colour
(which is the colour of seals with part number (P/N)
315A2245-1 or 315A2245-2), with no red at the
upper end of the seal replace the aero/fire seals of the
blocker doors on the thrust reverser torque boxes on
the engines with new, improved aero/fire seals IAW
SB 737-78-1074.
2012-03-02 Boeing 767-200 and -300 Change the wire bundle route and wiring, install a
new relay and applicable wiring in the CACTCS, and
do an operational test of the cooling pack system
IAW with SB 767-21-0246 or 767-21-0234.
2012-03-05 Bombardier BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 For specified aircraft, do an inspection of oxygen
pressure regulators having P/N 806370-06 to
determine if the serial number is listed in Table 2 of
the Accomplishment Instructions of Bombardier SB
700-35-011. If listed, replace the affected oxygen
CRA IAW SB 700-35-011.
2012-03-09 Boeing 747SP Replace or modify any rudder PCM with applicable P/N.
2012-03-10 Airbus A340-642 For specified aircraft, modify the fire extinguishing
system from a three-bottles solution with 4 flow
metering compact unit, into a two-bottles solution
with 2 flow metering systems equipped with
upgraded water absorbing filter elements IAW SB
A340-26-5020.
2012-03-51 Lockheed As specified Gain access to the wing spar box between wing
stations 40 and 84.5. Clean and perform inspection.
Make repairs as necessary.
2012-04-01S Rolls-Royce RB211-Trent Supersedes AD 2003-16-18. Remove from service
the parts listed in Table 1 of the AD before exceeding
the new life limit indicated.
2012-04-05S General Electric GE CF6-80 Supersedes AD 2007-12-07. Remove from service
ECUs with part numbers (P/Ns) listed in Table 1 of AD.
Biweekly 2012-05
2012-02-15S Boeing 757 series Supersedes AD 2007-03-01. Do a general visual
inspection to determine if the clamp is installed on
the lower bracket on the left wing IAW SB 757-24-
0105. If the clamp is missing, before further flight,
install a clamp on the lower bracket on the left wing.
2012-02-17 Boeing 757-200, -200PF, -200CB, and -300 Do ultrasonic and general visual inspections for
cracking and corrosion of the front spar lower chord
at the fastener locations common to the side link
support fitting at WS 292 IAW SB 757-57-0065.
Conduct repairs if any cracking or corrosion is found.
2012-02-18 Dassault MYSTERE-FALCON 50 Revise the maintenance programme to include ''Non-
Destructive Check of Flap Tracks 2 and 5,''
Maintenance Procedure 57-607, of Chapter 5-40,
''Airworthiness Limitations,'' of the Dassault Falcon
50/50EX Maintenance Manual.
2012-03-03 Fokker Services F.27, F.28 Do a detailed visual inspection of the tritium exit
signs and emergency lighting strips for required
brightness IAW SBF50-33-038. Replace if
insufficiently bright.
2012-03-08S Bombardier CL-600 Supersedes AD 2006-14-05. Modify the MLG door,
IAW SB 670BA-32-017.
2012-03-12 General Electric CF6-80C2 Perform a one-time inspection of the No. 3 bearing
packing. Remove the packing from service before
further flight if the wrong packing P/N is found on
the engine.
2012-04-02 Bombardier CL-600 Revise the maintenance programme to incorporate
Task 271000-218, Discard of the Outboard Wing
Aileron Pulleys.
2012-04-04 Pratt & Whitney PW40, PW41, PW44, PW46 Remove FMU P/Ns 53T335 (HS801000-1), 55T423
(HS 801000-2), and 50U150 (HS 801000-3) and
install an FMU that incorporates the modification in
paragraphs 3.C through 3.E of the Accomplishment
Instructions of Hamilton Sundstrand Alert SB
JFC131-2-73-A24.
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sNetwork with heads of engineering and maintenance from
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AIRLINE E&M: MIDDLE
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80 S Aircraft Technology - Issue 117 S
DATA & DIRECTIVES
2012-04-06 Support Services Model 328-100 Modify the engine control box assembly with
additional aural alerting function and a revised power
lever guiding gate IAW SB 328-76-486.
2012-04-07 Airbus A330 & A340 Replace the affected retraction bracket of the MLG
specified in table 1 of AD with a serviceable part.
2012-04-08 Bombardier DHC-8 Install a new CRES mounting adapter with new bolts
by incorporating MODSUM 8Q101890 IAW SB 8-
27-110.
2012-04-09 Boeing 747 Do detailed inspections for scribe lines of affected lap
and butt splices, wing-to-body fairing locations, and
external repair and cutout reinforcement areas, and do
all applicable related investigative and corrective
actions IAW SB 747-53A2563.
2012-04-12 Bombardier CL-600-2B16 Replace the ADG power feeder cable IAW SB 604-
24-024.
2012-04-13S Rolls-Royce RB211 Supersedes AD 2011-09-07. Clean and perform a
fluorescent penetrant inspection of the HP
compressor stage 1 to 4 rotor discs at the first shop
visit after accumulating 1,000 cycles since new on
the stage 1 to 4 rotor discs.
2012-04-14 Rolls-Royce RB211-Trent 800 Inspect the front combustion liner head section for
cracking. If found, remove the front combustion liner
head section from service at the next shop visit.
Biweekly 2012-06
2012-02-01 Pratt & Whitney PW2037, PW2037(M), and PW2040 Perform restoration of the fan blade leading edge
contour using one of the specified methods.
2012-04-11S Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Supersedes AD 97-22-13. Replace both FWC units
with FWC part number 350E053020909 IAW SB
A320-31-1334.
2012-04-15S Pratt & Whitney JT9D Supersedes AD 2007-05-17. Inspect the stated life-
limited parts at each piece-part opportunity.
2012-05-03 Boeing 747 Modify the fluid drain path in the leading edge area
of the wing IAW SB 747-57-2332.
2012-05-04 Boeing 767-200, -300, -300F, and -400ER Do a general visual inspection of the number 2
windows to determine whether the link arms are in
the over-center position, and do all applicable
modifications IAW SB 767-56A0010.
2012-05-05 Bombardier CL-215 Do a general visual inspection to determine if either
universal solid (round head) rivets or flush rivets of
the bracket assembly of the emergency water dump
pulley are installed IAW SB 215-A543. Perform
corrective actions.
2012-05-07 Bombardier DHC-8-102, -103, and -106 Do a general visual inspection of the upper edge of
each leaf spring for chamfer IAW SB A8-76-32. Do
all applicable rework before further flight. Install a
new friction brake nut.
2012-05-08 Embraer ERJ-170 Do a general visual inspection for fuel leakage on the
wings, close to the rib 10 area, while both tanks are
fully fuelled IAAW SB 170-57-A053.
2012-06-01 Cessna Model 560XL Modify the drain installation of the tailcone stinger
on the aft canted bulkhead (i.e., install a drain and
rubber seals) IAW SB 560XL-53-16.
2012-06-02 Airbus A300 & A310 Replace the aluminium high pressure pipe having P/N
A5231006100300 with a new pipe made of corrosion
resistant stainless steel and having P/N
A5231007000600 IAW SB A300-52-6065.
2012-06-04 Bombardier DHC-8-400, -401, and -402 Do a general visual inspection of the structure and
gearbox drain paths for blockages by sealant IAW SB
84-53-48. If any blockages are found, before further
flight, remove blockages.
2012-06-05 Bombardier DHC-8-400, -401, and -402 Incorporate ModSum 4-126513, Seal System Shut
Off Valve Control Logic Change IAW SB84-52-69.
2012-06-07S Airbus A330 & A340 Supersedes AD 2010-17-02. Perform a torque check
of the pneumatic quick-disconnect union of each pitot
probe having Goodrich P/N 0851HL, S/N 267328
through 270714 inclusive, to determine if the torque
is adequate.
Note:
The letter C after the AD number denotes a correction to the original AD
The letter S after the AD number indicates that the AD supersedes a previous AD
The letter R after the AD number indicates a revision to the original AD
The letter E after the AD number indicates an emergency AD
The letters FR indicate the final rule of an emergency AD
Please note that the above information is quoted for interest purposes. The latest versions of the ADs issued by the FAA must be used for reference purposes
FAA airworthiness directives large aircraft (cont...)

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