Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4


Saber and Conocer, The personal a, Direct Object Pronouns, Indefinite and Negative Words, Ud. and Uds. commands, and the Country Panama. MATERIALS: This Supplemental Handout, textbook turned to page 200-226, the unit packet, a Spanish-English dictionary, etc. INSTRUCTIONS: Comprehensively study these terms and concepts, along with memorizing key vocabulary and learning the grammar basics. REVIEW INFORMATION (INITIAL) (REFER TO VOCABULARY SHEET OBTAINED FROM QUIZLET) REVIEW INFORMATION (HIGHER LEVEL AND GRAMMAR BASICS)

Saber AND Conocer (BACKGROUND INFO) : As you know, two Spanish verbs express to be: ser and estar. They are not interchangeable, and their use depends on the meaning the speaker wishes to express. Similarly, two Spanish verbs express to know: Saber and Conocer. Conocer is frequently used with the word a when referring to a person (as in the phrase a quin conoce? from the title of this section.

(Example: a restaurant) Julio y Estela estn comiendo en un restaurante panameo... pero no

comen juntos; no se conocen. Julio quiere conocer a Estela. Tambin quiere saber su nmero de telfono. Y estela? Quiere conocer a Julio? NO! Quiere conocer a Felipe, el chef de restaurante, porque l sabe hacer sus platos panameos favoritos.

Translation: Julio and Estela are eating at a Panamanian restaurant... but theyre not eating together; they dont know each other. Julio wants to meet Estela. He also wants to know her telephone number. And Estela? Does she want to meet Julio? NO! She wants to meet Felipe, the chef at the restaurant, because he knows how to make her favorite Panamanian dishes.

Saber - to know (facts or information); to know how to (do something.) Conjugation is below. (Yo = irregular.) S | Sabemos Sabes| Sabis Sabe | Saben Used for: una direccin (address,) un nmero de telfono, un nombre, la letra (lyrics) de una cancin, y hacer algo (tocar el piano...) Conocer - to know (a person); to meet (a person); to be acquainted, familiar with (a place or thing.) Conozco | Conocemos Conoces | Conocis Conoce | Conocen Used for: a una persona, un lugar, un cosa. The Personal a (and Part I of Direct Objects) An a is used in Spanish before a direct object that refers to a specific person or persons, and it has no equivalent in English. In English and Spanish, the direct object (el complemento directo) of a sentence answers the question what? or who(m)? in relation to the subject and verb. A direct object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb. A little example: Ana is preparing dinner. What is Ana perparing? -------> DINNER.

The personal a is used before the interrogative words quin and quines when they function
as direct objects.

Direct Object Pronouns: Direct object pronouns are placed before a conjugated verb and after the word no when it appears. Third person direct object pronouns are used only when the direct object noun has already been mentioned.

me (me/yo) te (fam. sing.)

nos (us) os (you/ familiar plural)

lo (you/form. sing.) him, it(m.) los (you/ formal plural) them (male + male or male + female) la (you/formal singular) her, it (female)

las (you/ formal plural) them (female)

The direct object pronouns may be attached to an inifinitve or present participle. The pronoun lo can refer to actions, situations, or ideas in general. When used in this way, lo represents it or that in English. Talking about what you have just done To talk about what you have just done, use the phrase acabar + de + infinitive. Acabo de almorzar con Beto -----> I just had lunch with Beto. Acabas de celebrar tu cumpleaos, verdad? -----> You just celebrated your birthday, didnt you? Helping someone ayudar + a + infinitive -----> to help to (do something.) Expressing negation- Indefinite and Negative Words. algo - something, anything. nada - nothing, not anything. alguien - someone, anyone. nadie - no one, nobody, not anybody. algn (/a/os/as) - some, any. ningn (or ninguna) - no, not any. siempre - always. nunca, jams - never tambin - also. tampoco - neither, not either. The Double Negative - When a negative word comes after the main verb, Spanish requires that another negative word- usually no- be placed before the verb. When a negative word precedes the verb, no is not used. No estudia nadie? or Nadie estudia? ------> Isnt anyone studying?

The Adjectives algn and ningn Algn (Alguna/os/as) and Ningn (Ninguna) are adjectives. Unlike nadie and nade (nouns) and nunca, jams, and tampoco (adverbs), algn and ningn must agree with the noun they modify. Note the

shortened masculine singular forms algn and ningn (no ending -o, accented ). Ningn (Ninguna) has no plural form. Note the use of the singular (ningn recado) in the example.

Formal Command Forms Commands (imperatives) are verb forms used to tell someone to do something. In spanish, formal commands are used with people whom you address as UD. or UDS. How to initiate a command: Go to the yo form Drop the -o Add the opposite ending (for -ar verbs, add -e or -en/for -er or -ir verbs add -a or -an) Example: Hablar --> Hablo --> Hable A few irregulars are saber, conocer, estar, ser, and ir. Saber - to know --> Sepa, Sepan. Ir- to go --> Vaya, Vayan. Dar - to give --> D, Den. Estar - to be --> Est, Esten. Ser - to be --> sea, sean. Also, verbs that end in -car, -gar, or -zar have a spelling change to preserve the respective sound, as follows: c --> qu (buscar --> busque Ud.) g --> gu (pagar --> pague Ud.) z --> c (empezar --> empiece Ud.) Positions of Pronouns with Formal Commands If the command is affirmative, the direct object pronouns and reflexive pronouns must follow the command and be attached to them. In order to maintain the original stress of the verb form, an accent mark is added to the stressed vowel if the original command has two or more syllables. Examples: Pdalo Ud. (Order it.) Sintese, por favor. (Sit down, please.) If the command is negative, the direct object or reflexive pronoun must precede the verb form. Examples: No lo pida Ud. (Dont order it.) No se siente. (Dont sit down.)