“ MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY ”
MUHAMAD ARIF BIN AHMAD 4 CITA
TABLE OF CONTENT
9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy
9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass
9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic
materials in daily life
H2SO4 9.1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent
b) manufacture of fertiliser
.1.9.1 SULPHURIC ACID.
c) manufacture of artificial fibres
d) manufacture of paint
e) manufacture of leather products
f) as electrolyte in battery
g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy)
2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water. H2O
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g)
About 99. sulphur dioxide. SO3.the sulphur trioxide. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. SO2 and excess oxygen gas.5 of the sulphur dioxide. SO2. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter.Stage 1 In the furnace. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l)
. H2S2O7. The gas produced is purified and cooled. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. Stage 3 In the absorber. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. SO3 through this reversible reaction.
pollutes the air and is difficult to condense.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3 directly to water. H2SO4 in large quantities.H2SO4 mist.
. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l)
The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.SO3 reacts too violently with water.The oleum. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide.The mist is corrosive.
3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution
a) can cause acid rain. bronchitis. shortness of breath. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide. chest pain. b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2.1. SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)
Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing. and lung diseases.0.
.9.4 and 5.
9.1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser
b) manufacture of synthetic fibres
.2 Ammonia and its salt 9.2.
varnishes. laquers and rocket propellant.c) manufacture of explosives
d) manufacture of wood pulp.
e) burns in oxygen gas. f) very soluble in water. c) has a pungent smell.O2 not in the air.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia. d) is less dense than air. b) is a colourless gas.
.2. NH3 a) is an alkaline.9. g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. HCl.
2.3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process.2
. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2)
c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
d) the product is then liquefied and separated. e) production of ammonia. NH3 gives out heat.
.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor. f) the process is reversible. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C.
. ammonium nitrate. (NH4)3PO3 .2.4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate. NH4NO3 and etc. b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. (NH4)2SO4.
d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid.3.9. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.3 Alloy 9.
. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms.
c) resistant to corrosion.9. d) have a better
9.3.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger.2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal. e) lustre. b) harder furnish.
4 Examples of alloy
a) bronze. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties.
. b) brass. c) steel.9. d) stainless steel. e) duralumin . f) pewter.3.
swords & Shiny artistic surface materials 70% Cu Harder Making of than Cu musical 30% Zn instruments & kitchenware 99% Fe Hard Construction of buildings 1% C Strong & bridge Building of the body of cars & railway tracks
.3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses 90% Cu Hard & Building of strong statues or 10% Sn monuments Does not corrode Making easily medals.9.5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.3.
Stainless 74% Fe steel 8% C 18% Cr Duralumin Pewter 93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb
Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong Lustre Shiny Strong
Making of culery Making of surgical instrument Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains Making of souvenirs
9. c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal.3. d) thus.
Figure 9.1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.9.4 Synthetic polymers 9. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.
9.2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber
9. PVC Artificial leather. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing. carpets.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses
Table 9.4 Uses Plastic bags. reflectors. shopping bags. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene
. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes.4. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride.
Chloroethene Perpex : .4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .Hexane-1.Benzene-1.4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .9.propene Polyvinyl chloride.Hexane-1.Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .4.6-dioic acid
.6-diol .6-diamine .ethene Polypropene : .Hexane-1. PVC : .
5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. reuse and recycle them. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose). c) they are not easily biodegradable. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner.4. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt. g) we should reduce.
. d) they mat cause pollution.9.
lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.high temperature
. SiO2 . Fused glass .borosilicate glass .fused glass .simplest glass .9.5.5 Glass and ceramics 9.high heat-resistant .mainly silica.soda-lime glass . 1.great purity .1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .SiO2.optical transparency .
.lower thermal expansion coefficient . B2o3 to soda-lime glass . CaCO3 or sodium carbonate. Soda-lime glass . Borosilicate glass .thermal shock resistance
.made by heating sand with limestone.thermal shock resistant 2.greater chemical durability(less alkali content) .addition of boron oxide. Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient
3.chemical durability .
Lead crystal glass .made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass
mirrors and all kind of glass container 3.2 Uses of glass 1.9. Fused glass . Soda-lime glass . laboratory glassware. automobile headlights.used in cookware. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability
. telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2.5. Borosilicate glass . electrical bulb.used as laboratory glassware.used to make flat glass. lenses.
4. lead crystal glassware and art objects
.used for finest tableware. Lead crystal glass .
construction materials.4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics . tableware.9.5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories
.Used in making abrasive.3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat
glass.6 Composite materials 9.9. alloys.6. 9. ceramics and polymers.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass
.6.1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.
high transmission capacity
.strong but brittle and weak in tension . chips and sand bound together by cement .1.consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .mixture of stones. Fibre optic .alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides .low material cost . Reinforced concrete . steel bars or any polymer fibres 2.can be reinforced with steel wires. Superconductors .capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.
made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres ..easily moulded and shaped 5. Fibre glass .chemical stability .high tensile strength .very strong eventhough in thin layers . Photochromic glass .can be easily coloured .low in density .produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers
.less susceptible to interference 4.
3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.6. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre.
. b) therefore.6 for more details. d) refer table 9.9.
not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .High density Plastic: .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .strong plastic: .Table 9.Low density
Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials
9.4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.
. b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.6.
9. c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.7.
. b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products.
.7.9.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life
a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life. c) to help in systemize our standard of living. b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden.