9.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9.1.1 Uses of Sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The manufacture of Sulphuric acid 9.1.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution 9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9.2.1 Uses of Ammonia 9.2.2 Properties of Ammonia 9.2.3 Manufacture of Ammonia 9.2.4 Preparation of Ammonia in laboratory 9.3 ALLOY 9.3.1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties 9.3.2 Meaning of Alloy 9.3.3 Aim of making Alloy

9.3.4 Examples of Alloy 9.3.5 Composition and properties of Alloy 9.3.6 Relation between properties of Alloy to their uses 9.3.7 Relation between arrangement of atoms in Alloy to their strength and hardness 9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9.4.1 Meaning of polymers 9.4.2 Naturally occuring polymers 9.4.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses 9.4.4 Monomers in the Synthetic polymers 9.4.5 Justification of Synthetic polymers in daily life 9.5 GLASS AND CERAMIC 9.5.1 Type of Glass and their properties 9.5.2 Uses of Glass

9.5.3 Properties of Ceramics 9.5.4 Uses of Ceramics 9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.6.1 Meaning of Composite materials 9.6.2 Composite materials and their components 9.6.3 Comparisons and contrast of properties of Composite materials with their original component 9.6.4 Justification of uses of Composite materials 9.7 APPRECIATION IN VARIOUS SYNTHETIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 9.7.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously 9.7.2 The importance of synthetic

materials in daily life

1 Uses of H2SO4 a) manufacture of detergent b) manufacture of fertiliser . H2SO4 SULPHURIC ACID.

c) manufacture of artificial fibres d) manufacture of paint e) manufacture of leather products .

f) as electrolyte in battery g) to removed Sulphur compound in crude oil h) to produced other metals i) removed oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) .

1 .9. H2O Figure 9.1.2 The manufacture of H2SO4 a) through Contact Process b) compose of three raw materials : i – Sulphur ii – Air iii – Water.

SO2 and excess oxygen gas.5 of the sulphur dioxide. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) . SO3. SO2. S(l) + O2(g) Stage 2 In the converter. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. Stage 3 In the absorber. sulphur dioxide. H2S2O7.Stage 1 In the furnace. SO3 through this reversible reaction. V2O5 catalyst at 450 oC to produce sulphur trioxide. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) SO2(g) About 99. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide.the sulphur trioxide. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. The gas produced is purified and cooled.

this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide.The oleum. . SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) However. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.this produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.The mist is corrosive.pollutes the air and is difficult to condense.H2SO4 mist.SO3 reacts too violently with water. H2SO4 in large quantities. SO3 directly to water.

9.1. bronchitis. . SO2 with rainwater : SO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Science Titbits Inhaling SO2 can cause coughing.4 and 5.3 Sulphur Dioxide and environmental pollution a) can cause acid rain. chest pain. c) due to reaction of sulphur dioxide. shortness of breath. and lung diseases. b) occurs when pH of rain exceed between 2.0.


9.2.2 Ammonia and its salt 9.1 Uses of ammonia a) manufacture of fertiliser b) manufacture of synthetic fibres .

laquers and rocket propellant. . paints. varnishes.c) manufacture of explosives d) manufacture of wood pulp.

NH3 a) is an alkaline.9.O2 not in the air. f) very soluble in water. HCl. g) gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas. e) burns in oxygen gas. d) is less dense than air.2. b) is a colourless gas. . c) has a pungent smell.2 Properties of ammonia Ammonia.

9.3 Manufacture of ammonia a) through Haber Process. b) derived from natural gas(N2 and H2) Figure 9.2.2 .

c) iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) d) the product is then liquefied and separated.a) ratio volume of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas is 1:3 is passed through the reactor. f) the process is reversible. . NH3 gives out heat. e) production of ammonia. b) the mixture is compressed to high pressure of 200 atm in 4500C.

ammonium nitrate.4 Preparation of ammonia in laboratory In laboratory : a) ammonia can be prepared to produced ammonium fertilisers.9. (NH4)2SO4. b) examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium sulphate. (NH4)3PO3 . c) other examples of ammonium fertilisers is ammonium phosphate.2. . NH4NO3 and etc.

1 Relation between arrangement of atoms in metals to their properties a) most metals are solid. c) metals are ductile when layers of atoms slide on one another when force is applied.3. . b) arrangement of atoms in metals gives it ductile and malleable properties. d) this due to an orderly arrangement of atoms in metals. e) metals also malleable when atoms slide to filled the empty spaces between the atoms. f) this due to an imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals.9.3 Alloy 9.

Figure 9.3a Figure 9.3b .

2 Meaning of alloy Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which major components is a metal.3 Aim of making alloy Aim : a) stronger. d) have a better .3.3.9. 9. e) lustre. b) harder furnish. c) resistant to corrosion.

f) pewter. b) brass. e) duralumin . g) the uses of alloy varies depends on its properties.4 Examples of alloy a) bronze. .9.3. d) stainless steel. c) steel.

3 Alloy Bronze Composition Properties Uses  90% Cu  Hard &  Building of strong statues or  10% Sn monuments  Does not corrode  Making easily medals.3. swords &  Shiny artistic surface materials  70% Cu  Harder  Making of than Cu musical  30% Zn instruments & kitchenware  99% Fe  Hard  Construction of buildings  1% C  Strong & bridge  Building of the body of cars & railway tracks Brass Steel .5 Composition and properties of alloys Table 9.9.

Stainless  74% Fe steel  8% C  18% Cr Duralumin     Pewter    93% Al 3% Cu 3% Mg 1% Mn 96% Sn 3% Cu 1% Sb  Shiny  Strong  Does not rust  Light  Strong  Lustre  Shiny  Strong  Making of culery  Making of surgical instrument  Building of the body of aeroplanes & bullet trains  Making of souvenirs .

an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.6 Relation between arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness a) alloy is made up of two different type of metals b) the presence of atoms of another metals that are differ in sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal.9. d) thus.3. . c) this reduces the layer of atoms from sliding.

1 Meaning of polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.9.4. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.4 . Figure 9.4 Synthetic polymers 9.

9.2 Naturally occuring polymers Examples : a) starch b) cellulose c) wool d) protein e) silk f) natural rubber .4.

4. car batteries and rope Polyvinyl chloride. clothing and carpets Synthetic polymer Polythene . plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Polypropene Piping bottle crates. PVC Artificial leather.4 Uses Plastic bags. water pipes and records Perspex Safety glass.3 Synthetic polymers and their uses Table 9.9. carpets. traffic sign and lens Terylene Clothing. shopping bags. reflectors. sails and ropes Nylon Ropes.

4-dicarboxylic acid Nylon : .Benzene-1.Hexane-1.Methylmethacrylate Terylene : .Chloroethene Perpex : .9.4. PVC : .6-diol .propene Polyvinyl chloride.Hexane-1.6-dioic acid .ethene Polypropene : .6-diamine .Hexane-1.4 Monomers in the synthetic polymers Polythene : .

reuse and recycle them. f) We can still continue using synthetic polymer but in a wiser manner. c) they are not easily biodegradable. b) synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay(difficult to dispose).4. d) they mat cause pollution. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods.9. .5 Justification of synthetic polymers in daily life a) synthetic polymers can give great advantages such as that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. e) they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have a pungent smell when burnt. g) we should reduce.

great purity .borosilicate glass .optical transparency .5 Glass and ceramics 9.9.high heat-resistant . SiO2 .fused glass .mainly silica.simplest glass . 1.1 Types of glass and their properties a) there are four types of glasses which are : .5. Fused glass .soda-lime glass .lead crystal glass b) mainly composed of silica.high temperature .SiO2.

Soda-lime glass .thermal shock resistance . CaCO3 or sodium carbonate..greater chemical durability(less alkali content) . Na2CO3 can be melted at low temperature malleable good chemical durability high thermal expansion coefficient 3.made by heating sand with limestone.lower thermal expansion coefficient .thermal shock resistant 2. B2o3 to soda-lime glass .addition of boron oxide.chemical durability . Borosilicate glass .

4. Lead crystal glass .made by substituting PbO for CaO and often for part of the silica used in soda-lime glass soft and easy to melt optically transparent contains much more lead expensive than soda-lime glass .

laboratory glassware. Borosilicate glass .used to make flat glass.used as laboratory glassware.9. telescope mirrors and optical fibres 2. glass pipeline applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability . electrical bulb. lenses. automobile headlights. mirrors and all kind of glass container 3.used in cookware.5. Fused glass . Soda-lime glass .2 Uses of glass 1.

used for finest tableware. Lead crystal glass .4. lead crystal glassware and art objects .

5. insulators in electrical equipments and refractories .4 Uses of ceramics Ceramics .Used in making abrasive. construction materials.9.3 Properties of ceramics Ceramics can withstand high temperature do not melt easily very hard brittle chemically inert do not corrode have a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat 9. tableware.5.

6. ceramics and polymers.1 Meaning of composite materials A composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.6. glass.6 Composite materials 9. 9.2 Composite materials and their component a) there five main composite materials which is : Concrete Superconductors Fibre optics Glass fibre Photochromic glass . alloys.9.

1.capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature 3.consist of a bundle of glass or plastic thread that are surrounded by a glass cladding .mixture of stones. steel bars or any polymer fibres 2.strong but brittle and weak in tension .can be reinforced with steel wires.low material cost . Superconductors . chips and sand bound together by cement . Fibre optic .high transmission capacity .alloy of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides . Reinforced concrete .

produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride in glass or transparent polymers .low in density .less susceptible to interference 4..can be easily coloured . Fibre glass .made by reinforced plastic with glass fibres .very strong eventhough in thin layers .chemical stability .easily moulded and shaped 5. Photochromic glass .high tensile strength .

.6 for more details.6.9. d) refer table 9. c) an example of composite materials and their components is fibre glass that is made from plastic reinforced with glass fibre. b) therefore. their properties is differ and improved from the properties of their components.3 Comparison and contrast of properties of composite materials and their components a) composite materials is an improvement from their components.

not as strong as fibre glass Glass fibre: .High density Plastic: .6 example of comparisons and contrast of composite material with their components Composite material Fibre glass Strong even in thin layers Properties Materials Hardness Components Glass fibre and plastic Glass fibre: .Low density Low density Density Contrast Have quite the same strength of materials with their composite materials .Table 9.strong plastic: .

9.4 Justification of the use of composite materials Uses of composite materials a) composite materials is essential to fulfil the ever expanding needs. . b) to improved our standard of living c) to help a country to achieve a status of developed country and improved their technology.6.

7 Appreciation in various synthetic industrial materials 9.9.7. . c) to ensure the standard of living of human being and environment is taking care.1 Justification of importance of doing research and development continuously a) to find an alternative ways to overcome the adverse effect of synthetic materials on human being and environment. b) to improved the quality of the syntheticbased products.

. c) to help in systemize our standard of living.7. b) to help in improving our lack in capability and ease our burden.9.2 The importance of synthetic materials in daily life a) to provide a complete set of our needs in daily life.

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