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PolyLab Engineering Equipment, Miraj




DESCRIPTION This equipment is designed as Recirculation type set-up. The apparatus consists of

circuit of pipes with bend and elbow, a sudden expansion and sudden contraction fitting from 0.5 to 1 diameter. Pressure tapings are provided at inlet and outlet of these fittings under test. A differential manometer with manifolds provided with the unit measures the pressure loss of individual fittings. This circuit of pipes with the

fittings is mounted on the Sump tank and Measuring tank. A mono block pump fitted on the Sump tank recirculates the water.

EXPERIMENTATION To determine loss of head in the fittings at various water flow rates. SPECIFICATIONS 1. Sump Tank : Capacity - Size 900mm x 400mm x 400mm Ht., 140 Ltrs. Material M.S. Sheet - 14 gauge with F.R.P. coating from inside.

2. Measuring Tank : Capacity- Size - 400mm x 250mm x 250Ht. -40 Ltrs. Material - M.S. Sheet 14 gauge with F.R.P. coating from inside. Piezometric Glass Tube with scale for flow measurement. 3. Diff.Manometer : For measuring pressure head with Mercury. 4. StopWatch digital. 5. Pipe circuit 6. Pipe fittings : 12.5mm and 25.4mm dia. : Sudden enlargement, contraction, bend, elbow, control valve and suction piping. 7. Mono block pump : 0.5 HP, Single phase, 230 V.A.C. with bye-pass valve and suction piping. Karthik Make.

PolyLab Engineering Equipment, Miraj

PROCEDURE 1. Connect all pressure tapings to the common manometer, through block. 2. Allow steady flow of water through the test specimen. Flow can be varied by a valve provided in the line. 3. The pressure loss of a particular fitting be noted down on manometer by opening respective cocks on the manometer board. Make sure that other cocks are in closed position. 4. Collect the water in Measuring Tank by closing the drain valve and note down the time required for collection of 5mm of water. 5. Now vary the discharge by opening or closing the delivery valve on the bye-pass and carry out above mentioned procedure. OBSERVATION TABLE Sr. No. Specimen under test H1 h cm cm of Hg. of H2O T time in sec for 2-3 cm. Q ccs/ sec V1 cm/ sec V2 cm/ sec h = theoretical loss of head in cms of water

01. 02. 03. 04.

Sudden contraction Bend Elbow Sudden expansion

OBSERVATIONS d1 = Dia. of larger pipe = 2.54 cm. d2 = Dia. of smaller pipe h = 1.25 cm. H1 = in cms of Water.

= H1 (13.6 -1) = 12.6 H1

PolyLab Engineering Equipment, Miraj

d12 a1 = ------- = 5.06 cm2 4 d22 a2 = ------ = 1.227 cm2 4 lxbxz Q = ----------ccs/sec, z = height of water in glass tube (5 cm.) t where, Q = discharge in ccs/sec., t = time for collection of water for z (in sec.) V1 = Q/a1 cm/sec. V2 = Q/a2 cm/sec. Therefore,


= =

theoretical loss for sudden enlargement. (V1 V2)2 / 2g K x V2/2 g for bend and elbow. (Assume K = 0.6) (1/Cc - 1)2 x (V2)2 / 2g for contraction (Assuming Cc = 0.62)

hb hc

= =


* If Hg is used in the Manometer.

PolyLab Engineering Equipment, Miraj


EXPERIMENTATION To determine Coef. Of Friction of the given Pipe at various water flow rates.

The Set-Up consists of pipes with different materials like M.S., Brass, Copper & Stainless Steel connected in parallel. A manometer board is provided to measure loss in the pipes. The valves provided on delivery side enable us to use one pipe at a time for testing. Tapings are provided on the pipe to draw hydraulic grade line. Specifications * * * * Pipe material : Diameter G.I. Pipe Test Length : 100cm.

: 1.4 cm. I.D. (approx.).

Pressure tapings for measuring pressure loss and to plot hydraulic grade lines. Piezometers tubes are provided on the manometer are used for measuring friction loss in all the pipes.

* * *

Suitable piping and valves on delivery side are provided. Sturdy support stand for mounting the set-up on the bench is provided. Flow rates can be varied by valve provided on the pipe line.

PROCEDURE 01. Keep its Gate Valve open at discharge end. See that manometer ports of the pipe under test are open. 02. Start the supply and adjust the flow in such a manner that the air bubbles in the pipe will be removed. Remove the air bubbles by opening the over flow cock of the manometer.

PolyLab Engineering Equipment, Miraj

03. After removing the air bubbles adjust the flow rate by operating the valve of the pipe under test and note down the manometer reading. Also measure the flow rate using Measuring tank and stop clock. Before taking the reading see that the drain valve is closed. 04. Take the readings for different flow rates. 05. Fill in the readings in the observation table. OBSERVATION TABLE : Observations 01. ID of all Pipe = d 1.4cm 02. Distance between two Pressure Tapings of each pipe = L = 100cm Sr.No Pipe Discharge Q- ltr/sec. G.I. Area of Pipe a cm2 VelocityV cm/sec Loss of headhf cm Coef. Fric. f

Calculations :

Coef. Of Friction f = hf x 2 x g2x d


Where V = Q/a ***********