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Power is the ability to define reality and then have others respond to those definitions as if they were their own! Dr. Wade Nobles

Using Definitions of Reality from African Deep Thinkers to Examine Reality!

Akinjide Bonotchi Montgomery 4/25/2012

People of color have not understood where white people were coming from, from day one. Right now Black people keep assuming that what they feel about other people, white people also feel. Non white people all over the world are baffled by how easily white people move into hypocrisy and deceit. We just have not been able to fathom it. If you are operating on one logic system and you encounter somebody who is coming from a completely different logic system, you may not be able to figure it out, especially if they are really fine in their methodology of deceit. Francis Welsing.

Using Definitions of Reality from African Deep Thinkers to Examine Ideas!

Power is the ability to define reality and then have others respond to those definitions as if they were their own! Dr. Wade Nobles
This modern house Negro loves his master. He wants to live near him. Hell pay three times as the house is worth just to live near this master, And if someone comes to you right now and says, lets separate, you say the same thing that the house Negro said on the plantation What you mean, separate? From America, this good white man? I mean, this is what you say. I aint left nothing in Africa, thats what you say. Why, you left your mind in Africa. Malcolm X Message to the Glass Roots (1963,)

In Dr. Nobles quote there is nothing metaphysical, esoteric, or religious about his statement. There is no god to please; no system to submit to, and no hidden ancient secrets to uncover. His statement, in its simplicity, sums up what should be the goal of all belief systems, helping the individual to understand how he interacts with reality. Brother Nobles statement is based on deep axioms that have their foundations in ancient African cultural paradigms that denote the power of words.1 This quote by Dr. Wade Nobles represents a definitive statement of how the individual operate within reality. Although it may not be apparent, Dr. Nobles definition, in a practical and simple way pinpoints the importance of words. Words are the primary tool human beings use to explain reality. We use words to explain our experiences (reality) to ourselves and to exchange information about reality with others. Any definition or description of reality will therefore have its foundation in words. Understanding words and their use is vital for understanding and utilizing Dr. Nobles definition of Power. Dr. Nobles quote demands that we take a closer look at words and how they operate in forming and interpreting reality. Power is the ability to define reality, what does Dr. Nobles mean, defining reality, how does one define reality and how does that relate to power? A main point of Dr. Nobles definition of power is in understanding what is meant by, defining reality, and how does the individual
1Definition of Paradigm.

1. example, pattern; especially: an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype 2. a philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated; broadly: a philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind. http://www. Merriam The word paradigm, depending on the discipline used to define the word can have a wide range of usages. Our use of this word will be to represent a set of rules and regulations. The phrase, African cultural paradigms is used to represent a set of ontological rules and regulations that represent an African world view.

define reality? The individual defines reality by means of a process that involves the use of words, feelings and thoughts. The process of the way in which these three components influence reality can be best be understood by looking at human behavior. What is the basis of human behavior? Human behaviors are based on ideas and feelings that guide and then support those behaviors. All behaviors have a thought process based upon certain ideas or concepts that lies as the foundation for those behaviors. Example: In the name of spreading the ideas of democracy, preventing a madman, Saddam Hussein, from using weapons of mass destruction, Iraq was invaded and thousands of people was killed. This high stake human drama was a result of ideas and concepts, it manners little that most, if not all of the ideas used to validate the war against the people of Iraq were not true. Governments are old hands with the use of the emotional impact of words to motivate and control people. They use words to get people to feel good about killing. This is accomplished by using the emotional impact of words to Label (define) people, other than who they are. Using monikers, pseudonyms, and nicknames to decrease the value of the people targeted for killing or conquest. Example: Japs for Japanese, Gooks for the Vietnamese, and Niggers for Africans, savages for non-Christian. This type of labeling provides a means for the offender not to feel so bad about the people they have to mistreat or kill. It is a necessity that humans feel good about what we do. Our behavior is to promote, and is based on good feelings. One has to feel good and righteous about their actions, if for no other reason but to continue living. A person possessed with negative feelings and thoughts about themselves will have a hard time continuing to live. In western society this type of person is said to suffer from a disease called depression. People who suffer from this sickness have a very high suicide rate. This need for us to feel morally correct about ourselves and our behavior causes human beings to produce rationale2 for our behavior, in the form of thoughts. This is true for the individual and for groups. All behaviors are based on rationale that we use to make us feel logical, good, and correct, about those behaviors. Unfortunately, the irrational aspect of a

2 Definition of RATIONALE

1: an explanation of controlling principles of opinion, belief, practice, or phenomena 2: an underlying reason: basis. In this paper rationale will be used to represent the underlying reasons and basis that guides and support behavior.

persons or groups rationale is almost impossible to see for those who use that rationale as the foundation for their behavior. The desire to love ones behavior produces positive rationale. A person will produce rationalize in a positive manner to justify-at least in their own head- all behavior, even murder and suicide. In summary: An important step in understanding Dr. Nobles definition of power is to understand: Words, in the forms of thoughts serve as the rationale and foundation of behavior. In this paper, thoughts will often be referred to as internal dialogue. Understanding internal dialogue is the next step to understanding how human beings define reality on a personal basis. Internal Dialogue: Thoughts: The Rationale for Behavior! Our thoughts operate as a continuous internal dialogue that provides the rationale for the things we choose to believe and do. The rationale produced by this ongoing internal, personal conversation represents a set of descriptions about reality. These definitions represent a bank of culturally based ideas that we draw from to use to form, understand, and explain reality. The primary source of these descriptions is ones culture of birth. As will be shown in later chapters, these descriptions are culturally biased. All of the definitions in this cultural bank do not hold equal status. Some take on a higher priority than others. The ones assigned this higher priority status become accepted truths of reality.3 These accepted truths are the ones that become the foundation of our rationale; these accepted truths are the ideas that make specific, general ideas and concepts.

Definition of TRUTH. 2a:(1) : the state of being the case : fact (2) : the body of real things, events, and facts : actuality (3) often capitalized : a transcendent fundamental or spiritual reality 2b : a judgment, proposition, or idea that is true or accepted as true <truths of thermodynamics> 2c : the body of true statements and propositions. 3a : the property (as of a statement) of being in accord with fact or reality b chiefly British : true 3 c : fidelity to an original or to a standard 4 capitalized Christian Science : god in truth : in accordance with fact : actually. Definition of Ontology 1. A systematic account of Existence. 3. The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. "ontology." Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 19 Jan. 2012. <>.

Example: The belief in one god is a concept that is shared by the three major religions of western culture. That overall idea of one god with specifics becomes three distinct and separate religions, Islam, Judaism and Christianity. Each religion provides for their believers a different set of accepted assumptions as truths. Each religion states that their groups accepted assumptions are the words of the One God. Each religion designates different names for the one god. The names are the following; Judaism-Yahweh, Christianity-God/Jesus, and Islam-Allah. Each religion comes with a different set of assumptions, used as truths of reality that serves as the rationale (that is in many cases, ill-rationale) to justify the behavior of the believers of that religion. These accepted truths do not have to be physical facts (or rational) for them to have very real physical effects. People using these accepted truths to engage and form the world is how all ideas and concepts have physical effect. The rationale used to explain ones belief in those accepted truths, do not have to be rational. The three major religions of the Western World, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam would have few followers if the requirement for their acceptance, as definitions of reality, were based on the physical veracity of most of their tenets, and not based on faith.4 These accepted truths generate emotional feelings; one affect of these feelings is that they generate emotional attachment, causing one to become emotionally attached to ones beliefs. These accepted truths, also generate energy that becomes physical in more direct ways. One of which is when they are used as the motivation for the human behaviors. Ideas and concepts in the form of words are made real when people use them to engage the world. In fact, human beings can be viewed as conduits, or converters of ideas into physical energy. People are the instruments by which ideas are transformed into physical things and events. Emotional attachment is not the only emotional component of words. Words generate various emotional effects in both the speaker and the audience. Advertisers and other institutions designed to control and influence massive amounts of people church and government - understand and use the emotional power of words. These institutions understand that: Words, ideas, and concepts move people. Be like Mike, Democracy, and Christianity are ideas that have moved large amount of peoples in todays world. Institutions pay huge amounts

Faith, noun 1. Confidence or trust in a person or thing: faith in another's ability. 2. belief that is not based on proof: He had faith that the hypothesis would be substantiated by fact. 3. belief in God or in the doctrines or teachings of religion: the firm faith of the Pilgrims. 4. belief in anything, as a code of ethics, standards of merit, etc.: to be of the same faith with someone concerning honesty. 5. a system of religious belief: the Christian faith; the Jewish faith.

of money for 60 seconds of media time because know that the ideas expressed by the words in commercials produce measurable real, physical, (sales increase) results. The goal of these systems (government, religious, media,) is to convince the individual to add that systems words and ideas to their internal dialogue. These institutions need your mind to use the ideas and concepts they produce as the rationale for your behavior. It is the only way for ideas to become physical objects and events. Power is the ability to define reality and have others response to those definitions as if they were your own! These institutions exercise power over people by convincing people to use the ideas and concepts of the institution as definitions of reality. In summary: All thoughts, but mainly those that have reach the status of an accepted truth of reality, become the rationale in the form of internal dialogue (thoughts), that define reality for you, and those who think like you. Behavior is based on this internal dialogue, the rationale that justifies, and supports, our actions. Our thoughts being understood as the rationale for our actions are seldom acknowledged Your Thoughts-Internal Dialogues- be You! Two things that make Dr. Nobles statement so powerful are: 1) It is free of dogmatic, dictatorial orders from some higher authority, like a god, prophet, or priest, 2) Most importantly, it places the point of power at home plate, in your in head, with you being in the batters box. Continuing our baseball metaphor; the pitcher on the mound is represented by the cultural institutions of a society; (religion, education, and entertainment) and these institutions are pitching fast balls and curves in the forms of ideas and concepts. These institutions are pitching many bad ideas that should be avoided. Your job as the batter is to only engage those pitches that are strikes. Pitches thrown that are balls, meaning pitches that are outside of the strike zone, must be avoided. Those pitches are not to be engaged, they represent bad ideas. These bad ideas are balls that the batter should let pass, take note of them, but do not engage. The pitches you engage become a part of you in this game of baseball, like the definitions of reality you choose to accept as truths of reality, define who you are in the real world. These definitions of reality provide intimate and personal descriptions of how you believe, the world works and you within it. These descriptions of reality operate within us, as our internal dialogue, thoughts, and as thoughts, they generate feelings and emotions as kinetic energy.5

kinetic [ki-net-ik] 1. pertaining to motion. 2. caused by motion.

This kinetic energy, has electromagnetic6 attributes, it response to the laws of attraction and repulsion. The electromagnetic properties of our thoughts cause attractions with others who feel and think like you. Understanding the electromagnetic aspect of thoughts may shed some light on why having a positive outlook on life is so advantageous, and why the saying, "birds of a feather flock together is so true. These expressions help us to understand in a small but real way, how the electromagnetic attributes of our thoughts and emotions influence the physical structure of reality. Western science and European thought for that manner does not have ideas and concepts that detail the electromagnetic aspect of reality. Science uses one of the physical manifestations of this energy; it is the basis for electricity. Without reality having this electromagnetic aspect as a component of itself, electricity would be impossible. One of the aspects of the bodys composition is also an electromagnetic component. That fact is the foundation of Neuroscience. However, these electromagnetic aspects of reality do not find practical, everyday expression in western thought. Sayings like, "birds of a feather flock together may be the best we get as a practical expression of how this energy is used by the common person. This saying is a way of stating that people who think alike are producing certain minute electromagnetic and chemical energies that attracts others who think like them and therefore produce familiar energies. One does not have to be a neuroscientist to see some of the other implications of the electromagnetic aspect of the brain and central nervous system. Our words and thoughts generate electromagnetic energy as waves and particles that have some very real effects on our
3. characterized by movement: Running and dancing are kinetic activities. Kinetic energy is energy in motion.

electromagnetism [ih-lek-troh-mag-ni-tiz-uh m] noun 1. the phenomena associated with electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with each other and with electric charges and currents. 2. Also, electromagnetics. the science that deals with these phenomena. Science Dictionary electromagnetism (-lk'tr-mg'n-tz'm) Pronunciation Key Any of the wide range of phenomena associated with the behavior and interaction of electric charges and electric and magnetic fields, such as electricity, magnetism, chemical bonds, and all forms of electromagnetic radiation, including light. The American Heritage Science Dictionary Copyright 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved. These definitions demonstrate that this electromagnetic interaction happens on all levels of reality, macro to micro. On a subatomic level of reality, this electromagnetic energy does not appear to be effected by consciousness thought. But this subtle level of reality may be affected by the kinetic energy generted by our intent, desires, emotions, and sub conscious thoughts.

internal (body) and external environments. This minute energy operate on subatomic level, this energy is not restricted by the macro level laws of physics; they operate outside and within time and space. They operate and have their foundations at subatomic, quantum, levels of reality where things can be at two places at once. Understanding the electromagnetic aspects of words enables one to better comprehend why in African philosophy words are held in such reverence. Words and thoughts are alive and like all life they exhibit electromagnetic attributes. The understanding of the invisible electromagnetic energy and forces that sever as the foundation for reality are expressed in the words of this quote by Dr. Fu-Kiau Bunseki:
Life is fundamentally a process of perpetual and mutual communication; and to communicate is to emit and to receive waves and radiations (minika ye minienie).For the Bantu, a person lives and moves within an ocean of waves/radiations. One is sensitive or immune to them. To be sensitive to waves/forces is to be able to react negatively or positively to those waves/forces. But to be immune to surrounding waves/forces, is to be less reactive to them or not at all. These differences account for varying degrees in the process of knowing/learning among individuals (Fu-Kiau,2001)

In summary: the individual defines reality by way of words. Words operate as descriptions of reality. The Institutions-church, media, educational- of a society produces ideas and concepts that the peoples of that society use as the rationale (internal dialogue, accepted truths) for the behavior patterns of that society. Words are alive; they have electromagnetic proprieties that enable them to have positive and negative effects on reality on macro and micro levels. The Power of Choice! In Dr. Nobles definition of power, the point of power in his statement rests in ones choices. As powerful as words are as definitions of reality the individual chooses the ideas and concepts they use to engage the world. Dr. Nobles words should cause one to examine the ideas that You Choose to put in your head, in general. But, to be most discerning about the ones you chose to accept as truths of reality. All personal beliefs are the result of choice. That choice can be based on anything, facts, feelings, intuitions, experience, faith, persuasions or coercion. As a Youth, you are introduced to the ideas of a particular society through family and community interaction. As we grow and mature we are introduced into a world of ideas. Almost from the start a child learns to make decisions based thinking and feelings. Accepting some ideas and rejecting others the child begins shaping, based on those decisions, a unique personality. A person represents a unique electromagnetic, physical imprint on reality as result of their choices.

At some age you become responsible for what you choose to believe. At every instant we are making choices to consume one ideas or other. One result of these choices is that particular electromagnetic information is communicated to our bodies and the environment on micro and macro levels. On macro levels the results of the effectiveness of your internal dialogue will be more directly perceivable; the state of your physical condition and environment are a direct reflection. Therefore the ideas and concepts one chooses to accept and use as definitions of reality is of vital importance. Consuming words serves the same function for the mind as consuming food does for the body. Consuming food, provide nourishment for the body. Consuming words provide nourishment for the mind. Food and words function the same way. The act of eating; consuming food, provides a method (eating) and device, (food) to deliver nourishments to the body. (The nutrients contained in the food). Reading words; the method is the act of reading, the device, are the words, which like food, contain the nourishment but is not the nourishment itself. Just like the nourishments contained in food, feed the body; the ideas contained in the words we consume, feed the mind. This is why the batter in our baseball metaphor has such an important job, to only engage good, healthy ideas. The ideas you consume should be considered as food. Your decision to add any idea to your internal dialogue should not be done lightly. As we shall see many ideas of western culture should be considered as fast food, consuming them should come with a warning. High fat and carcinogenic content, consuming can be harmful to ones health. Once one surrenders his choice and accept any idea as truth, it than becomes a definition of reality used to engage the world. It becomes a truth, be it the word of a God of a particular religion, a fact of science, an impossibility of nature, or whatever. The thing is this, anything you choose to believe you will rationalize as a fact of reality. All of what has been presented in this chapter should highlight a little known attribute of the mind: the mind provides the rationale for everything you choose to believe and do; that rationale does not and indeed may not be rational, factual, or logical in any way, to anyone else. Any idea or concept elevated to the status of an accepted truth of reality; the emotional attachment is just a part of the process. People would be less emotionally attached to many unhealthy and harmful ideas if we understood that, the emotional attachment we feel is solely based on choice. Word Power: From an African Worldview! Based on Dr. Nobles definition of power, and information examine so far, reality is not something that is outside of ones self. This information suggest that we are connected to the world by the ideas we use to engage it. Dr. Nobles definition of power is based on an African philosophical paradigm that states; the universe is alive, interconnected, interactive, and


responsive to our feelings and ideas about it.7 This understanding give words an importance in African thought that is missed in western thought. The importance of words is highlighted by you reading the definitions of reality expressed by the words on this paper. Some other functions of words are: We merge with reality by way of words and thought. Thoughts are in essence mental words. For the existence of something to be known, it has to have a description-words- that define it. Ones experiences are interpreted and expressed by words. Words are the foundation and the primary medium of communication used by human beings. Words are a force of nature, in African cultural philosophies words are given their proper respect. The understanding of the function of words as a force of nature is common in African philosophical thought, both ancient and modern. Professor Amadou Hampate Ba, of Mali, is an initiated member of various African educational systems (secret societies) and he has this to say concerning the understanding of the creative power of Kuma, the word in his culture.
The Bambara tradition of the karma teaches that the word, Kuma is a fundamental force emanating from the Supreme Being himself- Maa Ngala, Creator of all things Traditions then confers on karma, the word, not only creative power but a double function of saving and destroying. (P. 171 Ki-Zerbo, 1992 )

Professor Theophile Obenga of the Congo, an Egyptologist, linguist and philosopher provides information that supports Dr. Hampate Bas words.
We hardly need to point out that in the profoundest traditions of black African society, the creative Word is considered all powerful. Ever since the time of Pharaonic Egypt, speech has been endowed with sovereign power in black Africa, here, from time immemorial, there have been civilizations . of the word as creative energy. Ancient Egypt in particular, was a high civilization of

Because the Kalunga was the complete life, everything in touch with the earth shared that life, and became life after itself. That life appeared on the earth under all kinds of sizes and forms: plants, insects, animals, rocks, human beings, ect. (see in Kindoli, 1970) ( Fu-Kiau,199? p. 21) this same understanding of an alive interconnected universe is also expressed by the Dogan of Mali. Griaule and Dierterlen provide insight into the philosophy of the Dogan. Certainly the universe is treated as a whole, but also as a living body, articulated, ordered-to the extent that even disorder has its place-function, with interlocking parts dependent upon each other (Griaule, Dierterlen, p.70. 1986)


the word powerful and magical force, complete with its hieroglyphic writing. (P. 89-90, Obenga, 2004)

In African philosophy words function as a creative and destructive force of nature. Words are not neutral, unbiased objects. From an African worldview words are not to be taken lightly. Perhaps African Americans have taken the definitions of reality represent by the words we use to engage the world far too lightly. Have we missed something? Words and Culture The definitions of reality Dr. Nobles refers to are given to us within a cultural content in the form of words and images. These words and images are products of the institutions of the society. The religious institutions provide the spiritual (the abstract and unseen) ideas for a people. The educational institutions provide the historical and scientific (supposedly factual) ideas, the media provide and express the fantasy, ideal, and dreams of a people. These institutions control the behaviors of people by producing ideas, in the forms of words, and images that people use to engage and form the world. As pointed out throughout this paper, words are one of the primary tools humans use to know ourselves, each other and the world. Also, African cultures state that words can have a positive or negative effect. Dr. John H. Clarke expresses this understanding with his very insightful observation about how words in Western culture are used against African people and the caution we must exercise with their use. We must stop misinterpreting words. We have misinterpreted words and have been the victim of the tyranny of words for all too long. Dr. Clarke understood that Africans in America need a better comprehension and appreciation of the anti African cultural bias of these words. The poisonous nature of the words of Western society when used by African as definitions of reality is not acknowledged enough. To appreciate Dr. Clarkes warning one must understand the relationship between words and culture. Words have their precise meanings only in the culture of their origin. Often, words do not retain their exact meaning when translated from one culture to another. Words are like containers, containers used to hold concepts. Culture can be looked at as the thing that provides the shape or framework of the container; this framework shapes the meaning of each and every word of a language to a particular cultural shape. Sometimes translating is like trying to fit a square peg into a round hole. Some cutting must be performed on the square peg, to make it fit by trimming it to become round. Often this is the case when translating a word into another culture; some concepts used to represent the meaning have to be trimmed off when translating from one culture to another. This process changes the shape and therefore the meaning of the word. This is what is meant by the statement, lost in translation; you may get the idea, but not the full meaning. All words have


a cultural foundation that makes them uniquely shaped by the culture of their origin. What is the culture shape of the words of western culture? In summary: Power is the ability to define reality and then have other use those definitions: African people in America use the descriptions of reality given to us by western society without taking into account the cultural nature of those words. The critique of the conceptual frameworks that provide the backbone for and birth place of the words of western society is demanded by the insightful words of Dr. Clarke. His warning must become a part of our internal dialogue. We must stop misinterpreting words. We have misinterpreted words and have been the victim of the tyranny of words for all too long. We ignore the powerless, impotent reality the use of the words and concepts of western society as definitions of reality has created for us, Black people. The powerless and rundown condition of Black communities is never looked at being the results of the concepts and ideas contained in the words used to solve the problems of these communities. We see other people - in many cases new arrivals- used these same ideas of western culture as definitions of reality to build their communities. Is there something we have missed about the concepts contained in the definitions words- of reality we use to engage the western world? The New Orthodoxy An examination of the cultural contextual mind-set, that produces the words and ideas of western culture and the effects those ideas have on African Americans is provided by scholar Dr. Jacob Carruthers (True of Voice), in his book, Intellectual Warfare. Dr. Carruthers book provides an examination of the intellectual aspects of racism and white supremacy as concepts use against African people. He demonstrates how these and other ideas and concepts of western society have been historically used as intellectual weapons against African people. Most importantly, in his book he offers solutions, one of which is the concept of the New Orthodoxy. In the book he introduces the concept of The New Orthodoxy. He uses this term to define the origin of modern historiography as a fabricated, racist, revisionist story.8 Dr. Carruthers

Definition of HISTORIOGRAPHY. 1a : the writing of history; especially : the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particulars from the authentic materials, and the synthesis of particulars into a narrative that will stand the test of critical methods b : the principles, theory, and history of historical writing <a course in historiography> 2: the product of historical writing: a body of historical literature.


defines the New Orthodoxy as an interpretation of history that Europeans began to fabricate in the 16th century in order to justify their enslavement and cultural genocide of peoples on a global scale. Dr. Caruthers research, documents how this fabricated view of history became the intellectual and historical foundation of Western society. His research adds to, and enforces, Dr. Clarkes perspective of making us aware of the anti-African conceptual framework of the words of Western society. The New Orthodoxy is a definition of reality that deserves engagement.
As an introduction to the explanation of the New Orthodoxy, let me comment on the origin and nature of the intellectual tyranny (Carruthers, 1999, p. 5) The doctrine of white supremacy which I call the New Orthodoxy, however, begins with the explicit declaration of the biological inferiority of Negroes in relationship to whites. As I read history, this occurs in the middle of the eighteen century and can best be seen in the thoughts of David Hume and Charles Montesquieu.(P. 6) The chattel slave system and the rationalization for the system, based on racial characteristics by great philosophers like Montesquieu, had significantly lowered the prestige of the African race (the spirit of the laws 1949). ( P. 65) But is was a nineteenth-century German philosopher who best articulated the complete New Orthodoxy and thus offered the solution to the problem. George

In order for Europeans to feel morally correct about their behavior of global rape, genocide and slavery they invented and hid behind concepts, like the White Mans Burden, Manifest Dynasty and Cape to Cairo. "The White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899, with the subtitle The United States and the Philippine Islands.[1] Although Kipling's poem mixed exhortation to empire with somber warnings of the costs involved, imperialists within the United States understood the phrase "white man's burden" as a characterisation for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.'s_Burden Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the continent. It was used by Democrat-Republicans in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century. Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only wise but that it was readily apparent (manifest) and inexorable (destiny). The Cape to Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail. This plan was initiated at the end of the 19th century, during the time of colonial rule, largely under the vision of Cecil Rhodes, in the attempt to connect adjacent African possessions of the British Empire through a continuous line from Cape Town, South Africa to Cairo, Egypt. While most sections of the Cape to Cairo railway are in operation, a major part is missing between northern Sudan and Uganda.


Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in his Philosophy of History (1956) asserted that the Negro in Africa:
Exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state there is nothing harmonious ..with humanity to be found in this type of character.(Pa. 93)

He further concluded that the condition of Africans is capable of no development or culture and that enslavement to more advanced Europeans is necessary to the increase of human feeling among the Negroes and is an advance towards becoming participants in a higher morality a phrase of education (p. 98)
At this point we leave Africa not to mention it again [He does, however, manage to mention it again.] For it is not a historical part of the world; it has no movements or development to exhibit. Historical movement in it-that is in its northern part-belong to the Asiatic or European world. Carthage displayed there an important transitional phrase of civilization; but as a Phoenician colony, it belongs to Asia. Egypt will be considered in reference to its Western phase, but it does not belong to the African Spirit. What is properly understood by Africa is the unhistorical, undeveloped spirit, still involved in the conditions of mere nature, and which had to be presented here only as on the threshold of the worlds history.(Hegel, p. 9) *Authorss insertion+

The anti-African framework called the New Orthodoxy by Dr. Carruthers, serves as the foundation out of which the ideas and concepts of western society emerges . An understanding of the racist foundation of western society is not given as a definition of reality by the mass media, educational, or religious institutions and therefore it is not a part of the internal dialogue of the average Black person. The answer to the question asked at the end of the last chapter: have we missed something about the conceptual base of the words of western society is: Hell Yea. Many African intellectuals understand and have written extensively on what Seba ( Master teacher) Dr. Carruthers call the New Orthodoxy. However, there are few institutions that produce and distribute this type of Black intellectual thought anymore. The years of mis-education caused by being educated for so long under such an anti-African framework has produced too many intellectuals who miss the point (Gates, Dyson, and West). Dr. Carruthers book devotes a section that examines the ideological short comings of those intellectuals,(the gang of three) who fail to appreciate, the anti-African framework of the philosophies that sever as the foundations of the institutions under which they were educated. In summary: The words of brothers Clarke and Carruthers along with Brother Nobles definition of power highlight the need for Black people to become more critical of the words we


use to engage the world. The words of western culture and the concepts contained within them come shaped within an anti-African conceptual framework. This anti-African framework hinders their effectiveness when used by African people as definitions of reality to engage the world. This quotes by African-american scholar, Adisa A. Ajamu clearly state an understanding of the problems caused when African scholars use European definitions of reality uncritically to understand and interpret African ideas and concepts.
This then suggests that when black scholars uncritically adopt a European-centered methodological frame-work, the scholar also inherits European-centered epistemological parapher-nalia. Furthermore, when black scholars attempt to apprehend African reality (ontology) utilizing a European epistemological paradigm, the black scholar becomes incarcerated by the European utamawazo (world view). The result is that the black scholar often ends up mimicking European thought and un-wittingly producing European truths about African realities, while giving the appearance of producing African gnosis and/or interpreting African deep though. ( Ajamu,1997,p.179)

The Problems with some of the Euro-Paradigms we love. Some of the terms I mentioned at the beginning of this paper, metaphysical, esoteric, and religious, represent Western cultural descriptions of reality. Many African scholars have adopted the ideas and concepts represented in these words as definitions of reality and as paradigms of research. These words provide descriptions of reality that present a divided, fragmented and at times, machine like. These western cultural descriptions of reality are full of problematic European cultural conceptual paradigms. Even when used within their own cultural context, the fragmented reality represented by these terms should be understood as European conventions and cultural definitions, only. These terms when used, too often represent mere falsifications of reality. That is, descriptions of reality that allow participants to have conversations using words to describe a physically impossible reality or idea, words that have no physical realness. Example: Next time someone is invited to speak about a metaphysical subject, ask the speaker to accept a metaphysical or spiritual check as payment. The point will be made to the speaker, if to no one else, that you are trying to have a conversation around a concept that is false; there is no physical use of a metaphysical check. It does not exist as a physical fact for use. The words metaphysical check as a concept has no physical realness. The speaker would know, in reality, that they are not getting paid; their payment only exists metaphysically, beyond the physical.


The point is this, at times using metaphysics and spirituality as foundations for discussions about reality is totally inappropriate. Too often, the reality of such conversations only exists in the words and the minds of the participants. You can talk about and even write volumes about the metaphysical check but you can never use it in a practical way, like cashing it. Such conversations have no foundation in and therefore no effect on reality; they are exercises in verbal masturbation. At times, these terms by their very definitions make them problematic, when used to discuss certain concepts that demand less fragmented paradigms of reality in order to understand them. In classical philosophy the word metaphysic has the meaning of, the search for origins, first principles, and first causes. Too often the word metaphysic is used by too many writers to mean beyond the physical. The result of writings based on the use of metaphysics meaning beyond the physical, is that too often, those writings are also beyond believable. In African philosophy nature and human advancement are the foundations and standards of research. The problematic aspects of the words (metaphysical, esoteric and spiritually) becomes apparent when used to express, examine, or explain African cultural concepts. African cultural ideas are shaped to a different cultural framework. African philosophical ideas are expressed based on principles of nature, and therefore they are cyclical. The differences between the two worldviews are express by African American scholar Marima Ani, in her excellent (but little read) book Yurugu: An African-Centered Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior.
The Universe to which they [African and Asian] relate is sacred in origin, is organic, and it a true cosmos. Human beings are part of the cosmos, and, as such, relate intimately with other cosmic beings. Knowledge of the universe comes through relationship with it and through perception of spirit in matter. The universe is one; spheres are joined because of a single unifying force that pervades all being. Meaningful but rationalistic: complex yet lived. They tend to be expressed through logic of metaphor and complex symbolism. Rob the universe of its richness, deny the significance of the symbolic, simplify phenomena until it becomes mere objects and you have a knowable quantity. Here begins and ends the European epistomotological mode. (Ani 1994, pa.30)

In relationship to African philosophical concepts, European cultural philosophical ideas in general are conceptualized in ways that stress a linear, split, fragmented, oppositional, at war with (everything) view of reality.9

. metaphysical [met-uh-fiz-i-kuh l] adjective


African philosopher, Dr. Theophile Obenga, speaks on the habitual practice of European science of splitting reality, The present habit of splitting science from technology is not a matter of real logic. It has more to do with an obsessive determination to split realities that are in practice inseparable (Obenga 2004, p. 454-5.)10 African American scholar Marima Ani provides an account of this aspect of the European worldview. She enforces the views of Dr. Obenga in regard to Europeans habitual nature to perceive and express reality as a spilt, dichotomy of opposition.
The split that we have mentioned are worked out in such a way that they begin to deny and prevent interrelationship. They do this on a cognitive level, a semantic level, and through the logic on which they are based. The splits then move to the level of culture, world-view and belief. They began to effect experience, because although they may not be accurate, they limit peoples ability to experience the universe as an integrated whole. (Ani 1994, p.40)

2. Philosophy . a. concerned with abstract thought or subjects, as existence, causality, or truth. b. concerned with first principles and ultimate grounds, as being, time, or substance. 3. highly abstract, subtle, or abstruse. 4. designating or pertaining to the poetry of an early group of 17th-century English poets, notably John Donne, whose characteristic style is highly intellectual and philosophical and features intensive use of ingenious conceits and turns of wit. 5. Archaic . imaginary or fanciful. spiritual, adjective 1. of, pertaining to, or consisting of spirit; incorporeal. 2. of or pertaining to the spirit or soul, as distinguished from the physical nature: a spiritual approach to life. 4. of or pertaining to spirits or to spiritualists; supernatural or spiritualistic. 5. characterized by or suggesting predominance of the spirit; ethereal or delicately refined: She is more of a spiritual type than her rowdy brother. esoteric [es-uh-ter-ik] adjective 1. understood by or meant for only the select few who have special knowledge or interest; recondite: poetry full of esoteric allusions. 2. belonging to the select few. 3. private; secret; confidential. 4. (of a philosophical doctrine or the like) intended to be revealed only to the initiates of a group: the esoteric doctrines of Pythagoras.

The following is a quote from Dr. Marimba Ani who quotes from the book the Mind of Africa, by Willie Abraham, Willie Abraham talks about the European tendency to rip things apart. There are some things, he says, that cannot be divided without destroying their integrity.The analytical mode splits things up. (p.76)


Not taking into account the differences between some basic ontological conceptual paradigms between the two cultures is problematic. There will be distortions when European words and concepts are used to understand and express African cultural ideas. African philosophies tend to be cyclical, humanistic, nature oriented descriptions of reality. They are practical so as to make them applicable to everyone. They are designed to teach and improve the human condition. They use nature because symbols of nature have universal cognitive and emotive meaning. Example: The sun is a good example of natures universal appeal. The sun is experienced the same by all people, as the major heat, light, and food source in the world. Because of this shared experience when used symbolically, the sun and symbols of nature in general like, water and trees express and invoke universal meanings and feelings. Human begins long association with nature enable these nature images to evoke feelings along with the obvious picture, making them multilayered with meanings. In summary, understanding the function of words is primary to understanding how the individual defines realty. Our internal dialogues represent descriptions of reality all of which are based on word. All words have a cultural context. Africans and Europeans have different cultural ontological views of how words affect reality. Based on the views of many African scholars, African peoples must become more critical of the European, word, ideas, and concepts we use to engage reality. European descriptions of reality are not empowering for African people, they are less effective when used by African people as solutions for some problems presented by western culture. The poisonous nature of European word for Africans is the result of the New Orthodoxy framework that produced them. As such they must not be consumed uncritically by Africans. The Tree of Life! Understanding Dr. Nobles, Dr. Clarkes, Dr. Ani and the statements of many others demand that we call into question the conceptual content of the words and concepts that we accept as truths and then used as definitions to explain reality. In this section two concepts will be examined, The Tree of Life and The Makuku Matatu. Two symbols and diagrams that provide definitions of reality that describe how the individual exist within reality. They provide the perfect examples that express in detail the differences between the ontological views of European and African cultures. The philosophy use to describe both symbols is provided from the books of two African scholars, one born in the Congo and the other in the United States. We will begin with the Tree of Life as described by RA Un Nefer, the U.S. born scholar.


The following concept is a popular graphic image (see fig. 1) that is used by many Africanamerican metaphysical and spiritual researchers. It is referred to as the Tree of Life. (see fig.8) The image has its origin in the book of Jewish, speculative philosophy, the Qabbalah. (See fig. 2) Based on the bible myth of Jews being in Egypt, many African-centered thinkers feel that this image and the philosophy used to explain it, has an African origin. One of the rationales used being, the Jews learned of this information and incorporated it into their philosophy during their stay in Egypt. Mind you, no mention of such a historic event as Jews being in Egypt is recorded in Egyptian historical records, which are extensive. The major attempt to literally attach this symbol to an African philosophical foundation is by a Rosicrucian trained priest, named Ra Un Nefer, in his work, Medu Neter. His books, although very popular, they are philosophically speculative works in six volumes (so-far), long on speculation and short on sound reasoning. Brother Nefer replaces the original Hebrew text on the chart by overlaying them with his meanings of the Netcher symbols of Kemet. His usage and understanding of the medew netcher symbols appears to be based primarily on European scholars. He offers no translations of the Medew Netcher text of his own. He does provide extensive commentary, primarily on Budges translations and works. He is well read and shows a good understanding of the state of Egyptology and the influence of Africans and African-american scholars on that discipline. The author pulls together a ton of information from various cultures into what he feels to be their Kemetic origin. He then presents what he calls the Egyptian System of Spiritual Cultivation. None of this vast information is based on his own understanding of the languages of any of the cultures from which he gathers information. His examination of the ideas of each culture is based on at best, second hand sources. This renders him unable to verify the veracity of the conclusions or translations of his sources; this represents a major problem with his works. He furthers assumes that ideas mean the same across culture. He reduces this vast amount of eastern and western cultural ideas and concepts into English/European conceptual frameworks, ignoring the resulting cultural distortions. He uses the word God as if this word is conceptually equal to the Kemetic concept of Netcher. The word God understood from the standpoint of how it is used under the New Orthodoxy, makes it problematic when used to express African philosophical concepts. The Tree of Life diagram depicts, what Dr. Nobles statement says in words, and that is, the manner in which the individual merges with reality. Unlike Dr. Nobles concise twenty word statement, this graph has been reproduced into volumes of speculative pronouncements as


others have speculated on Ra Un Nefers speculative works. In their works they present very fragmented, oppositional views of reality. These authors stress the dual nature of reality to extremes! In their works, the various aspects of the Human being are juxtaposed in oppositional, conflicting relationships. In African philosophical traditions the dual nature of man and reality are expressed functionally, as complements. In Ra Un Nefers work, the human beings spiritual and sexual aspects are depicted as energies in opposition. The higher value being placed on the spiritual aspect (in print anyway) of human beings and the sexual/animal nature of humans is to be controlled. The sex act should be undertaken not for pleasure but for spiritual (other than physical) enlightenment.
Can you imagine the effect on a peoples consciousness and spirituality if every time they engaged in sex, their attentions was directed to the achievement of a spiritual goal? What if they thought of themselves as engaging, not in a mere carnal act, but as divine beings using the energies of the lower part of their spirit to bring forth the higher? Pa. 150

In cultures where all of reality is understood as being a balance between the seen and unseen (spiritual and physical) aspects of reality, brother Nefers statement would have no meaning. His statement can only have meaning in a culture whose collective internal dialogue allows them to construct a split reality with words, when in fact, no such spilt exist physically. In a society where life is seen as a balance between the unseen and seen aspect of reality, sex as pleasure would be a spiritual act. In fact a physical, spiritual, and spirited, passions play. The authors views are based on the use of European cultural descriptions of reality, used as universal fact of reality. In Ra Un Nefers work, man is often juxtaposed to animals with the animals representing the lower, base, primitive aspects of mans nature. The author presents this animal aspect of man as something to be confronted and to be defeated. His views of animals and their relationship with humans are not African. In Kemet and other parts of Africa this debasement of animals is not a part of the conceptual framework used to express philosophical concepts. He goes on with this man-animal dichotomy.
To follow ones feelings, and desires, to do it because you like it, and so on, is to identify with the animal part of being. And as anyone would expect, to allow oneself to be led by an animal can lead only to disastrous

Desires are not bad, my parents installed in me the desire to do good, to have self control, to use my time wisely. I had a ton of hobbies as a kid to occupy my time with creative activities. I do what I like because I have been taught to enjoy engaging in positive activities. I follow my


desires because they are a means to access the deeper levels of my internal dialogue, their source. The author now depicts what he has defined as how the animal aspects of human nature is in conflict with our intellect.
Set sends his agents to look for and kill the boy-king: This symbolizes the antagonistic reaction of our animal spirit, and lower intellect toward our efforts to alter our behavior pattern to reflect the values of our higher divine nature. pa129 The third stage of initiation marks the completion of the preparation of the initiate for higher initiation. We must note that thus far the initiate has not been directed to confront his lower nature. In fact, the method around it was one of persuasion.P. 150

This antagonistic, oppositional relationship between various aspects of human beings is carried to extremes in numerous statements. The following is another example that depicts his misunderstanding of the animal nature of man. This statement is concerning sphere 10 on his tree of life, and it the author says contains, the animal part of the spirit.
Sphere 10, Geb, the Khaibit (animal part of the spirit): This part of the spirit sets the foundation of the problem to be overcome. We are born with this part of our spirit already programmed for the preservation of our survival. Its basic program can be reduced to an attraction (likes, cravings, desire) for what gives us pleasure and repulsion (displeasure, dislike) for what causes aversions or pain. but if not transcended, it becomes the greatest impediment to our spiritual developments [emphasis added]..pa133.

This demonization of animals is not just against the animal nature of man, it is against animals themselves. In his view animals are depicted as being unworthy has a food source, based on reasoning that borders on the absurd.
It is best to avoid animal products (includes fish, eggs, chicken, and dairy, which are not vegetables in case you have not noticed). Besides from having an adverse effect on your health-animal protein and fat are the greatest dietary sources of cancer, heart disease, and rheumatoid illnesses-you will not be able to fulfill the requirement of the Maat stage of initiation. Meat eating by humans betrays a lack of understanding of the interdependence between the makeup of human digestive system and the food intended for it. Were we meat eater, we could eat it raw without worrying about infections. We would relish the sight, taste, and smell of raw blood. At the sight of a bleeding animal, we would salivate, and succumb to hunger pangs. The fact that we have to tenderize meat through cooking and other means shows that our teeth were not made for meat. Pa. 193. Vol. 2.


The problem is, to many people Bro. Nefers statements are logical assumptions. If his statements are logical to the reader, maybe it is because you have chosen to accept overly fragmented European cultural conventions as universal truths. They have become a part of your internal dialogue, your emotional attachment is in part a response to you choosing to accept the concepts (assumptions) contain in his words as definitions of truths of realty, uncritically. Some people may indeed salivate at the sight of blood and raw meat when thinking about the cooked outcome! Cooking and tenderizing meat is not a sign that our teeth were not made to eat it. Food is not the primary cause of ill health. Western science does not have the means to define health or the idea of what being healthy is. European science ignores too many ingredients (like, emotions and consciousness) of the composition of the human being so that, any answer derived from their research concerning health would have to be flawed. The major focus of health for the individual in western society is food consumption. This mechanized view of the individual, ignores ones thoughts, feeling, emotions, and the magnetic influences of stress (thoughts) upon the individual and their health. Ignoring all of these major aspects of a persons being would make any theory of the persons emotional, intellectual, and physical health far from accurate. The authors overly dichotomized, oppositional views of reality are justified, by him, based on the Split-Brain research of Neuroscience. This view of the brain in the field of neuroscience has become outdated. The old research stressed the dichotomy of the left and right hemispheres of the brain in more oppositional and divisive ways. This research was popular in neuroscience about twenty years ago. There was a call to develop educational paradigms based on right or left brain dominance, when this research was popular. Researchers realized that stressing the differences between the two hemispheres in such a oppositional fashion did not accurately describe how the two operated.11 The works of Ra Un Nefer contain far too many conclusions based on outdated split- brain research of Neuroscience. This statement by the author is an example of one the many conclusions based on that outdated research. Here he sums up and labels ancient and modern


however, in the 1960s experimentations on the brain, it was discovered that both hemispheres of the brain, the right and the left were involved in higher cognitive functions and that these two halves were not in opposition or antagonistic to one another as European worldview would predispose one to think, but that their functions were complementary. Each hemisphere, according to split-brain theory, is fashioned to different modes here is very important. It is the Kuntu of African philosophy: the manner in which a thing is perceived, apprehended, made intelligible, and expressed. It is modality and as such it effects the contours of what we receive, perceive, and experience. (Ani, 1994, p.77)


cultures on what, according to him, are the attributes of the dominate brain hemisphere of each culture.
The greatest problem arises from the fact that the greatest validators of our actions, i.e. religion, and science, which are intrinsic products of right-sided cultures, are now used by predominantly left-sided cultures in the characteristic fashion of the left hemisphere. Although the left side is totally incapable of truly religious, and scientific thinking, pa.12

The two hemispheres, neither thinks nor understands anything absent of the other hemisphere. They do not comprehend as independent entities. What the author and many of his followers fail to see is that the fragmented European conceptual frameworks upon which his work rests, are only European cultural descriptions of reality. This section is best summarized by this quote from Dr. Ani.
Plato had layed an elaborate trap. Once the person was artificially split into conflicting faculties or tendencies, it made sense to think in terms of one faculty winning or controlling the other(s). And here begins a pattern that runs with frighteningly predictable consistency throughout European thought, continually gathering momentum for ages to come. The mind is trained from birth to think in terms of dichotomies or splits. The splits become irreconcilable, antagonistic, opposites. Holistic conceptions become almost impossible given this mindset. First the dichotomy is presented, then the process of valuation occurs in which one term valued and the other devalued. One is considered good, positive, superior; the other is considered bad negative, inferior, (Ani 1994,p.33)

Dr. Fu-Kiau The Makuku Matatu, The Dingo Dingo of Muntu! A perfect example of the nature oriented, universal expression of African philosophical symbolic use is illustrated in the work of Dr. Fu-Kiau. These images (fig 3, 4.) are from Dr. FuKiaus book, Tying the Spiritual Knot: African Cosmology of the Bantu Kongo. Dr Fu-Kiau is an initiate of several secret societies of the Bantu-Kongo of Central Africa. He writes from a perspective of personal experience. His charts express all the classic characteristics of African philosophical thought; they are cyclical, nature and human oriented. Dr. Fu-Kiau provides a detailed use and understanding of these images in his book. This is not meant to be a detailed discussion of his work, but only to


illustrate this diagram as an example of African philosophical thought. In the following statement he shows how the images relate to nature and man.
Man is a second sun rising and setting around the earth. He has to rise as the sun does in order to Kala, to be, to become, to light fire. The Kala and Kalazuma concept itself is associated with blackness and is used as a symbol of emergence of life, the physical world [ku nseke]. nugunza, the spiritual man , is associated with the forces behind this concept and process. Kala is the strongest will of muntus existence as we meet it in his daily expressions. (Fu-Kaiu, p. 25-6) Sun movement: the rising and setting of the sun. Cycle of human life: birth, growth, and death. Fire place [zikwa], with its three firestones. Divinitory calabalsh in upper world with its three differently colored ingredients, dingu.(Fu-Kiau, p.32)

Dr. Fu-Kiau statements shows how his image, fig 3, called the Makuku Matatu, ties together aspects of Bantu society, based on understanding the symbolic relationship between the behaviors of the cosmos; the life cycle of the sun, being used to symbolically represent the life cycle of human beings. Figures 4 link all of the symbols together to depict mans journey through life and the different roles he must assume in order to be a TuKula a vital and productive member of Kongo society. These symbols just like Dr. Nobless and Ra Un Nefers works are definitions of how human beings relate to reality.

Figure 3,4. Both symbols (fig.3,4) relate to the process that Dr. Fu-Kiau calls, Kala, to be, to light fire. Dr. Fu-Kiau uses the charts to define this process of Kala, to be, to light fire. The result of the Kala was to become Tukula a mature leader in his community who stands in the V zone of his life.


..The Kala, by the process of growth and maturation becomes tukula, the redness, which is the symbol of mature leadership within the community; it is also the step of the man of deeds [nkwa-navanga]. The collective maturation, its leadership, through the process of collective growth, allows for social and community development.. The Tukula position occupies the center of the cone of power and leadership [sudi kia lendo], which I may also call the V of life. To grow mature *Kula+ is to be ready to enter into this powerful zone of the V of life. It is very important to understand also that the V of life zone is to stand vertically [telama lwimna- naganga] inside the v of life [V kia Zinzgu]. To stand vertically, like a master, [naganga] between the earth and sky [va kati kwa n toto ye zulu] and between the upper world and the lower world [va kati dia ku nseke ye ku mpembe]. The Egyptian ankh symbol itself is nothing else but a V of his community life, as a priest and a teacher. The fate of societies, institutions, and society systems all depend on how people of a given society enter this zone. (P. 25-27)

Dr. Fu-Kiau uses some of the same words as Brother Ra Un Nefers like spirituality. He also depicts mans behavior as animalistic, and he defines this animalistic behavior as being undesirable (fig.5). He therefore, does present a dichotomy of upper and lower aspects of reality and of man, similar to Ra Un Nefer, however, Dr. Fu-Kiaus use is not oppositional.12 Advancing the spiritual nature of humans or so called spiritually in general was not the focus of the educational processes of Kongo society. The spiritual nature of a thing was not the question; ones spiritual nature was not something to be attained as must as something to be maintained by proper behavior. The educational process was to make one a valuable tool for the community by being a doer, able to add to physical betterment of the community. Spirituality for the sake of spirituality is abstraction and fantasy. The Makuku Matatu symbol can also be explained using concepts found in the philosophical expressions of Kemet. The arch of the sun is similar to the image of the sun moving through the body of the Neteret, Nut, from one horizon to the other. (Fig. 4) Like Kemet, the opposites in Dr. Fu-Kiaus diagram are expressed as complementary components. In Kemet there are images


In the African world view the European dichotomy of opposition between the individual and the group collapses, and, instead, the person and the community are defined in terms of each other. There are interdependent, merging beings who together form the meaningful reality. The person is nothing (spiritually dead) outside of the context of the community because of the emotional, spiritual, and physical necessity for interaction with other human beings: This is necessary for the realization of humanness. The community is created by the spiritual joining of persons. (Ani, 1994, p.352)


of Set and Heru sharing the same body, this image reinforces the idea of complementary opposites. (Fig. 6) Dr. Fu-Kiaus diagram (fig. 3.) depiction of the relationship between the living and the dead are the same as in Kemet. In both societies the two worlds are depicted as inverse of each other. The three circles at the top represent the physical world or those who live upon the earth and the three at the bottom the land of the living dead, those who live within the earth. In Kemet images of Wsir are depicted of him looking as if he is standing on his head, upside down, with his feet forming a circle to meet his head. Within the circle is the Duwat (fig. 7). The Duwat is the home of the Dead, those who live under the earth, depicted in this image of the reverse Wsir surrounding the Duwat. The similarities between the two cultures is noted by Fu-Kiau with his use of the image of a man standing vertical in the V zone of life symbol and the Kemetic Ankh symbol. (Fig. 5) The use of Dr. Fu-Kaius symbols was just to provide an example of the nature and human oriented expressions of African philosophical concepts. The author provides a detailed description of these symbols in his book, Tying the Spiritual Knot: African Cosmology of the Bantu-Kongo. Let me be clear, I am not saying that there are not abstract designs, multilayered, difficult to discern patterns in African philosophical thought.13 Not in the least, however, in general, they kept it simple for easier accessibility for the masses. It was never the goal in African societies to have an initiated elite class of people. If the system of education is too complicated it would only fit a few who had the time and luxury to engage such a system. Knowledge was intended for everyone in most African societies. This point was made clear by Dr. Fu-Kiau when he stated that, the collective leadership was based on the collective maturation of the community. Therefore, what we would call education was a vital part of each individual for the benefit of the group.


Sister Marimba Ani quotes Brother, Abraham on the philosophical Kuntu (expression) of African art. Willie Abraham says of the Akan art form: they expressed their philosophico-religious ideas through art, through the timeless, immemorial silent and elemental power so characteristic of African traditional art. Indeed this is the main reason why it was not lifelike in a representational sense. Forms had to be distorted. In art there was a moralphilosophical preoccupation which led it to portray forces of the world, and to portray an assimilated, and consequently like something overcome, as the rendering of it in life-like figures would have been. In the African view of the human, the emotional-spiritual and the rationalmaterial are inextricably bound together, and if anything, it is a human beings spirituality that defines her as human(p. 203)


Notice here, that in traditional Kongo society, to become a specialist, was something required of all its members, and was an expression of professional requirement in social life. Everyone is a free individual and a doer/specialist, Muna Kongo mfumu na mfumu, nganga na nganga. A Mukongo was accepted as such, as an Nganga in his community if he only could be a doer of something for the well-being of the community; Kala ye Salu, to have a: mtier. This Nsa ku nseke upper world is based in the real life. (Pa. 32)

A curious thing about Dr. Fu-Kiaus works is that, in them he uses indigenous phonetic values for words used to express ideas in his language. By providing this information along with the English, he lets the reader know that the full concept is not expressed in English. Also these inclusions enables the reader to access a more precise and fuller understanding of the ideas he introduces. Conclusion Power is the ability to define reality and then have others use those definitions as if they were their own! This statement of power was written by Dr Nobles for Black people. It was meant to show how the definitions of reality produced by the Institutions of western society exercise power and control over us. Also, if understood and utilized correctly Dr. Nobles definition of power can enable one to recognize the ideas, beliefs and concepts that are using to engage the world. His statement reduces all problems down to a very primary level. The words you choose to put in your mind as definitions of reality. All people use words as definitions of reality to engage and form their world. Based on information presented in this paper, African people would be better severed using definitions of reality based in African cultural frameworks. The primary source for such information is in African languages. Dr. Nobless definitions of power used in conjunction with the thoughts of other Deep African Thinkers, stresses the need for us to question the conceptual base and the ineffectiveness of the words we use as definitions of reality. We are powerless because we accept and use definitions of reality that are weak, powerless, and ineffective. These definitions are products of a worldview called the New Orthodoxy invented in the 16th century to justify the enslavement of Africans. The educational institutions, the corporate controlled mass media, and religious institutions give us images of Black people as sidekicks of white people. Being intelligent is portrayed as a Black person living a white life. Black life is portrayed as ghetto, wild, dumb, loud, and violent. Most institutions in America define Black people as; minority, others, urban, inner- city, ghetto, the underprivileged, the poor and even niggers. Hell, it has gotten so bad until Black people in America how define themselves by the name given to them by the people who enslaved them. African in America calls themselves Niggers,


and offer rationale of pure stupidity (like term of endearment) to justify the use of this word. No, it is the ultimate example of self-hate, to accept the name given to you, my your slave master. He gave you the name nigger, niggar, nagger, to represent Africans as non-human beast of burden, too ignorant to be left to their own will and desires. If the word Niggar-in any form-was use as a term of endearment we would see more example of love among its users. The proof of the destructive nature of this word in our communities is to observe the behaviors of the Black people who call themselves niggers. Niggars are too ignorant to pull their pants up: Naggars kills each other over nothing: Naggars are anti-life. Niggars are the whitemans greatness invention. The religious, educational, and media produced definitions of reality hide an inherent consistent, pernicious attitude toward Black people that is a fundamental aspect of Western society. This pernicious racist nature of western society would be better exposed if we use words like, victims of white supremacy, captives of war and racism as terms to define us and our condition. Other statements that more accurately defined Black peoples condition are: A Kidnapped African People, victims of Mis-eduation. However, the cultural ignorance caused by our collective mis-education under the new orthodoxy has rendered those statements into meaningless verbiage for most African-Americans. No matter are accurately those statements express our collective reality they make no emotional connection. They do not penetrate the lies built into our internal dialogue by our use of western ideas to engage the world. In this paper I have introduced many ideas by African authors and deep thinkers who offer definitions of reality that we must incorporate into our internal and external dialogues. The statement by Wade Nobles was the primary focus, but the words and concepts of the following scholars used in this paper provide vital definitions of reality for Black people. They represent ideas and concepts of sanity for the African mind. The words of John H. Clarke, Theophile Obenga, K.K.B. Fu-Kiau, Jacob Carruthers, Marimba Ani, Amadou Hampate Ba, all provide definitions of reality that enable us to analyze and replace some of the ineffective definitions we have internalized. The concept of the New Orthodoxy and the understanding of words as primary tools that human beings use to know and explain reality, represent ideas we must use to engage reality. Also, it is mandatory that we call into question the words of western society that we use to engage the world. More importantly African people must learn to use definitions of reality developed by the minds of deep African thinkers and idea expressed in African languages to engage the world and form reality.


Dr. Nobles definition of power fits the criterion of African philosophies of keeping ideas simple and easy to understand. This enables his definition to be added to the long list of African proverbs; short, precise, and pointed, instructional definitions of reality.14 Dr. Nobles statement is personal, practical and easy to understand. His statement puts the study and means of knowing reality and being effective in it, in ones own lap or head. One of the major points of his statement is that, it highlights the power of individual choice. All truths of reality for individual are based on what the individual choose to accept as definitions of reality. You then use those definitions to understand and express reality. This is as intimate and personal as one can get in terms of understanding how you merge with the world that appears to be outside of you. Akinjide Bonotchi Montgomery


Proverbs, in African context, are laws, reflections, theories, customs, social norms and values, principles, and unwritten constitutions. They are use to justify what should be said or what has been said African proverbs are numerous diverse. They deal with people, God, ancestors, forests, good, money, ideas, wars, moon, time, social problems, education food, ku, mpenba (ancestor world) traditions (kinkulu), history (kikulu) , plants, insects, etc.(Fu-Kiau, p.94-5, 2001)


Examples of how the concept of the Tree of Life is depicted by Ra Un Nefer and the Jewish Kabala.


Figure 1. Ra Un Nefers Tree of Life. The Tree of Life as a concept is not found depicted like the above on any monument or papyri in Kemet.

Examples of how the concept of the Tree of Life is depicted by Ra Un Nefer and the Jewish Qabbalah/Kabala.


Figure 2. The source of Ra Un Nefers Tree of Life. The Tree of Life is not Kemet but the Jewish Qabbalah. This diagram has not been found in Kemet.


Figure 3. This symbol was first introduced the Africa-american consciousness by Doc. Ben as the diagram of the law of opposites. This ancient African symbol may be the most sound, complete, fundamental philosophical diagram and formula ever invented by human beings. The concepts contained in this design are the foundation principles of modern science and all philosophical thought. The source of this depiction of the concepts is from the Bantu-Kongo. The three circle at the stop are named, Makuku Matatu and is representative of the physical world. The three circles at the bottom are representative of the spiritual world, Ku, Mpemba.(p.32)


Figure 4. The Tukula position occupies the center of the cone of power and leadership [sudi kia lendo+, which I may also call the V of life. To grow mature *Kula+ is to be ready to enter into this powerful zone of the V of life. It is very important to understand also that the V of life zone is to stand vertically [telama lwimna- naganga] inside the v of life [V kia Zinzgu]. To stand vertically, like a master, [naganga] between the earth and sky *va kati kwa n toto ye zulu+ and between the upper world and the lower world [va kati dia ku nseke ye ku mpembe]. The Egyptian ankh symbol itself is nothing else but a V of his community life, as a priest and a teacher. The fate of societies, institutions, and society systems all depend on how people of a given society enter this zone.(p.25-27)


Figure 5. The [Muntu+ is fundamentally a vertical being. He thinks and he is spiritual.The beast, on the other contrary, is a horizontal being, a prostrated being that acts instinctively. Muntu, by his behavior, can fall to level of animals; but the animal cannot rise to the level of the vertically thinking being, the muntu.p.149 In description by Dr. Fu-Kiau of the relationship between man and animals, man based on his behavior can become animal like. As such you have a spiritual being acting like an animal, but it is behavior, physical action that is the focus and not ones nature.


Figure 6. Images of Nut. These images illustrate not just in design but in meaning this symbol and Dr. Fu-Kiau s expresses the same concepts. This is too close to be chance.


Figure 7. Here is creation depicted as coming forth from the the Nun, the watery state of non-existence. At the top is the image of the inverted Wsir encircling the Duwat. The words inside of the circle are It is Wsir, He who encircles the Duwat. The physical world is represented by the Ra being upheld by Khper and Wsir in his inverted position represents the Duwat as the inverse of the physical world. Once again this similarity cannot be by chance.


Examples of how the concept of the Tree of Life is depicted in Kemet.

African symbolic expressions of the Tree of life found in Kemet. The concept of the tree providing nourishment is obvious.


The person is nothing (spiritually dead) outside of the context of the community because of the emotional, spiritual, and physical necessity for the realization of humanness. The community is created by the spiritual communion or joining of persons (Ani 1994, p.352)