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1.0 Introduction
Meaning of Open Source Software (OSS) Open source software (OSS) is defined as computer software for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that meets the Open Source Definition or that is in the public domain. This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. Meaning of Hardware A computer's hardware consists of the physical components necessary to Operate and interact with a computer. Since a computer's primary language is binary, devices are necessary to convert our input into that language. The binary code coming out of the computer must also be translated into something usable for the oper Meaning of Software Software is often divided into two categories: 1. System software : Includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. 2. Application software : Includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.ator.

2.0 The Latest Open Source Operating System (OS) 2.1 Meaning of Open Source OS Open Source Operating System is the most important program that runs on a computer that is free to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. 2.2 Examples of Open Source OS Kubuntu Linux A user friendly operating system based on KDE, the K Desktop Environment. With a predictable 6 month release cycle and part of the Ubuntu project, Kubuntu is the GNU/Linux distribution for everyone. Improved desktop, updated applications and increased usability features are just a few of the surprises with this latest release. Fedora Linux A Linux-based operating system that showcases the latest in free and open source software. Fedora is always free for anyone to use, modify, and distribute. It is built by people across the globe who work together as a community: the Fedora Project. The Fedora Project is open and anyone is welcomed to join.

3.0 The Latest Open Source Application Software 3.1 Meaning of Open Source Application Software Open Source Application Software (also called as end-user programs) includes -database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. It is free to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. 3.2 Examples of Open Source Application Software Open Office An office application set (for word processing, spreadsheet manipulation, picture drawing and data base access) compatible with all other major office application sets such as Office and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems. Squirrel Mail An email application (for reading and writing email through a web client program) supporting IMAP and SMTP and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.

4.0 The Latest Development in ICT

4.1 Hardware (Lexmark X8350 and Lexmark X9575 Professional) Lexmark X8350 is a printer that can prints up to 19 ppm colour and up to 25 ppm black. This printer also can print, copy, scan, fax, reduce and enlarge photos and documents. The exclusive Lexmark Photo Editor Software enhances photos. Beside that, this printer also can fax with 89 speed dials and 10 groups with 30 numbers per group, 5 quick dial buttons, Caller ID and distinctive ring detection. Users also can adjust ringer volume, call waiting disable capability, automatic redial, confirmation, error and activity reports, broadcast transmission and delayed transmission, junk fax block, auto Answer Button and scan before dial. Fax forwarding & print, BVRP Host Fax Solution, Print-to-Fax via Lexmark N4000e or N4050e print server with send only. The printer can support Compact Flash Type I & II, Memory Stick, Memory Stick Pro, Memory Stick Duo with adapter, Microdrive, Multi Media, Secure Digital, Mini Secure Digital (Mini SD), SmartMedia and XD cards. Lexmark X9575 Professional let users gain freedom and flexibility with built-in 802.11g wireless technology. Compatible with Wi-Fi certified IEEE 802.11g/b/n. High quality printing from virtually anywhere over a secure wireless network. Share the Lexmark X9575 among multiple computers. In addition, users can fax up to 50-pages capacity Auto Document Feeder (ADF) for multiple page faxing and copying. Standalone black and color faxing with 33.6 Kbps modem speed 99-speed dials, automatic redial, supports caller ID and up to 100-page fax memory. User also can view and edit photos as large as 2.4" (6 cm) color display, print directly from digital memory card, PictBridge compatible digital cameras or USB Flash drive and fast borderless photos on popular photo sizes. Lexmark Productivity Studio Software makes it easy to crop, rotate, resize photos and apply photo effects, plus 1-touch color fix and red eye reduction. This printer can also scan flatbed scanner with 48-bit color depth; 16-bit grayscale. The resolution is up to 1200 x 4800 dpi optical resolution. It also have function that can copy with 1-touch PC-free copying (color or black) 1 to 99 copies at a time. This printer also allows users to print fast. It is up to 33 ppm black and 28 ppm color printing. It also can print Microsoft Office documents and PDFs directly from USB Flash drives.

4.2 Software (Adobe Photoshop CS3 and CS4) Adobe Photoshop CS3 is marketed with three main components of improvement over previous versions. Adobe Creative Suite 3 (CS3) was announced on March 27, 2007. It introduced universal binaries for all major programs for the Apple Macintosh. It work more productively, edit with unrivalled power, and composite with breakthrough tools. New features propagating productivity include streamlined interface, improved Camera Raw, better control over print options, enhanced PDF support, and better management with Adobe Bridge. Editing tools new to CS3 are the Clone Source palette and nondestructive Smart Filters, and other features such as the Brightness/Contrast adjustment and Vanishing Point module were enhanced. The Black and White adjustment option improves users control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. Compositing is assisted with Photoshop's new Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools and improved Image Stitching Technology. CS3 Extended contains all features of CS3 plus tools for editing and importing some 3D graphics file formats, enhancing video, and omprehensive image analysis tools, utilizing MATLAB integration and DICOM file support. Adobe Photoshop CS4 was announced on September 23, 2008 as the successor to Adobe Creative Suite 3. It was officially released on October 15, 2008. CS4 features additions such as the ability to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes, convert gradient maps to 3D objects, add depth to layers and text, get print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine, and enjoy exporting to supported common 3D formats, the new Adjustment and Mask Panels, content-aware scaling, and Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options. On 30 April, Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which includes all the same features of Adobe Photoshop CS4 with the addition of capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, and high end film and video users. The successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4, is the first 64-bit Photoshop on consumer computers. 5.0 Pervasive Computing 5.1 Meaning

The idea that technology is moving beyond the personal computer to everyday devices with embedded technology and connectivity as computing devices become progressively smaller and more powerful. Also called ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing is the result of computer technology advancing at exponential speeds - a trend toward all man-made and some natural products having hardware and software. Pervasive computing goes beyond the realm of personal computers.It is the idea that almost any device, from clothing to tools to appliances to cars to homes to the human body to your coffee mug, can be imbedded with chips to connect the device to an infinite network of other devices. The goal of pervasive computing, which combines current network technologies with wireless computing, voice recognition, Internet capability and artificial intelligence, is to create an environment where the connectivity of devices is embedded in such a way that the connectivity is unobtrusive and always available.

5.2 Examples Smartphone A smartphone is a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities, often with PC- like functionality. There is no industry standard definition of a smartphone. For some, a smartphone is a phone that runs complete operating system software providing a standardized interface and platform for application developers. For others, a smartphone is simply a phone with advanced features like e-mail, Internet and e-book reader capabilities, and/or a built-in full keyboard or external USB keyboard and VGA connector. In other words, it is a miniature computer that has phone capability.

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld computer, also known as a palmtop computer. Newer PDAs also have both color screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones, web browsers, or portable media players. Many PDAs can access the Internet via Wi-Fi, or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs). Many PDAs employ touch screen technology.

6.0 Conclusion Open Source can be used by anyone and because it has no copyright claims, so users are free to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. Pervasive Computing is to make our lives easier because we can interact with computers. Besides that, we can easily give the computer commands and the computer will grant your wish.

7.0 Reference

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080719211451AA9NFvs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human-computer_interaction http://www.indiana.edu/~ovpit/presentations/ipcres/tsld005.htm