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NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR SOCITAL TRANSFORMATION

A JOURNEY TO DWDM
Miss. Vandana M. Anerao. Ms. Anudeepa S.Kholapure Faculty, Department of electronics and telecommunication, K.J.Somaiya college of Engineering, Mumbai- 400077

Phone 02256449150 E-mail: aneraovandana_26@rediffmail.com anudeepa11@rediffmail.com


Abstract Channel capacities due to DWDM have rapidly increased from 2 and 4 channels up to16 and lately in excess of 100 channels. Most networks were built using estimates that calculated bandwidth used by concentration ratio derived from classical engineering formulas such as Poisson and Reeling which were applicable for the use of network bandwidth six minutes per hour. Todays networks like internet, data and video transmission etc. use the bandwidth equivalent of 180 minutes or more each hour. Therefore these formulae didnt factor in the amount of traffic generated today. This increased from data transmission technology by increasing the capacity signal of embedded fiber. This increase means that the incoming optical signals are assigned to specific wavelengths within the designated frequency band, and then multiplexed on to one fiber. This process allows for multiple video, audio, data channels to be transmitted over one fiber while maintaining system performance and enhancing transport systems. This technology responds to the need for efficient and capable data transmission by working with different formats such as SONET/SDH, while increasing bandwidth.

Keywords: SONET, SDH-synchronous digital hierarchy, increased capacity, optical multiplexing, dark fiber, wireless optics MAN, EDFA. Introduction
DWDM is the clear winner in the backbone. It was first deployed on long-haul routes in a time of fiber scarcity. Then the equipment savings made it the solution of choice for new long-haul routes, even when ample fiber was available. While DWDM can relieve fiber exhaust in the metropolitan area, its value in this market extends beyond this single advantage. Alternatives for capacity enhancement exist, such as pulling new cable and SONET overlays, but DWDM can do more capital expenses and operational expenses, and offers greater sophistication over SDH-enabled metro networks. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing which increases the capacity of embedded fiber by first assigning incoming optical signals to specific frequencies (wavelength) within the designated frequency band and then multiplexing the resulting signals out on to one fiber. With the exponential growth in communications ,caused mainly by the wide acceptance of internet, many carriers are finding that their estimates of fiber needs have been highly underestimated Although

most cables included many spare fibers when installed ,this growth has used many of them and new capacity is needed. Three existing methods for expanding capacity: 1) Installing more cables 2) Increasing system bit rate to multiplex more signals. 3) Wavelength division multiplexing. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) has proven most cost effective in many instances. It allows using current electronics and current fibers ,but simply shares fibers by transmitting different channels at different wavelengths of light. Current systems offer from 4 to 32 channels of wavelengths. The higher number of wavelengths has lead to the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)The technical requirement is only that the lasers be of very specific wavelengths and the wavelengths are very stable and DWDM demultiplexers capable of distinguishing each wavelength without cross talk.

STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL DWDM LINK:

channel is directed in to the wavelength multiplexer, to be combined and sent onto optical path, through the optical amplifier and then on to a demultiplexer. The signal is broken into its individual channels and parsed out to each receiving element. The recent explosion of DWDM technology forced the fiber optic manufacturers to develop DWDM multiplexers and demultiplexers that can handle closely spaced optical wavelengths. These designs requires narrow passbands usually 0.4 nm wide, step roll off to reject adjacent channels and stable operation over increased temperature. Recently multiplexers have gained versatility, moving beyond the wideband wavelengths and into densely packed wavelengths that can be integrated in to a multiple high frequency,192-200 THz, transmission system .This type of system can maintain up to 16 channels, acting as a 16 fiber channel cable with each frequency channel operating to serve a STM-16/OC-48 carrier. Demultiplexers need to eliminate cross talk and channel interference .Couplers and dichroic filter, both passive devices are the most favorable demultiplexers today. The first DWDM coupler design is based on Fiber Bragg Grating(FBG) filters. Bragg Gratings are comprised of a length of optical fiber with the index of the core permanently modified periodically usually when exposed to an ultra violet interference pattern .As a result the fiber gratting behaves as a wavelength dependant reflector and lends itself to precise wavelength separation.

FIGURE 1. The above figure shows structure of typical DWDM link deployed in todays network. On left there are various channels Tx1, Tx2, etc. Each DWDM link may contains many as transmitters per channel (with more possible in future). The signal from each

FIGURE 2.

Channel Spacing DWDM channel spacing governs system performance; 50 GHz and 100 GHz outline the standards of ITU channel spacing. Currently, 100 GHz is the most commonly used and reliable channel spacing. This spacing allows for several channel schemes without imposing limitations on available fiber amplifiers. However, channel spacing depends on the system's components. Channel spacing is the minimum frequency separation between two multiplexed signals. An inverse proportion of frequency versus wavelength of operation calls for different wavelengths to be introduced at each signal. The optical amplifiers bandwidth and receivers ability to identify two close wavelengths sets the channel spacing. Following figure illustrates the typical DWDM specifications.

they started to use closer spaced optical channels. The channel spacing, in GHz, relates to the optical wavelength as follows: A spacing of 200 GHz corresponds to about 1.6 nm, 100 GHz corresponds to about 0.8 nm, and 50 GHz corresponds to about 0.4 nm channels spacing. Most commonly 50 GHz follows 100 GHz, although attempts at 75 GHz and 37.5 GHz show up in literature. While there is nothing magical about any of these numbers, it seems likely that 50 GHz will be the next logical step below 100 GHz. Using a channel spacing of 50 GHz (0.4 nm) allows 45 channels to occupy only 17.5 nm of optical bandwidth. This greatly simplifies the requirement for optical amplifiers in the system. Fiber increases in channels per fiber would likely lead to the use of 25 GHz spacing.

FIGURE 3. Signal Direction DWDM involved sending a large number of closely spaced optical signals over a single fiber. Standards developed by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) define the exact optical wavelength used for DWDM applications. The center of the DWDM band lies at 193.1 THz with standard channel spacing of 200 GHz and 100 GHz. The closest "standard" spacing (100 GHz) allows transmission of 45 channels on one fiber. A 45 channel system spaced at 100 GHz would cover a optical span of 35 nm and require a costly wide bandwidth, gain-flattened EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) As system designers looked to pack more than the 45 channels at 100 GHz spacing, FIGURE 4. Designing the optical demultiplexer to separate the signals at the receive end defines the greatest challenge in closely spaced optical channels. Because of subtle color differences in each of the optical channels, high performance DWDM optical demultiplexers must have three characteristics. First, it must be very stable over time and temperature. Second, it needs to have a relatively flat passband or region of frequencies. Third, it must reject adjacent optical channels so that they do not interfere, Several basic types of designs can be used in optical demultiplexers to separate the optical channels, Many of these designs have an

increasingly difficult time separating the optical channels as the spacing becomes very close, Some, however, such as fiber Bragg gratings actually appear better suited for closer channel spacing. The need for close optic channel spacing is a trade-off between the performance required of the

optical amplifiers used in the system and the number of channels to be transmitted per fiber, figure 4 illustrates the transmission spectra of 0.4 nm spacing DWDM FBGs. Red and Blue Bands The ITU approved DWDM band extends from 1528.77 nm to 1563.86 nm, and divides into the red band and the blue band. The red band encompasses the longer wavelengths of 1546.12 nm and higher. The blue band wavelengths fall below 1546.12 nm. This division has a practical value because useful gain region of the lowest cast EDFAs corresponds to the red band wavelengths. Thus, if a system only requires a limited number of DWDM wavelengths using the red band wavelength yields the lowest overall system cost.
Application in MAN
APPLICATION COMMERCIAL AVAILABLE 10G*176 WAVELENGTH 10G*32 WAVELENGTH 2.5G*160 WAVELENGTH 150M*32LINKS ACHIEVED IN LABORATORY 40G*200-300 WAVELENGTH 110G*100-200 WAVELENGTH 10G*500 WAVELENGTH 10M*128 WAVELENGTH

According to research in metropolitan area network Evolution of DWDM is as follows: More channels and faster line rates = More optical capacity 1.6 Terabits/sec capacity in todays Long haul DWDM system i.e.160 sec @10 Gigabits/sec each. Another important development, which is visible, is the commonality of Ethernet. We have Ethernet in VoIP (Voice over IP), Ethernet for videos etc. Instead of relying on a SONET infrastructure, which is optimized for voice and expensive to deploy, metropolitan Ethernet providers use a combination of fiber, DWDM and Ethernet boxes. The combination of DWDM equipment and simple Ethernet gear is much less expensive than SONET equipment, enabling metropolitan Ethernet providers to offer cut-rate pricing. Future Scope The advancement of DWDM technology is also based on expansion capacity of dark fiber. In telecommunications, dark fiber or unlit fiber (or fibre) is the name given to fiber optic cables which have yet to be used but have been laid. They are hence not yet connected to any device, and are only there for future usage.The term was originally used when talking about the potential network capacity of telecommunication infrastructure, but now also refers to increasingly common practice of leasing fiber optic cables from a network service provider. The creation of a market in dark fiber has also encouraged telcos to swap fiber capacity with one another, thus increasing
Channels Time 1980s Early 90s Mid 90s Late 90s Current WDM type Wideband Narrow band DWDM DWDM DWDM 2 2-8 16-40 64-160 160-320 Wavelengt h 1310nm1550nm C-band C-band C-band C/L-band Channel specification 200-400Ghz 100-200Ghz 25-50Ghz 12.5-25Ghz

Terrestrial Backbone Network Submarine Metropolitan area network Access Network

the reach of their networks in places where their competitor has a presence, in exchange for provision of fiber capacity on places where that competitor has no presence. Dark fiber capacity is typically used by network operators to build wavelength-division multiplexed networks, usually involving meshes of rings. Managed dark fiber is a form of wavelength-division multiplexed access to otherwise dark fiber where a simple "pilot" signal is injected into the fiber by the fiber provider for management purposes. Wavelength multiplexing allows a service provider to offer virtual dark fiber to customers, offering individual wavelengths or lambdas () as individual dark fibers.

technology. Djafar K.Mynbaev , Lowell L.Scheiner [2] France telecom R&D, Alcatel research and innovation. [3] www.iec.org [4] IEEE Canadian review spring print maps 2001. [5] Cisco systems Inc.1989-2000 [6] Alcatel Optical Networks Tutorial; IEC Web Proforums; Jun 1999.
http://www.webproforum.com/opt_net/index. html

[7] Lucent DWDM Tutorial; IEC Web Proforums; Jun 1998.


http://www.webproforum.com/dwdm/index.html

References

[1] Fiber optic communication

Biography 1) Miss. Vandana M. Anerao She is working as lecturer in K.J.Somaiya College of

Engineering in Electronics and telecommunication department. She has completed her B.E. (Electronics) in 2003 from Mumbai University. She is having two years of teaching experience. Her areas of interests are instrumentation and electronic communication. Contact no.9820817256 E-mail: aneraovandana_26@rediffmail.co m

2) Ms. Anudeepa S.Kholapure

She is working as lecturer in K.J.Somaiya College of Engineering in Electronics And telecommunication Department. She has completed her B.E. (Electronics and telecommunication) in year 2001 She is having five years of teaching experience. Her areas of interests are communication and microprocessor Contact no. 9869677672 E-mail:anudeepa11@rediffmail.com