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Visuals Black Screen.

Slow fade in long shot of a highway with a sign of Route 66 in focus in the foreground and the road leading off towards the horizon. A fast montage of stock images of Americans on road trips, involving still images that include the American flag, the flat American landscape and American cars. A globe fades in, beginning on America, which is filled by the American flag, before the camera pans and stops on Europe, which is a detailed map showing major highways and cities but without borders. A black title appears on the map: A Journey into an Unknown Genre The European Road Movie Opening shot of Silent Souls, where Aist, the protagonist, travels on a bike along a road. The shot from behind emphasises the journey ahead for Aist as the leading lines of the road draw attention to the distance ahead. Talking head shot of narrator, who is sitting in the passenger seat of a relatively new car parked at the side of the road. Car moves towards the camera so the road behind the car moves into the centre of the frame, demonstrating that the journey has begun. Sudden zoom into road creates a transition to a black screen. Fade in of a talking head shot of Polona Petek (with her name and Senses of Cinema contributor in the centre right) set at a desk in an office with books in a stack and a laptop beside her. Cut to a talking head shot of Wendy Everett (with her name and Film Critic in the centre left) in a room with road movie posters, including Vanishing Point, Bonny and Clyde and Easy

Audio Narrator: The road movie typically regarded as a film genre made by Americans [pause] for Americans [pause] about Americans. [Pause] Voiceover of Sam North [introduced visually at the end of the page]: From the earliest days of American cinema, the road movie has been synonymous with American culture and the image of America to the world. Narrator: However, another continent teeming with road movies has been continuously ignored in criticisms of this genre, with the convention of an internal and external journey that classically involves a road and motor vehicle being taken and adapted to suit a European way of life. Narrator: By journeying into the road film genre, we will discover European road films and argue that these films, while distinctly different from their American counterparts, utilise the same conventions as American road movies. Narrator: Both American and European genres focus on a physical journey littered with encounters and experiences. Narrator: There may not be a destination, a road, a vehicle or a distinct reason for leaving, but the characters do leave behind something for a journey of a country and of ones self that is reflected in an internal and external journey. Polona Petek: Despite the overwhelming global popularity of the genre, among mainstream as well as independent and experimental filmmakers, the road movie is a relatively uncharted territory. Wendy Everett: Although the road movie is widely identified as a typical Hollywood genre, the concepts of journey and change, which lie at its heart, have always been fundamental to cinema. 1

Rider in the background. Cut to a talking head shot of Sam North (with his name and Novelist and creator of Hackwriters displayed in the centre right) set in the back of a cinema near the projection. Cut to still images of famous road movie protagonists from films such as: - The Wizard of Oz - Thelma and Louise - Little Miss Sunshine Cut to close up tracking shot of the quote from the book Crossing New Borders, with the section of the quote of self highlighted yellow in a large font. Black screen with white text: Who leaves on a road trip? Texts slide out the right of the frame, leaving a black screen. Cut to talking head shot of Narrator. Clockwise fade in of a stillframe close up of each protagonist with the title of each film, the name of the protagonist and the directors name underneath, creating a 4-way split screen, with each image appearing as the individual is mentioned in the audio. Fade in of talking head shot of Walter Salles (name and Director of Motorcycle Diaries shown), with stills from the Motorcycle Diaries playing in the background showing Ernesto Guevara as he encounters different individuals. Cut to a long shot of Aist and Miron travelling in the car (Silent Souls), which dissolves into an extreme long shot of Jomar travelling across the frame (Nord). Cut to talking head shot of the Narrator. Fade to a series of images involving a low-angled shot of

Sam North: Just because there is a road and someone is driving on it, does not, I would argue, make it a 'road movie'. Narrator: All road movies have one specific, constant convention of the journey. However, this does not involve the classic American conventions of a road and a motor vehicle Narrator: but a critique of humanity, which, as Ewa Mazierska and Laura Rascaroli explain in Crossing New Border, a road movie criticism, is an exploration of both society and of self. Narrator: These four films all have protagonists of a striking and fascinating nature that should be analysed to understand how certain groups are explored and represented. Narrator: Rune Langlo depicts a struggling addict in Jomar in Nord while Paul Cotter portrays an emotionally cut-off individual in Alistair in Bomber. Also, Paul King illustrates the effect of a severe mental disorder in Stephen in Bunny and the Bull and Aleksei Fedorchenko also explores emotions in Silent Souls through Aist, who descends from a group of inexpressive people. Walter Salles: The road movie is limited only by one obligation: to accompany the transformations undergone by its main characters as they confront a new reality. Narrator: Although one may consider the obvious physical movement the most important journey in a road movie, the development of a character as they face new experiences and encounter new people defines the genre. Narrator: It is therefore necessary for protagonists to have the ability 2

Jomar, a long shot of Aist left in the car as Miron leaves, a low-angled shot of Stephen trying to calm down against a wall and Alistair sitting in the back on the van looking dejected. Cut to talking head shot of Katie Mills (with her name and Film Essayist in the centre right) Fade in of talking head shot of the narrator. Dissolve transition to a movie poster of Nord with a close up on a snow-blind Jomar. Taking head shot of Rune Langlo (with name and Director of Nord shown) at a small theatre with the opening of Nord playing in the background, featuring mid shots and close ups of Jomar. Fade in of a series of still images of Jomar and the individuals he meets in his journey: Lotte and her grandmother Rigmor, Ulrik, Soldiers, Sir Trondelag and Thomas. Cut to final shot of Nord, where Jomar approaches his son. Montage of close up and mid-shots of Jomar drinking, smoking and taking pills before and on his journey. Cut to a mid shot of Jomar hugging Ulrik shirtless. Shot from Nord that features the dialogue between Jomar and Lasse, with the camera focused on Jomar in the foreground to emphasise his critique of his own masculinity in the dialogue. Cut to fight scene between Jomar and Lasse, in which Lasse punches Jomar in the face, causing him to fall as Lasse remains above him, where the levels show the difference in power in their relationship. Shot fades out. Fade in sequence where Jomar meets Ulrik, beginning with a long shot of the trucks tyres that fill the frame before camera pans to show Jomar sitting on the snow. Shot cuts to a long shot of

to change and develop. The underdog status of Jomar, Aist, Stephen and Alistair aids in allowing the directors to develop the characters during their journey as they confront new realities. Katie Mills: Even today, Road stories largely persist in romanticising the underdog. Narrator: The underdog is explored in European road movies, as shown in Rune Langlos casting of Jomar in Nord. Rune Langlo: The rest of the famous males actors around 30 in Norway are kind of handsome and well proportioned Anders for me is a guy that you can relate to he's likable. Narrator: Jomar, the protagonist in Nord, encounters individuals and has experiences that ultimately change his character while his weaknesses, which involve anxiety and addiction, are explored and do not hinder him in reaching his quests final outcome. Narrator: Jomar has addiction problems that create an image of a struggling individual that, when paired with his anxiety, challenges masculine hero qualities. Jomar: Youre not struggling with anxiety or anything like that? Lasse: No, not that I know of. Jomar: No, just angry? Pissed off in the old fashioned male way. No anxiety. Narrator: The connection between mental strength and masculinity is emphasised by Erlend Loe in the script to create an underdog status for Jomar and through the shots Langlo uses when Jomar meets different individuals. Narrator: In a long shot of Jomar meeting Ulrik in their first encounter, Langlo shows that Ulrik is in a position of power over Jomar through levels in the frame, where Jomar remains in the bottom half of 3

Jomar and Ulrik on the truck taking up different levels in the frame. Shot continues to show intercutting between the highangled shots of Ulrik on his truck looking down at Jomar with long shots of Jomar on the ground looking up at Ulrik that are slightly high-angled to emphasise the size of the truck in the foreground. Cut to high-angled shot of Jomar, which emphasises the sun behind him. Cut to a shot of the dark room that contrasts the bright lighting in the first shot. Cross-dissolve to a shot of Jomar setting off on his skis from Ulriks place. Fade black. Fade in to a talking head shot of narrator, which cuts to a slow zoom shot of Stephen sitting and crying by the door, unable to leave (moving from a mid to close shot) (Bunny and the Bull) Cut to close up shot of Stephen looking through the eyehole at his front door, where the light, which represents the positive outside environment, piercing his eye reflects Stephens need to leave. Shot cuts to a close up shot of the camera looking through the eyehole. Cross-dissolve to a shot of the moon and road ahead as Stephen and Bunny set out with the car. Cut to a shot of Bunny and Stephen pulled up on the side of the road for petrol. Talking head shot of Paul King sitting at the crusty crab on the animated set (name and Director of Bunny and the Bull shown) Cut to a shot of Bunny kissing Eloise in the back of the car as Stephen watches, which dissolves to a birds-eye-view shot of Bunny leading the bull in circles. Fade to a split screen, where

the frame whereas Ulrik, on his truck, is in the top half of the frame. Narrator: Additionally, through the high-angled shots of Ulrik on his truck and the low-angled shots of Jomar when he meets the soldiers, Langlo uses large vehicles and camera angles to show Jomars weaker nature compared to those he meets. Narrator: However, as Jomar encounters more isolated individuals in his journey, he overcomes challenges of snow-blindness and a destroyed skimobile to begin skiing again, which ultimately demonstrates a character change towards a stronger individual who can overcome obstacles. Narrator: [pause] Paul King allows his audience to fully experience Stephens psychological state so we understand his weak status through successful visual effects. Narrator: The warped effect placed on the shot looking through the eyehole demonstrates the disjointed and chaotic outside world from Stephens narrative viewpoint, as we understand his struggle to leave the house due to the psychologically damaging effect of the journey. Narrator: Additionally, Bunny and the Bull uses animation throughout the flashbacks of the journey to reflect the chaotic nature of memories. Paul King: I wanted the sets to reflect Stephens mental state. Narrator: Therefore, the extremely masculine image of Bunny, who sleeps with Eloise and fights a bull, juxtaposes Stephens weak nature. Narrator: Similarly to Nord where 4

Jomar taking pills is shown in the left of the frame and Stephen opening the cupboard and taking pills is in the right of the frame. Cut to shot of Stephen unlocking his door and turning to face Bunny one last time. Shot of Stephen leaving his house at the end of Bunny and the Bull that cuts to a close up of his foot hitting the ground outside on a new journey. Fade to black. Fade in of a talking head shot of the narrator, which cuts to a shot of Alistair picking up bricks and hurting his back. Fade in of Alistair in the front seat of the car in a diagonal shot, where he holds the map and makes travelling decisions. Cross fade to a shot of Alistair in the back of the van from Ross viewpoint as the driver. Cut to a talking head shot of the narrator. Cut to a shot of Ross pointing to The Rules on the front of the car that dissolves to Valerie taking a photograph of Alistair. Cross-fade to a shot of Ross on the phone talking to his girlfriend while driving Cross-fade to a side-on shot of Alistair showing the photo to a civilian in the village. Cut to a long shot of Alistair sitting on a pile of bricks looking dejected up at Ross. Cut to a close up and an extreme close up on Alistair as he watches Ross scream at him. Cut to a shot of Alistair screaming at Ross in a close up intercut with responding close ups of Ross yelling at Ross while on the phone. Cut to a close up shot of Alistair speaking to Valerie. Cut to a close up of Valeries guidebook, which cuts to a shot

Jomar need pills on his journey, King includes medication to reflect the protagonists weakness. However, like Langlo, King has Stephen overcome his fear of remembering by accepting Bunnys death and journeying out of his house. Narrator: We can appreciate Stephens internal transformation, as the end concludes with Stephen setting out on another journey, symbolised by the action of stepping out of the house. Narrator: [pause] Alistair is shown as an underdog in Bomber as his weak position becomes apparent during the journey. Narrator: The most important portrayal of Alistairs weak status is shown through his demotion from the front seat to the back of the van, which was originally the area for Valerie in a clear gender divide. Narrator: By crossing this divide, Cotter creates a distinct segregation between the older generation and Ross to portray the conflict in their priorities Narrator: in which Ross is focused on the future and returning home to Britain Narrator: while Alistair remains focused on the past and arriving in the village in Germany. Narrator: Additionally, Alistairs age and lack of emotions are shown as a weakness. Ross: At least I've got emotions, unlike you, you crusty-boned halffrozen solid old relic of a crustacean. Narrator: However, he eventually allows himself to express his feeling and emotions, which first show his anger at the situation Alistair: I hate you. Narrator: but then reveal his true admirable, heroic quality, as he 5

of the van travelling past the sign Warsaw, with the title Day 5: The road to Warsaw appearing. Cut to close up shots in the matching sequence to the audio. Montage of a series of still shots from different parts of the journey, including Alistair driving his car, Alistair sitting next to Ross as navigator, Alistair sitting in the back of the van and then Alistair driving the van. Fade to black. Fade into a talking head shot of narrator, which cuts to Aist talking to a woman (Subtitles: Miron is calling you. The directors calling) Cuts to a long shot of Miron and Aist talking on the roof (Subtitles: Lets go right now) Cut to shot of Aist and Miron in the car with the following dialogue in subtitles: Aist: And why here? Miron: The honeymoon. Cut to high-angled tracking shot from in front of Miron, who walks through the supermarket, with Aist entering and leaving the frame but remaining behind Miron. Cut to shot of Miron walking around the car, leaving Aist inside. Cut to a mid-shot of Tanya and Miron in the foreground and Aist in the background, where Miron moves out of frame and the camera focuses on Aist as Tanya turns around. Cut to shot of the birds in a cage, with Aist in the background also trapped by the cages bars within the frame. Fade black. Cut to talking head shot of narrator, which then cuts to a shot of Aist looking out the window as the camera takes on a voyeuristic approach outside the car looking in. Cross-fade to mid and long shots of Miron and Aist pouring vodka over Tanya before lighting fire

allows Valerie to go to Warsaw in an attempt to emotionally connect with his wife and please her. Ross: How do you feel? Alistair: Quite good I suppose. Narrator: Clearly, the journey allows Alistair to change as Valerie and Ross confront him about his attitude towards life and his relationship and Alistair lets go of his guilt of bombing during World War One. Narrator: [pause] Finally, in Silent Souls, Aists weaker status is shown through Mirons ability to manipulate him, as Miron Narrator: is able to convince Aist to begin the journey after the catalyst of Tanyas death Narrator: and decides where to go as driver and navigator while Aist remains a passive passenger during the journey. Narrator: Visually, Fedorchenko reflects this hierarchy through the high-angled mid shot of Miron walking through a supermarket after burning the body. Narrator: Also, Aist is trapped in the car when Miron abruptly leaves, where the framing of the cars windshield clearly separates them to show the conflict between two individuals who loved the same woman whilst isolating Aist. Narrator: This continuation of the theme of entrapment in Silent Souls demonstrates that Miron easily controls Aist. Narrator: [pause] Additionally, unlike the other road movie characters, Aist does not undergo change on the road that significantly influences the conclusion of the film. Narrator: This reflects the unchanging traditions of Russia society, a clear theme within the 6

to the body. Cut to a close up shot of an object used for pouring water, with the water leaving the object through slits in the eyes as if its crying. Cut to shot of Aist walking along a bridge that matches the voiceover audio, where water symbolises life and death for the Russian tribe. Cut to shot of Aist looking at photographs of Tanya and Miron. Cross-fades to a close up shot of Aist in the car, where his emotions of pain and suffering are shown. Cross-fade to a shot from behind of Aist watching Tanyas body burn during the ritual. Shot fades black. Slide transition forms a split screen, with Jomar laying a blanket on Ulrik as a fatherly act in the left side of the frame and Ross talking to a man on a bicycle trying to help his father in the right side of the frame. Cut to mid-shot of Stephen taking pills to control his hallucinations before moving to count the tiles on the wall. Cut to shot of Aist and Miron lighting the body on fire with their backs turned to the camera. Cut to a shot of Miron committing Tanyas ashes into the river. Shot of Stephen and Bunny at the train station at the start of the journey. Cross-fades to a shot of Bunny dying. Cut to taking head shot of North, which fades black. Black screen with white text (which fades in): The Road Cut to a series of still images of the American highway, including an image of a sign of Route 66. Fade in of a montage of long shots, including a shot of Wyatt and Billy travelling on motorcycles (Easy Rider), a long shot of Kowalski travelling on a

film, although Aist gradually shifts from being emotionless to allowing his love for Tanya overwhelm him before the car accident kills them. Voiceover from Silent Souls: Aist: Our people are a bit strange, their faces inexpressive. There are no passions boiling. Aist: My thoughts and memories swept over me and carried me away. Narrator: Aists transformation during the journey reflects the ability of the transformative power of the road, as he is able to develop even with such strong and overpowering traditions. Narrator: The films Nord and Bomber explore the positive impact of journeying upon individuals, as Jomar gains a renewed sense of power and masculinity through being able to ski again and a sense of fatherhood with Ulrik Narrator: while Bunny and the Bull explores the negative effect of travel upon Stephen, the protagonist, who remains trapped in his house Narrator: and Silent Souls uses a small character change to emphasise the importance of tradition and customs in a critique of Russian society. North: The irony of the road movie is that the weak leave, but only the strong survive. The road either makes or breaks a person. Narrator: [pause] The highway is a classic American symbol of freedom and opportunity for any who dare to head out into the unknown, representing a way of escape. Narrator: The long shot and extreme long shot, in which the vehicle, the road and the surroundings are visible, is heavily used in both American and European road movies, 7

highway (Vanishing Point) and an extreme long shot of Thelma and Louise (Thelma and Louise) Long shot of Jomar travelling through the barren landscape of Norway (Nord) Cross fade to long shot of the van travelling through the green landscape of England (Bomber) Cross fade to long shot of the car moving from the centre of the frame (where they have been stopped by the police) into the distance as the camera pans to keep them in frame (Silent Souls) Fade to black as voiceover ends. Fade in of a tracking shot from the opening sequence of Easy Rider Fade in to reveal a frame split into 4 sections, with each section slowly fading-in in a clockwise movement and showing a tracking shot from Bomber, Bunny and the Bull, Nord and Silent Souls. Talking head shot of the narrator sitting in the car. Cut to shot of camera looking up at trees from ski mobile as if in first-person (Nord) Cross fade to shot from the back of the van of trees moving overhead (Bomber) Cut to a tracking mid shot outside of the car of the narrator, who addresses the audience. Fade out. Fade in of extended long panning shot of the van travelling down a B-road in a richly coloured landscape. Cut to a split screen of the highways in Easy Rider and Thelma and Louise that dominate the landscape. Fade black. Fade in of a shot of the conversation between the protagonists, starting with a long shot of a B-road in the

making it a classic convention of the genre and demonstrating the freedom associated with escaping on a journey on the road. Narrator: It emphasises the vastness, richness and openness of the landscape, especially through the colour connotations of freedom with green in the landscape in Bomber. Narrator: [pause until car reaches halfway point on bridge] Some directors also enjoy using a longtake, where holding the shot for a longer period of time makes us follow the leading line of the road into the distance as we consider the journey ahead. Narrator: Finally, the movement of the camera is extremely important in portraying the journey in the films. Everett: The genre is iconographically marked not only by road and car, but also by key filmic elements such as the tracking shot, and the representation of wild, open spaces. Narrator: The road movie is marked by constant motion, so a moving camera is used to not only reflect the continuous need to journey, but also bring the audience into the experience, especially with cameras giving a first-person impression of the journey from the vehicle. Narrator: The camera, whether in or out of the car, gives an impression of constant movement to reflect the physical journey in road movies. Narrator: In Bomber, Cotter keeps his protagonists on B-roads, a clear deviation from the American convention of open, barren highways that were classically found in films like Easy Rider and Thelma and Louise. Conversation between Ross, Alistair and Valerie: Ross: Tell me why we cant take motorways. 8

right of the frame and a highway on the left to emphasise the size difference between them while elevating the B-roads status through a higher physical level in the frame. Long shot of Kowalski driving his car along an open highway in America (Vanishing Point) before quick cutting to shot of Ross and Alistair framed by the car (Bomber) to emphasise juxtaposition. Fade to black. Cut to a talking head shot of David Laderman (with name and Film Professor shown), who is sitting in a room in a university with books around him. Cut to shot of Alistair and Ross framed by the windscreen of the car, which acts as a barrier between the characters and the road and shows the journey ahead. (Bomber) Cut to a talking head shot of Steven Cohan (with name and Film Professor shown) in a room with a long shot of Thelma and Louis framed by the windshield (Thelma and Louise) in the background. Cross-dissolve to show a longtake using the framing technique with no communication between Aist and Miron and the road stretched out before them in the centre of the frame to highlight the long journey ahead (Silent Souls) Cross-dissolve to similar shot of Alistair and Ross in the foreground, with the car trapping them within the frame. (Bomber) Fade black. Fade in to shot of vertical split screen: - The top section has close up shot of Alistair hold a map - Bottom section is of the map Bunny finds in Stephens apartment Swipe transition to a horizontal split screen, where - The left of the frame involves

Alistair: Fuel economy for a start. 55 miles an hour is the most economical speed to travel at so motorways are a waste of time. Valerie: The B-roads are much prettier Ross. Narrator: However, the long shots association with freedom is juxtaposed through the deviation from iconic highways in Bomber to emphasise the theme of entrapment shown by the confined spaces of the van or car in European Road Movies. David Laderman: Unlike interior domestic scenes that use doorways and windows to create a sense of entrapment and enclosure, the road movie makes use of the formalistic frame-within-a-frame so as to foreground the crucial act of looking and seeing while driving. Steven Cohan: Two people in the front seat of a vehicle make for easy classical framing and keep the dialogue going. Narrator: However, as seen in Silent Souls, this can also emphasise the lack of communication between the protagonists. The framing device emphasises the conflict between Aist and Miron due to Tanyas love for Aist Narrator: while the confined space in Bomber also shows the tension in the family unit with a setting mostly confined to the van. Narrator: Additionally, both Bunny and the Bull and Bomber, two British road movies, are set for the majority of the journey outside of Britain, highlighted by the use of maps and signs to signal changes in locations as borders are crossed. Narrator: Road signs in Bomber and Bunny and the Bull are a key symbol of crossing borders in Europe, which 9

Ross smiling next to a sign welcoming visitors to Germany (Dundesrepublik Deutschland) - The right of the frame has Stephen, Bunny and Eloisa driving past a sign with Willkommen Nach Deutschland. Slide transition from the centre split outwards reveals a talking head shot of the narrator. Cut to a map of Europe, which zooms suddenly towards England, acting as a transition to the next shot. Cut to a sequence from Bunny and the Bull that matches the audio, with mid shots of Stephen and Bunny. Cross fade to image of Stephen putting on his backpack at the end of the film at he leaves Britain in search of Eloise in anther journey. Slide transition from the centre to the sides reveals the talking head shot of Everett. Fade black. Fade in to a talking head shot of the narrator sitting in a moving car. Fade black. Fade in to a talking head shot of North. Cut to montage of archived still black and white images of building highways in England that is then juxtaposed with a highway in America with a diner in the foreground. Cut to a montage of images of highways in England from the 1960s to 2000, where the images are gradually cut quicker until a map of England in 1972 (from Bomber) appears, showing the lack of highways in the time period. Cut to a talking head shot of Ewa Mazierska and Laura Rascaroli (name and Academic for each) sitting in front of a projector, where an aerial shot of a car travelling along a straight

highlights the need to distinguish between countries to gain a sense a national identification for countries in Europe. The characters transverse across a vast landscape as the theme of escape is explored in Both American and European road movies. Narrator: Paul King and Paul Cotter illustrate the need to travel beyond the England in British road movies, continuing the theme of escape by traversing borders and cultures in Europe. Dialogue that becomes a voiceover: Bunny: She doesn't see you as a sexual being. Stephen: But I am one. Bunny: I think you're gorgeous, so do loads of girls, just not in Britain. That's why we need to hit the road. Everett: European journeys specifically engage with the lack of space and the predominance of borders. North explains another reason behind Englands lack of highway-based road movies as a logistical impossibility. North: It ill suited the British landscape. For one thing, until the 1960's, there was no highway in England at all. The very concept of open roads, 'Diners', strangers encountering anything more lethal than an AA man was alien. Narrator: The relatively short history explains the lack of symbolic meaning for highways in Britain when compared to America, especially as Alistair, a typical older Englishman, controls the roads travelled in the journey in Bomber. Mazierska and Rascaroli: The open spaces of North America, with their straight, boundless highways and the sense of freedom and opportunity to reinvent ones life

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highway (Vanishing Point). Cut to an unsteady shot of the road (framed by Miron and Aist) ahead as they travel along a road of bends and hills (Silent Souls). Montage of mid-shots and long shots of Jomar travelling along a white landscape without a road. Cut to a shot of Jomar approaching am abandoned building that cross-dissolves to a shot of Jomar approaching an isolated tent. (Nord) Fade in of an aerial panning shot of Jomar travelling on an undefined path that shows the freedom associated with travelling without a road. Shot fades to another aerial shot of Jomar before cross dissolving to a long shot that also shows there isnt a path ahead. (Nord) Shot dissolves to an extreme long shot of Jomar skiing down a slope. (Nord) Cut to a long shot and then an aerial shot of the van as it approaches town (Bomber). Fade Black. Fade in of a panning shot in the left direction along of a map of American with the major highways heading west emphasised Cut to a talking head shot of Chuck Klosterman (name and Author and Essayist shown) standing on a highway gesturing into the horizon in the distance. Slide transition to shot of Ethan leaving on horseback (The Searchers) that wipes to a long shot of Thelma and Louis driving off a cliff (Thelma and Louise) Cut to talking head shot of the narrator. Intercut with a tracking shot of the protagonists travelling from left to right (Bomber), a panning shot of Jomar travelling from left to right (Nord) and a long shot a Miron and Aist travelling from left to

Mazierska and Rascaroli: are in clear contrast with the European reality of a mosaic of nations, cultures, languages and roads Narrator: However, importantly, the lack of roads in Nord does not exclude it from the road movie genre, as it still contains a journey narrative in the film that explores self-discovery, the only specific requirement of the genre. Narrator: Additionally, it is this lack of road that allows Langlo to explore the Norwegian landscape through extensive use of long and aerial and long shots that portray the overwhelming white-dominated environment, showing the freedom associated with creating an off-road road movie Narrator: while illustrating the insignificance of Jomar in comparison to the landscape, a concept that is explored in other European films with the extensive use of the long shot. Narrator: Also, it is not just the road travelled, but the direction of travel that clearly distinguishes American and European road films. Chuck Klosterman: The idea of moving west across the country is such a deeply American tradition that virtually all Road Movies borrow from this motif. North: Road movies are in the end about searching for Utopia and often ending up with Dystopia. The journey West was synonymous with that search. Narrator: However, none of the European road films being investigated show the protagonists heading west, instead showing the journey either North or East through camera pans from left to right and the vehicle entering the frame from the left and exiting to the right. 11

right (Silent Souls) Cut to a tracking shot of Jomar talking with the soldiers with English subtitles shown at the bottom of the screen. Fade in of a split screen, with the left side of the frame showing the van from Bomber entering and leaving the frame from left to right and the right side of the frame showing the car from Thelma and Louise travelling towards the left of the frame. Cross fade to long shot of Wyatt and Billy travelling east (Easy Rider) from left to right in the frame. Slide transition to a split screen: - Left side of frame shows a montage of the different museums they visited in different countries (Bunny and the Bull) - Right side of the frame cuts between different shots that include the chapter titles each day, such as Day 1: Northern Holland (Bomber) Slide transition reveals a black background. Cut to a shot of the sleeper train in Bunny and the Bull with the title KLN TO WARSZAWA SLEEPER TRAIN Fade in of a montage of shots of American road films involving cars and motorcycles - Long shot of the car in Thelma and Louise - Long shot of the car in Vanishing Point - Long shot of the motor bicycles in Easy rider Long shot of Stephen and Bunny sitting in a carriage of a train. The camera zooms out to reveal the entire train travelling through the snapshot landscape, which effectively explores the different landscapes they encounter on their trip in a

Dialogue from Nord (English Subtitles) Soldier: Where are you headed? Jomar: North. Narrator: Travelling North is in direct contrast to American road films and occurs because, as the road movie genre became less focused on the western genre, the journey west isnt necessary, especially in European cinema. North: Road movies were no longer confined to going west, but could travel in almost every direction. Narrator: This is also seen in Bunny and the Bull and Bomber, where Stephen and Bunny travel everywhere in Europe and Ross, Alistair and Valerie travel southeast to Germany from Britain. Clearly, European road films disregard the symbolic meaning of freedom and escape associated with travelling west, especially with the focus on confinement through framing of the car, as the genre adapts to different cultural values. Narrator: The mode of transport chosen for European Road Movies also demonstrates this difference. Rascaroli and Mazierska: Whereas the main vehicles for traversing the North American expanses are the private car (preferably a convertible) and the motorbike European films often opt for public transport (trains, buses), if not hitchhiking or travelling on foot. Narrator: Bunny and the Bull utilises public transport as well as a car, as opposed to the classic convention of a car for individual transport, as the protagonists cross more borders within Europe through train travel. Additionally, the car used tends to be less aesthetically 12

short period of time. Cut to a talking head shot of Rascaroli and Mazierska with an image of the captain crab car behind them (Bunny and the Bull) Cut to talking head shot of the narrator. Cross fade to a tracking shot of the characters pushing the van (Little Miss Sunshine) Fade black Three separate shots appears on the black screen in order from left to right. The shots are a third of the size of the frame, with the accident in Bunny and the Bull involving stop-motion animation in the top left of the frame, the accident involving Alistair and Valerie in the garage before their depart in the centre of the frame and the accident involving Jomar on his ski mobile in the bottom right of the frame. Horizontal slide to a shot of the road framed ahead by a dark foreground of Aist and Miron, foreshadowing the abrupt end to their journey. Shot cuts to the chaotic camera movements of the accident, which then fades to white. Black background with white text: Major themes in European Road Films Cut to talking head shot of the narrator in the car. Black screen with white text: World War Two Fade out of text and fade in of a map of Europe, with Western Europe filled with the Nazi Swastika Cut to a talking head shot of Everett. Cross fade to close up of Alistair holding the photograph of the bombed village. Cut to a close up shot of Alistair looking at the road ahead, which cross-fades to a

pleasing in European road movies to reflect the difference in culture. Rascaroli and Mazierska: In European road movies, the car tends to be disposable, transient, and temporary. Narrator: This can be seen when the roads dangers impact heavily upon the vehicles in unforseen obstacles the protagonists must overcome. Narrator: In Bomber, Bunny and the Bull and Nord, the protagonists all experience obstacles in their journey from accidents that render their vehicles damaged, halting their journey until alternative transport or repairs can be made. This is especially important in Nord, as this accident renders Jomar stuck with Ulrik until he can begin skiing again and thus allows for significant character development by Langlo. Narrator: In Silent Souls, the accident not only halts their return journey home, but also is the dramatic ending that coincides with the suicide and murder resolutions typical of American road movies, which reflected the negative impact of Dystopia upon individuals in a bleak portrayal of societys future. Narrator: There are numerous themes explored in European cinema that are less important or ignored in American Road films, such as the Second World War. Narrator: The Second World War is one of the key historical events examined in European cinema as a recurring theme of loss and suffering. Everett: The events of the Second World War have left a legacy of guilt and lost innocence that is still felt today Narrator: In Bomber, the decision to leave on a journey centres around the impact of the war upon the 13

shot of the road ahead, framed by Ross and Alistair in the car and then dissolve to image of packed suitcase. Cross fade to a close up shot of Alistair saying sorry at a department store. Cut to a montage involving archive footage of warplanes and soldiers leaving to fight in the war, with the final image of a bomb being dropped below in an aerial shot form the plane. Sudden cut to a mid-shot of Stephen shouting at Bunny that matches the audio. Cut to a talking head of the narrator in the car. Cross-fade to archived photographs of Nazi soldiers and juxtaposing images of 21st century Swiss Police. The images slowly fade away to reveal a black background. Black screen with white titles in the centre of the frame: Family Text fades out as shot of Ross hugging Valerie fades in, followed by Ross shaking Alistairs hand. Talking head shot of Cohan as the first scenes of Jack and Miles on the road (Sideways) play on a television set in the background Cut back to talking head shot of the narrator in the car. Cut to a shot of the road ahead framed by the car and Alistair and Ross in the front (Bomber) Cross-fade to a long shot of Jomar travelling through the town before cutting to a shot of him travelling in a white landscape. Fade black. Black screen with white title in the centre of the frame: Home Cut to talking head shot of Mazierska and Rascaroli. Shot from the back of the car of Aist and Miron travelling on a road, as the camera pans to reveal the town they are leaving behind.

protagonist Alistair by acting as the catalyst for the trip. Alistair: So thats why Im here to um, to say sorry. So, sorry. Narrator: Although Bomber is a film more closely related to the Second World War in comparison to Bunny and the Bull, the war is also mentioned as a negative event for the British protagonists. Stephen (Bunny and the Bull): This is Switzerland Bunny; these people are Nazis! Narrator: Paul King here uses a stereotype of Swiss Police as Nazis to emphasise how isolated Britain is compared to Europe, as Stephen appears paranoid and nave in this scene. Narrator: [pause] Another theme explored in European road movies is the importance of family, unlike American road films focused on abandoning the idea of family. Cohan: A road narrative, first of all, responds to the breakdown of the family unit. Narrator: In comparison, family is a dominant theme in Bomber and Nord. Narrator: Ross sets out with his parents to help his father apologise for World War Two Narrator: while Jomar leaves behind a life void of intimate relationships on a journey to find his young son. Mazierska and Rascaroli: [pause] Most road moves are deeply concerned with the theme of home. Narrator: This theme of home is applicable for both American and European road movies due to the need to leave behind the home environment of family, friends or simply 14

Subtitles: We are leaving our beloved Neya. (Silent Souls) Cut to talking head shot of Pamela Robertson. Cut to shot of Stephen walking up the corridor of a train. (Bunny and the Bull) Cut to shot of Ross packing Alistairs bag into the car and closing the boot of the car. (Bomber) Cut to shot of Aist walking towards the car with the buntings (Silent Souls) Cut to close up shot of Jomar watching his cabin burn and choosing to leave before heading out into the darkness (emphasised by the brightly lit foreground) in a long shot. Fade black. Fade in of talking head shot of Salles, which fades back to the 4-way split screen of close ups of the protagonists. White text on a black background appears as the words are said: European Road Movie (main title) Landscape, Roads, Mode of transport and the Theme of Entrapment Fade in of a shot looking back along the road taken from inside the car (Silent Souls), cut to front on shot of the car with Bunny and Stephen (Bunny and the Bull), cut to shot of Ross and Alistair in the front of the van (Bomber) framing the road ahead Cut to talking head shot of the narrator, which cuts to a split screen of Route 66 in the left section and a sign showing Warsaw ahead (Bomber) Cut to a fast-paced montage of still images from Bomber, Bunny and the Bull, Nord and Silent Souls already used showing the change in the protagonists over the films, finishing on a 4-way split screen involving the final shots of the all the

familiar lifestyle as protagonists escape or move out on a quest. Robertson: Typically the road takes the traveller away from home. Sometimes, the road leads to a new home, as in frontier narratives or tales of emigration. As often, in various kinds of escape or travel narratives, the road just leads away away from boredom, or danger, or family, or whatever it is that produces the desire or need for something called away as opposed to the place called home. Narrator: In Nord, the long shot from behind of Jomar travelling into the distance once he sets his cabin on fire is a symbolic shot emphasising that he is leaving his home forever as the journey has begun. Salles: Road movies are as necessary as ever to tell us who we are, where we come from and where were heading. Narrator: The European road movie is defined by its landscape, roads, mode of transport and distinctive themes, such as the theme of entrapment, that vary from the classic American road movie. Narrator: Although similar to the American road movie through an exploration of the concept of home and escape, the framing and long and tracking shots used and the representation of men through the protagonists Narrator: its defining elements can allow for a new subgenre of European Road Movies, allowing for further examination of a rival to the American-dominated genre. Narrator: Exploring the journeys in these films has allowed for an examination of humanity and our weaknesses, as shown in the protagonists. Ultimately, however, the transformative power of the road prevails as a definitive convention of the genre. 15

protagonists. Cut to reverse tracking shot involving the camera moving forward on the back of Aists bicycle while continuing to look at the road he has travelled, which bends out of the frame instead of straight towards the horizon in the distance. Narrator: The road movie, although dominated by America, is clearly effectively explored in European cinema and will continue to fascinate audiences. This genre will continue to be examined and adapted as home is left behind to journey out into the unknown.

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