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Power Quality Monitoring Why needed? Power quality monitoring is the process of gath ering, analyzing

Power Quality Monitoring

Why needed?
Why needed?

Power quality monitoring is the process of gathering, analyzing and interpreting raw measurement data into useful information. The process of gathering data is usually carried out by continuous measurement voltage and current over and extended period.

What are the objectives/consideration?

The monitoring objectives often determines the choice monitoring equipment, triggering threshold, methods of data acquisition and storage, analysis and interpretation requirements. There are several common objectives of power quality monitoring such as

i) Monitoring to characterize system performance

ii) Monitoring to characterize specific problems

iii) Monitoring as a part of an enhanced power quality service

iv) Monitoring as a part of predictive or just-in-time maintenance

Monitoring as part of a facility site survey are Site survey are performed to evaluate

Monitoring as part of a facility site survey

are
are

Site survey are performed to evaluate concerns for power quality and equipment performance throughout a facility. The survey will includes inspection of wiring and grounding concerns, equipment connections, and voltage and current characteristic etc. This information is specially important when monitoring objective intended to address specific PQ problems. This information

follow;

as

i) nature of problems

ii) Characteristics of sensitive equipment experiencing problems

iii) time at which problems occur

iv) Coincident problems or known operation

v) possible source of power quality variations

vi) existing power conditioning equipment being used

vii) Electrical system data

Forms Forms for for Recording Recording Data forms that can used for initial verification of

FormsForms forfor RecordingRecording

Forms Forms for for Recording Recording Data forms that can used for initial verification of PQ

Data forms that can used for initial verification of PQ disturbances are as follows;

Forms for for Recording Recording Data forms that can used for initial verification of PQ disturbances
Forms for for Recording Recording Data forms that can used for initial verification of PQ disturbances
Locations &permanent PQ monitoring equipment i) ii) Some categories of equipment that are used for

Locations &permanent PQ monitoring equipment

Locations &permanent PQ monitoring equipment i) ii) Some categories of equipment that are used for permanent
i) ii)
i)
ii)

Some categories of equipment that are used for permanent PQ monitoring system such as;

Digital fault recorder

Smart relays and other LEDs

iii) Voltage recorder

iv)In-plant power monitor

v) Special purpose PQ monitor

vi)Revenue meter etc.

Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments ► The instrument makes an impulse-like mark on strip-chart

Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments

Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments ► The instrument makes an impulse-like mark on strip-chart paper

The instrument makes an impulse-like mark on strip-chart paper to record lighting strikes. Analog oscilloscope with logarithmic chart sweep rate and recorded quantitative voltage waveform.

lighting strikes. ► Analog oscilloscope with logarithmic chart sweep rate and recorded quantitative voltage waveform.
lighting strikes. ► Analog oscilloscope with logarithmic chart sweep rate and recorded quantitative voltage waveform.
Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments ► Microprocessor based monitor analyzer 1 s t manufac.

Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments

Historical perspective of PQ measuring instruments ► Microprocessor based monitor analyzer 1 s t manufac. in

Microprocessor based monitor analyzer 1 st manufac. in 1975. This text based printout of a disturbance, still in service.

2 nd generation PQ instrument debuted in mid 80’s. Feature full graphic display, digital memory to view and store captured events. Capable data transmission from remote to central location for further analysis and also have triggering mechanism.

3 rd generation are in mid 90’s inspirited by EPRI DPQ project, more appropriate than previous, complete PQ monitoring, software based data collection and analysis.

EPRI DPQ project, more appropriate than previous, complete PQ monitoring, software based data collection and analysis.
Power Power Quality Quality Measuring Measuring Instruments Instruments i) ii) iii) iv) v) ► There

PowerPower QualityQuality MeasuringMeasuring InstrumentsInstruments

i) ii) iii) iv) v)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

There are numbers of PQ measuring instruments that can measure power quality are as follows;

Wiring and grounding test device Multimeters Oscilloscopes Disturbance analysers Harmonic analysers and spectrum analysers combination disturbance and harmonic analysers

vi)

vii) Flicker and

viii) Energy monitor

Besides these meters, there are some other meters that can help to solve PQ problems by measuring ambient conditions such as;

i) Infrared meter

ii) magnetic gauss meter

iii) Static electricity meters

Wiring Wiring and and grounding grounding tester/multimeters tester/multimeters i) ii) iii) iv) ► Many power

WiringWiring andand groundinggrounding tester/multimeterstester/multimeters

i) ii) iii) iv)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Many power quality problems are reported by end users are caused by problems with wiring and or grounding within the facility. Important capability for a wiring and grounding test includes;

Detection of isolated ground short and neutral-ground bonds. Ground impedance and neutral impedance measure Detection open neutral, open ground and open hot wires Detection of hot/neutral reversals or neutral/ground reversals

After wiring test, a quick check of voltage and current measurements within the facility are to be to Be taken for overloading, under and over voltage and unbalance problems detection. Signal also used to check as follows;

i) Phase to ground voltages

ii) Phase to neutral voltages

iii) Neutral to ground voltages

iv) Phase to phase voltages

v) Phase currents

Oscilloscope/Disturbance Oscilloscope/Disturbance analyzers analyzers Digital oscilloscope: data storage available for

Oscilloscope/DisturbanceOscilloscope/Disturbance analyzersanalyzers

Oscilloscope/Disturbance analyzers analyzers Digital oscilloscope: data storage available for analysi s

Digital oscilloscope: data storage available for analysis i. e. energy calculation and spectrum analysis Communication to pc for additional analysis using software. Over Hand-held oscilloscope: Display waveform, performing signal processing, portable and permits connection with PC for further data analysis.

Disturbance Analyzer: Disturbance analyzer and monitor measure a wide variety of system disturbances from short duration transients to long duration outage or undervoltage. Basically, there are two types;

Conventional analyzers: Over voltage/under voltage magnitudes, sag and surge magnitude and duration, transient magnitude and duration

Graphics-based analyzers:Display, save and print the actual waveform of the disturbances

Oscilloscope/Disturbance Oscilloscope/Disturbance analyzers analyzers

Oscilloscope/DisturbanceOscilloscope/Disturbance analyzersanalyzers

Oscilloscope/Disturbance Oscilloscope/Disturbance analyzers analyzers

Spectrum analyzers and harmonic analyzers

i) ii)
i)
ii)

FFT calculation for determining low order harmonics. There some important Capabilities of this instrument:

There some important Capabilities of this instrument: Capability to measure both voltage and current to get

Capability to measure both voltage and current to get harmonic power flow information

Capability to measure both magnitude and phase angle of individual harmonic also to get power flow information

iii)

Synchronization and fast sampling to obtain accurate harmonic component

iii)

Capability to characterise nature of harmonic distortion level

There are basically three types of instrument to consider for harmonic analysis

i)

Simple meter ii) General purpose spectrum analyser iii) Special purpose power system harmonic analyser.

Flicker meter

►Flicker meter measures the level of flicker. The flicker evaluation level can be divided into
►Flicker meter measures the level of flicker. The flicker evaluation level can be divided into two
Categories such as follows;
i) Short term Pst: Evaluation of flicker severity based on an observation period of 10 minute
P
= 0 . 0314
P
+ 0 . 0525
P
+ 0 . 0657
P
+ 0 . 28
P
+ 0 . 08
P
ST
0 . 1
1
S
3
S
10
S
50
S
Where the percentages P0.1, P1.0s, P3.0s, P10.0s and P50.0s are the flicker level that are exceeded
0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 10,0 1nd 50.0 percent of time, respectively.

ii) Long term P LT : The long term variation flicker assessment of flicker severity is determined by

using PST equation

P LT

=

N 3 . ∑ P ST i = 1 N
N
3
. ∑
P ST
i
=
1
N

Where N is the number of PST reading and is determined by the duty cycle of flicker producing load

IEC Flicker meter

IEC Flicker meter

Flicker meter

Flicker meter
Summary Summary of of Monitoring Monitoring Equipments Equipments Capabilities Capabilities Digital oscilloscope: data

SummarySummary ofof MonitoringMonitoring EquipmentsEquipments CapabilitiesCapabilities

Monitoring Equipments Equipments Capabilities Capabilities Digital oscilloscope: data storage available for analysi s

Digital oscilloscope: data storage available for analysis i. e. energy calculation and spectrum analysis Communication to pc for additional analysis using software.

for analysi s i. e. energy calculation and spectrum analysis Communication to pc for additional analysis
Assessment Assessment of of PQ PQ Measurement Measurement Data Data i) Data assessment of PQ

AssessmentAssessment ofof PQPQ MeasurementMeasurement DataData

i)
i)

Data assessment of PQ is meant by the data management, analysis, and interpretation function of overall PQ monitoring efforts. As well as shifting off-line to on-line operation for automatic problems identification.

There are two stream of power quality data assessment such as follows;

Off-line PQ data assessment: the off-line PQ data assessment is performed off-line i.e. it is carried out separately from the monitoring instruments that is at the central processing locations.

ii) On-line PQ data assessment: On-line data assessment is performed within instrument for immediately information dissemination

PQ PQ Off Off - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment

PQPQ OffOff--lineline DataData AssessmentAssessment

PQ PQ Off Off - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment
PQ PQ Off Off - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment
PQ PQ On On - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment

PQPQ OnOn--lineline DataData AssessmentAssessment

PQ PQ On On - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment
PQ PQ On On - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment

PQPQ OnOn--lineline DataData AssessmentAssessment

PQ PQ On On - - line line Data Data Assessment Assessment

Application of Intelligent Systems

Application of Intelligent Systems ► The application of intelligent systems or expert system in monitoring instrument
Application of Intelligent Systems ► The application of intelligent systems or expert system in monitoring instrument

The application of intelligent systems or expert system in monitoring instrument help engineer the system condition rapidly. The implementation of intelligent systems within a monitoring Instrument can significantly increase the value of monitoring application since it generate information rather than just collect data. Intelligent system module perform to analyse capacitor switching transient and determine the location of capacitor bank, determine fault location etc.

Basic Design of an expert system for monitoring application

Voltage Sag Direction Module

Voltage Sag Direction Module ► An autonomous expert system module called voltag e sag direction module

An autonomous expert system module called voltage sag direction module is designed just for to detect and identify of a voltage sag event and subsequently determine the origin (upstream/ downstream) of the voltage sag event. The module can displayed computer screen using web browser Software, displayed printed paper format, or sent as an e-mail etc.

Types of Intelligent PQ monitoring Systems

Types of Intelligent PQ monitoring Systems ► There are many advance PQ monitoring system are equipped

There are many advance PQ monitoring system are equipped with off-line and on-line intelligent systems to evaluate disturbances and system conditions so as make conclusion about the cause of the problems before they occur. Out of many, the three types are as follows.

i)Industrial PQ monitoring application

ii)Power system performance assessment and benchmarking

iii)System maintenance, operations and reliability applications

Industrial PQ Monitoring Applications

Industrial PQ Monitoring Applications

Power Sys. Perfm. Assessment and Benchmarking

Power Sys. Perfm. Assessment and Benchmarking

Application for System Main. Optn. and reliability

Application for System Main. Optn. and reliability

PQ Monitor and the Internate

PQ Monitor and the Internate

Power Sys. Perfm. Assessment and Benchmarking

Power Sys. Perfm. Assessment and Benchmarking