9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy

9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass

9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic

materials in daily life

1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser .9. H2SO4 9.1 SULPHURIC ACID.1.

c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .

f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .

2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.9. H2O Figure 9.1 .1.

Stage 1 In the furnace. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide.5 of the sulphur dioxide. SO3 through this reversible reaction. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99. SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. Stage 3 In the absorber. sulphur dioxide. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter. H2S2O7. SO3.the sulphur trioxide.

SO3 directly to water. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense. . SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.SO3 reacts too violently with water. H2SO4 in large quantities.The mist is corrosive.H2SO4 mist.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid.this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide.The oleum.

b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2. shortness of breath. bronchitis. .9.4 and 5. chest pain. and lung diseases. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide.0.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain. SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing.


2.9.2 Ammonia and its salt 9.1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .

paints.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp. laquers and rocket propellant. varnishes. .

g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas.O2 not in the air. HCl. NH3 a) is an alkaline. c) has a pungent smell.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia.2. f) very soluble in water. b) is a colourless gas. d) is less dense than air. .9. e) burns in oxygen gas.

2.2 .3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process.9. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.

. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C. e) production of ammonia.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor. NH3 gives out heat. c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated. f) the process is reversible.

9.2. . (NH4)3PO3 . b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. (NH4)2SO4. c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate. ammonium nitrate.4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers. NH4NO3 and etc.

3 Alloy 9. . d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid.3.9. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.

3a Figure 9.Figure 9.3b .

9. b) harder furnish.3. 9.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger.3. c) resistant to corrosion.2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal. d) have a better . e) lustre.

f) pewter.9.4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. e) duralumin .3. d) stainless steel. c) steel. g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties. . b) brass.

5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.3.3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses  90% Cu  Hard &  Building of strong statues or  10% Sn monuments  Does not corrode  Making easily medals. swords &  Shiny artistic surface materials  70% Cu  Harder  Making of than Cu musical  30% Zn instruments & kitchenware  99% Fe  Hard  Construction of buildings  1% C  Strong & bridge  Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .9.

Stainless  74% Fe steel  8% C  18% Cr Duralumin     Pewter    93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb  Shiny  Strong  Does not rust  Light  Strong  Lustre  Shiny  Strong  Making of culery  Making of surgical instrument  Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains  Making of souvenirs .

9. d) thus. c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. . an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal.3.

4 Synthetic polymers 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.4 .9. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation. Figure 9.

2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .4.9.

clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene . reflectors. carpets.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9.9. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass. plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates.4.4 Uses Plastic bags. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing. shopping bags. PVC Artificial leather. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride.

6-dioic acid .ethene Polypropene : .propene Polyvinyl chloride.Hexane-1.Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .Chloroethene Perpex : .4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .Hexane-1.4. PVC : .Hexane-1.6-diamine .4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .Benzene-1.6-diol .9.

b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose). d) they mat cause pollution.9.4. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. reuse and recycle them. . blockage of drainage systems and flash floods.5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. g) we should reduce. c) they are not easily biodegradable.

high heat-resistant .high temperature . SiO2 .lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.9.borosilicate glass .1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : . Fused glass .optical transparency .great purity .5.simplest glass .SiO2.5 Glass and ceramics 9. 1.soda-lime glass .mainly silica.fused glass .

.greater chemical durability(less alkali content) . Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3.thermal shock resistance . CaCO3 or sodium carbonate.made by heating sand with limestone. B2o3 to soda-lime glass . Soda-lime glass .thermal shock resistant 2.lower thermal expansion coefficient .addition of boron oxide. Borosilicate glass .chemical durability .

Lead crystal glass .made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass .4.

electrical bulb. telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2.used to make flat glass. Borosilicate glass .used as laboratory glassware. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability .9. mirrors and all kind of glass container 3. lenses. automobile headlights.used in cookware.5. Soda-lime glass . Fused glass .2 Uses of glass 1. laboratory glassware.

4. lead crystal glassware and art objects .used for finest tableware. Lead crystal glass .

construction materials.3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9.9. tableware.Used in making abrasive.5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories .5.4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .

1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass . alloys.6. 9. glass.6 Composite materials 9.6.9. ceramics and polymers.

mixture of stones.low material cost .alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides . steel bars or any polymer fibres 2. Superconductors .high transmission capacity . chips and sand bound together by cement . Fibre optic .consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .1.can be reinforced with steel wires. Reinforced concrete .strong but brittle and weak in tension .capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.

produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers .low in density .less susceptible to interference 4.made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres .high tensile strength . Photochromic glass .chemical stability .can be easily coloured .easily moulded and shaped 5..very strong eventhough in thin layers . Fibre glass .

d) refer table 9. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components.9. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre.3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.6. . b) therefore.6 for more details.

Table 9.High density Plastic: .not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .strong plastic: .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .

b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.9.6. .4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs.

7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.7. c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care. b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products. .9.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment.

c) to help in systemize our standard of living. . b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life.7.9.

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