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CHAPTER 29

The Metallurgy of Welding; Welding Design and Process Selection

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-1

Fusion Weld Zone

Figure 29.1 Characteristics of a typical fusion weld zone in oxyfuel gas and arc welding. See also Figs. 27.16 and 28.14.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-2

Grain Structure in Shallow and Deep Welds


(a) (b)

Figure 29.2 Grain structure in (a) a deep weld (b) a shallow weld. Note that the grains in the solidified weld metal are perpendicular to the surface of the base metal. In a good weld, the solidification line at the center in the deep weld shown in (a) has grain migration, which develops uniform strength in the weld bead.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-3

Weld Beads
(a) (b)

Figure 29.3 (a) Weld bead (on a cold-rolled nickel strip) produced by a laser beam. (b) Microhardness profile across the weld bead. Note the lower hardness of the weld bead compared to the base metal. Source: IIT Research Institute.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Regions in a Fusion Weld Zone


Figure 29.4 Schematic illustration of various regions in a fusion weld zone (and the corresponding phase diagram) for 0.30% carbon steel. Source: American Welding Society.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Corrosion
Figure 29.5 Intergranular corrosion of a 310-stainless-steel welded tube after exposure to a caustic solution. The weld line is at the center of the photograph. Scanning electron micrograph at 20 X. Source: Courtesy of B. R. Jack, Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Incomplete Fusion

Figure 29.6 Low-quality weld beads, the result of incomplete fusion. Source: American Welding Society.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Discontinuities in Fusion Welds


Figure 29.7 Schematic illustration of various discontinuities in fusion welds. Source: American Welding Society.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-8

Cracks in Welded Joints


Figure 29.8 Types of cracks (in welded joints) caused by thermal stresses that develop during solidification and contraction of the weld bead and the surrounding structure. (a) Crater cracks. (b) Various types of cracks in butt and T joints.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-9

Crack in a Weld Bead


Figure 29.9 Crack in a weld bead, due to the fact that the two components were not allowed to contract after the weld was completed. Source: S. L. Meiley, Packer Engineering Associates, Inc.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-10

Distortion After Welding

Figure 29.10 Distortion of parts after welding: (a) butt joints; (b) fillet welds. Distortion is caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction of different parts of the welded assembly.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-11

Residual Stresses Developed During Welding


Figure 29.11 Residual stresses developed during welding of a butt joint. Source: American Welding Society.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-12

Overview of Commercial Joining Processes


TABLE 29.1 Overview of Commercial Joining Processes* Joining Process S M A W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x S A W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x G M A W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F C A W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x G T A W x x Brazing P A W E S W E G W R W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F W x x x x x x x x x x x x O F W x x x x x D F W F R W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x E B W x x x x x x x x x x x x L B W x x x x x x x x x T B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x R B x x D B x x I R B x D F B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Material Carbon steel

Low-alloy steel

Stainless steel

Cast iron

Nickel and alloys

Thickness S I M T S I M T S I M T I M T S I M T

x x x

x x x x x x x

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-13

Overview of Commercial Joining Processes (cont.)


TABLE 29.1 (continued) Joining Process S M A W x x x x S A W G M A W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F C A W G T A W x x x Brazing P A W x E S W E G W O F W x D F W x x F R W x x x E B W x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x L B W x x T B x x x F B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I B x R B x D B x x x I R B x D F B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x ThickR F Material ness W W Aliminum S x x and alloys I x x M x T x x x Titanium S x x x x x and alloys I x x x x x x x M x x x T x x S Copper and x x x alloys I x x x M x x T x x x Magnesium S x x x x and alloys I x x M x T Refractory S x x x x alloys I x x M x x T *This table is presented as a general survey only. In selecting processes to be used with specific alloys, the reader should refer to other appropriate sources of information. Source: Courtesy of the American Welding Society. S x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Overview of Commercial Joining Processes (cont.)


TABLE 29.1 (continued)

Legend Process code


SMAWShielded Metal-Arc Welding SAWSubmerged Arc Welding GMAWGas Metal-Arc Welding FCAWFlux-Cored Arc Welding GTAWGas Tungsten-Arc Welding PAWPlasma Arc Welding ESWElectroslag Welding EGWElectrogas Welding RWResistance Welding FWFlash Welding OFWOxyfuel Gas Welding DFWDiffusion Welding FRWFriction Welding EBWElectron Beam Welding LBWLaser Beam Welding TBTorch Brazing FBFurnace Brazing IBInduction Brazing RBResistance Brazing DBDip Brazing IRBInfrared Brazing DFBDiffusion Brazing SSoldering

Thickness
SSheet: up to 3 mm in.B IIntermediate: 3 to 6 mm A in.B MMedium: 6 to 19 mm A in.B TThick: 19 mm A in. B and up

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-15

Destructive Techniques
Figure 29.12 Two types of specimens for tension-shear testing of welded joints.

Figure 29.13 (a) Wrap-around bend test method. (b) Three-point bending of welded specimens--see also Fig. 2.11.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 29-16

Testing of Spot Welds


Figure 29.14 (a) Tensionshear test for spot welds. (b) Cross-tension test. (c) Twist test. (d) Peel test; see also Fig. 30.8.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 29-17

Welding Design Guidelines


Figure 29.15 Design guidelines for welding. Source: J. G. Bralla (ed.), Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing. Copyright 1986, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Used with permission.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Standard Identification and Symbols for Welds


Figure 29.16

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Weld Design Selection

Figure 29.17

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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