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L.S.

VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

LEV SEMIONOVITCH VIGOTSKI

Sobre o problema da psicologia do trabalho criativo do ator


n the problem of the psychology of the actors creative work

Traduo do ingls e organizao: Achilles Delari Junior Reviso tcnica: Iulia Vladimirovna Bobrova Passos

L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

SOBREOPROBLEMADAPSICOLOGIA DOTRABALHOCRIATIVODOATOR LevSemionovitchVigotski

VIGOTSKI,L.S.Sobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativo doator.Traduzidode:VYGOTSKY,L.S.Ontheproblemofthe psychologyoftheactorscreativework.In:______.Thecollected worksofL.S.Vygotsky.Vol.6.Scientificlegacy.EditedbyRobert W.Rieber.NewYork,Boston,Dordrecht,London,Moscow:Kluwer Academic/PlenumPublishers,1999.p.237244. Palavraschave:psicologia,teatro,trabalhocriativo,ator, experincia,perejivanie,Vigotski,Stanislavski,Diderot. Versodigitaldisponvelem: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16453402/VigotskiSobreo problemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator1932

Fotonacapa:YaleSchoolofDrama,fonte:http://drama.yale.edu Traduoeorganizao:AchillesDelariJunior Revisotcnica:IuliaVladimirovnaBobrovaPassos UmuaramaPRprimeiraverso:14dejunhode2009 ltimarevisoconcludaem:08dejulhode2009 Passarporrevisesposteriores Produovoluntriaeindependente Paracrticasesugestes:delari@uol.com.br

L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

CONTEDOS
AORGANIZAODESTEMATERIAL ....................................................................03 TRADUODOINGLS ........................................................................................04 1PRLOGODEDOROTHYROBBINSAOTEXTODEVIGOTSKI ..............................04 2SOBREOPROBLEMADAPSICOLOGIADOTRABALHOCRIATIVODOATOR.......06 3NOTASEDIORUSSA ...................................................................................22 4REFERNCIAS .....................................................................................................24 ANEXOS................................................................................................................25 1CITAESDEDIDEROTEMTRADUOBRASILEIRA .........................................25 2REFERNCIASDEVIGOTSKISOBREEXPERINCIA[PEREJIVANIE] ...................26 3REVISOSOBRESTANISLAVSKI[CITAPEREJIVANIENESTEAUTOR] ...............27

L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

AORGANIZAODESTEMATERIAL
Estaumatraduoinstrumentaldoinglsaoportugus,parafinsdidticosenocomerci ais,dotextodeLevSemionovitchVigotski(18961934):Sobreoproblemadapsicologiado trabalhocriativodoator.Escritoem1932epublicadopelaprimeiravezemMoscounoano de1936,nolivrodeI.M.IakobsonPsikhologuiastsenitcheskikhtchuvstvaktiora(Psicolo giadossentimentoscnicosdoator).Voltoupublicarseem1984,noTomo6dasObrasEs colhidasdeVigotski,pelaeditoraPedagoguika.Volumeaindanolanadonaversoespa nholadestasobras,masnaamericanasim.OttuloeminglsOntheproblemofthepsy chologyoftheactorscreativeworkeaediodequedisponhode1999.Paraalgumaspassagenscotejei comaversorussa: (K voprosu o psikhologuii tvortchestva aktiora) disponvel na internet. interessante notar que creative work, trabalho criativo, traduzem o que no nominativo seria tvortchestvo (trabalho criador, atividadecriadora,obra).Palavraquetambmaparecenottulodelivrobemconhecidode Bakhtin,traduzidaapenascomocriaorefiromeEstticadacriaoverbal(Este tika slovesnogo tvortchestva). Contudo, no cotejo, priorizei as diferentes palavras russas traduzidasindiscriminadamentecomoexperience,sobretudoopiteperejivanie.Isso porqueestatemsidodestacadaemcomentriosatuaissobreaobradeVigotski,naacepo experincia emocional, mas nas nossas tradues no sempre se sabe quando ela est presente,umavezqueoadjetivoemocionalnoadioobrigatria.Comomencionoem nota na pgina 8, opit tambm pode ser experincia, e perejivanie ainda pode ser: vivncia,provao,aflio,etc.Cabeaindanotarque,dadoocarterinstrumentalda traduo,opteiporfornecertambmafonteemingls.Assimomaterialestemduasco lunas:esquerdavaiadigitalizaotalcomofornecidanaversoemlnguainglesadopor tal marxists.org, a partir das Obras Escolhidas. Foram corrigidas falhas dessa digitalizao, havendopassadoalgo,peoquemesejaindicado,paraasprximasverses.Omesmovale para toda a traduo crticas e sugestes de alterao sero bemvindas. Foram acres centadasasnotasdaediorussaeabrevebibliografiadisponvel(ambasnoaparecemna digitalizaodomarxists.org),coletadasdiretamentedovolume6dasobrasemingls,refe ridanapginaanterior.Almdisso,antesdotextodeVigotski,adicioneipartedoprlogo deDorothyRobbinsaomesmotomo6,apenasocorrespondenteaotraduzido.Parafacilitar citaes,apaginaodaversoamericanapreservadaentrechaves.Assim,porexemplo, {237:}indicaqueocontedoqueseseguefoiretiradodapgina237eassimsucessiva mente.Todas asnotas com asteriscos so minhas e vm nos rodaps. As notasdaedio russa,preservadasnaamericanasonumeradasevironofinaldotexto,talcomonafonte. SobreascitaesliteraisdeVigotskiaDiderot,acrescentouseemanexoumatraduobra sileiradesteautor,paraostrechoscorrespondentes.Htambmdoisoutrospequenosane xos,umcomrefernciasdeVigotskiquetratamdotemaperejivanieeoutrocomumare visodeumlivrosobreStanislavskiquecitaestemesmotema. Agradeo educadora, estudiosa de Vigotski, doutoranda em Educao pela Unicamp, Lavnia Magiolino pelo seu incentivo concluso deste material e suas sugestes para melhorlo. E psicloga e especialista em Psicologia Social pela Universidade Estatal da FederaoRussa,nacidadedeIvanovo,IuliaVladimirovnaBobrovaPassospelareviso tcnicadatraduoedostermosrussosnasnotas. Aresponsabilidadeporeventuaisincorreessomenteminha. AchillesDelariJunior Umuarama,08dejulhode2009.

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{x:} {x:}

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4.Ontheproblemofthepsychology oftheactorscreativework * DorothyRobbins


The last section is a fitting close to the Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky.Thereisadiscussionofdifferenttheories,forexample,those of Stanislavsky12 (whose {xi:} acting method was used in Hollywood during the 1940s1950s); T. Ribot (who within the psychology of emotions replaced dualism with a monistic hypothesis of parallelism andinteraction(p.228));andDiderot(whodidnotbelievethatthereal passions of the actor were necessary for good acting). Two opposing positions regarding acting are presented: Stanislavsky's internal justificationorfindingthetruthofthefeelingsonstage,andDiderot's (in which the actor brings the audience to emotional heights, being devoidofpersonalemotion).VygotskyquotesL.Ya.Gurevichinstating that "... the solution of the problem... lies not in the middle between twoextremes,butonadifferentplanethatmakesItpossibletoseethe subjectfromanewpointofview"(p.243).Thispositionrepresentsthe coreofoverallVygotskianthoughtonvariouslevels.Itisarguedthatin order to understand Vygotsky's psychology, one must be versed in Vygotskianaesthetics. By closing this volume with a return to the theater, including aesthetics,thereisfinalclosuretoVygotsky'sthoughtsandlife,which recaptures the spirit of his first book The Psychology of Art (1925). It seems appropriate to end in a way Vygotsky loved best: Dobkin (in: Levitin, 1982, p. 31) remembers that he [Vygotsky] even grew more fondofTyutchevspoetryinthoseyears.AndwithTyutchevtoohewas able to find his own lines, which were not purely lyrical but had a philosophicalmessage.Hewouldoftenrecite:

4.Sobreoproblemadapsicologia dotrabalhocriativodoator DorothyRobbins


AltimaseoumfechamentoapropriadoparaasObrasEscolhidasde L.S.Vigotski.Humadiscussodediferentesteorias,porexemplo,ade Stanislavski12 (cujos {xi:} mtodos de atuao foram usados em Hollywood durante os anos 19401950); T. Ribot (que dentro da psicologia das emoes substituiu o dualismo com uma hiptese monista de paralelismo e interao (p. 228)); e Diderot (que no acreditava que as paixes reais do ator fossem necessrias para uma boa atuao). Duas posies opostas a respeito da atuao so apresentadas: a justificao interna de Stanislavski ou a descoberta da verdadedossentimentosemcena,eadeDiderot(naqualoatorconduz aaudinciaapicosemocionais,sendodesprovidodeemoopessoal). VigotskicitaL.Ia.Gurevitchafirmandoqueasoluodoproblema reside no no termo mdio entre dois extremos, mas em um plano diferentequefazpossvelveroobjetodeestudodeumnovopontode vista (p. 243). Esta posio representa o ncleo do pensamento vigotskianocomoumtodoemvriosnveis.debatidosenointuitode compreender a psicologia de Vigotski, devese ser versado na esttica vigotskiana. Para concluir este volume com um retorno ao teatro, incluindo a esttica,humafinalizaoparaospensamentosevidadeVigotski,que resgata o esprito de seu primeiro livro A psicologia da arte (1925). PareceapropriadoterminardomodoqueVigotski maisamava:Dobkin (in: Levitin, 1982, p. 31) relembra que ele [Vigotski] tornouse ainda maisapaixonado pelapoesiadeTiutchevnaquelesanos.EcomTiutchev ele estava apto a encontrar suas prprias linhas, as quais no eram puramente lricas, mas tinham uma mensagem filosfica. Ele freqentementerecitava:

Arefernciaexatadessefragmento:ROBBINS,D.Prologue.In:VYGOTSKY,L.S.ThecollectedworksofL.S.Vygotsky.Vol.6.Scientificlegacy.EditedbyRobertW.Rieber.NewYork,Boston, Dordrecht,London,Moscow:KluwerAcademic/PlenumPublishers,1999.p.xxi.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
Westillbelieveinmiracles ForallthelessonsandtheTruths Thatlifehastaughtus; Weknowtheresbeautythatwontpall Andstrengththatcannotbeexhausted; Thatflowersofalovelinessunearthly Toearthlywitheringwillnotsuccumb. Anddewdrops,fallenontheminthemorning, Willnotbedriedupbythemiddaysun. Itisafaiththatwontdeceiveyou Ifyoulivebyitalonefromfirsttolast; Noteverythingthatfloweredoncemustwilt, Noteverythingthatwasmustpass. ***** Note

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Nsaindaacreditamosemmilagres ParatodasaslieseVerdades Queavidanosensinou; Nssabemosquehbelezaquenoesmaece. Evigorquenopodeserexaurido; Quefloresdeumencantoincomum Aumsarcasmocomumnosucumbiro. Egotasdeorvalho,cadassobreelaspelamanh, Noserosecadaspelosoldomeiodia. umafquenolhevailudibriar Sevocviveparaela,porsis,doincioaofim; Nadadaquiloquefloresceuumavezdevefenecer. Nadadaquiloquefoidevepassar. *****

Nota*

K S. Stanislavsky lived from 1863 to 1938. His [Stanislavskys] concept of acting, which he called the theory of emotional experience, was essentially opposed to the twodominatingsystemsoftheatricalperformanceofthetime:thecrafttheoryandthe performance theory. Neither system needed active human communication and thereforedidnotstudyit.Theadherentsofthecrafttheoryreducedeveryroletomere reproduction of certain clichs established in theatrical practice by generations of actorsandcompletelyruledouttheveryIdeaofmeaningfulcommunicationbetween actorsonstage.Nordidtheperformancetheory(D.Diderot,V.Meyerhold,andothers) makeaconnectionbetweenpartnercommunicationandactingstandards(Berkhin, 1988,p.7).

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K.S.Stanislavskiviveude1863a1938.Seu[deStanislavski]conceitodeatuao,o qualelechamoudeteoriadaexperinciaemocional ** ,eraessencialmenteopostoaos *** doissistemasdominantesdeperformanceteatraldeseutempo:ateoriadoofcio e a teoria da performance. Nenhum dos sistemas necessitava a comunicao humana ativa e, portanto, no a estudava. Os que aderiram teoria do ofcio reduziram todo papel mera reproduo de certos clichs, estabelecidos na prtica teatral por geraes de atores, e descartaram completamente a genuna idia da comunicao significativa entre atores no palco. Nem a teoria da performance (D. Diderot, V. Meyerholdeoutros)fezumaconexoentreacomunicaoentreospareseospadres deatuao...(Berkhin,1988,p.7).

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References

Referncias

Berkhin,J.(1988).TheproblemofcommunicationinK.S.Stanislavskysworks. In:SovietPsychology.XXVI/3. Levitin,K.(1982).Oneisnotbornapersonality:profilesofSovieteducation psychologists.V.V.Davydov(ed.)Moscow,Russia:ProgressPublishers.


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Berkhin,J.(1988).TheproblemofcommunicationinK.S.Stanislavskysworks. In:SovietPsychology.XXVI/3. Levitin, K. (1982). One is not born a personality: profiles of Soviet education psychologists.V.V.Davydov(ed.)Moscow,Russia:ProgressPublishers.

AnotaaquitranscritaeasrefernciaslogoabaixosorelativasapenaspartedotextodeDorothyRobbinstraduzidaaqui.Porissoregistramosapenasanota12eapenasasrefernciasparaos doislivroscitadospelaautoranessaltimasessodeseuprlogoaovolume6dasObrasescolhidasdeVigotski,emsuapublicaonorteamericana. ** possvel que Berkhin esteja se referindo a uma teoria da perejivanie, traduzindo perejivanie por emotional experience sabese que a categoria perejivanie importante para Stanislavskivernossanotanapgina9etambmoanexo3,dapgina27emdiante. *** Crafttheory.PeloMichaellis:craft n 1arte,habilidade,destreza,percia.2ofcio,profisso.3oficial,profissional,artfice.4astcia,manha,artifcio..Opteiporofcio.MasCrafttheory podesertermotcnicocomdesignaoprpriaemdramaturgiaetraduomaisadequadaemnovasversesserrevisto.Sobrecraftparatraduzirorussover1notanap.7etb.1nap.8.

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{237:}

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{237:}

ONTHEPROBLEMOFTHEPSYCHOLOGY OFTHEACTORSCREATIVEWORK1 (1932) LevVygotsky


The problem of the psychology of the actor and theatrical creative workisatoneandthesametimeoldandcompletelynew. Ontheonehand,itseemsthereneverwasoneevensomewhatgreat theatricalpedagogueorcritic,notonemanofthetheateringeneral, who might pose this question one way or another, and who, in practical activity, performance, teaching, or evaluations, would not proceedfromoneoranotherunderstandingofthepsychologyofthe actor. Many who were active in the theater produced extremely complex systems of the actors performance in which they found a concrete expression not only of purely artistic aspirations of their authors, not only the canons of style, but also systems of practical psychology of the actors creative work. Such, for example, is the famous system of K. S. Stanislavsky, full of theoretical staging, which, unfortunately,wedonothavetothisday. Ifwetrytotracethesourcesoftheatricalpsychology,theywilltakeus farback,andwewillseethegreatandverydifficultproblemsofthis area,whichoverthecourseofacenturyandinvariousforms,agitated the minds of the best representatives of the theater. This problem, which D. Diderot2 pose in the remarkable Paradox of the Actor, already anticipates the sharpest arguments between various contemporary theatrical systems, but he, in his turn, was anticipated by a number of thinkers of the theater who long before Diderot put thequestioninasomewhatdifferentform,butonthesameplaneas Diderotsetsit.

SOBREOPROBLEMADAPSICOLOGIA DOTRABALHOCRIATIVODOATOR1 (1932) LevVigotski


O problema da psicologia do ator e do trabalho teatral criativo ao mesmotempovelhoecompletamentenovo. Por um lado, parece que nunca houve, mesmo em certa medida, um grandecrticooupedagogoteatral,nenhumhomemdeteatroemgeral, quepudesseposicionarestaquestodeumaformaoudeoutra,eque, na atividade prtica, performance, ensino ou avaliaes, no tenha partido de uma ou outra compreenso da psicologia do ator. Muitos dos que foram ativos no teatro produziram sistemas extremamente complexos de performance do ator nos quais encontraram uma expresso concreta no apenas de aspiraes puramente artsticas de seusautores,noapenas cnonesdeestilo,mastambmsistemasde psicologia prtica do trabalho criativo do ator. Tal , por exemplo, o famoso sistema de K. S. Stanislavski, repleto de produo terica, a qual,desafortunadamentensnotemosnosdiasatuais. Se ns tentarmos examinar as fontes da psicologia teatral, elas nos levaromuitolongenopassado,ensveremososgrandeserealmente difceis problemas dessa rea, os quais, ao longo de um sculo e em vrias formas, agitaram as mentes dos melhores representantes do teatro.Esteproblema,queD.Diderot2coloca noclebreParadoxodo Ator, j antecipou os argumentos mais bem formados entre vrios sistemasteatraiscontemporneos,masele,porsuavez,foiprecedido por um grande nmero de pensadores do teatro que, bem antes de Diderot, colocaram a questo de uma forma um tanto diferente, mas nomesmoplanoemqueDiderotposicionoua.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
Thereissomethingbasicinthisformulationofthequestion,andwhen one begins to study attentively its historical development, one is inevitablyconvincedthat,obviously,itisrootedintheveryessenceof thecreativeworkoftheactorasitopensuptodirectunderstanding, which is still wholly guided by a naive amazement before a new psychologicalphenomenon. Thus, in theatrical systems, if the problem of the psychology of the actorwithallitschangesretainedascentraltheparadoxoftheactors emotion, then in the new time, investigations of a different type opened paths applicable to the same problem. New investigations begin to involve the actors profession in the common circle of investigations of the psychology of the profession, bringing to the forefront the psychotechnical approach to the actors craft, The problem usually at the center of attention is how certain general qualitiesandtraitsofhumangiftednessshouldbedevelopedtoensure the person who has them success in the area of theatrical creative work. Tests are created to study fantasy, the motor system, verbal memory, and excitability of the actors, and on that basis, a professiogramoftheactorsworkisconstructedaccordingtoexactly thesameprincipleasanalogouspsychogramsforanyotherprofessions are constructed; then, according to the register of established qualities,peopleareselectedforthisprofessionwhobestcorrespond tothisregister. {238:} Only very recently did we note an attempt to overcome the inadequacies of this and another approach to this problem and formulateitdifferently.Inthisrespect,worksofanewtypehavecome into view; in this respect also, we have called the problem of the psychologyoftheactoraproblemthatiscompletelynewandalmost notstudiedatall.
*

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Halgobsiconestaformulaodaquestoe,quandoalgumcomea a estudar atentamente seu desenvolvimento histrico, inevita velmente convencido de que, obviamente, isso est enraizado na verdadeiraessnciadotrabalhocriativodoator,comoelaseabrepara a compreenso direta, a qual ainda totalmente guiada por uma admiraoingnuaemfacedeumnovofenmenopsicolgico. Portanto, em sistemas teatrais, se o problema da psicologia do ator, com todas as suas mudanas, manteve como central o paradoxo da emoo do ator, ento, no tempo atual, investigaes de um tipo diferente abriram caminhos aplicveis ao mesmo problema. Novas investigaes comeam a envolver a profisso do ator no crculo comumdeinvestigaesdapsicologiadasprofisses,trazendolinha de frente a abordagem psicotcnica ao ofcio * do ator. O problema usualmentenocentrodasatenescomocertasqualidadesgeraise traos de talentos humanos seriam desenvolvidos para certificar a pessoa de que tenha seu sucesso na rea do trabalho teatral criativo. Testes foram criados para estudar a fantasia, o sistema motor, a memria verbal e a excitabilidade dos atores e, nesta base, um profissiograma do trabalho ** do ator construdo de acordo com exatamente o mesmo princpio pelo qual so construdos os anlogos psicogramas,paraquaisqueroutrasprofisses;ento,deacordocomo registrodequalidadesestabelecidas,aspessoassoselecionadaspara aquelaprofissoquemelhorcorrespondeaoregistro. {238:} Apenasmuitorecentementensnotamosumatentativadesuperaras inadequaesdestaedaquelaabordagemdesteproblemaeformullo diferentemente.Aesterespeito,temseemvistatrabalhosdeumnovo tipo;aesserespeito,ainda,nsdenominamosoproblemadapsicologia do ator como um problema que completamente novo e quase no estudadodequalquermodo.

Eminglscraft(verterceiranotanapgina5),masemrusso(ofcio,arte),comoemtrabalhosdeVigotskitraduzidosaoportugustemostambmapalavraarteparadesignar (iskusstvo)porexemplo,nottulodolivroPsicologiadaarte(Psikhologuiaiskusstva)ficaremoscomofcio,mesmoquefossearteserianaacepo8desteverbetenoHouaiss: oconjuntodosprincpiosetcnicascaractersticosdeumofcioouprofisso. ** Eminglswork,emrusso(trud):trabalho,labor,labuta.Conferir1notanap.8,naqualseindicaquetraduzemtrudportambmporcraft.Aquimanteremostrabalho.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
It is easiest to define the new approach to the old problem by comparing it to two former trends. They had a common inadequacy over and above the unique, radical methodological flaws that characterizeeachofthemseparatelyandwhichtoacertaindegreeis oppositeintheoneandtheothersystemofinvestigation. Thecommoninadequacyofformertrendsisthecompleteempiricism, theattempttoproceedfromwhatisonthesurface,toestablishfacts that are directly grasped and to elevate them to the rank of a scientifically discovered pattern. Although the empiricism with which people of the theater work is frequently an area of phenomena profoundly unique and extremely significant in the general sphere of culturallife,althoughfactssuchasthespecificworksofgreatmasters aredealtwithhere,thescientificsignificanceofthesematerialsisnot beyond the limits of the collection of factual data and general deliberationovertheformulationoftheproblem.Alsomarkedbythe same radical empiricism are the psychotechnical investigations of the actorscraftwhichcannotrisetoanyextentabovethedirectlyfactual data and include them in the general, previously determined methodologicalandtheoreticalunderstandingofthesubject. Moreover, as has been indicated, each of these trends has a specific inadequacy. Stage systems, from the actor, from theatrical pedagogy, from observationsofrehearsals,andduringperformance,whichareusually enormousgeneralizationsoftheproducersoractorsexperience,set

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maisfcildefiniranovaabordagemaovelhoproblemacomparandoo aduastendnciasanteriores.Elastmumainadequaocomumacima e abaixo das falhas metodolgicas excepcionais, radicais, que caracterizam cada uma delas separadamente e que num certo grau opostaemumeoutrosistemadeinvestigao. A inadequao comum das tendncias principais o completo empiricismo,atentativadeprocederapartirdoque estnasuperfcie, para estabelecer fatos que so diretamente obtidos e elevlos ao estatuto de um padro cientificamente descoberto. Embora o empiricismo com o qual as pessoas de teatro trabalham seja freqentemente uma rea de fenmenos profundamente nica e extremamente significativa na esfera geral da vida cultural, embora fatos tais como obras especficas de grandes mestres sejam tratados aqui,asignificnciacientficadestesmateriaisnoestalmdoslimites dacoleodedadosfatuaisedadeliberaogeralsobreaformulao doproblema.Tambmmarcadaspelomesmoempiricismoradicalesto asinvestigaespsicotcnicasdotrabalho * doator,asquaisnopodem alcanar qualquer patamar acima dos dados diretamente fatuais e inclulos na compreenso terica e metodolgica geral do objeto de estudopreviamentedeterminada. Alm disso, como foi indicado, cada uma dessas tendncias tem uma inadequaoespecfica. Sistemas cnicos ** , do ator, da pedagogia teatral, de observaes de ensaios e durante a performance, os quais so usualmente enormes generalizaesdoprodutoroudaexperinciadoator *** ,estabelecem

Emingls,novamentecraft,masnomaispara(remeslo),esimpara(trud),queindicamaistrabalho,labor,labuta.Ficaremoscomtrabalho,emboraaindahajaemrusso (rabota)paratrabalho,masmaisligadoaocupao,emprego,funo,atribuio. ** Eminglsstagesystems,emrusso(stsenitcheskiesistemi).Sistemascnicos.(stsena):cena,palco. *** Aquiexperinciadoatorouactorsexperienceestpor(aktiorskogoopita).Apalavrarussaparaexperincia,nestecaso,opitenoperejivanie.Opitpodeser tanto(1)experimento,ensaio,prova;quanto(2)experinciadevida,prticanumadadaatividade,etc.ComoVigotskiestfalandodegeneralizaesdaexperinciadoator,parecetratarsedessa segunda acepo. Pelo Rambler Slovar: II . ( ) experience; knowledge of life; experience of war; battle experience; know* by experience; . adopt smb.'s methods; bitter experience. Verbete disponvel em: http://www.rambler.ru/dict/ruen/00/6c/bd.shtml.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
specific,unique,featuresofexperience,inherentonlyintheactor,as being of paramount importance, forgetting that these features must beunderstoodagainstabackgroundofgeneralpsychologicalpatterns, that the actors psychology comprises only a part of the total psychology in both the abstractscientific and the concretelife significance of this word. However, when these systems reach to general psychology for support, the attempts prove to be a more or lessaccidentalconnectioninthemannerofthatwhichexistsbetween theStanislavskysystemandthepsychologicalsystemofT.Ribot. Psychotechnical investigations, on the other hand, lose sight of all specificity, all the uniqueness of the actors psychology, seeing in the creative work of the actor only a special combination of the same mental qualities that are found in a different combination in any profession. Forgetting that the activity of the actor is itself a unique, creative work of psychophysiological conditions, and not analyzing thesespecificconditionsinallthevarietyoftheirpsychologicalnature, theinvestigatorspsychotechniciansdissolvetheproblemoftheactors creativeworkingeneral,andatthesametime,banaltestpsychology, paying no attention to the actor and all the uniqueness of his psychology. Thenewapproachtothepsychologyofthecreativeworkoftheactor is characterized, first of all, by the attempt to overcome the radical empiricismofthetwotheoriesandtocomprehendthepsychologyof theactorinallthequalitativeuniquenessofitsnature,butinthelight ofmoregeneralpsychologicalpatterns.Atthesametime,thefactual aspectoftheproblemassumesacompletelydifferentcharacterfrom abstract,itbecomesconcrete. If formerly the testimony of one actor or another or one epoch or another was always considered from the point of view of the eternal andunchangingnatureofthetheater,nowinvestigatorsapproacha
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caractersticasespecficasdaexperincia * ,nicas,inerentesapenasao ator, como sendo de importncia monumental, esquecendo que estas caractersticasdevemsercompreendidascontraumpanodefundode padres psicolgicos gerais, que a psicologia do ator compreende apenas uma parte da psicologia total, em ambos os significados dessa palavra: abstratocientfico e concretovivo. Contudo, quando estes sistemastomamapsicologiageralcomosuporte,astentativasprovam serumaconexomaisoumenosacidentalaomododaquiloqueexiste entreosistemadeStanislavskieosistemapsicolgicodeT.Ribot. Investigaes psicotcnicas, por outro lado, perdem de vista toda a especificidade, toda a singularidade da psicologia do ator, vendo no trabalho criativo do ator apenas uma combinao das mesmas qualidades mentais que so encontradas numa dada combinao em qualquer profisso. Esquecendo que a atividade do ator ela mesma um trabalho criativo, singular, em suas condies psicofisiolgicas, e noanalisandoestascondiesespecficasemtodaavariedadedesua natureza psicolgica, os investigadores psicotcnicos dissolvem o problema do trabalho criativo do ator em geral e, ao mesmo tempo, [restringemse]psicologiabanaldostestes,noatentandoparaoator etodaasingularidadedesuapsicologia. A nova abordagem psicologia do trabalho criativo do ator caracterizada,emprimeirolugar,pelabuscadesuperaroempiricismo radical das duas teorias e compreender a psicologia do ator em toda singularidade qualitativa de sua natureza, mas luz de padres psicolgicos mais gerais. Ao mesmo tempo, o aspecto fatual do problema assume um carter diferente de abstrato, ele se torna concreto. Senopassadootestemunhodeumatorououtro,oudeumapocaou outra,foisempre consideradodopontodevista danatureza eternae imutveldoteatro,agoraosinvestigadoresabordamumdadofato

O (osobennosti perejivaniia). Experincia no por opit, mas perejivanie, que podeser:experincia emocional, experincia vital, emoo, provao, aflio, vivncia,entreoutros.EmAcrisedosseteanos(193334/2006)eOproblemadoambiente(1935/1994),Vigotskiconferelheaacepodeunidadedaconscinciaouunidadepersonalidade emeio(veranexo2,p.26).Aqualnopareceestaremjogoaqui.Stanislavskitambmtratadeperejivanie(veranexo3,p.27).NoBrasilApreparaodoatortraduzOtrabalhodoatorsobre si.Parte1:otrabalhosobresinoprocessocriativodaperejivanie..EmAcriaodeumpapel,quetraduzOtrabalhodoatorsobreopapel,ocap.IIIOperododaexperinciaemocional.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
givenfactmainlyasahistoricalfactwhichisfinishedandwhichmust beunderstoodmostofallinthefullcomplexity{239:}ofitshistorical condition. The psychology of the actor is formulated as a problem of concretepsychology,andmanyirreconcilablepointsofviewofformal logic,abstractcontradictionsofvarioussystems,identicallyreinforced by factual data, are explained as a living and concrete historical contradiction of different forms of the actors creative work, which changesfromepochtoepochandfromtheatertotheater. Forexample,Diderotsparadoxoftheactorconsistedofthefactthat the actor portraying strong heartfelt passions and agitation on the stage and bringing the audience to a high emotional pitch, himself remains devoid of even a shade of the passion that he portrays and that shocks the viewer. The absolute formulation of the question by Diderotisasfollows:musttheactorexperiencewhatheportrays,oris hisactingahigherformofaping,animitationofanidealprototype? The question of the internal states of the actor during a stage play is thecentralnodeofthewholeproblem.Musttheactorexperiencethe roleornot?Thisquestionwassubjectedtoseriousdiscussion,butthe very formulation of the question suggested that it would allow only oneanswer.Moreover,contrastingtheworkoftwoactresses,Clairon3 and Dumesnil4, Diderot knew that they were representatives of two different systems of the actors craft, equally possible, although oppositeinacertainsense. In the new formulation of the question that we are considering, the paradox and the contradiction contained in it find a resolution in the historicalapproachtothepsychologyoftheactor. InthebeautifulwordsofDiderot,firstofall,pronouncingthewords, Zaira, you are crying, or you will remain there, my daughter, the actorhearshimselfforalongtimeandhehearshimselfatthemoment whenhetouchesyou,andallhistalentisnotinfeeling,asyoumight think,butintransmittingmostsubtlytheexternalsignsoffeelingand
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principalmente como um fato histrico que finito e que deve ser compreendidoacimadetudonacompletacomplexidade{239:}desua condiohistrica.Apsicologiadoatorformuladacomoumproblema da psicologia concreta, e muitos irreconciliveis pontos de vista de lgicaformal,contradiesabstratasdevriossistemas,identicamente reforados por dados fatuais, so explicados como uma contradio histricavivaeconcretadasdiferentesformasdetrabalhocriativodo ator,oqualsemodificadepocaparapocaedeteatroparateatro. Porexemplo,oparadoxodoatordeDiderotconsistiadofatodeoator retratar fortes paixes genunas e agitao no palco, conduzindo a audincia a uma comoo * emocional elevada, permanecendo ele prpriodesprovidodesequerumasombradapaixoqueretrataeque choca o expectador. A formulao absoluta da questo por Diderot como segue: deve o ator experienciar ** o que ele retrata, ou sua atuao uma forma superior de macaquice, uma imitao de um prottipo ideal? A questo dos estados internos do ator durante uma pea no palco o n central de todo o problema. Deve o ator experienciar *** opapelouno?Estaquestosubmetidaaumasria discusso, mas a formulao extrema da questo sugeriu que ela permitiriaapenasumaresposta.Sobretudo,contrastandootrabalhode duas atrizes, Clairon3 e Dumesnil4, Diderot sabia que elas eram representantes de dois sistemas diferentes de ofcio do ator, igualmentepossveis,apesardeopostosnumcertosentido. Na nova formulao da questo que ns estamos considerando, o paradoxo e a contradio contidos nela encontram uma resoluo na abordagemhistricapsicologiadoator. Nas belas palavras de Diderot, em primeiro lugar, pronunciando as palavras Zaira, voc est chorando ou voc permanecer l, minha filha, o ator ouve a si mesmo por um longo tempo e ele ouve a si mesmo no momento em que ele toca voc, e todo o seu talento no estemsentir,comovocpodepensar,masemtransmitirmais

Eminglspitch,emrussoe(potriiasenie):abalo,comoo. Eminglsexperience,verbotoexperience.Emrusso,overbo(perejivat),polissmicocomoosubstantivoperejivanie(vernotadap.9).Perejivat:terumaperejivanie. *** Idemnotaanterior.Experienciar:terumaexperincia,terumaexperinciaemocional,vivenciar,terumaprovao,passarporprovao,provar,serprovado,provarse,etc.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
thus deceiving you. The cries of his grief are distinctly revealed in his ears, his gestures of despair are imprinted in his memory and were preliminarily learned in front of a mirror. He knows completely preciselyatwhichmomenttotakeouthishandkerchiefandwhenhis tearswillflow.Expectthematacertainword,atacertainsyllable,not soonerandnotlater.Thetremblingvoice,theinterruptedwords,the muffled or drawnout sounds, the shuddering body, buckling knees, the swooning, the impetuous outbursts all of this is the purest imitation,alessonlearnedbyheartinadvance,apassionategrimace,a splendidaping(D.Diderot,1936,pp.576577). AsDiderotsays,allthepassionsoftheactorandtheirexpressionenter asacomponentpartintothesystemofdeclamation,aresubjecttono lawofunity,andareselectedandharmoniouslydisposedinacertain way. In essence, two things that are very close to each other, but never completelymerged,aremixedinDiderotsparadox.First,Diderothas in mind the most superpersonal, ideal character of the passions that the actor projects from the stage. These are idealized passions and movementsofthesoul;theyarenotnatural,livefeelingsofoneactor oranother,theyareartificial,theyarecreatedbythecreativeforceof manandtothatextentmustbeconsideredasartificialcreations,likea novel,asonata,orastatue.Becauseofthis,theydifferincontentfrom correspondingfeelingsoftheactorhimself.Diderotsays:Agladiator ofancienttimesislikeagreatactor,andagreatactorislikeanancient gladiator; they do not die as people die in bed. They must portray beforeusadifferentdeathsoastopleaseus,andtheviewerfeelsthat the bare, unadorned truth of movement would be shallow and contrarytothepoetryofthewhole(ibid.,p.581). Notjustfromthepointofviewofcontent,butalsofromtheaspectof formal connections and couplings that determine their course, the feelingsoftheactor{240:}differfromreal,livefeelings.Diderotsays:
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sutilmenteossignosexternosdesentimentoeassimiludindovoc.Os choros de sua aflio so distintamente revelados aos seus ouvidos, seus gestos de desespero so impressos em sua memria e foram preliminarmenteaprendidosdiantedeumespelho.Elesabecompletae precisamenteaquemomentosacarseulenoequandosuaslgrimas vorolar.Esperamosnumacertapalavra,numacertaslaba,nomais brevementeenodepois.Avoztrmula,aspalavrasinterrompidas,os sons encobertos ou prolongados, o corpo trmulo, joelhos tortos, o desmaio, as erupes impetuosas tudo isso a mais pura imitao, uma lio aprendida de cor avanando, uma careta apaixonada, uma esplndidamacaquice(Diderot,1936,p.576577). * Como diz Diderot, todas as paixes do ator e sua expresso entram comoumcomponentenosistemadedeclamao,noestosujeitasa nenhuma lei de unidade, e so selecionadas e harmoniosamente dispostasdecertamaneira. Emessncia,duascoisasqueestomuitoprximasumadaoutra,mas nunca completamente fundidas, so misturadas no paradoxo de Diderot. Primeiro, Diderot tem em mente o mais suprapessoal, ideal, carterdaspaixesqueoatorprojetadesdeopalco.Estassopaixes emovimentosdaalmaidealizados;nososentimentosvivos,naturais, de um ator ou outro, so criaes artificiais, como uma novela, uma sonata,ouumaesttua.Porcausadisso,elesdiferememcontedodos sentimentos correspondentes do prprio ator. Diderot diz: Um gladiadordetemposantigoscomoumgrandeator,eumgrandeator como um gladiador antigo; eles no morrem como as pessoas morrem na cama. Eles devem retratar diante de ns uma morte diferente, tanto quanto gratificarnos, e o expectador sente que a verdadedomovimentonua,semadornos,seriasuperficialecontrria poesiadoconjunto(ibid,p.581). Noapenasdopontodevistadocontedo,mastambmpeloaspecto das conexes e combinaes formais que determinam seu curso, os sentimentosdoator{240:}diferemdossentimentosvivos,reais.

UmatraduobrasileiraparaaspassagensaquicitadasdestaobradeDiderot(Paradoxesurlecomedienconcludaem1773epublicadaem1830)foianexadanapgina25.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
ButIwantverymuchtotellyou,asanexample,howanactorandhis wife,hatingeachother,playedasceneoftenderandpassionatelovers inthetheater.Neverhavetwoactorsseemedsostrongintheirroles, never have they aroused such long applause from the orchestra and the loges. We have interrupted this scene dozens of times with applause and shouts of delight. This is in scene three, act four of Molires Le Depit Amoureux (ibid., p. 586). Later, Diderot brings in thedialogueofthetwoactors,whichhecallsadualscene,asceneof the lovers and a scene of the husband and wife. The scene of the declaration of love is interwoven here with the scene of a family quarrel,andinthisinterweaving;Diderotseesthebestevidenceofhis beingcorrect(ibid.,pp.586588). Aswehavesaid,Diderotsviewisbasedonfacts,andthisisthesource of his strength, his unsurpassable significance for a future scientific theory of the actors creative work. But there are also facts of an oppositecharacterwhichdonotintheleastrefuteDiderot.Thesefacts consistinthefactthatthereisstillanothersystemofperformanceand anothernatureofartisticexperiencesoftheactoronthestage.Ifwe takeanexamplecloseathand,theevidenceisallthestagecraftofthe Stanislavskyschool. This contradiction, which cannot be resolved in abstract psychology withthemetaphysicalformulationofthequestion,hasapossibilityof beingresolvedifweapproachitfromthedialecticalpointofview. We have said that the new trend poses the problem of actor psychology as a problem of concrete psychology. Not eternal and unchangeable laws of the nature of actors experiences on the stage, buthistoricallawsofvariousformsandsystemsoftheatricalplaysare in this case the controlling direction for the investigator. For this reason, in the refutations of the paradox of Diderot that we find among many psychologists, there is still the attempt to solve the problemontheabsoluteplantregardlessofthehistorical,concrete
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Diderot diz: Mas eu quero muito falar a voc, como um exemplo, de quemodoumatoresuaesposa,odiandoumaooutro,representaram acenadeamantesafetuososeapaixonadosnoteatro.Nuncativemos doisatoresparecendotofortesemseuspapis,nuncaelesobtiveram tolongoaplausodaorquestraedoscamarotes.Nstivemosestacena interrompidadziasdevezescomaplausoegritosdedeleite.Istoest na cena trs, ato quatro de Le Depit Amoureux de Molire (ibid., p. 586).Depois,Diderottraznodilogodosdoisatores,oqualelechama decenadual,umacenadeamanteseumademaridoeesposa.Acena de declarao de amor entrelaada aqui com a cena de um desentendimentofamiliar,enesteentrelaamento,Diderot vamelhor evidnciadeseuserexato(ibid.,586588). Comonsdissemos,avisodeDiderotbaseadaemfatos,eestaa fontedesuafora,suainsupervelsignificnciaparaumafuturateoria cientficadotrabalhocriativodoator.Mashtambmfatosdecarter oposto que no em menor monta refutam Diderot. Estes fatos consistem em que h ainda outro sistema de performance e outra naturezadeexperinciasartsticas * doatoremcena.Senstomamos umexemplobemmo,aevidnciatodaaprticacnica ** daescola deStanislavski. Estacontradio,quenopodeserresolvidanapsicologiaabstratacom a formulao metafsica da questo, tem a possibilidade de ser resolvidasensaabordamosdopontodevistadialtico. Ns dissemos que a nova tendncia posiciona o problema como um problema de psicologia concreta. No leis eternas e imutveis da natureza das experincias do ator *** em cena, mas leis histricas de vrias formas e sistemas de peas teatrais so, neste caso, a direo dominante para o investigador. Por esta razo, nas refutaes do paradoxodeDiderotquensencontramosentremuitospsiclogos,h aindaatentativaderesolveroproblemadeumpontodevistaabsoluto emdetrimentodasformashistricas,concretas,doteatrocuja

Experinciasartsticas,artisticexperiences,estpor(khudojestvennikhperejivanii).Perejivanii:genitivopluraldeperejivanie. Eminglsstagecraft(skillinortheartofwriting,adapting,orstagingplays),dedifciltraduo.Masemrusso:(stsenitcheskaiapraktika),literalmenteprticacnica. *** Experinciasdoator,actorsexperience,estpor(akiorskikhperejivanii).Perejivanii:genitivopluraldeperejivanie.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
formofthetheaterwhosepsychologyweareconsidering.Moreover, the basic prerequisite of any historically directed investigation in this area is the idea that the psychology of the actor expresses the social ideology of his epoch and that it also changes in the process of the historicaldevelopmentofmanjustasexternalformsofthetheaterand its style and content change. The psychology of the actor of the Stanislavsky theater differs much more from the psychology of the actor of the Sophocles epoch than the contemporary building differs fromtheancientamphitheater. The psychology of the actor is a historical and class category, not a biological category. The idea central to all new investigations that determines the approach to the concrete psychology of the actor is expressed in this one aspect alone. Consequently it is not biological patterns primarily that determine the character of the actors stage experiences. These experiences comprise a part of the complex function of the artistic work that has a definite social, class function historicallyestablishedbythewholestateofthementaldevelopment of the epoch and class, and, consequently, the laws of coupling passions and the laws of interpreting and interweaving feelings of a role with feelings of the actor must be resolved primarily on the historical plane and not on the plane of naturalistic (biological) psychology. Only after this resolution can the question arise of how, from the point of view of the biological patterns of the mind, one or anotherhistoricalformoftheactorsworkispossible. Thus, it is not the nature of human passions that determines directly the experiences of the actor on the stage; it only contains the possibility of the development of many most varied and changeable formsofthestageimplementationoftheartisticforms.
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psicologiansestamosconsiderando.Almdisso,oprrequisitobsico dequalquerinvestigaohistoricamentedirigidanestareaaidiade queapsicologiadoatorexpressaaideologiasocialdesuapocaeque ela tambm muda no processo de desenvolvimento histrico do homem assim como as formas externas de teatro e seu estilo econtedomudam.ApsicologiadoatordoteatrodeStanislavskidifere muito mais da psicologia do ator da poca de Sfocles do que as construescontemporneasdiferemdosanfiteatrosantigos. A psicologia do ator uma categoria histrica e de classe, no uma categoria biolgica. A idia central para todas as novas investigaes quedeterminamaabordagempsicologiaconcretadoatorexpressa nestenicoaspecto.Conseqentemente nosoospadresbiolgicos primariamentequedeterminamocarterdasexperinciascnicas * do ator.Estasexperincias ** abrangemumapartedacomplexafunodo trabalho artstico que tem uma funo social de classe definida, historicamente estabelecida por todo o estado do desenvolvimento mental da poca e da classe e, conseqentemente, as leis de combinaodaspaixeseasleisdeinterpretaoeentrelaamentode sentimentos de um papel com os sentimentos do ator devem ser resolvidas primariamente no plano histrico e no no plano da psicologianaturalstica(biolgica).Apenasdepoisdestaresoluopode emergiraquestodecomo,dopontodevistadospadresbiolgicos, umaououtraformahistricadarepresentao *** doatorpossvel. Portanto,naturezadaspaixeshumanasnodeterminadiretamenteas experincias doatoremcena **** ;elaapenascontmapossibilidadede desenvolvimento de formas muito mais variveis e mutveis de implementaocnicadasformasartsticas.

Stageexperiences,estpor(stsenitcheskikhperejivanii).Talvezmelhorcomoexperincias[vivncias]cnicas.Perejivanii:genitivopluraldeperejivanie. Exerincias,experiences,estopor(perejivaniia).Perejivaniia:nominativopluraldeperejivanie. *** Eminglesactorswork,masemrusso(aktiorskoiigri).IgriumdeclinaodeIgr,amesmapalavraquesetraduzporjogoerepresentaodepapel.Relativaao verboIgrat(jogar,tocar,representarumpapel,interpretarumpapel).Aoinvsdetraduzirportrabalhodoatorpoderamosficarcomjogodoatorourepresentaodoator,optamospela segundapossibilidade,paratrabalhohaveriatrudourabota. **** Onthestage,por(nastsene).Nastsenepodesertambmemcena.Stsene:prepositivosingulardestsena(cena,palco).


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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
{241:} Together with recognizing the historical nature of the problem that interests us, we come to the conclusion that we have before us a problembasedinadualrespectonthesociologicalprerequisiteinthe studyofthetheater. First, like any concrete mental phenomenon, the actors work represents a part of the socialpsychological activity that must be studiedanddefinedprimarilyinthecontextofthatwholetowhichit belongs. The function of a stage performance in a given epoch for a given class must be revealed as must the basic trends on which the actorseffectontheviewerdepends,and,consequently,itisnecessary todeterminethesocialnatureofthetheatricalforminthecontextin whichthegivenstageexperienceswillhaveaconcreteexplanation. Second, admitting the historical character of this problem and at the sametimetouchingontheexperiencesoftheactor,wewillbeginto speak not so much of the individual psychological context as of the socialpsychological context in which the experiences are included. In thehappyGermanexpression,theexperiencesoftheactorarenotso much a feeling, of I as a feeling of we. The actor creates on the stage infinite sensations, feelings, or emotions that become the emotions of the whole theatrical audience. Before they became the subject of the actors embodiment, they were given a literary formulation,theywereborneintheair,insocialconsciousness. ThemelancholyofChekhovsThreeSisters,presentedonthestageby
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{241:} Junto com o reconhecimento da natureza histrica do problema que nos interessa, ns chegamos concluso de que temos diante de ns um problema baseado em uma apreciao sobre o prrequisito sociolgiconoestudodoteatro. Primeiro, como qualquer fenmeno mental concreto, a representao do ator * corresponde a uma parte da atividade sciopsicolgica que deve ser estudada e definida primariamente no contexto do todo ao qualpertence.Afunodeumarepresentaocnica ** emumadada poca para uma dada classe deve ser revelada como devem ser as tendncias bsicas das quais o efeito do ator sobre o expectador depende e, conseqentemente, necessrio determinar a natureza social da forma teatral no contexto no qual as dadas experincias cnicas *** teroumaexplicaoconcreta. Segundo, admitindo o carter histrico deste problema e ao mesmo tempoacercandonosdasexperinciasdoator **** ,nscomearemosa falar no tanto do contexto psicolgico individual quanto do contexto sciopsicolgico no qual elas esto includas. Na alegre expresso alem, as experincias do ator ***** so no tanto um sentimento de eu quanto um sentimento de ns. O ator cria no palco infinitas sensaes,sentimentoseemoesquesetornamaemoodetodaa audinciateatral.Antesqueelessetornassemobjetodeincorporao do ator, eles estavam dados em uma formulao literria, eles nasceramnoar,naconscinciasocial. AmelancoliadasTrsIrmsdeTchekhov,encenadapelosartistas ******

Actorswork,por(igraktiora).Denovoapalavratraduzidaporworkigra(jogo,representao,interpretao). Stage performance por (stsenitcheskoi igri). Tambm possvel de traduzirse como representao cnica, interpretao cnica. Aqui ento igra j no foi mais traduzidocomowork,mascomoperformance. *** Idemprimeiranotadap.13. **** Experinciasdoator,experiencesoftheactor,por(perejivaniiaktiora).Perejivanii:genitivopluraldeperejivanie. ***** Experinciasdoator,experiencesoftheactor,por(perejivaniiaaktiora).Perejivaniia:nominativopluraldeperejivanie. ****** Eminglsactresses,nofeminino,masnorusso(artistami),umadeclinaopluralpara(artist):artista,genrico.Contudo,existetambmofemininorusso (aktrisa),masnoocaso.Optamospelogenrico.
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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
actresses of the Arts Theater,5 becomes the emotion of the whole audiencebecauseitwastoalargedegreeacrystallizedformulationof theattitudeoflargesocialcirclesforwhomitsstageexpressionwasa kindofmeansofrealizationandartisticinterpretationofthemselves. In the light of the aspects indicated, the significance of actors awarenessoftheirworkbecomesclear. The first thing we come to is the establishment of the limited significance of this material. From this point of view, the actors awarenessofhissensations,thedataofselfobservationofhisacting and his general state do not lose their significance for studying the psychologyoftheactor,butceasebeingtheonlyanduniversalsource for making judgments on their nature. They show how the actor recognizes his own emotions and what their relation to the structure ofhispersonalityis,buttheydonotdiscloseforusthenatureofthese emotions in all their actual fullness. Before us, we have only partial, factual material that illuminates the problem from only one point of viewfromthepointofviewoftheactorsselfawareness.Inorderto extract from such material its whole scientific significance, we must understandthepartitplayswithinthesystemofthewhole.Wemust understandthepsychologyofoneactororanotherinallhisconcrete historicalandsocialcircumstances;thenthenormalconnectionofthe givenformofstageexperiencewiththesocialcontentthatisprojected throughthisactorsexperiencestotheaudiencewillbecomeclearand understandableforus. We must not forget that the emotions of the actor, since they are a factofart,gobeyondthelimitsofhispersonalityandmakeupapart oftheemotionaldialoguebetweentheactorandthepublic.The

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doTeatrodeArte,5* tornaseaemoodetodaaaudinciaporqueela era,emumaltograu,umaformulaocristalizada daatitudedelargos crculossociaisparaosquaissuaexpressonopalcoeraumaespciede meio de realizao e interpretao artstica deles mesmos. luz dos aspectos indicados, a significncia da conscincia do ator com relao aoseutrabalhotornaseclara. A primeira coisa que nos vem o estabelecimento da significncia limitada deste material. Deste ponto de vista, a conscincia do ator quantossuassensaes,osdadosdaautoobservaodesuaatuao e seu estado geral no perderam sua significncia para o estudo da psicologiadoator,masdeixaramdeseranicaeuniversalfontepara estabelecer julgamentos sobre a sua natureza. Eles mostram como o atorreconheceassuasprpriasemoesequalasuarelaocoma estrutura de suapersonalidade,mas norevelamparansanatureza dessasemoesemtodaasuaefetivacompletude.Facea ns,temos apenas material fatual parcial que ilumina o problema de apenas um pontodevistadopontodevistadaautoconscinciadoator.Como intuito de extrair de tal material toda sua significncia cientfica, ns devemoscompreenderapartequeele representadentrodosistemada totalidade. Ns devemos compreender a psicologia de um ator ou de outro em todas as suas circunstncias concretas histricas e sociais; entoaconexonormaldecadaformadeexperinciacnica ** como contedosocialqueprojetadoatravsdestaexperinciadoator *** audinciasetornarclaraecompreensvelparans. Nsnodevemosesquecerqueasemoesdoator,vistoqueelasso um fato de arte, vo alm dos limites de sua personalidade e compemumapartedodilogoentreoatoreopblico.Aexperincia

Teatro de Arte, Arts Theater, referese ao Teatro de Arte de Moscou em russo , (Moskovskii Khudojestvennii AkademitcheskiiTeatr,MKHAT).CompanhiafundadaemMoscouem1897porK.N.StanislavskieVladimirNemirovitchDantchenko.Ver:http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teatro_de_Arte_de_Moscou. ** Stage experience, por (stsenitcheskogo perejivaniia). Stsenitcheskogo perejivania: genitivo singular de stsenitcheskii perejivanie. Pode ser lido como experinciacnicaouvivnciacnica,etc. *** Em ingls: actors experiences, mas aqui por (aktiorskoe perejivanie). Notese que no russo perejivanie est no singular. Alm disso, aktiorskoe est como adjetivo,talvezsemumcorrespondentediretoeminglsouportugus.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
actors emotions experience what F. Paulhan6 felicitously called a fortunate transformation of feelings. They become understandable onlyiftheyareincludedinthebroadersocialpsychologicalsystemof which they are a part. In this sense, one must not separate the characterstageexperienceoftheactor,takenfromtheformalaspect, from the of the concrete content that includes the stage image, and relation to and interest in that image from the socialpsychological significanceandfromthefunctionthatitfulfillsinthegivencaseofthe actors experience. Let us say that the experience of the actor trying {242:}tolaughatacertainstructureofpsychologicalandlifetypesand of the actor trying to give an apologia for the same images will, naturally,bedifferent. Here we are approaching close to an extremely important psychological moment, the inexplicability of which was the cause, in our opinion, of a series of misunderstandings of the problem that interests us. For example, most of those writing about the system of Stanislavsky identified this system in its psychological part with the stylistictasksthatitinitiallyserved;inotherwords,theyidentifiedthe system of Stanislavsky with his theatrical practical work. True, all theatricalpracticalworkisaconcreteexpressionofagivensystem,but does not exhaust the whole content of the system, which can have many other concrete expressions; theatrical practical work does not present the system in all its range. A step toward separating the system from its concrete expression was taken by E. B. Vakhtangov,7 whose stylistic aspirations were so very different from the initial naturalismoftheArtsTheaterbutwho,nevertheless,wasawarethat his own system was an application to new stylistic tasks of the basic ideasofStanislavsky.
*

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deemoesdoator * queF.Paulhan6apropriadamentechamoudeuma afortunada transformao de sentimentos. Elas tornamse compreensveis apenas se eles so includos no sistema scio psicolgico mais amplo do qual so parte. Neste sentido, no se deve separar o carter da experincia cnica ** do ator, tomada em seu aspecto formal, do contedo concreto que inclui a imagem cnica, a relao com tal imagem e o interesse nela [do ponto de vista] da significnciasciopsicolgicaedafunoquecumpre,emdadocaso,a experincia do ator *** . Digamos que as experincias do ator **** tentando{242:}rirnumacertaestruturadetipospsicolgicosevitaise do ator tentando fazer uma apologia para as mesmas imagens sero, naturalmente,diferentes. Aqui ns estamos chegando perto de um momento sociolgico extre mamente importante, cuja inexplicabilidade foi a causa, em nossa opinio,deumasriedeincompreensesdoproblemaquenosinteres sa. Por exemplo, muitos daqueles que escreveram sobre o sistema de Stanislavski identificaram este sistema, em seu componente psicol gico,comastarefasestilsticasaqueeleinicialmenteservia;emoutras palavras, identificaram o sistema de Stanislavski com seu trabalho prtico teatral. verdade, toda prtica teatral ***** uma expresso concreta de um dado sistema, mas no esgota todo o contedo do sistema,oqualpodetermuitasoutrasexpressesconcretas;otrabalho prtico teatral no apresenta o sistema em toda sua variedade. Um passo na direo de separar o sistema de sua expresso concreta foi dadoporE.B.Vakhtangov,7cujasaspiraesestilsticaseramrealmente muito diferentes do naturalismo inicial do Teatro de Arte, mas que, apesar de tudo, estavam conscientes de que seu prprio sistema era umaaplicao,snovastarefas,dasidiasbsicasdeStanislavski.

A experincia de emoes do ator, The actors emotions experience, por (Emotsii aktiora ispitivaiut). Dessa vez nem opit nem perejivanie esto sendo traduzidasporexperincia.Temosumaconjugaodoverboispitivat(sentir,experimentar,passarpor).Demodoquepoderamostermaisliteralmente:Asemoesqueoatorexperimenta ouAsemoespelasquaisoatorpassa. ** Idemsegundanotadapgina15. *** Ofdeactorsexperience,daexperinciadoator,por(aktiorskoeperejivanie).Entendesequesejaonominativosingular...aexperinciacumpreafuno. **** Experienceoftheactor,singular,por(perejivaniiaaktiora).Perejivaniiatantoadonominativopluralquantodogenitivosingular.Masaquiparecenosevum genitivoesimumnominativofunodesujeitoasexperincias...sero...diferentes.Porissooplural. ***** Emingls:theatricalpracticalwork,masemrussoapenas(teatralnaiapraktika).OsubstantivoPraktikapodesertraduzidocomopracticeouprtica.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
ThiscanbedemonstratedwiththeexampleofVakhtangovsworkon the staging of Princess Turandot8. Wishing to project from the stage notsimplythecontentofthetale,buthisowncontemporaryrelation to the tale, his irony, a smile addressed to the tragic content of the tale,Vakhtangovcreatesanewcontentfortheplay. B.E.Zakhava9tellsofaremarkablecasefromthehistoryofthestaging of this play: At the first rehearsals, Vakhtangov used this device. He proposed the actors play not the roles indicated in the text of the play,butItalianactorsplayingtheseroles...Forexample,heproposed that the actress playing the role of Adelma play not Adelma, but an ItalianactressplayingAdelma.Heimprovised(inthetheme,supposing shewerethewifeofthedirectorofthetroupeandthemistressatthe opening,thatsheiswearingbrokenshoes,thattheyaretoobigforher andwhenshewalks,theyflapattheheel,slapthefloor,etc.Another actress playing Zelima is an idler who does not want to act, and she does not at all hide this from the public (she wants to sleep) (1930, pp.143144). Thus,weseethatVakhtangovdirectlychangesthecontentoftheplay he is given, but in the form of its presentation, he depended on the same foundation that was put in place in the system of Stanislavsky: Stanislavskytaughtthatfindingthetruthoffeelingsonthestageisan internaljustificationofeachstageformofbehavior. Zakhava says: Internal justification, the basic requirement of Stanislavsky, remains as before one of the basic requirements of Vakhtangov, only the content itself of these feelings is entirely differentwithVakhtangovthanwithStanislavsky...Ifthefeelingsnow become different, if they require different theatrical means of expression,stillthetruthofthesefeelingsisasitwasandwillalways
*

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IstopodeserdemonstradocomoexemplodotrabalhodeVakhtangov naencenaodePrincesaTurandot8.Desejandoprojetardesdeopalco no simplesmente o contedo da estria, mas sua prpria relao contempornea com a estria, sua ironia, um sorriso endereado ao contedotrgicodaestria,Vakhtangovcriouumnovocontedopara apea. B.E.Zakhava9 contasobreumdestacadocasodahistriadeencenao desta pea: Nos primeiros ensaios, Vakhtangov usou este dispositivo. Ele props que os atores representassem no os papis indicados no texto da pea, mas atores italianos interpretando esses papis... Por exemplo, ele props que a atriz representando o papel de Adelma representasse no Adelma, mas uma atriz italiana representando Adelma.Eleimprovisousobreotema,supondoqueelafosseamulher dodiretordatrupeeaamantedogal * ,queelaestcalandosapatos quebrados,queelessomuitograndesparaelaequandoelacaminha, eles raspam no calcanhar, batem no piso, etc. Outra atriz representandoZelimaumapreguiosaquenoqueratuar,eelano escondedemodoalgumistodopblico(1930,pp.193144). Portanto,nsvemosqueVakhtangovmudadiretamenteocontextoda peaquelhedado,mas, naformadesuaapresentao,eledepende do mesmo fundamento que estava posto no sistema de Stanislavski. Stanislavski ensinava que encontrar a verdade dos sentimentos em cena uma justificativa interna de cada forma cnica de compor tamento. Zakhala disse: Justificao interna, o requisito bsico de Stanislavski, permanece como antes um dos requisitos bsicos de Vakhtangov, apenas o contedo como tal destes sentimentos inteiramente diferente com Vakhtangov em relao a Stanislavski... Se os sentimentos agora se tornam diferentes, se eles requerem meios de expressoteatraldiferentes,aindaaverdadedestessentimentos

Eminglsestcomomistressattheopening(amantenaabertura(?)),masemrussotemos(liubovnitsapremera),literalmenteamantedopremier.Premierem russopodesertantoprimeiroministro,chefedegabinetequantonoteatrogal.Pelocontexto,acontradioentreesposadodiretoreamantedogalparececonvirpropostadetrabalhode Vakhtangovqueestsendodescrita.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
be unchangeably the basis of the soil on which only the flowers of genuinegreatartcangrow(ibid.,p.133). We see how the internal technique of Stanislavsky and his mental naturalismcometoservecompletelydifferentstylistictasks,opposite inacertainsensetotheonethattheyservedattheverybeginningof development. We see how certain content dictates a new theatrical form, how a system proves to be much broader than the concrete applicationitisgiven. Forthisreason,thedeclarationsoftheactorsontheirwork,especially summarydeclarations,areinthemselvesincapableofexplainingtheir characterandtheirnature;theyare madeupfromgeneralizationsof the actors own and most various experience and do not take into account all of the content embodied in the actors emotion. It is necessarytogobeyondthelimitsofthedirectexperience{243:}ofthe actortoexplainit.Unfortunately,thisrealandremarkableparadoxof all of psychology has not, thus far, been sufficiently assimilated by a numberoftrends.Inordertoexplainandunderstandexperience,itis necessarytogobeyonditslimits;itisnecessarytoforgetaboutitfora minuteandmoveawayfromit. Thesamethingistruealsowithrespecttothepsychologyoftheactor. Iftheactorsexperiencewereaclosedwhole,aworldexistingwithin itself, then it would be natural to look for laws that govern it, exclusively in its sphere, in an analysis of its composition, a careful description of its contours. But if the actors experience also differs fromeverydaylifeexperiencebythefactthatitcomprisesapartofan

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comoeleeraesempreserimutavelmenteosolo * noqualasfloresde genunagrandeartepodemcrescer(ibid.,p.133). Ns vemos como a tcnica interna de Stanislavski e seu naturalismo vm a servir a tarefas estilsticas completamente diferentes, opostas em certo sentido quelas a que ela servia bem no incio do seu desenvolvimento. Nsvemoscomo certoscontedosditam umanova forma teatral, como um sistema prova ser mais amplo do que uma aplicaoconcretaqueeleproporciona. Por essa razo, as declaraes dos atores sobre sua representao ** , especialmente declaraes sumrias, so elas mesmas incapazes de explicar seu carter e sua natureza; elas so constitudas de generalizaes da experincia *** prpria e mais variada do ator e no levam em conta todo o contedo incorporado na emoo do ator. necessrio ir alm dos limites da experincia direta {243:} do ator**** para explicla. Desafortunadamente, este real e notvel paradoxo de toda a psicologia no tem, at o momento, sido suficientemente assimiladoporumgrandenmerodetendncias.Nointuitodeexplicar ecompreenderaexperincia *****,necessrioiralmdosseuslimites; necessrioesqueclaporumminutoemoverseparalongedela. Amesmacoisaverdadeiratambmcomrespeitopsicologiadoator. Se a experincia ****** do ator fosse um todo fechado, um mundo existindo dentro dele mesmo, ento seria natural procurar leis que a governam, exclusivamente em sua esfera, em uma anlise de sua composio, uma cuidadosa descrio de seus contornos. Mas se a experincia ******* doatortambmdiferedaexperincia ******** davida

Emingls:basisofthesoil,talvezredundantesetraduzidoliteralmente. Workpor(igre).Igreprepositivodeigra(jogo,brinquedo,folguedo,partida,interpretao,representaodepapis). *** Experincia,experience,por(opita).Opitaumadeclinaodeopit. **** Experincia direta do ator, direct experience of the actor, por (neposredstvennogo aktiorskogo perejivaniia). Perejivaniia: genitivo singulardeperejivanie.Jneposredstvennii(nonominativo)umadjetivoindicaimediato,direto. ***** Experincia,experience,por(perejivanie).Perejivanieaquioacusativosingulardeperejivanie(amesmaformaparaosdoiscasos). ****** Experincia,experience,por(perejivanie).Destavezestnonominativoperejivanie. ******* Idemnotaanterior. ******** Experincia,experiencepor(perejivaniia).Perejivaniia:genitivosingulardeperejivanie.
**

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
entirelydifferentsystem,thenitsexplanationmustbefoundinlawsof thestructureofthatsystem. Inconclusion,wewouldliketonotebrieflytheconversionthattheold paradox of the actor experiences in the new psychology. In the contemporarystateofourscience,wearestillfarfromresolvingthis paradox, but we are already close to its correct formulation as a genuine scientific problem. As we have seen, the essence of the problem,whichseemedparadoxicaltoallwhowroteaboutit,consists intherelationoftheartificiallyproducedemotionofaroletothereal, live, natural emotion of the actor playing the role. We think that solvingthisproblemispossibleifwetakeintoaccounttwopointsthat areequallyimportantforitscorrectinterpretation. ThefirstconsistsinthatStanislavskyexpressestheinvoluntaryquality offeelinginacertainsituation.Stanislavskysaysthatfeelingcannotbe commanded. We have no direct power over feeling of this nature as wehaveovermovementorovertheassociativeprocess.Butiffeeling cannot be evoked ... voluntarily and directly, then it may be enticed byresortingtowhatismoresubjecttoourpower,toideas 10(L.Ya. Gurevich,1927,p.58).Actually,allcontemporarypsychophysiological investigationsofemotionsshowthatthepathtomasteryofemotions, and,consequently,tirepathofvoluntaryarousalandartificialcreation ofnewemotions,isnotbasedondirectinterferenceofourwillinthe sphereofsensationsinthewaythatthisoccursintheareaofthinking andmovement. This path is much more tortuous and, as Stanislavsky correctly notes, more like coaxing than direct arousal of the required feeling. Only indirectly,creatingacomplexsystemofideas,concepts,andimagesof which emotion is a part, can we arouse the required feelings and, in this way, give a unique, psychological coloring to the entire given systemasawholeandtoitsexternalexpression.Stanislavskysays:

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cotidiana pelo fato de que ela consiste de uma parte de um sistema inteiramente diferente, ento sua explicao deve ser encontrada nas leisdaestruturadaquelesistema. Emconcluso,nsgostaramosdenotarbrevementeaconversoqueo velho paradoxo do ator experimenta na nova psicologia. No estado contemporneodanossacincia,nsestamosaindalongederesolver esteparadoxo,masnsestamosjpertodesuaformulaocomoum genunoproblemacientfico.Comonsvimos,aessnciadoproblema, a qual parece paradoxal quanto a tudo que foi escrito sobre ele, consiste na relao da emoo artificialmente produzida de um papel com a emoo natural, viva, real, do ator representando o papel. Ns pensamos que resolver esse problema possvel se ns levamos em conta dois pontos que so igualmente importantes para sua correta interpretao. O primeiro consiste em que Stanislavski expressa a qualidade involuntriadossentimentosemcertasituao.Stanislavski dizqueos sentimentosnopodemsercomandados.Ns notemospoderdireto sobresentimentosdessanaturezacomonstemossobreomovimento ou o processo associativo. Mas se os sentimentos no podem ser evocados...voluntriaediretamente,entoelespodemser suscitados pelorecursoaoqueestmaissujeitoaonossopoder,sidias10(L.Ia. Gurevitch, 1927, p. 58). Efetivamente, todas as investigaes psicofisiolgicas contemporneas sobre as emoes mostram que o caminhoparaodomniodasemoese,conseqentemente,ocaminho paraaevocaovoluntriaeacriao artificialdenovasemoes,no baseado na interferncia direta de nossa vontade na esfera das sensaestalcomoocorrenareadopensamentoedomovimento. Este caminho muito mais tortuoso e, como Stanislavski corretamente nota, [se d] mais como persuaso do que como evocao direta do sentimento requerido. Apenas indiretamente, criandoumcomplexosistemadeidias,conceitos,imagens,doqualas emoes so uma parte, ns podemos evocar os sentimentos requeridose,destemodo,darumcoloridopsicolgicosingularao

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
These feelings are not at all those that actors experience in life (ibid.).Theyaremorelikelyfeelingsandconceptsthatarepurifiedof everything extraneous, are generalized, devoid of their aimless character. According to the justifiable expression of L. Ya. Gurevich,11 if they passed through the process of artistic shaping, they differ according toanumberoftraitsfromcorrespondinglivingemotions.Inthissense, weagreewithGurevich12thatthesolutionoftheproblem,asusually happens in very stubborn and long controversies, lies not in the middlebetweentwoextremes,butonadifferentplanethatmakesit possibletoseethesubjectfromanewpointofview(ibid.,p.62).We are compelled to this new point of view both by the accumulated documents on the problem of stage creativity, the testimony of the creatorsactors themselves, and by the investigations carried out in recentdecadesbyscientificpsychology(ibid.,p.62). Butthisisjustoneaspectoftheproblem.Theotherisincludedinthe fact that the transfer of the paradox of the actor to the ground of concrete psychology immediately eliminates a number of insoluble problems that were formerly its component parts and replaces them withnewproblemsthatareproductiveandresolv{244:}ableandplace theinvestigatoronnewpaths.Fromthispointofview,thereisnota biologicalaesthetic and eternally given explanation, but each given system of the actors performance is subject to a concrete psychological and historical, changeable explanation, and instead of the onceandforall, given paradox of the actor of all times and peoples, we have before us from the historical aspect, a series of historical paradoxes of actors of given environments in given epochs. Theparadoxoftheactorisconvertedintoaninvestigationofhistorical developmentofhumanemotionanditsconcreteexpressionat

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dado sistema completo, como um todo, e sua expresso externa. Stanislavskidisse:Estessentimentosnosodeformaalgumaaqueles que os atores experienciam * na vida (ibid.). Eles so mais como sentimentos e conceitos purificados de tudo de suprfluo, so generalizados,destitudosdeseucarterdespropositado. De acordo com a justificvel expresso de L. Ia. Gurevitch,11 se eles passaram atravs do processo de determinao artstica, eles diferem de acordo com uma srie de caractersticas das emoes vivas correspondentes.Nestesentido,nsconcordamoscomGurevitch12em que a soluo do problema, como usualmente acontece em muitas controvrsias obstinadas e longas, reside no no termo mdio entre doisextremos,masemumplanodiferentequefazpossvelveroobjeto de estudo de um novo ponto de vista (ibid., p. 62). Ns somos compelidos a este novo ponto de vista tanto pelo acmulo de documentos sobre o problema da criatividade cnica, o testemunho dos prprios atores e pelas investigaes conduzidas nas dcadas recentespelapsicologiacientfica(ibid.,p.62) Masesteapenasumaspectodoproblema.Ooutroestincludono fato de que a transferncia do paradoxo do ator para o contexto da psicologia concreta imediatamente elimina uma srie de problemas insolveis que eram previamente suas partes componentes e os substitui com novos problemas que so produtivos e solucio {244:}nveisecolocamoinvestigadoremnovoscaminhos.Desteponto devista,nohumaexplicaobiolgicoestticaeeternamentedada, mas cada dado sistema de performance do ator submetido a uma explicao mutvel, concretopsicolgica e histrica, e ao invs de um paradoxo do ator de todos os tempos e povos, dado de uma vez por todas,nstemosdiantedens,[daperspectiva]doaspectohistrico, uma srie de paradoxos do ator histricos, de dados ambientes em dadaspocas.Oparadoxodoatorconvertidoemumainvestigaodo desenvolvimentohistricodaemoohumanaesuaexpresso

Thatactorsexperience,experiencecomoverbo.Emrusso(perejivaiutsia),conjugaodeperejivatsia",umreflexivo(emocionarse,afligirse,viver(se),sentir(se),provar se,etc.).Notesequenapgina10destatraduoapareceoverboperejivat,masnocomaterminaosia",prpriadoreflexivo.Emportugusficadifciltraduzirnoreflexivoparaaconstruo doperodo.Teramosqueoptarporumcaminhoderodeiocomosentimentospelosquaisosatoresexperimentam(sentm;provam)aelesmesmosnavidatalveznomuitoapropriado.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
differentstagesofsociallife. Psychologyteachesthatemotionsarenotanexceptiondifferentfrom othermanifestationsofourmentallife.Likeallothermentalfunctions, emotions do not remain in the connection in which they are given initially by virtue of the biological organization of the mind. In the process of social life, feelings develop and former connections disintegrate;emotionsappearinnewrelationswithotherelementsof mentallife,newsystemsdevelop,newalloysofmentalfunctionsand unities of a higher order appear within which special patterns, interdependencies, special forms of connection and movement are dominant. To study the order and connection of affects is the principal task of scientificpsychologybecauseitisnotinemotionstakeninanisolated form, but in connections combining emotions with more complex psychologicalsystemsthatthesolutionoftheparadoxoftheactorlies. This solution, as might be expected even now, will bring the investigatorstoapositionthathasafundamentalsignificanceforallof thepsychologyoftheactor.Theexperienceoftheactor,hisemotions, appear not as functions of his personal mental life, but as a phenomenon that has an objective, social sense and significance that servesasatransitionalstagefrompsychologytoideology. *****
*

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concretaemdiferentesestgiosdavidasocial. A psicologia ensina que as emoes no so uma exceo, algo diferentedeoutrasmanifestaesdenossavidamental.Comotodasas outrasfunesmentais,asemoesnopermanecemnaconexoem queelasestodadasinicialmenteemvirtudedaorganizaobiolgica da mente humana. No processo da vida social, os sentimentos desenvolvemse e as conexes iniciais desintegramse, emoes aparecem em novas relaes com outros elementos da vida mental, novos sistemas se desenvolvem, novas ligaes de funes mentais e unidades de uma ordem superior aparecem dentro de tais padres especiais, interdependncias, formas especiais de conexo e movimentosodominantes. Estudar a ordem e a conexo dos afetos a principal tarefa da psicologiacientfica,porquenonasemoestomadasdeumaforma isolada, mas em conexes com sistemas psicolgicos mais complexos, queasoluodoparadoxodoatorreside.Estasoluo,comopodeser esperada ainda agora, conduzir os investigadores a uma posio que tem uma significncia fundamental para toda a psicologia do ator. As experincias * do ator, suas emoes, aparecem no como funes de sua vida mental pessoal, mas como um fenmeno que tem uma significncia e um sentido social objetivos, que servem como um estgiodetransiodapsicologiaideologia. *****

Em ingls est The experience, no singular. Mas no russo encontramos (perejivaniia), que na funo de sujeito (nominativo) como o caso, s pode ser um plural de perejivanie.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
{276:}

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{276:}

NOTESTOTHERUSSIANEDITION
Ontheproblemofthepsychologyoftheactorscreativework 1. This paper was written in 1932. First published in the book: P. M. Yakobson, Psikhologiya stsenicheskikh chuvstv aktera (Psychology of theStageFeelingsoftheActor),Moscow,1936,pp.197211. 2.Diderot,Denis(17131784),Frenchphilosopher,educator,authorof severalcomedies.ParadoxoftheActor(17701773,finaledition1778, was first published in 1830) is a consideration of the nature of the actor'scraft,writteninthedialogueform,whichDiderotfavored.This wasinspiredbyanunknownauthor'sbrochureontheeminentEnglish actor,Garrick,abrochurewhichDiderotdisputes. 3. Clairon, pseudonym of Claire Hippolyte Leyris de la Tudi (1723 1803), French dramatic actress who appeared in the tragedies of VoltaireandRacine.DiderotbelievedthatClairondidnotidentifywith thepersonagessheportrayed. 4. Dumesnil, pseudonym, real surname Marchand, Marie Francoise (17111803),Frenchdramaticactresswhoappearedinthetragediesof Racine, Corneille and Voltaire. Diderot compared her to Clairon and believedthatDumesniledididentifywithherheroines. 5. Three Sisters, a play by A P. Chekhov, was first presented in the Moscow Arts Theater (produced by K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. NemirovichDanchenko)in1901. 6.Paulhan,Frederick(18561931),seeVol.2,p.488.Formoredetails onVygotsky'sattitudetowardhiswork,seeThinkingandSpeech,Vol. 2,pp.5361.

NOTASEDIORUSSA
Sobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator 1.Esteartigofoiescritoem1932.Publicadopelaprimeiraveznolivro: P. M. Iakobson, Psikhologuiia stsenitcheskikh tchuvstv aktiora (Psico logiadossentimentoscnicosdoator),Moscou,1936,pp.197211. 2. Diderot, Denis (17131784), filsofo e educador francs, autor de vrias comdias. Paradoxo do Ator (17701773, edio final em 1778, foi publicado pela primeira vez em 1830) uma considerao sobre a natureza do ofcio do ator, escrita na forma de dilogo, que era a favorita de Diderot. Isto foi inspirado por uma brochura de um autor desconhecidosobreoeminenteatoringls,Garrick,umabrochuraque Diderotcontesta. 3. Clairon, pseudnimo de Claire Hippolyte Leyris de la Tudi (1723 1803), atriz dramtica francesa que despontou nas tragdias de Voltaire e Racine. Diderot acreditava que Clairon no se identificava comaspersonagensqueelaretratava. 4. Dumesnil, pseudnimo de Marie Francoise Marchand (17111803), atriz dramtica francesa que despontou nas tragdias de Racine, Corneille e Voltaire. Diderot a comparou a Clairon e acreditava que Dumesnileseidentificavacomsuasheronas. 5. As Trs Irms uma pea de A. P. Tchekhov, foi apresentada pela primeira vez no Teatro de Arte de Moscou (produzida por K. S. StanislavskieV.I.NemirovitchDantchenko)em1901. 6.Paulhan,Frederick(18561931),verVol.2,p.488.Paramaisdetalhes sobre a atitude de Vigotski com relao ao seu trabalho, ver PensamentoeLinguagem,Vol.2,pp.5361.

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L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932)
7. Vakhtangov, Evgenii Bagrationovich (18831922), Russian Soviet director, pupil of Stanislavsky. In 1913, he founded the Students' Studio of the Moscow Arts Theater, later renamed the Third Studio, andin1921,atheater(asof1926,theEvg.VakhtangovTheater). {277:} 8.PrincessTurandot,aplaybyCarloGozzi(1762),asubjectborrowed fromNisamithroughLesage,wasrehearsedintheVakhtangovstudio from1920,premieredin1922,andsincethattimehasbeenpartofthe repertoireoftheEvg.VakhtangovTheaterasaseasonopener. 9. Zakhava, B. E. (18961976), Soviet actor, director, historian, and theoretician of the theater and pedagogue. He was a pupil of Vakhtangov. 10. The statements of Stanislavsky cited here and below are manuscnptmaterialsfromhisarchive.Vygotskycitesfromthebookof L.Ya.Gurevich(1927). 11. Gurevich, Lyubov' Yakovlevna (18661940), Russian Soviet writer, translator,andhistorianofthetheater. 12.ThebookofL.Ya.Gurevich,CreativityoftheActor,wassubtitled, "ResolutionofanAgeOldArgument."Gurevichdefinedthesubstance of the argument thus: is it or is it not necessary for an actor "to pretend"onthestage(p.5). *****

Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

7. Vakhtangov, Evguenii Bagrationovitch (18831922), diretor russo sovitico, aluno de Stanislavski. Em 1913, ele fundou o Estdio dos Estudantes do Teatro de Arte de Moscou, depois renomeado Terceiro Estdio, e em 1921, um teatro (at a data de 1926, o Teatro Evg. Vakhtangov). {277:} 8. Princesa Turandot, uma pea de Carlo Gozzi (1762), um tema apropriado desde por Nisami at por Lesage, foi ensaiado no estdio Vakhtangovapartirde1920,estreadoem1922,edesdeentofoiparte dorepertriodoTeatroEvg.Vakhtangovcomoaberturadetemporada. 9. Zakhava * , B. E. (18961976), ator sovitico, diretor, historiador e tericodoteatroalmdepedagogo.ElefoiumalunodeVakhtangov. 10. As declaraes de Stanislavski citadas aqui e abaixo so materiais manuscritos de seu arquivo. Vigotski cita do livro de L. Ia. Gurevitch (1927). 11. Gurevitch, ** Liubov Iakovlevna (18661940), escritora russa sovitica,tradutoraehistoriadoradoteatro. 12.OlivrodeL.Ia.Gurevitch,CriatividadedoAtor,tinhacomosubttulo Resoluo de um velho argumento. Gurevitch definiu a substncia desseargumento,portanto:ounonecessrioaumatorfingirem cena(p.5). *****

Amaioriadossobrenomesemrussoterminadosemasofemininos,nessalnguaonomedefamliaconcordaemgnerocomoprimeironome.Masestaumaexceo,tratasedeBoris EvguenevitchZakhava().Ver:http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/639177 ** Aqui oinverso da nota anterior, o sobrenome no terminaem a, mas um feminino emtch (como no nome dapsicloga Ldia Bojovitch). Verificase ainda pelo prenome e patronmico femininos:Liubov,nomedemulherquesignificaamor;eIakovlenapatronmicofemininofilhadeIakov(Iacob,Jac).Emingls,writer,translatorandhistoriannoidentificamognero, sotrsneutros.

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{279:}

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{279:}

REFERENCES
Diderot,D.(1936).Sochineniya(T.5)[Works(Vol.5)].Moscow. Gurevich, L. Ya. (1927). Tvorchestvo Aktera [Creativity of the Actor]. MoscowLeningrad. {280:} Zakhava, B. E. (1930) Vakhtangov i Ego Studiya [Vakhtangov and His Studio].Moscow.

REFERNCIAS *
Diderot,D.(1936).Sotchineniia(T.5)[Obras(Vol.5)].Moscou. Gurevich, L. Ya. (1927). Tvortchestvo Aktiora [Criatividade ** do Ator]. MoscouLeningrado. {280:} Zakhava, B. E. (1930) Vakhtangov i Ego Studiia [Vakhtangov e seu estdio].Moscou.

A edio americana das Obras Escolhidas fornece as mesmas referncias para os textos de Vigotski presentes na edio russa. Contudo sabese que o prprio Vigotski no era sempre muito rigorosocomsuasreferncias.AquirepetireiapenasaquelasrelativasaotextosobreaPsicologiadoatorquepuderamserexplicitadaspeloseditoresnabibliografiageraldotomo6,compiladano finaldovolumedapgina279a281.Stanislavski,porexemplo,noconstanessabibliografia. ** Notesequetvortchestvo(palavraquenottulodoartigodeVigotskifoitraduzidaporcreativework,trabalhocriativo)aquiesttraduzidaporcreativitity,criatividade.Cabelembrar queoconhecidolivrodeVigotskicujottuloemespanholficouLaimaginacinyelarteenlainfnciatraduode(Voobrajenieitvortchestvo vdetskomvozraste).Ento,almdeImaginaoeartenainfnciaouidadeinfantil,poderiaserainda:Imaginaoecriatividade,ImaginaoecriaoouImaginaoetrabalhocriativo, conformeasopesdotradutor,paraummesmosignoutilizadoporVigotskiemrusso:tvortchestvo.

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ANEXO1 CITAESDEDIDEROTEMEDIOBRASILEIRA

DIDEROT apud VYGOTSKY, L. S. On the problem of the psychology of the actors creative work. In: ______.ThecollectedworksofL.S.Vygotsky.Vol. 6. Scientific legacy. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers,1999.p.237244.

DIDEROT, D. Paradoxo sobre o comediante. So Paulo:EditoraEscala,2006.

Traduodorusso:MarieJ.Hall
first of all, pronouncing the words, Zaira, you are crying, or you will remain there, my daughter, the actor hears himself for a long time and he hears himself at the moment when he touches you, and all his talent is not in feeling, as you might think, but in transmitting most subtly the external signs of feeling and thus deceiving you. The cries of his grief are distinctly revealed in his ears, his gestures of despair are imprinted in his memory and were preliminarily learned in front of a mirror. He knows completely precisely at which moment to take out his handkerchiefandwhenhistearswillflow.Expectthem atacertainword,atacertainsyllable,notsoonerand notlater.Thetremblingvoice,theinterruptedwords, the muffled or drawnout sounds, the shuddering body, buckling knees, the swooning, the impetuous outbursts all of this is the purest imitation, a lesson learned by heart in advance, a passionate grimace, a splendid aping (D. Diderot, 1936, pp. 576577 apud Vigotski,1932/1999,p.239) Agladiatorofancienttimesislikeagreatactor,anda greatactorislikeanancientgladiator;theydonotdie as people die in bed. They must portray before us a differentdeathsoastopleaseus,andtheviewerfeels thatthebare,unadornedtruthofmovementwouldbe shallowandcontrarytothepoetryofthewhole(ibid., p.581apudVigotski,1932/1999,p.239). ButIwantverymuchtotellyou,asanexample,how an actor and his wife, hating each other, played a scene of tender and passionate lovers in the theater. Neverhavetwoactorsseemedsostrongintheirroles, neverhavetheyarousedsuchlongapplausefromthe orchestra and the loges. We have interrupted this scene dozens of times with applause and shouts of delight.Thisisinscenethree,actfourofMoliresLe DepitAmoureux(ibid.,p.586).seesthebestevidence of his being correct (ibid., pp. 586 apud Vigotski, 1932/1999,p.240).

Traduodofrancs:AntonioGeraldodaSilva
(...)queantesdedizer:Zara,tuchoras!OuTuainda vais compreender, minha filha; o ator se escutou a si mesmo durante muito tempo; que ele se escuta no momento em que te perturba e que todo seu talento consistenoemsentir,comopoderiassupor,masem expressar to escrupulosamente os sinais externos do sentimento,quetuteenganasarespeito.Osgritosde suador sonotadosemseuouvido.Os gestosdeseu desesperosodecoradoseforamensaiadosdiantedo espelho. Ele sabe o momento exato em que vai tirar seulenoeemqueaslgrimasdevemrolar;esperaas aessapalavra,aessaslaba,nemmaiscedonemmais tarde. Esse tremor da voz, essas palavras suspensas, esses sons sufocados ou arrastados, esse frmito dos membros, essa vacilao dos joelhos, esses furores, pura imitao, lio recordada de antemo, trejeito pattico,macaquicesublime(...)(p.2627)

O gladiador antigo, como um grande comediante, e umgrandecomediante,assimcomoogladiadorantigo, no morrem como se morre na cama, mas so obrigadosanosrepresentarumaoutramorteparanos agradareoespectadordelicadosentiriaqueaverdade nua, a ao despida de qualquer afetao seria mesquinha e contrastaria com a poesia do resto. (p. 31) Massintovontadedeteesboarumacenaentreum comedianteesuamulher,quesedetestavam;cenade amantes ternos e apaixonados; cena interpretada publicamentenopalco,talcomovouapresentlaatie talvez um pouco melhor; cena em que dois atores parecerammaisdoquenuncaestarememseuspapis; cena em que arrancaram os aplausos contnuos da platia e dos camarotes; cena que nossas palmas e nossos gritos de admirao interromperam dez vezes. a terceira do quarto ato do Despeito Amoroso de Molire(...).(p.35)

L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

ANEXO2 REFERNCIASDEVIGOTSKISOBREOTEMADA EXPERINCIA/VIVNCIA[PEREJIVANIE]


Por limite de espao, dentro da diagramao adotada, essas referncias no foram compiladas na ntegra na nota de rodap em que foram mencionadas as obras a que correspondemverasegundanotadapgina8. VIGOTSKI,L.S.(193334/2006)Lacrisisdelossieteaos.Obrasescogidas.TomoIV. Madrid:VisoryA.MachadoLibros. Aqui Vigotski trata de perejivanie como unidade da conscincia e como unidade personalidademeio,entre outros aspectos. A opo de traduo do russo ao espanhol foiporvivncia. VIGOTSKI, L. S. (1935/1994) The problem of the environment. In:______. The Vygotsky reader.EditedbyRenevanderVeerandJaanValsiner.Oxford;Cambridge:Blackwell. Aqui Vigotski trata de perejivanie como unidade cognio e afeto e como critrio para compreender como as influncias do meio se relacionam com o desenvolvimento, entre outros aspectos. A opo de traduo do russo ao ingls foi por emotional experience. Nonossoanexo3humabreverevisodeumlivrocontemporneosobreStanislavskina qualcitadaumadiferenciaodoseuconceitodeperejivanieparacomodeStrasberg. O assunto aparece apenas de passagem, no aprofundado, mas talvez algumas pistas possamserobtidasdaliparabuscasposteriores. Achilles. Umuarama,14dejunhode2009.

L.S.VigotskiSobreoproblemadapsicologiadotrabalhocriativodoator(1932) Traduo:AchillesDelariJunior(2009)

ANEXO3 REVISODECATHERINESCHULERAOLIVRO STANISLAVSKYINFOCUSDESHARONM.CARNICKE [CITAOTEMAPEREJIVANIENESTEAUTOR]


Review:[Untitled] ReviewedWork(s): StanislavskyinFocusbySharonM.Carnicke CatherineSchuler RussianReview,Vol.59,No.2.(Apr.,2000),pp.290291.


StableURL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036 0341%28200004%2959%3A2%3C290%3ASIF%3E2.0.CO%3B26 RussianReviewiscurrentlypublishedbyTheEditorsandBoardofTrusteesof theRussianReview.

Review: [Untitled] Reviewed Work(s): Stanislavsky in Focus by Sharon M. Carnicke Catherine Schuler Russian Review, Vol. 59, No. 2. (Apr., 2000), pp. 290-291.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-0341%28200004%2959%3A2%3C290%3ASIF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 Russian Review is currently published by The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review.

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290

The Russin~ Review

stood in the shadows of the "great" writers of the age: Elena Gan, Nikolai Gnedich, and Vladimir Odoevsky, all writers primarily recognized for their other literary achievements (the society tales of Gan and Odoevsky, and Gnedich for his translations of foreign works into Russian). The topics pursued are equally various, but all discussion stems more or less from a finite group of common concerns, which are almost by definition those addressed by all writers of the gothic and fantastic traditions. These are universal concerns, which find expression readily in the equivocal world of the gothic novel. These concerns include problems of parentage, procreation, and origins (Cynthia Ramsey, "Gothic Treatment of the Crisis of Engendering in Osoevskii's TheSnlamander"); uncertainty and even "anxiety about the position of the self in the world" (p. 179), and in reality itself (Roger Cockrell, "Philosophical Tale or Gothic Horror Story? The Strange Case of V. F. Odoevskii's The Cosnzornnzn," and Derek Offord, "Karamzin's Gothic Tale, The ZslnndofBorn/zolm"); and the determinism and supernatural forces that negate and deny man's free will (Richard Peace, "From Pantheon to Pandemonium"). One challenge, of course, to addressing and discussing the gothic and fantastic in Russian literature is in establishing that such works are in fact generic and not simply imitations in the gothic and fantastic style. Richard Peace describes a logical and even natural progression of one of the common concerns of the gothic when he traces nineteenth-century interest in the supernatural forces. Carolyn Jursa Ayers attempts to establish Elena Gan as a writer in the continuing tradition of Female Gothic, raising the important question of whether one can state that there is such a tradition in Russian literature. On the other hand, Derek Offord suggests that while Karamzin's "Bornholm Island" is clearly riddled with stock gothic elements, this tale in fact fits into a Sentimental framework and is but "a development of a particular strand of Preromanticism" (p. 41). One conspicuous detail regarding this collection, however, is the consistent reliance on Tsvetan Todorov's work on the fantastic: five of the twelve essayists rely on Todorov's theory to establish or prove the fantastic qualities of the work they are addressing; four of the five quote the same passage from Todorov, the fifth refers to it in a footnote. While Todorov's contribution to the study of the fantastic is certainly significant, the frequency with which this one theory is applied would seem to suggest that there are only limited methodologies to approaching and interpreting the fantastic.

Vicki J. Hendrickson Hodovance, University of Colorado, Boulder

Carnicke, Sharon M. Sfatzislnvskjl in Focc~s. Russian Theatre Archive. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998. xiii + 235 pp. $23.00 (paper). ISBN 90-5755-070-9. Do actors pursue "objectives" or perform "tasks"? Is a dramatic text structured in "bits" or "beats"? Is theater an artistic or a commercial practice? Should Lee Strasberg be held criminally liable for corrupting Stanislavsky's theory and practice? Sharon Carnicke's attention to these and other provocative questions reveals that the preoccupation of Americans with Konstantin Stanislavsky and his notorious "System" for actors continues unabated. Carnicke's SfnnislnvskyinFocc~sis latest in a long line the of exegetical texts devoted to the Master's theory and practice. Critical analysis of Stanislavksy and his work began shortly after the founding of the Moscow Art Theater in 1898; following the dissemination of the System in the West, "Stanislavsky studies" have become increasingly complex and vexed. Although Stanislavsky expounded at length on his theory and practice in a series of published texts, he apparently failed to explicate the System satisfactorily because the secondary literature and lore on the System and its corruption by American admirers is great and still growing. In her introduction, Carnicke proposes to "demythologize Stanislavsky" through careful analysis of three frequently misunderstood and misinterpreted aspects of his work: "the history and premises of the System"; "the transformation of the System into the Method; and "Soviet conditioning of the System" (p. 6). Although Carnicke fails to demythologize Stanislavsky and her study tends to reinforce "great man" theories of history, there is much of interest in this articulate comparative investigation of Stanislavsky's System and Strasberg's Method.

Book Reviews

291

The book is organized in three parts. Part 1, "Transmission," describes the Moscow Art Theater's New York tours; part 2, "Translation," considers the appropriation of the System by American admirers through classroom lore and Elizabeth Hapgood's translations of Stanislavsky's texts; part 3, "Transformation," interrogates issues of linguistic and cultural translation. Part 1 will interest readers new to Stanislavsky studies in English; the uniqueness of Carnicke's contribution to the field is, however, her discussion of linguistics in parts 2 and 3. Although skeptics might argue that by the simple act of theorizing acting, Stanislavsky mystified an otherwise uncomplicated activity, confusion escalated when monolingual members of the Group Theater appropriated terms and concepts associated with the System. Mistranslations and misinterpretations occurred on both mundane and recondite points. Thus, for example, in Richard Boleslavskii's broken English, the System's "bits" (kusokz) became the Method's "beats." Hapgood's translation of zndncha as "objective" rather than "task" had serious practical consequences for American actor training. Mistranslation and cultural transformation of Stanislavsky's "lost term,"perezhivanie, gave rise to profound conceptual antagonisms between Russian and American practitioners. Stanislavsky, Carnicke argues, understood perezhivanie as the ability of an actor to "experience" the role with dual consciousness of self and character, while Strasberg construedperezhivn~zie as "living through" the role. The translation of the System into the Method reveals the preference of Russians for behaviorism and Americans for Freudian psychology. Carnicke's account of Stanislavsky's heritage from nineteenth-century theatrical theory and practice is less satisfying than her discussion of translation and transformation. Although the relationship she establishes between Tolstoy's writings on aesthetics and Stanislavsky's practice is surely significant, other critical influences are neglected. Indeed, readers might conclude on the basis of this book that Tolstoy and Stanislavsky invented performance theory in Russia. In fact, Stanislavsky joined a conversation already in progress. The first purely theoretical treatise on acting, P. D. Boborykin's thoroughly materialist manifesto, Tentml'hoe iskusstvo, was published in 1873; the terms of the debate over /grn andperezhzivnnie were established in the 1870s in response to neurasthenic actors like Polina Strepetova; and by the 1890s, professional journals regularly included articles on the theory and practice of acting and actor training. Surely Stanislavsky drew from this lore and literature as well.

Catherine Schuler, University of Maryland

Sandler, Stephanie, ed. Rereadzkg Russian Poetry. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999. xi + 365 pp. $40.00. ISBN 0-300-007149-3. This is the first book dedicated entirely to the reinterpretation of Russian poetry from Zhukovsky to Kibirov, and it should be warmly welcomed. It is edited by one of the most knowledgable scholars, who possesses the talent for reading Pushkin and Sedakova with equal ease, as her very informative introduction and essay on Elena Shvarts confirms. Each contribution in interesting in its own way. The collection contains a wide range of topics. Part 1 has the subtitle "Vocation of the Russian Poet"; part 2 reconsiders some less-known Silver Age poets (Annensky, Kuzmin, Gumilev, Merkureva, and Gertsyk); part 3 focuses on imagery, tropes, and genres. There is a fascinating discussion of homosexuality (Esenin, Kliuev, Ivlev) by Luc Beaudoin, and a balanced and convincing essay on Nina Iskrenko's poetry by Vitaly Chernetsky. While David Bethea deals mainly with Pushkin's first poem, Gerry Smith concentrates his attention on Brodsky's last poem. This reviewer has a problem with Andrew Wachtel's contribution on the odic genre employed by contemporary Russian poets. By including such different poets as Sedakova, Parshchikov, Kibirov, and Kutik in one article, Professor Wachtel opens the sluice gates rather too far. He speaks of every poet as if for the first time, ignoring the considerable literature on each one of them; for example, there is no. no reference to a special issue of Literatu~izoeobozrenie(1998, 1) which was dedicated to Kibirov; or to Olga Sedakova's interview, where she speaks about her own poetry, including the symbol of water

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