9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy

9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass

9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic

materials in daily life

1.9. H2SO4 9.1 SULPHURIC ACID.1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser .

c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .

f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .

2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.9. H2O Figure 9.1.1 .

SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. H2S2O7.the sulphur trioxide. sulphur dioxide. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. The gas produced is purified and cooled. Stage 3 In the absorber.Stage 1 In the furnace. SO2. SO2 and excess oxygen gas.5 of the sulphur dioxide. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99. SO3. SO3 through this reversible reaction.

this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However.The mist is corrosive. SO3 directly to water.The oleum. .SO3 reacts too violently with water.H2SO4 mist.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense. H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.

1. and lung diseases. bronchitis.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain.4 and 5. shortness of breath.0. . SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing. b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2. chest pain. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide.9.


2 Ammonia and its salt 9.1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .9.2.

laquers and rocket propellant. . paints. varnishes.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp.

2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia. NH3 a) is an alkaline.O2 not in the air. HCl. c) has a pungent smell.2. e) burns in oxygen gas. g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. . d) is less dense than air.9. b) is a colourless gas. f) very soluble in water.

2 .9. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.2.3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process.

c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor. NH3 gives out heat. e) production of ammonia. . f) the process is reversible.

NH4NO3 and etc.9. (NH4)2SO4.4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate. (NH4)3PO3 .2. ammonium nitrate. . b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate.

3 Alloy 9. .1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid.9. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms. d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied. b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.3.

3a Figure 9.Figure 9.3b .

e) lustre. 9. b) harder furnish.9. c) resistant to corrosion.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger.3.2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal.3. d) have a better .

9. d) stainless steel. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties. f) pewter.4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. b) brass. . c) steel.3. e) duralumin .

3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses  90% Cu  Hard &  Building of strong statues or  10% Sn monuments  Does not corrode  Making easily medals.5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.9. swords &  Shiny artistic surface materials  70% Cu  Harder  Making of than Cu musical  30% Zn instruments & kitchenware  99% Fe  Hard  Construction of buildings  1% C  Strong & bridge  Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .3.

Stainless  74% Fe steel  8% C  18% Cr Duralumin     Pewter    93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb  Shiny  Strong  Does not rust  Light  Strong  Lustre  Shiny  Strong  Making of culery  Making of surgical instrument  Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains  Making of souvenirs .

c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding.3.9. d) thus.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. . an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.

4.1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.9. Figure 9.4 .4 Synthetic polymers 9.

2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .4.9.

water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing. carpets. reflectors.4 Uses Plastic bags. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene .3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9. PVC Artificial leather.4. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes. plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates. shopping bags.9.

PVC : .propene Polyvinyl chloride.ethene Polypropene : .Hexane-1.Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .Hexane-1.Hexane-1.4.6-diamine .4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .6-diol .6-dioic acid .Chloroethene Perpex : .4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .9.Benzene-1.

5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose). c) they are not easily biodegradable.4.9. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods. reuse and recycle them. . g) we should reduce. d) they mat cause pollution. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt.

simplest glass .lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.fused glass .1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .soda-lime glass . Fused glass . 1.high heat-resistant .high temperature . SiO2 .optical transparency .5 Glass and ceramics 9.mainly silica.5.great purity .9.SiO2.borosilicate glass .

made by heating sand with limestone. CaCO3 or sodium carbonate.thermal shock resistant 2. B2o3 to soda-lime glass ..thermal shock resistance . Soda-lime glass .lower thermal expansion coefficient . Borosilicate glass .addition of boron oxide. Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3.greater chemical durability(less alkali content) .chemical durability .

4.made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass . Lead crystal glass .

telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2. Soda-lime glass . mirrors and all kind of glass container 3.used in cookware.used as laboratory glassware.used to make flat glass.2 Uses of glass 1. lenses. automobile headlights. electrical bulb. Fused glass . laboratory glassware. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability .9. Borosilicate glass .5.

lead crystal glassware and art objects . Lead crystal glass .used for finest tableware.4.

4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9. construction materials.5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories .5. tableware.9.Used in making abrasive.

glass.6.9. 9.6 Composite materials 9. alloys.1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal. ceramics and polymers.6.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass .

can be reinforced with steel wires. steel bars or any polymer fibres 2. Superconductors . Fibre optic .mixture of stones.low material cost .consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides .1.high transmission capacity . Reinforced concrete .strong but brittle and weak in tension . chips and sand bound together by cement .

very strong eventhough in thin layers ..high tensile strength .low in density . Photochromic glass .less susceptible to interference 4.produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers .can be easily coloured .easily moulded and shaped 5.made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres .chemical stability . Fibre glass .

3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.6. b) therefore. . d) refer table 9.6 for more details. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre.9.

High density Plastic: .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .Table 9.Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .strong plastic: .not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .

9. . b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.6.4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.

. b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products.9.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.7. c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.

9.7.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life. b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden. . c) to help in systemize our standard of living.

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