9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy

9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass

9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic

materials in daily life

H2SO4 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser .1 SULPHURIC ACID.

c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .

f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .

9.2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.1 .1. H2O Figure 9.

SO3.Stage 1 In the furnace. SO3 through this reversible reaction. The gas produced is purified and cooled. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. SO2 and excess oxygen gas.the sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7.5 of the sulphur dioxide. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . sulphur dioxide. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. SO2. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. Stage 3 In the absorber. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide.

SO3 reacts too violently with water.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.The oleum. SO3 directly to water.H2SO4 mist.The mist is corrosive. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However. . H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense.

shortness of breath. bronchitis.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain.1.4 and 5.9. b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2. chest pain. and lung diseases. SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing. . c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide.0.


2 Ammonia and its salt Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .

laquers and rocket propellant. varnishes.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp. . paints.

g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. HCl. e) burns in oxygen gas. . f) very soluble in water. b) is a colourless gas.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia.9. d) is less dense than air.2. c) has a pungent smell. NH3 a) is an alkaline.O2 not in the air.

2 .2.3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.9.

. NH3 gives out heat. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C. f) the process is reversible. e) production of ammonia. c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor.

(NH4)3PO3 .4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. NH4NO3 and etc. (NH4)2SO4.2. ammonium nitrate. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate. b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. .9.

c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid.3 Alloy 9. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms. d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.3. b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties.9. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. .

Figure 9.3a Figure 9.3b .

3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger. e) lustre.3. 9.2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal. d) have a better . c) resistant to corrosion.3.9. b) harder furnish.

. d) stainless steel.9.3. f) pewter. e) duralumin . b) brass. c) steel.4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties.

swords &  Shiny artistic surface materials  70% Cu  Harder  Making of than Cu musical  30% Zn instruments & kitchenware  99% Fe  Hard  Construction of buildings  1% C  Strong & bridge  Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.3.3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses  90% Cu  Hard &  Building of strong statues or  10% Sn monuments  Does not corrode  Making easily medals.9.

Stainless  74% Fe steel  8% C  18% Cr Duralumin     Pewter    93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb  Shiny  Strong  Does not rust  Light  Strong  Lustre  Shiny  Strong  Making of culery  Making of surgical instrument  Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains  Making of souvenirs .

3. c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding.9. d) thus. .6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.

Figure 9.9.4 .4.4 Synthetic polymers 9.1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.

2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .9.4.

plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates.4 Uses Plastic bags. carpets. PVC Artificial leather. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride.4. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes.9. shopping bags. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene . reflectors.

4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .4.6-diamine .6-diol .Hexane-1.Hexane-1.propene Polyvinyl chloride.Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .ethene Polypropene : .6-dioic acid .Hexane-1.9.Benzene-1. PVC : .Chloroethene Perpex : .4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .

5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses.4.9. d) they mat cause pollution. c) they are not easily biodegradable. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt. . g) we should reduce. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods. reuse and recycle them. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose).

1. SiO2 .1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.high temperature .9.optical transparency .SiO2.simplest glass .fused glass .mainly silica.5. Fused glass .great purity .high heat-resistant .soda-lime glass .5 Glass and ceramics 9.borosilicate glass .

addition of boron oxide.lower thermal expansion coefficient . B2o3 to soda-lime glass . Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3. Borosilicate glass .made by heating sand with limestone. CaCO3 or sodium carbonate.thermal shock resistant 2.thermal shock resistance . Soda-lime glass ..chemical durability .greater chemical durability(less alkali content) .

Lead crystal glass .made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass .4.

used as laboratory glassware. automobile headlights.used to make flat glass. Borosilicate glass . glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability .used in cookware. laboratory glassware. electrical bulb.9. Fused glass . telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2. Soda-lime glass .5. lenses.2 Uses of glass 1. mirrors and all kind of glass container 3.

4. Lead crystal glass .used for finest tableware. lead crystal glassware and art objects .

9.Used in making abrasive.4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .5. construction materials.3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9. tableware.5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories .

9.6 Composite materials 9. ceramics and polymers. alloys.6.9.1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass . glass.6.

Fibre optic . Reinforced concrete . steel bars or any polymer fibres 2.alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides .can be reinforced with steel wires. chips and sand bound together by cement .mixture of stones.strong but brittle and weak in tension . Superconductors .1.low material cost .high transmission capacity .consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.

.less susceptible to interference 4. Photochromic glass .can be easily coloured . Fibre glass .made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres .chemical stability .high tensile strength .low in density .very strong eventhough in thin layers .produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers .easily moulded and shaped 5.

d) refer table 9. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre.3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.6.9.6 for more details. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components. b) therefore. .

High density Plastic: .not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .strong plastic: .Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .Table 9.

b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.9.4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.6. .

1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.7.7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.9. . b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products. c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.

b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden.9.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life. c) to help in systemize our standard of living. .7.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.