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Vacuum Valves

Submitted To: Hafiz Rub Nawaz Shahid

Anwar-ul-Haq Asif Hussain Muhammad Adnan Khan Muhammad Awais Younas Muslim Abbas Muhammad Irfan

01-6-2-002-2010 01-6-2-003-2010 01-6-2-008-2010 01-6-2-009-2010 01-6-2-012-2010 PHD

Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences Nilore, Islamabad

Vacuum valves

Table of Contents
1. Introduction to valves: .......................................................................................................................... 2 1.1. 1.2. Function of valves: ........................................................................................................................ 2 Valve Classification based on function: ........................................................................................ 3 Gate Valve ............................................................................................................................. 3 Globe Valve or Stop valve: .................................................................................................... 6 Ball Valve: .............................................................................................................................. 7 PLUG VALVE: ......................................................................................................................... 9 BUTTERFLY VALVE: .............................................................................................................. 10 CHECK VALVE: ..................................................................................................................... 12 Needle Valves...................................................................................................................... 14 Pilot-Operated Relief Valves: .............................................................................................. 15

1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.2.4. 1.2.5. 1.2.6. 1.2.7. 1.2.8.

Vacuum valves

1. Introduction to valves:
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. Valves are used in a variety of contexts, including industrial, military, commercial, residential, and transport. The industries in which the majority of valves are used are oil and gas, power generation, mining, water reticulation, sewage and chemical manufacturing. In daily life, most noticeable are plumbing valves, such as taps for tap water as shown in figure 1. Other familiar examples include gas control valves on cookers, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, safety devices fitted to hot water systems, and valves in car engines. In nature, veins acting as valves are controlling the blood circulation; heart valves control the flow of blood in the chambers of the heart and maintain the correct pumping action as shown in figure 1. Valves play a vital role in industrial applications ranging from transportation of drinking water to control of ignition in a rocket engine.

1.1. Function of valves:


Control fluid flow Stop and start fluid flow Control the amount of fluid flow (throttling) Control the direction of fluid flow Prevent backflow Protect piping and equipment from over pressure Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever or pedal. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers1.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve

Vacuum valves

1.2.Valve Classification based on function:


Flow Controlling Valves Gate Valve Globe Valve Needle Valve Ball Valve Plug Valve Butterfly Valve Diaphragm Valve Backflow Preventing Valves Check Valve Pressure Controlling Valves Relief Valve Safety Valve2

Figure1. Simplest valve used in daily life and natural valves in heart to control the flow. 1.2.1. Gate Valve: The gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces can form a wedge
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CONTROL VALVE HANDBOOK, Emerson Process Management, Fourth Edition, Fisher Controls International

Vacuum valves

shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are primarily used to permit or prevent the flow of liquids, but typical gate valves should not be used for regulating flow, unless they are specifically designed for that purpose. Because of their ability to cut through liquids, gate valves are often used in the petroleum industry3.

Figure 2: Gate valve made up of stainless steel

Figure3. Working principle of gate valve On opening the gate valve, the flow path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percent of opening. This means that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a
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http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_gate.html

Vacuum valves

partially open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed to be fully opened or closed. When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss4. Working Principle The series valve is straight pattern one. When hand-wheel rotates clockwise, the gate descends and the valve shuts off; when rotate counter clockwise, the gate ascends and the valve opens as shown in figure 3. Advantages Good choice for ON-OFF service Full flow-low pressure drop Bidirectional No dam or pocket is offered to trap sediments or pieces of scale. Disadvantages Not for throttling; use fully opened or fully closed Metal-to-metal seating means not best choice for frequent operation. Bubble-tight seating should not be expected with metal-to-metal design Are not quick opening or closing valves Require large space for installation, operation, and maintenance Difficult to repair & automate Large torque required to open because of large pressure difference across seat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gate_valve

Vacuum valves

1.2.2. Globe Valve or Stop valve:


A globe valves is a linear motion valve and are primarily designed to stop, start and regulate flow. The disk of a globe valve can be totally removed from the flow path or it can completely close the flow path. It is a valve with a linear motion closure member, one or more ports, and a body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region. Working Principle: The fundamental principle of the globe valve operation is the perpendicular motion of the disk away from the seat. This ensures that the ring-shaped space between the disk and seat ring gradually close as the valve is closed. This property gives a globe valve reasonably good throttling capability. Therefore, the globe valve can be used for starting and stopping flow and to regulate flow5.

Figure 4: Diagram of globe valve and its working principle Advantages globe valves: Good shutoff capability (positive tightness against leakage) Moderate to good throttling capability Good for frequent operation Shorter stroke (compared to a gate valve)
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http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_globe.html

Vacuum valves

Available in Z, Y, and angle patterns, each offering unique capabilities Easy to machine or resurface the seats Drawbacks of globe valve: Higher pressure drop even in fully open condition (compared to a gate valve) Requires greater force or a larger actuator to seat the valve (with pressure under the seat) More costly than alternate valves Not suitable for relatively dirty fluids because sediments or scale will collect beneath the disk where there s cavity thus interrupting flow

1.2.3. Ball Valve:


A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. The sphere has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you "see" the valve's position. The ball valve, along with the butterfly valve and plug valve, are part of the family of quarter turn valves6.

Figure 5: original ball valve, its cross section and its ball. Advantages ball valves: Provides bubble-tight service Quick to open and close( quarter turn or 90 operation), not torque-dependent for seating Offers high cycle life
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http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_ball.html

Vacuum valves

Especially useful for low flow situations Easier to automate than multi-turn valves Low p drop and less turbulence in fully open position

Disadvantages of ball valves: They are not suitable for sustained throttling applications In slurry or other applications, the suspended particles can settle and become trapped in body cavities causing wear, leakage, or valve failure Temperature range limited by seat material Not suitable for high p, high flow rate applications MATERIALS OF BALLS AND SEATS Balls are usually made of several metallics, while the seats are from soft materials like Teflon, Neoprene, and combinations of these materials. The use of soft-seat materials imparts excellent sealing ability. The disadvantage of soft-seat materials (elastomeric materials) is, that they are not can be used in high temperatures processes. For example, fluorinated polymer seats can be used for service temperatures from 200 (and larger) to 230C and higher, while graphite seats may be used for temperatures from ? to 500C and higher. BALL VALVE STEM DESIGN The stem in a ball valve is not attached to the ball. Usually it has a rectangular portion at the ball, and that fits into a slot cut into the ball. The enlargement permits rotation of the ball as the valve is opened or closed. BALL VALVES APPLICATIONS The following are some typical applications of ball valves: Air, gaseous, and liquid applications Drains and vents in liquid, gaseous, and other fluid services Steam service
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Vacuum valves

1.2.4. PLUG VALVE:


A plug valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve that use a tapered or cylindrical plug to stop or start flow. In the open position, the plug-passage is in one line with the inlet and outlet ports of the valve body. If the plug 90 is rotated from the open position, the solid part of the plug blocks the port and stops flow. Plug valves are similar to ball valves in operation7.

Figure 6: original plug valve, its cross section and its working principle. Advantages plug valves: Simple design with few parts Quick to open or close Can be serviced in place Offers minimal resistance to flow Provides reliable leak tight service Can be used with large flow rates, high p

http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_plug.html

Vacuum valves

Disadvantages of plug valves: Requires greater force to actuate, due to high friction Typically, plug valves may cost more than ball valves Not suitable for throttling applications Typical applications of plug valves A plug valve can be used in many different fluid services and they perform well in slurry applications. The following are some typical applications of plug valves: Air, gaseous, and vapor services Natural gas piping systems Oil piping systems Vacuum to high-pressure applications

1.2.5. BUTTERFLY VALVE:


A butterfly valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve that is used to stop, regulate, and start flow. Butterfly valves are easy and fast to open. A 90 rotation of the handle provides a complete closure or opening of the valve. Large Butterfly valves are usually equipped with a so-called gearbox, where the hand wheel by gears is connected to the stem. This simplifies the operation of the valve, but at the expense of speed8.

http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_butterfly.html

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Vacuum valves

Figure 7: original butterfly valve and its working principle. Advantages of butterfly valves Compact design requires considerably less space, compared to other valves Light in weight Quick operation requires less time to open or close Available in very large sizes Low-pressure drop and high-pressure recovery Disadvantages of butterfly valves Throttling service is limited to low differential pressure Cavitation and choked flow are two potential concerns Disc movement is unguided and affected by flow turbulence TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF BUTTERFLY VALVES A butterfly valve can be used in many different fluid services and they perform well in slurry applications. The following are some typical applications of butterfly valves: Cooling water, air, gases, fire protection etc. Slurry and similar services Vacuum service High-pressure and high-temperature water and steam services
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Vacuum valves

1.2.6. CHECK VALVE:


Check valves are "automatic" valves that open with forward flow and close with reverse flow. The pressure of the fluid passing through a system opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve. Exact operation will vary depending on the type of check valve mechanism. Most common types of check valves are swing, lift (piston and ball), butterfly, stop and tiltingdisk9. TYPES OF CHECK VALVES Swing Check Valve Check Valve Piston Type Swing check valve A basic swing check valve consists of a valve body, a bonnet, and a disk that is connected to a hinge. The disk swings away from the valve-seat to allow flow in the forward direction, and returns to valve-seat when upstream flow is stopped, to prevent backflow.

Figure 8: original swing check valve, its cross section and its working principle.
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http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_check.html

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Vacuum valves

The disc in a swing type check valve is unguided as it fully opens or closes. There are many disk and seat designs available, in order to meet the requirements of different applications. The valve allows full, unobstructed flow and automatically closes as pressure decreases. These valves are fully closed when flow reaches zero, in order to prevent backflow. Turbulence and pressure drop in the valve are very low. Lift check valve The seat design of a lift-check valve is similar to a globe valve. The disc is usually in the form of a piston or a ball. Lift check valves are particularly suitable for high-pressure service where velocity of flow is high. In lift check valves, the disc is precisely guided and fits perfectly into the dashpot. Lift check valves are suitable for installation in horizontal or vertical pipe-lines with upward flow10.

Figure 9: original lift check valve, its cross section and its configuration.
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http://www.wermac.org/valves/valves_check.html

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Vacuum valves

Flow to lift check valves must always enter below the seat. As the flow enters, the piston or ball is raised within guides from the seat by the pressure of the upward flow. When the flow stops or reverses, the piston or ball is forced onto the seat of the valve by both the backflow and gravity. Advantages Self-actuated and require no external means to actuate the valve either to open or close Fast acting Disadvantages Difficult to determine whether the valve is open or closed Valve disc can stick in open position

1.2.7. Needle Valves


A needle valve is used to make relatively fine adjustments in the amount of fluid flow. The distinguishing characteristic of a needle valve is the long, tapered, needlelike point on the end of the valve stem. This "needle" acts as a disk. The longer part of the needle is smaller than the orifice in the valve seat and passes through the orifice before the needle seats. This arrangement permits a very gradual increase or decrease in the size of the opening. Needle valves are often used as component parts of other, more complicated valves. For example, they are used in some types of reducing valve.

Figure 10: Needle valve

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Vacuum valves

1.2.8. Pilot-Operated Relief Valves:


Pilot-operated relief valves are designed to maintain pressure through the use of a small passage to the top of a piston that is connected to the stem such that system pressure closes the main relief valve. When the small pilot valve opens, pressure is relieved from the piston, and system pressure under the disk opens the main relief valve. Such pilot valves are typically solenoid operated, with the energizing signal originating from pressure measuring systems.

Figure 11: Pilot-operated Relief valve

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