This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MUHAMAD ARIF BIN AHMAD 4 CITA
TABLE OF CONTENT
9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy
9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass
9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic
materials in daily life
1 SULPHURIC ACID.9. H2SO4 9.1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser .1.
c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .
f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .
H2O Figure 9.9.2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.1.1 .
SO2. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide.Stage 1 In the furnace. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. H2S2O7. The gas produced is purified and cooled. SO3 through this reversible reaction. SO3. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. sulphur dioxide. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide.the sulphur trioxide. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . Stage 3 In the absorber. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid.5 of the sulphur dioxide. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide.
The mist is corrosive.The oleum.SO3 reacts too violently with water. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide. SO3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.H2SO4 mist.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense. H2SO4 in large quantities.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide. .
9.1. and lung diseases. SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain. bronchitis.4 and 5. chest pain. . b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide. shortness of breath.0.
1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .2 Ammonia and its salt 9.2.9.
varnishes. laquers and rocket propellant. paints.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp. .
O2 not in the air. d) is less dense than air. NH3 a) is an alkaline. c) has a pungent smell. . e) burns in oxygen gas. b) is a colourless gas.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia.2. g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. HCl.9. f) very soluble in water.
3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process.9.2 . b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.2.
NH3 gives out heat. f) the process is reversible.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor. c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated. . b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C. e) production of ammonia.
4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. ammonium nitrate. b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. . NH4NO3 and etc. (NH4)2SO4. (NH4)3PO3 .2. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate.9.
d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. . f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms.9. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied.3 Alloy 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid. b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties.
3b .3a Figure 9.Figure 9.
2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal. b) harder furnish.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger. 9.3.9. e) lustre. c) resistant to corrosion. d) have a better .3.
3. b) brass. e) duralumin .9. .4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. c) steel. d) stainless steel. f) pewter. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties.
3. swords & Shiny artistic surface materials 70% Cu Harder Making of than Cu musical 30% Zn instruments & kitchenware 99% Fe Hard Construction of buildings 1% C Strong & bridge Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .9.5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses 90% Cu Hard & Building of strong statues or 10% Sn monuments Does not corrode Making easily medals.
Stainless 74% Fe steel 8% C 18% Cr Duralumin Pewter 93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong Lustre Shiny Strong Making of culery Making of surgical instrument Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains Making of souvenirs .
3.9. c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. d) thus. . an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.
1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.4 Synthetic polymers 9. Figure 9.4.4 .9. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.
9.2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .4.
reflectors.9.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing.4 Uses Plastic bags. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. shopping bags. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene . PVC Artificial leather. carpets. plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes.4.
propene Polyvinyl chloride.4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .Hexane-1.Chloroethene Perpex : .9.6-dioic acid .Benzene-1.4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .4.Hexane-1.6-diamine . PVC : .Hexane-1.ethene Polypropene : .6-diol .Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .
e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose). f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. d) they mat cause pollution. g) we should reduce. c) they are not easily biodegradable.4. reuse and recycle them.5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. . blockage of drainage systems and flash floods.9.
great purity .borosilicate glass .mainly silica. SiO2 .9.high temperature .simplest glass .high heat-resistant .optical transparency .fused glass . Fused glass .soda-lime glass .lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.SiO2.5.5 Glass and ceramics 9. 1.1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .
thermal shock resistant 2.addition of boron oxide. CaCO3 or sodium carbonate. Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3. B2o3 to soda-lime glass .made by heating sand with limestone. Soda-lime glass .lower thermal expansion coefficient .chemical durability . Borosilicate glass .thermal shock resistance ..greater chemical durability(less alkali content) .
Lead crystal glass .4.made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass .
used as laboratory glassware.used in cookware. automobile headlights. laboratory glassware. Soda-lime glass . Borosilicate glass .used to make flat glass.2 Uses of glass 1. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability .9. lenses. Fused glass .5. electrical bulb. telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2. mirrors and all kind of glass container 3.
lead crystal glassware and art objects .used for finest tableware.4. Lead crystal glass .
tableware. construction materials.3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9.Used in making abrasive.9.5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories .5.4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .
glass.1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.6. ceramics and polymers.9.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass .6 Composite materials 9. alloys.6. 9.
high transmission capacity .low material cost . Superconductors . steel bars or any polymer fibres 2.capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding . Fibre optic .alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides .strong but brittle and weak in tension .mixture of stones.can be reinforced with steel wires.1. chips and sand bound together by cement . Reinforced concrete .
can be easily coloured .chemical stability .produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers .less susceptible to interference 4. Photochromic glass .made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres . Fibre glass .easily moulded and shaped 5.low in density .high tensile strength ..very strong eventhough in thin layers .
6 for more details. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components. b) therefore.9. .3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.6. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre. d) refer table 9.
Table 9.High density Plastic: .strong plastic: .Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .
9.6. . b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.
c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9. b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.7. .9.
9. b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden.7.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life. c) to help in systemize our standard of living. .