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Enhancement Proposals for DVBT-2

Systems and Cognitive Radio Networks


Sharing the Same Frequency Band
Phase 1 Report
By
Prof. Dr. Salwa Elramly
Electronics & Communications Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University
12/10/2011 1 CSPRL
Agenda
Introduction
WARP Lab Establishment
DVBT-2 System
Cognitive Radio: System Overview and Future
trends
Multiple Access and Routing in CR Networks.
Conclusions & Future Work
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Introduction
The research project is executed in the
Communications& Signal Processing Lab
(CSPRL)
(for more info visit www.csprl-eng-asu.org)
The research project started 15/3/2011 for
the duration of 2 years and to be executed in
4 phases.
The team is composed of 1 Professor, 4
Assistant Professors and 7 Research
Assistants.
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Team Members
Prof. Salwa Elramly (PI)
Dr. Hussein Abdel Aty
Dr. Maha Elsabrouty
Dr. DiaaEldin Khalil
Dr. Fatma Newagy
Eng. Mona Zakaria
Eng. Bassant Abdelhameed
Eng. Betty Nagy
Eng. Mohammed El-Bayoumi
Eng. Hannan Hussein
Eng. Mayada Mamdouh
Eng. Hannan Debaiky
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Objectives
The project has two objectives:
1. Research objective
2. Educational objective
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Research Objectives
The project research part is comprised of:
Theoretical work, searching for new
algorithms to enhance the treated systems
Implementations of some of these
algorithms, seeking low complexity and low
power consumption.
To achieve this goal, a WARP laboratory is
planned to be established in CSPRL.
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Research Objectives Cont.
The work in this project is subdivided into two
directions, one is concerned with Cognitive Radio and
the other is concerned with DVB-T2 which is
expected to share the same frequency band. These
two directions are further subdivided to three tracks:
Track1: Cognitive Radio Physical Layer: Design and
Challenges.
Track2: Multiple Access and Routing in CR Networks.
Track3: Working on Second Generation Digital
Terrestrial Television Broadcasting System (DVB-T2).
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Educational Objectives Cont.
The project also has an educational part aiming to have
graduates with good knowledge of the DVB-T2 system which
will be implemented in Egypt in the near future (2015 imposed
by ITU).
Graduation projects is found to be a good tool to achieve this
goal for System understanding, analysis, simulation and
implementation.
Short courses will be prepared for graduates for Continuous
Education Program.
MSc. And PhD thesis can be concentrated on topics related to
the project. ( 2 PhD and MSc. Are already registered for)
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WARP Overview
Wireless Open-Access Research Platform developed
at Rice University.
Scalable and extensible programmable wireless
platform, to prototype advanced next generation
wireless networks.
Open-access repository to share knowledge across
research community
Useful in improving wireless curricula, where it is
used as an excellent vehicle for education labs to
demonstrate both non real-time and real-time
wireless communication.
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WARP Overview
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WARP offers scalability and programmability of both
physical and network layer protocols on single platform.
Complete system with custom hardware, support
packages, design tools and application libraries.
Conceptually divided into four main parts:
Hardware
Support packages
Research applications
Open-access repository
Why Adopt WARP?
The better specifications and abilities of WARP
hardware compared to other platforms in the market.
The great use of the open-access WARP repository,
maintained by the WARP team at Rice University, to
provide technical knowledge and support and also to
promote team-work and international collaboration.
The great use as an excellent vehicle for education
labs to demonstrate both non real-time and real-time
wireless communication.
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WARP LAB Establishment
The WARP laboratory is incubated inside CSPRL.
It is established as a partition of CSPRL, in the form
of rectangular area of 25 m
2
.
The required equipments are funded by NTRA.
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WARP LAB Equipment List
Complicated
process for WARP
hardware purchase
(expected done by
end of october.
~14 weeks for
delivery)
PCs ordered and
delivered
Printer ordered and
delivered.
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Item Qty
WARP MIMO Kit v2.0 3
WARP radio daughtercard v1.4 2
WARP analog daughtercard v1.1 3
Wi-Fi Spectrum Analyzer 1
8-Port Wired Switch 1
Network Cable 5m 7
USB Cable A-B 3
CompactFlash Card Reader 2
Personal Computer 4
All-in-One Printer 1
Electrostatic Protection Glove (Pair) 3
Electrostatic Protection Bench Mat 3
WARP Documentation & Training
WARP repository is wiki-based scattered information
Work started to develop high quality documentation &
training materials
Simple and complete reference manual
Training materials tailored to the needs of our team
Establish team step-by-step knowledge gain using
seminars and demos for practical experience
Seminar1 (2/7/2011): Overview of WARP system and
the details of its different hardware components
Seminar2 (8/9/2011): WARP physical layer
implementation flow through WARPLab
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About DVB-T2
DVB-T2 system will be implemented in Egypt in the
near future (expected 2015).
This system transmits compressed digital audio,
video, and other data in "physical layer pipes" (PLPs),
using OFDM modulation with concatenated channel
coding and interleaving.
It has been standardized by European
Telecommunication Standardizations Institute (ETSI)
since September 2009.
It is implemented in many European Countries.
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16
DVB-T2 Block Diagram
Input
Data
Output
Data
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DVB-T2 vs. DVB-T
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DVB-T2 DVB-T
FEC LDPC + BCH CC + RS
Code Rate 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4 , 4/5, 5/6 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
Constellation QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM, 256
QAM ( with rotation)
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM
Guard Interval 1/4 , 19/256, 1/8, 19/128,
1/16, 1/32, 1/128
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
FFT size 1K, 2K, 4K, 8K, 16K, 32K 2K, 8K
Scattered pilots 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of total 8% of total
Continual pilots 0,35% of total 2.6% of total
Bandwidth 1.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 MHz 5, 6, 7, 8 MHz
Interleavers Bit, Cell, Time& Frequency Outer & Inner
Max.
Bandwidth
50,34 Mbps 31,66 Mbps
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New Technologies
Used in DVB-T2
Low density parity check codes (LDPC) +
BCH codes.
Constellation rotation.
Four levels of interleaving
Bit interleaving
Cell interleaving
Time interleaving
Frequency Interleaving
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Constellation Rotation
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Constellation Rotation ( cont.)
Rotated constellation consists of applying a
rotation to the QAM constellation followed by
component-axes interleaving.
The insertion of the interleaving between I and
Q leads to the same information being sent
twice over the channel in different cells.
This leads to additional diversity that improves
the error-correcting performance when
severely faded channels are encountered.
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Simulation Results
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Simulation Results cont.
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Cognitive Radio:
Interference mangement & Power
control
Team:
Dr. Maha Elsabrouty
Eng. Bassant Abdelhamid
Eng. Betty Ngui
Eng. Mohamed Elbayoumi
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24
Maha Elsabrouty
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25
Maha Elsabrouty
Cognitive Radio
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26
Maha Elsabrouty
What is cognitive Radio ?
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27
Maha Elsabrouty
Transmission Scenarios:
Overlay
(int.
mitigation)
Interweave (int.
avoidance)
Underlay
(int. controlling)
(space pooling)
(spectrum sharing)
SU
transmission
w.r.t PU
Simultaneously Separated except in
false detection
Simultaneously as long as
PU interference below
interference limit
SU knowledge PU codebooks,
channel gains
The spectral holes in
space, time, or
frequency.
The channel strengths to
PU receiver
SU transmit
power
Any power Limited by the range
of its spectral hole
sensing
limited by the interference
constraint
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28
Maha Elsabrouty
Beamforming
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29
Maha Elsabrouty
- Mathematical Model:
Objective
Subject to
Beamforming in Cognitive
Radio Model

+
=
0
2
2
,
2
,
,
N w w
H
k s
w
w
H
s s
w
SINR
rs
w
ts
w
Max
rs tk
H
rs
ts
H
rs
max ,
2
2
,
,...., 1
s ts
k ts s k
H
rk
P w
K k w H w
s
= s c
Note ! All signals are normalized i.e. | | | | 1
2 2
= =
k s
x E x E
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30
Maha Elsabrouty
Interference Alignment in CR
*Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) 8/12/00
Achieving : Basic goal
maximum multiplexing gain
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31
Maha Elsabrouty
New Research Directions in
CR interference control and mitigation
(1) Considering Channel Imperfections in
Beamforming and Interference Alignment.
(2) Game theory application in IA and
beamforming.
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32
Maha Elsabrouty
max ,
2
2
,
,...., 1
s ts
k ts s k
H
rk
P w
K k w H w
s
= s c
- Mathematical Model:
Objective
Subject to
Beamforming in Cognitive
Radio Model

+
=
0
2
2
,
2
,
,
N w w
H
k s
w
w
H
s s
w
SINR
rs
w
ts
w
Max
rs tk
H
rs
ts
H
rs
Note ! All signals are normalized i.e. | | | | 1
2 2
= =
k s
x E x E
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33
Maha Elsabrouty
IA with channel imperfection
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34
Maha Elsabrouty
Research papers
34
- [1] ICC 2012: B. Abdelhamid, M. Elsabrouty, M. Alghoniemy , S.
Elramly : Opportunistic Interference Alignment for MIMO Cognitive
Networks with Channel Imperfection, submitted
Contribution: Developing a new power allocation to preserve the
maximize the capacity in channel imperfection scenario.
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35
Maha Elsabrouty
(3) Using Game theory for
Beamforming and IA
- Motivation:
In interference alignment precoding and postcoding matrices are
calculated with every new update in the channel matrices and sent
to the respective recievers.
In beamforing the beamforming vector is clacluated with the every
update of the channel matrices and sent to the respective
receivers.
Idea:
1. replace the actual coefficients with coefficients table.
2. choose among available coefficients instead of calculation.
3. Send index instead of the actual coefficients to the recievers.
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36
Maha Elsabrouty
Cross layer Power Control
Using Game Thoery
- Modifying the power of each secondary user
according to the channel conditions.
- Feedback from physical layer.
- Involves modifying the different definitions of
games to suit the special nature of the CR.
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37
Maha Elsabrouty
Conclusion
- Cognitive Radio is a promising technology to
fully utilize the spectrum resources and provide
service for emergency users.
- Interference control/ Management / Mitigation
are key for the proposer setup of cognitive radio
system.
- New ideas can emerge in the cognitive radio
scene with possibility to improve the
performance.
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38
Maha Elsabrouty
Reference Publications
Mitola, Cognitive Radio for Flexible Mobile Multimedia Communications,
IEEE Mobile Multimedia Conference, 1999, pp3-10
Mitola, Future of Signal Processing - Cognitive Radio, Keynote, IEEE
ICASSP, May 1999
Beibei Wang, Yongle Wu, K.J. Ray Liu, "Game theory for cognitive radio
networks: An overview", ELSEVIER journals on Computer Networks 54
(2010) 25372561
V. R. Cadambe and S. A. Jafar, Interference alignment and degrees of
freedom of the K-user interference channel, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.
54, no. 8, pp. 34253441, Aug. 2008.
Ying Jun (Angela) Zhang, Member, IEEE and Anthony Man-Cho So,
Optimal Spectrum Sharing in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks via
Semidefinite Programming, IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In
Communications, Vol. 29, No. 2, February 2011
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Multiple Access and Routing
in CR Networks
Phase 1 Activities:
Building background on CR.
Survey of the existing Multiple Access
and Routing protocols.
Acquiring OpNet simulation tool skills.
Analysis of existing models.
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CR Networks (Layers)
BS
BS
Layer 2
channel
assignment
Layer 3
Routing/handover
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MAC Protocol for CRN
Desired features:
- Predicting future spectrum usage.
- Bundling several continuous idle channels.
- Distributed algorithm to be employed in ad-hoc networks.
- Dealing with multi channel hidden terminal problem.
Objectives:
- Increase throughput.
- Reduce interference between SU and PU.
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Different Types of MAC Protocols
KNOWS (Kognitiv Networking Over White
Space).
AS-MAC (Ad Hoc Secondary system-MAC).
SYN-MAC (SYNchronized-MAC).
SCA-MAC (Statistical Channel Allocation-
MAC).
ECR-MAC (Energy efficient Cognitive Radio-
MAC).
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Cognitive radio
Ad-Hoc routing protocols
- Desired features
Allow the secondary users to communicate with each
other without base station or access point.
Build routes from source to destination using low metric.
Avoid the primary user region during the build of the
routes.
- Objectives
Improve some performance metric such as utilization
and throughput.
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Performance metrics
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CRAHNs routing protocols
Opportunistic Service Differentiation Routing Protocol
(OSDRP).
Spectrum-Tree Based On-Demand Routing Protocol for
Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks(STOD-RP).
SpEctrum Aware Routing protocol for Cognitive ad-Hoc
networks (SEARCH).
CR Routing Protocol (CRP).
Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Cognitive Radio
Networks(CAODV).
Connectivity-Driven Routing for Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc
Networks.
Network model
Packet Delivery Ratio vs. number of nodes
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Packet Delivery Ratio vs. number of nodes
Simulation Results
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.6
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.7
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
PDF
Routing overhead verses number of nodes
Simulation Results (Cont.)
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Routing overhead
Conclusions & Future Work
The project planned research outcomes were
achieved.
Eight Seminars were held during Phase 1 duration.
WARP Lab establishment suffers delay due to the
slow and complicated process of procurements.
One Paper has been sent to an international
conference, but not yet accepted.
The project plan will be followed in the next 6
months (Phase 2).
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