9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy

9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass

9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic

materials in daily life

H2SO4 9.1.1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser .1 SULPHURIC ACID.9.

c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .

f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .

1. H2O Figure 9.2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.9.1 .

SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. The gas produced is purified and cooled. sulphur dioxide. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide.5 of the sulphur dioxide. Stage 3 In the absorber. H2S2O7. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99.Stage 1 In the furnace. SO3 through this reversible reaction. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. SO2. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide. SO3. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter.the sulphur trioxide.

The mist is corrosive.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid.The oleum. SO3 directly to water. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.H2SO4 mist.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide. . H2SO4 in large quantities. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However.SO3 reacts too violently with water.

. bronchitis.4 and 5.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain. shortness of breath.1. b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2.0.9. and lung diseases. chest pain. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide. SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing.


2 Ammonia and its salt 9.2.1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .9.

paints.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp. varnishes. laquers and rocket propellant. .

c) has a pungent smell.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia. b) is a colourless gas. .9. g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. d) is less dense than air. NH3 a) is an alkaline.2.O2 not in the air. f) very soluble in water. HCl. e) burns in oxygen gas.

9. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.2.3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process.2 .

f) the process is reversible. NH3 gives out heat. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C. e) production of ammonia. . c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor.

b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate. (NH4)2SO4. ammonium nitrate. NH4NO3 and etc.4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. (NH4)3PO3 .9. .2.

3.3 Alloy 9. . b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid. d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.9. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied.

Figure 9.3a Figure 9.3b .

3.3. 9.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger. d) have a better . e) lustre. b) harder furnish. c) resistant to corrosion.2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal.9.

. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties.4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. c) steel.3. f) pewter. b) brass.9. e) duralumin . d) stainless steel.

5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses  90% Cu  Hard &  Building of strong statues or  10% Sn monuments  Does not corrode  Making easily medals. swords &  Shiny artistic surface materials  70% Cu  Harder  Making of than Cu musical  30% Zn instruments & kitchenware  99% Fe  Hard  Construction of buildings  1% C  Strong & bridge  Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .9.3.

Stainless  74% Fe steel  8% C  18% Cr Duralumin     Pewter    93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb  Shiny  Strong  Does not rust  Light  Strong  Lustre  Shiny  Strong  Making of culery  Making of surgical instrument  Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains  Making of souvenirs .

c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. d) thus.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.9. .3.

4 .4 Synthetic polymers 9. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation. Figure 9.1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.4.9.

4.2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .9.

sails and ropes Nylon Ropes. shopping bags.4. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. carpets. reflectors. plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9.4 Uses Plastic bags. PVC Artificial leather. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene .9. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing.

6-dioic acid .4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .Hexane-1.4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .6-diamine .Hexane-1.Chloroethene Perpex : .Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .Hexane-1.propene Polyvinyl chloride.6-diol . PVC : .ethene Polypropene : .9.4.Benzene-1.

5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. reuse and recycle them. d) they mat cause pollution. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt.4.9. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose). g) we should reduce. . c) they are not easily biodegradable. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods.

simplest glass .soda-lime glass .5. 1.fused glass .5 Glass and ceramics 9.9.high temperature .SiO2.lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.mainly silica. SiO2 .great purity .1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .high heat-resistant .optical transparency . Fused glass .borosilicate glass .

thermal shock resistant 2. Soda-lime glass . Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3.thermal shock resistance ..greater chemical durability(less alkali content) .made by heating sand with limestone. Borosilicate glass .addition of boron oxide. B2o3 to soda-lime glass .lower thermal expansion coefficient .chemical durability . CaCO3 or sodium carbonate.

made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass . Lead crystal glass .4.

laboratory glassware. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability .used as laboratory glassware. electrical bulb. mirrors and all kind of glass container 3. Fused glass . Soda-lime glass .2 Uses of glass 1.5. automobile headlights. lenses.used to make flat glass. Borosilicate glass .used in cookware. telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2.9.

lead crystal glassware and art objects .used for finest tableware. Lead crystal glass .4.

4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9. construction materials.5.5.9. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories . tableware.Used in making abrasive.

1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.9. alloys.6 Composite materials 9. ceramics and polymers.6.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass . glass.6. 9.

capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides .strong but brittle and weak in tension .low material cost .consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .mixture of stones. chips and sand bound together by cement . steel bars or any polymer fibres 2. Fibre optic .high transmission capacity . Reinforced concrete . Superconductors .can be reinforced with steel wires.1.

less susceptible to interference 4..can be easily coloured .chemical stability . Fibre glass .easily moulded and shaped 5.very strong eventhough in thin layers .made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres .produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers . Photochromic glass .low in density .high tensile strength .

d) refer table 9.9.6 for more details. . b) therefore.6.3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components.

6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .High density Plastic: .strong plastic: .Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .Table 9.not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .

9. b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.6. .4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.

7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.7.9. . b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products. c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.

2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life.9.7. . b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden. c) to help in systemize our standard of living.

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