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DirectAccess for Windows Server 2008 R2 Design, Deployment, and Troubleshooting Guides

Microsoft Corporation Published: December 2009 Updated: September 2010 Author: Joe Davies Editor: Scott Somahano

Abstract
This document contains the Design Guide, Deployment Guide, and Troubleshooting Guide for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. These guides help you to design and deploy DirectAccess servers, DirectAccess clients, and infrastructure servers on your intranet and troubleshoot common DirectAccess problems. Use the Design Guide to answer the What, Why, and When questions a deployment design team might ask before deploying DirectAccess in a production environment. Use the Deployment Guide to answer the How questions a deployment team might ask when implementing a DirectAccess design. Use the Troubleshooting Guide for task-oriented information to help you identify and resolve problems quickly and perform root-cause analysis of incidents and problems with the elements of a DirectAccess infrastructure.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication. The DirectAccess Design, Deployment, and Troubleshooting Guides are for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property. Unless otherwise noted, the companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted in examples herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred. 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Server, Windows Vista, and Active Directory are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. This white paper reflects content that was published on Microsoft TechNet as of September 1, 2010. The corresponding content published on TechNet after this date might contain changes. For the latest information, see the following documents: DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=161985) DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=166398) DirectAccess Troubleshooting Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165904)

Contents
DirectAccess for Windows Server 2008 R2..............................................................................1 Design, Deployment, and Troubleshooting Guides..................................................................1 Abstract.................................................................................................................................1 Contents..........................................................................................................................................3 DirectAccess Design Guide..........................................................................................................13 About this guide.........................................................................................................................13 Understanding the DirectAccess Design Process.........................................................................14 Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals.........................................................................15 Transparent and Automatic Remote Access for DirectAccess Clients..........................................16 Ongoing Management of Remote DirectAccess Clients...............................................................16 Efficient Routing of Intranet and Internet Traffic............................................................................17 Reduction of Remote Access-based Servers in your Edge Network.............................................17 End-to-end Traffic Protection........................................................................................................18 Multi-factor Credentials for Intranet Access...................................................................................18 Mapping Your Deployment Goals to a DirectAccess Design.........................................................19 Evaluating DirectAccess Design Examples...................................................................................20 Full Intranet Access Example........................................................................................................20 Full Intranet Access with Smart Cards Example...........................................................................21 Selected Server Access Example.................................................................................................22 Using authentication with null encapsulation for selected server access...................................23 End-to-end Access Example.........................................................................................................24 Planning a DirectAccess Deployment Strategy.............................................................................25 Resources Available to DirectAccess Clients................................................................................26 IPv6 resources on your intranet.................................................................................................26 IPv4-only resources on the intranet...........................................................................................27 Using an IPv4-only intranet........................................................................................................28 Limiting connectivity to selected resources................................................................................28 IPv6 resources on the IPv6 Internet...........................................................................................29

Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design...............................................................................30 No existing IPv6 infrastructure...................................................................................................30 Existing ISATAP infrastructure...................................................................................................31 Existing native IPv6 infrastructure..............................................................................................31 Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources......................................................................32 Choose an Access Model..............................................................................................................34 Full Intranet Access.......................................................................................................................34 Selected Server Access................................................................................................................35 End-to-End Access.......................................................................................................................36 Choose a Configuration Method...................................................................................................37 DirectAccess Management Console..........................................................................................37 Custom configuration using the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool and Group Policy...37 Design for Remote Management..................................................................................................38 Design for Intranet Server Availability Prior to User Logon...........................................................39 Design Packet Filtering for DirectAccess......................................................................................41 Packet Filters for Your Internet Firewall.........................................................................................41 Packet Filters for Your Intranet Firewall.........................................................................................43 Confining ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet.......................................................................................43 Packet filters for Teredo Connectivity............................................................................................45 Packet filters to allow inbound ICMP Echo Requests on all computers.....................................45 Enable edge traversal on inbound management traffic..............................................................46 Enable inbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests for management traffic..............................................46 Packet Filters for Management Computers...................................................................................46 DirectAccess and Third-party Host Firewalls................................................................................47 Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme..................................................................48 Additional end-to-end peer authentication for selected server access.......................................49 Peer authentication for end-to-end access................................................................................49 Smart cards for additional authorization....................................................................................50 Allowing access for users with unusable smart cards............................................................50 Prompts for smart card credentials while on the intranet........................................................50 Under the covers: Smart card authorization...........................................................................51 Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server.......................................................52 IPv4 address and routing configuration.....................................................................................52

IPv6 address and routing configuration.....................................................................................53 Design Active Directory for DirectAccess......................................................................................54 Active Directory and the DirectAccess server............................................................................55 Active Directory Sites and Services configuration.....................................................................55 DirectAccess and user profiles for remote users.......................................................................56 Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess.........................................................................57 Split-brain DNS..........................................................................................................................57 DNS server requirements for ISATAP........................................................................................58 AAAA records for servers that do not perform DNS dynamic update.........................................58 Local name resolution behavior for DirectAccess clients...........................................................59 NRPT rules................................................................................................................................59 DNS server querying behavior for DirectAccess clients.............................................................61 Unqualified, single-label names and DNS search suffixes.........................................................61 External DNS.............................................................................................................................62 Design Your PKI for DirectAccess.................................................................................................62 Autoenrollment for computer certificates...................................................................................62 Manual enrollment for network location server and IP-HTTPS certificates................................63 Certificate revocation checking and CRL distribution points......................................................64 Using a commercial CA for the IP-HTTPS certificate.................................................................65 Enabling strong CRL checking for IPsec authentication............................................................65 Smart cards for additional authorization....................................................................................66 Using Suite B certificates for DirectAccess................................................................................66 Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess..................................................................................66 Choose an Internet Traffic Separation Design..............................................................................68 Configure IPv4 Internet access..................................................................................................69 Enable force tunneling...............................................................................................................69 Modify the NRPT.......................................................................................................................70 Configure the use of IP-HTTPS.................................................................................................70 Modify Internet firewall settings.................................................................................................70 Design Protection for Traffic between DirectAccess Clients..........................................................71 Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection...........................................................73 Choose a DirectAccess and VPN Coexistence Design.................................................................74 DirectAccess and third-party VPN clients..................................................................................75 Use the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA).....................................................................76 Planning the Placement of a DirectAccess Server........................................................................76 When to Install a DirectAccess Server..........................................................................................77

Where to Place the DirectAccess Server......................................................................................77 Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server.........................................................................78 Planning the Placement of a Network Location Server.................................................................79 Where to Place the Network Location Server...............................................................................80 Highly available intranet Web server as the network location server.........................................81 Authentication and authorization for the network location URL.................................................82 DirectAccess server as the network location server..................................................................82 Planning Redundancy for a Network Location Server...................................................................83 Planning the Placement of CRL Distribution Points......................................................................83 Where to Place the CRL Distribution Points..................................................................................84 Intranet location for intranet detection........................................................................................84 Internet location for IP-HTTPS connections...............................................................................84 Planning Redundancy for CRL Distribution Points........................................................................85 Planning DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP).....................................................85 Configuration changes for the infrastructure tunnel...................................................................86 Configuration changes for the intranet tunnel............................................................................87 Planning DirectAccess with an Existing Server and Domain Isolation Deployment......................88 Planning DirectAccess with Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway............................89 DirectAccess Capacity Planning...................................................................................................89 Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers.................................................................................90 Increasing the number of concurrent Teredo clients..................................................................90 Moving the IPsec gateway function to a separate server...........................................................90 Using DirectAccess with UAG...................................................................................................92 Capacity Planning for Network Location Servers..........................................................................93 Capacity Planning for CRL Distribution Points..............................................................................93 Planning for Multi-site DirectAccess..............................................................................................94 IPv6 connectivity for multi-site DirectAccess.............................................................................96 Native IPv6 connectivity.........................................................................................................96 ISATAP connectivity...............................................................................................................96 Active Directory for multi-site DirectAccess...............................................................................99 DNS for multi-site DirectAccess.................................................................................................99 Intranet DNS records............................................................................................................100 Internet DNS records............................................................................................................100 NRPT...................................................................................................................................100

PKI for multi-site DirectAccess................................................................................................101 Intranet CRL distribution points............................................................................................101 Certificate requirements for network location certificates.....................................................102 Internet CRL distribution point..............................................................................................102 Certificate requirements for IP-HTTPS certificates...............................................................102 Network location servers for multi-site DirectAccess...............................................................103 Force tunneling for multi-site DirectAccess..............................................................................104 Connection security rules for multi-site DirectAccess..............................................................104 Additional DirectAccess Resources............................................................................................106 Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements....................................................................................106 Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts..................................................................108 IPv6.........................................................................................................................................109 IPv6 connectivity across the IPv4 Internet............................................................................109 6to4...................................................................................................................................109 Teredo...............................................................................................................................109 IP-HTTPS..........................................................................................................................109 IPv6 connectivity across an IPv4-only intranet.....................................................................110 IPsec........................................................................................................................................110 Encryption.............................................................................................................................111 Data integrity.........................................................................................................................111 Separation of DNS traffic.........................................................................................................112 NRPT exemptions.................................................................................................................113 Network location detection.......................................................................................................113 The network location server..................................................................................................113 How network location detection works..................................................................................114 Appendix C: Documenting Your DirectAccess Design.................................................................115 Concepts..................................................................................................................................115 Goals.......................................................................................................................................115 Infrastructure design plan........................................................................................................116 Custom configuration plan.......................................................................................................116 Integration strategy..................................................................................................................116 Staging strategy.......................................................................................................................117 Lessons learned.......................................................................................................................117 DirectAccess Deployment Guide.................................................................................................117 About this guide.......................................................................................................................118 Planning Your DirectAccess Deployment....................................................................................118 Reviewing your DirectAccess design.......................................................................................119 Reviewing DirectAccess concepts...........................................................................................119 Implementing Your DirectAccess Design Plan............................................................................120

How to implement your DirectAccess design using this guide.................................................120 Checklist: Staging a DirectAccess Deployment..........................................................................122 Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess...........................................................123 Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server..........................................................................125 Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access....................................128 Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access.............................130 Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-to-End Access.....................................132 Checklist: Implementing a Redundant DirectAccess Design.......................................................133 Checklist: Configuring Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess..............................134 Checklist: Moving the IPsec Gateway to Another Server............................................................136 Procedures Used in this Guide...................................................................................................137 Add Servers that are Available to DirectAccess Clients before User Logon................................138 Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates.....................................................................140 Configure Active Directory Certificate Services for CRL Locations.............................................142 Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections.................144 Configure Computer Certificate Autoenrollment..........................................................................145 Configure Connection Security Rules for End-to-end Access.....................................................146 Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients.........................148 Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings.................................................................149 Configure DirectAccess Connection Security Rules for NAP......................................................151 Configure Firewall Rules to Prevent Traffic between Proxy Servers and DirectAccess Servers. 153 Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients...................................................................155 Configure IIS for Network Location.............................................................................................156 Configure Packet Filters to Allow ICMP Traffic............................................................................158 Configure Packet Filters to Allow Management Traffic to DirectAccess Clients..........................159 Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers................................................161 Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template.................................................162

Configure Settings to Confine ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet......................................................163 Configure Strong Certificate Revocation Checking for IPsec Authentication...............................164 Configure the DirectAccess IPsec Gateway on a Different Server..............................................166 Configure the Intra-Server Subnet..............................................................................................166 Configure the IPv6 Connectivity Server......................................................................................167 Configure the IPsec Gateway Server..........................................................................................168 Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server..........................................169 Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for End-to-End Access..............................................170 Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Full Intranet Access.............................................173 Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Selected Server Access......................................176 Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway..................................................................179 Configure the NRPT with Group Policy.......................................................................................180 Connect to the IPv6 Internet.......................................................................................................181 Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory.........................................................................182 Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server..................................183 Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate...................................................................................................185 Install and Configure IIS for a Network Location Server Certificate............................................186 Install the DirectAccess Feature.................................................................................................187 Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List.............................................................188 Appendix A Manual DirectAccess Server Configuration...........................................................189 Configure Internet access components...................................................................................189 Configure intranet access components....................................................................................190 Configure IPsec DoSP.............................................................................................................191 Configure connection security rules.........................................................................................192 DirectAccess server configuration (full intranet access model)............................................192 Connection security rules for client configuration (full intranet access model).....................192 Appendix B Manual DirectAccess Client Configuration............................................................193 IPv6 transition technology settings..........................................................................................194 NRPT.......................................................................................................................................195 Appendix C - DirectAccess User Interface Scripting...................................................................195

Script usage.............................................................................................................................196 Log file.....................................................................................................................................196 Limitation of the script..............................................................................................................197 Appendix D - DirectAccessConfig.xsd........................................................................................197 DirectAccess Troubleshooting Guide..........................................................................................211 In this guide..............................................................................................................................211 Introduction to Troubleshooting DirectAccess.............................................................................212 When to use this guide............................................................................................................212 How to use this guide..............................................................................................................212 Additional resources................................................................................................................212 A-Z List of Problem Topics for DirectAccess...............................................................................213 Tools for Troubleshooting DirectAccess......................................................................................213 Network Diagnostics and Tracing................................................................................................214 Windows Network Diagnostics................................................................................................214 Troubleshooting item in Control Panel.....................................................................................214 Network tracing for DirectAccess.............................................................................................215 Windows Firewall tracing.........................................................................................................215 Command Line Tools..................................................................................................................216 The Netsh.exe Command Line Tool............................................................................................216 netsh dnsclient show state.......................................................................................................217 netsh namespace show effectivepolicy and netsh namespace show policy............................217 netsh interface 6to4 show relay...............................................................................................219 netsh interface teredo show state............................................................................................219 netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces.............................................................................221 netsh interface istatap show state and netsh interface istatap show router.............................222 netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa.....................................................................................222 netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa......................................................................................226 netsh advfirewall monitor show consec rule name=all.............................................................229 netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile..........................................................................233 netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces........................................................................................234 netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces level=verbose.................................................................234 netsh interface ipv6 show route...............................................................................................241 The Ping.exe Command Line Tool..............................................................................................243 The Nslookup.exe Command Line Tool......................................................................................244 The Ipconfig.exe Command Line Tool.........................................................................................244 The Certutil.exe Command Line Tool..........................................................................................247

The Nltest.exe Command Line Tool............................................................................................248 Snap-in Tools..............................................................................................................................249 DirectAccess Management.........................................................................................................249 Log files of the DirectAccess Management snap-in.................................................................250 Group Policy Management Console and Editor..........................................................................250 NRPT rules..............................................................................................................................251 IPv6 Transition Technologies settings......................................................................................251 Intranet connectivity settings...................................................................................................252 Connection security rules........................................................................................................253 Windows Firewall with Advanced Security..................................................................................253 Event Viewer...............................................................................................................................254 Certificates..................................................................................................................................255 DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA)................................................................................255 General Methodology for Troubleshooting DirectAccess Connections.......................................256 Troubleshooting DirectAccess Problems....................................................................................261 Problems with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard...........................................................................262 Fixing problems that Prevent You from Running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard.......................262 Fixing Problems Encountered during the Steps of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard....................264 Step 2-DirectAccess Server.....................................................................................................264 Connectivity page.................................................................................................................264 Prefix Configuration page.....................................................................................................266 Certificate Components page...............................................................................................267 Step 3-Infrastructure Servers...................................................................................................268 Location page.......................................................................................................................268 DNS and Domain Controller page........................................................................................269 Step 4-Application Servers......................................................................................................269 Fixing Problems Encountered when Applying the Settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard...269 Problems with DirectAccess Connections...................................................................................270 Fixing Connectivity Issues Between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Server over the Internet....................................................................................................................................271 Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server from the IPv6 Internet..................................................271 Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with 6to4......................................................................272

Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with Teredo...................................................................276 Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with IP-HTTPS.............................................................280 IP-HTTPS and authenticating proxies......................................................................................284 DirectAccess Client Connection is Slow......................................................................................284 Fixing Issues with Creating Protected Connections to the DirectAccess Server.........................285 DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server................................285 IPsec and certificate revocation checking................................................................................289 NAP health enforcement for the intranet tunnel.......................................................................289 Smart card authorization..........................................................................................................290 NTLM authentication failures...................................................................................................290 Detailed analysis of IPsec negotiation.....................................................................................290 DirectAccess Client Cannot Resolve Names with Intranet DNS Servers....................................290 Fixing Issues with Connecting to an Intranet Resource..............................................................292 DirectAccess Client Cannot Access Intranet Resources.............................................................292 Intranet Management Server Cannot Connect to a DirectAccess Client.....................................297 Fixing Problems with Creating Protected Connections to an Intranet Resource.........................299 Selected server access model.................................................................................................299 End-to-end access model........................................................................................................301 Fixing Issues with Network Location Detection...........................................................................302 DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet..........................302 DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Internet When on the Intranet..........................303 DirectAccess Technical Reference..............................................................................................306 Network Location Detection........................................................................................................306 Network location detection process.........................................................................................307 Network location detection failures and their consequences...................................................308 Troubleshooting network location detection.............................................................................309

DirectAccess Design Guide


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). DirectAccess is one of the most anticipated features of the Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system. DirectAccess allows remote users to securely access intranet shares, Web sites, and applications without connecting to a virtual private network (VPN). DirectAccess establishes bidirectional connectivity with a users intranet every time a users DirectAccess-enabled portable computer connects to the Internet, even before the user logs on. Users never have to think about connecting to the intranet, and information technology (IT) administrators can manage remote computers outside the office, even when the computers are not connected to the VPN. DirectAccess is supported by Windows 7 Enterprise, Windows 7 Ultimate, and Windows Server 2008 R2. The following are the key elements of a DirectAccess solution: DirectAccess client. A domain-joined computer running Windows 7 Enterprise, Windows 7 Ultimate, or Windows Server 2008 R2 that can automatically and transparently connect to an intranet through a DirectAccess server. DirectAccess server. A domain-joined computer running Windows Server 2008 R2 that accepts connections from DirectAccess clients and facilitates communication with intranet resources. Network location server. A server that a DirectAccess client uses to determine whether it is located on the intranet or the Internet. Certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points. Servers that provide access to the CRL that is published by the certification authority (CA) issuing certificates for DirectAccess. For more information, see Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts.

About this guide


This guide is intended for use by an infrastructure specialist or system architect. The guide provides recommendations to help you plan a new DirectAccess deployment based on the requirements of your organization and the particular design that you want to create. It highlights your main decision points as you plan your DirectAccess deployment. Before you read this guide, you should have a good understanding of your organizational requirements and the capabilities and requirements of DirectAccess. This guide describes a set of deployment goals that are based on the primary DirectAccess access methods. It helps you determine the most appropriate access method and corresponding
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design for your environment. You can use these deployment goals to create a comprehensive DirectAccess design that meets the needs of your environment. Once you have determined your DirectAccess design, you can use the DirectAccess Deployment Guide to plan and implement your design. This guide, combined with the DirectAccess Deployment and Troubleshooting Guides, is also available as a Microsoft Word file (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=163662) in the Microsoft Download Center.

Understanding the DirectAccess Design Process


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). To begin the DirectAccess design process, you must first identify your DirectAccess deployment goals. This guide contains some predefined deployment goals so that you can understand the ways in which DirectAccess can benefit your organization. After evaluating these goals, you can select a DirectAccess design that meets your DirectAccess deployment objectives. Each design includes examples to help you understand fundamental DirectAccess processes such as client access or remote management. The following topics explain how to identify and evaluate a DirectAccess deployment design for your organization: Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals Mapping Your Deployment Goals to a DirectAccess Design Evaluating DirectAccess Design Examples

After you identify your deployment goals and map them to a DirectAccess design, you can begin documenting your design, based on the processes that are described in the following topics: Planning a DirectAccess Deployment Strategy Planning the Placement of a DirectAccess Server Planning the Placement of a Network Location Server Planning the Placement of CRL Distribution Points Planning DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP) Planning DirectAccess with an Existing Server and Domain Isolation Deployment DirectAccess Capacity Planning Additional DirectAccess Resources Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements
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Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts

Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Correctly identifying your DirectAccess deployment goals is essential for the success of your DirectAccess design project. Depending on the size of your organization and the level of involvement you are expecting from the information technology (IT) staff in any partner organizations, form a project team that can clearly articulate real-world deployment issues in a vision statement. Make sure that the members of this team understand the direction in which your deployment project must move in order to reach your DirectAccess deployment goals. When you write your vision statement, take steps to identify, clarify, and refine your deployment goals. Prioritize and, if necessary, combine your deployment goals so that you can design and deploy DirectAccess by using an iterative approach. You can take advantage of existing, documented, and predefined DirectAccess deployment goals that are relevant to the DirectAccess designs and develop a working solution for your scenarios. The following table lists the three main tasks for articulating, refining, and documenting your DirectAccess deployment goals.
Deployment goal tasks Reference links

Evaluate predefined DirectAccess deployment goals that are provided in this section of the guide and combine one or more goals to reach your organizational objectives.

Transparent and Automatic Remote Access for DirectAccess Clients Ongoing Management of Remote DirectAccess Clients Efficient Routing of Intranet and Internet Traffic Reduction of Remote Access-based Servers in your Edge Network End-to-end Traffic Protection Multi-factor Credentials for Intranet Access

Map one goal or a combination of any of the predefined DirectAccess deployment goals to a DirectAccess design. Document your deployment goals and other

Mapping Your Deployment Goals to a DirectAccess Design Appendix C: Documenting Your DirectAccess
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Deployment goal tasks

Reference links

important details for your DirectAccess design.

Design

Transparent and Automatic Remote Access for DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). DirectAccess enhances the productivity of mobile workers by connecting their computers automatically and seamlessly to their intranet any time Internet access is available. The user does not have to remember to initiate a virtual private network (VPN) connection every time that they need to access intranet resources. With DirectAccess, intranet file shares, Web sites, and line-of-business applications can remain accessible wherever you have an Internet connection in the same way as if you were directly connected to the intranet.

Ongoing Management of Remote DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). With current virtual private network (VPN) solutions, the remote computer is connected to the intranet only intermittently. This model of user-initiated connections makes it difficult for information technology (IT) staff to manage remote computers with the latest updates and security policies. Remote computer management can be mitigated by checking for and requiring system health updates before completing the VPN connection. However, such requirements can add substantial wait times to the VPN connection process. With DirectAccess, IT staff can manage mobile computers by updating Group Policy settings and distributing software updates any time the mobile computer has Internet connectivity, even if the user is not logged on. This flexibility allows IT staff to manage remote computers as if they were
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directly connected to the intranet and ensures that mobile users stay up-to-date with security and system health policies.

Efficient Routing of Intranet and Internet Traffic


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). DirectAccess separates intranet from Internet traffic, which reduces unnecessary traffic on the intranet by sending only traffic destined for the intranet through the DirectAccess server. Some virtual private network (VPN) solutions use Network layer routing table entries to separate intranet from Internet traffic, in a configuration known as split-tunneling. DirectAccess solves this problem in the Application layer through more intelligent name resolution and in the Network layer by summarizing the IPv6 address space of an entire organization with IPv6 address prefixes. Rather than directing traffic solely based on a destination address, DirectAccess clients also direct traffic based on the name needed by the application. DirectAccess clients use a Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) that contains Domain Name System (DNS) namespace rules and a corresponding set of intranet DNS servers that resolve names for that DNS namespace. When an application on a DirectAccess client attempts to resolve a name, it first compares the name with the rules in the NRPT. If there is a match, the DirectAccess client uses a protected query to the specified intranet DNS servers to resolve the name to intranet addresses and establish connections. If there are no matches, the DirectAccess client uses Internet DNS servers to resolve the name to Internet addresses and establish connections.

Reduction of Remote Access-based Servers in your Edge Network


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988).

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With DirectAccess, you can reduce your dependence on remote access and application edge servers, leading to an edge network with fewer servers that provide access to intranet resources or applications. For example, the number of application edge servers can be reduced as the number of DirectAccess clients increase because DirectAccess clients can now directly access the corresponding application servers on the intranet.

End-to-end Traffic Protection


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). You can specify that the traffic between DirectAccess clients and intranet applications servers is protected from end-to-end. In most virtual private network (VPN) solutions, the protection only extends to the VPN server. This capability for end-to-end traffic protection provides additional security for computers that are outside of the intranet. Additionally, by leveraging the flexibility and control that is possible with connection security rules in Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, you can specify that the end-to-end protection include encryption and not require that the traffic be tunneled to the DirectAccess server.

Multi-factor Credentials for Intranet Access


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). In typically deployed access models, DirectAccess clients create two tunnels to the DirectAccess server. The first tunnel, the infrastructure tunnel, provides access to intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers, Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain controllers, and other infrastructure and management servers. The second tunnel, the intranet tunnel, provides access to intranet resources such as Web sites, file shares, and other application servers. To provide an additional layer of security for traffic sent over the intranet tunnel, you can specify that the intranet tunnel also require smart card authorization, which enforces the use of multiple sets of credentials to access intranet resources. Multi-factor credentials for the intranet tunnel uses the new tunnel-mode authorization feature of Windows Firewall with Advanced security in

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Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, which allows you to specify that only authorized computers or users can establish an inbound tunnel.

Mapping Your Deployment Goals to a DirectAccess Design


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). After you have reviewed the DirectAccess deployment goals and determined which are appropriate for your organization, you can map those goals to a specific design. The following table shows how well the DirectAccess designs meet the deployment goals discussed in Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals.
DirectAccess deployment goal DirectAccess elements or features

Transparent and automatic remote access for DirectAccess clients Ongoing management of remote DirectAccess clients Efficient routing of intranet and Internet traffic

Functionality in the DirectAccess server and clients Bidirectional connections whenever the computer is connected to the Internet Use of the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to separate Internet and intranet traffic Access to intranet resources through the DirectAccess server The selected server and end-to-end access models Smart card authorization on the intranet tunnel

Reduction of remote access-based servers in your edge network End-to-end traffic protection Multi-factor credentials for intranet access

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Evaluating DirectAccess Design Examples


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The following design examples illustrate the way in which DirectAccess deployment scenarios work to provide transparent access to intranet resources. Full Intranet Access Example Full Intranet Access with Smart Cards Example Selected Server Access Example End-to-end Access Example

You can use these examples to determine the design or combination of designs that best suits the needs of your organization.

Full Intranet Access Example


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Full intranet access allows DirectAccess clients to connect to all of the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-reachable resources inside the intranet. The DirectAccess client uses Internet Protocol security (IPsec) to create two encrypted tunnels to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. The first tunnel, known as the infrastructure tunnel, allows the DirectAccess client to access Domain Name System (DNS) servers, Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain controllers, and other infrastructure and management servers. The second tunnel, known as the intranet tunnel, allows the DirectAccess client to access intranet resources. The infrastructure tunnel uses computer authentication and the intranet tunnel uses both computer and user authentication. After the intranet tunnel is established, the DirectAccess client can exchange traffic with intranet application servers. This traffic is encrypted by the tunnel for its journey across the Internet. By default, the DirectAccess server is acting as an IPsec gateway, terminating the IPsec tunnels for the DirectAccess client. The following figure shows an example of full intranet access.

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When the DirectAccess client starts up and determines that it is on the Internet, it creates the tunnels to the DirectAccess server and begins normal communications with intranet infrastructure servers such as AD DS domain controllers and application servers as if it were directly connected to the intranet. This design does not require IPsec protection for traffic on the intranet and is structurally very similar to current remote access virtual private network (VPN) scenarios. Note To demonstrate full intranet access for DirectAccess, set up the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).

Full Intranet Access with Smart Cards Example


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Full intranet access with smart cards is the full intranet access design and the use of smart cards to provide an additional level of authorization for the intranet tunnel. The DirectAccess server enforces the use of smart card credentials when the DirectAccess client computer attempts to access an intranet resource. The following figure shows an example of full intranet access with smart cards.

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When a user on the DirectAccess client logs on to their computer with the smart card, they obtain transparent access to intranet resources. If they log in to the computer using domain credentials, such as a username and password combination, and attempt to access the intranet, Windows displays a message in the notification area instructing them to enter their smart card credentials. The user then inserts their smart card and provides their smart card personal identifier (PIN) to access intranet resources. This notification message will fade away in five seconds or may be covered by other notifications in a shorter amount of time, but an icon displaying a pair of keys will stay in the notification area. If the user misses the notification, the keys icon will be available in the overflow tray, which will allow them to launch the credential prompt again by clicking on it. Note If the user closes the smart card credential prompt from the notification area, there is no way of relaunching it, nor will the keys show up in the overflow tray again. The user must lock their computer and then unlock it with their smart card to access the intranet.

Selected Server Access Example


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Selected server access allows you to confine the access of DirectAccess clients to a specific set of intranet application servers and deny access to all other locations on the intranet. Intranet access requires end-to-end Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection from the DirectAccess client to the specified servers. This provides an additional layer of IPsec peer authentication and
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data integrity for end-to-end traffic so that DirectAccess clients can verify that they are communicating with specific servers. The following figure shows an example of selected server access.

The DirectAccess client and selected servers by default perform IPsec peer authentication using computer credentials and protect the traffic with Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)-NULL for data integrity. You can also use selected server access to require end-to-end IPsec protection from the DirectAccess client to specified servers and allow access to all other locations on the intranet. Traffic to other intranet application servers is not protected with IPsec peer authentication and data integrity. The intranet tunnel between the DirectAccess client and server provides encryption for both types of intranet traffic across the Internet. Note To demonstrate selected server access, configure the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) with the Selected Server Access extension (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=192278).

Using authentication with null encapsulation for selected server access


Authentication with null encapsulation is a new feature of Windows Firewall with Advanced Security for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Some intranets contain hardware that cannot parse or forward IPsec-protected traffic. With authentication with null encapsulation enabled, IPsec peers perform normal IPsec peer authentication and include IPsec data integrity on the first packet exchanged. Subsequent packets are sent as clear text with no IPsec protection. This feature allows you to use IPsec for peer authentication in environments that do not support IPsec-protected traffic flows. You can enable authentication with null encapsulation for DirectAccess when using selected server access.
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Note Authentication with null encapsulation is not the same as using ESP-NULL for per-packet data integrity.

End-to-end Access Example


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). End-to-end access removes the infrastructure and intranet tunnels to the DirectAccess server. All intranet traffic is end-to-end between DirectAccess clients and intranet application servers and is encrypted with Internet Protocol security (IPsec). In this configuration, the DirectAccess server is no longer terminating IPsec tunnels. It is acting as a pass-through device, allowing the IPsecprotected traffic to pass between the DirectAccess client and the application servers. A component of the DirectAccess server, known as IPsec Denial of Service Protection (DoSP), monitors the IPsec traffic to help prevent malicious users on the Internet from launching DoS attacks against intranet resources. The following figure shows an example of end-to-end access.

The DirectAccess client and intranet application servers should be configured to perform IPsec peer authentication using computer credentials and to protect the traffic with Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) for data confidentiality (encryption) and integrity.

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Planning a DirectAccess Deployment Strategy


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The following are some critical questions to consider as you develop a deployment strategy for DirectAccess, with links to corresponding topics in this Design Guide. Answering these questions will help you create a strategy that is cost-effective and resource-efficient. Which intranet resources will be available to DirectAccess clients? For more information, see Resources Available to DirectAccess Clients. How do I either enable Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) on my intranet or have DirectAccess use my existing IPv6 infrastructure? For more information, see Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design. What options do I have to make Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-only resources available for DirectAccess clients? For more information, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources. Which access models are there to choose from? For more information, see Choose an Access Model. What options do I have to configure DirectAccess? For more information, see Choose a Configuration Method. Which computers do I need to designate as management servers that will initiate connections to DirectAccess clients? For more information, see Design for Remote Management. What packet filters do I need to add to my firewalls and computers in my organization? For more information, see Design Packet Filtering for DirectAccess. What packet filters do I need to add to my firewalls and computers in my organization? For more information, see Design Packet Filtering for DirectAccess. What support is needed from third-party host firewalls? For more information, see DirectAccess and Third-party Host Firewalls. What authentication and authorization options do I have? For more information, see Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme. What addressing and routing do I need to configure on my DirectAccess server? For more information, see Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server. How does DirectAccess leverage or utilize Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)? For more information, see Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme. How do I design my Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure for DirectAccess? For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess.
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How do I design my public key infrastructure (PKI) for DirectAccess? For more information, see Design Your PKI for DirectAccess. How do I design my internal and external Web infrastructure for DirectAccess? For more information, see Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess. What options are there for separating or combining intranet and Internet traffic for DirectAccess clients? For more information, see Choose an Internet Traffic Separation Design. How do I ensure that traffic between DirectAccess clients on the Internet is protected? For more information, see Design Protection for Traffic between DirectAccess Clients. How do I ensure that DirectAccess clients can detect connectivity to the intranet? For more information, see Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection. How does DirectAccess co-exist with my current remote access virtual private network (VPN) solution? For more information, see Choose a DirectAccess and VPN Coexistence Design. Should I use the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA)? For more information, see Use the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA).

Resources Available to DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). When designing your DirectAccess deployment, you must determine how DirectAccess clients will reach all of the desired intranet resources.

IPv6 resources on your intranet


DirectAccess relies on Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) for end-to-end connectivity between the DirectAccess client and an intranet endpoint. DirectAccess clients only send IPv6 traffic across the connection to the DirectAccess server. Therefore, DirectAccess clients can only communicate using applications that support IPv6 and connect to intranet resources that are reachable with IPv6. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-only applications on the DirectAccess client cannot be used to access intranet application servers with DirectAccess. The recommended configuration for your intranet is to have IPv6 connectivity to your intranet resources. This requires the following: An intranet infrastructure that supports the forwarding of IPv6 traffic. IPv6-capable applications on computers that run an operating system that supports an IPv6 protocol stack.
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An intranet infrastructure that supports forwarding IPv6 traffic can be achieved in the following ways: Configure your intranet infrastructure to support native IPv6 addressing and routing. Computers running Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, or Windows Server 2008 R2 use IPv6 by default. Although few organizations today have a native IPv6 infrastructure, this is the preferred and recommended connectivity method. For the most seamless intranet connectivity for DirectAccess clients, organizations should deploy a native IPv6 infrastructure, typically alongside their existing IPv4 infrastructure. Deploy Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) on your intranet. Without a native IPv6 infrastructure, you can use ISATAP to make intranet servers and applications reachable by tunneling IPv6 traffic over your IPv4-only intranet. Deploying ISATAP consists of setting up one or more ISATAP routers that provide address configuration and default routing for ISATAP hosts on your intranet. Computers running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2 support ISATAP host functionality and can be configured to act as ISATAP routers. If you do not have a native IPv6 infrastructure or ISATAP on your intranet, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard will automatically configure the DirectAccess server as the ISATAP router for your intranet. Applications that are end-to-end reachable by DirectAccess clients must be IPv6-capable and running on an operating system that supports an IPv6 protocol stack with native IPv6 or ISATAP host capability. For applications running on versions of Windows: Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2008 support an IPv6 protocol stack and all built-in components and system services are IPv6capable. These versions of Windows are highly recommended. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 have an IPv6 protocol stack, but many built-in components and system services and applications are not IPv6-capable. Therefore, in most cases, applications running on computers running Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 are not reachable by DirectAccess clients over IPv6. For the solutions for providing DirectAccess connectivity to applications running on Windows XP and Windows Server 2003-based computers, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources. For applications running on non-Windows operating systems, verify that both the operating system and the applications support IPv6 and are reachable over native IPv6 or ISATAP.

IPv4-only resources on the intranet


Because DirectAccess clients only send IPv6 traffic to the DirectAccess server, users on DirectAccess clients cannot use IPv4-only client applications to reach IPv4-only resources on your intranet. Examples of IPv4-only resources are the following: Applications running on Windows 2000 or prior versions of Windows.

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The built-in applications and system services running on Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 that are not IPv6-capable. For applications that are not built-in to Windows, check with the software vendor to ensure that the application is IPv6-capable. Applications that only use IPv4, such as Office Communications Server (OCS), cannot by default be reached by DirectAccess clients. However, IPv6-capable applications can reach IPv4-only resources on your intranet by using an IPv6/IPv4 translation device or service such as a NAT64/DNS64. For the solutions for providing connectivity for DirectAccess clients to IPv4-only resources, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources.

Using an IPv4-only intranet


It is possible to use DirectAccess with an IPv4-only intranet, but you must use a NAT64/DNS64 device between your DirectAccess clients and your intranet and you no longer have the ability to remotely manage DirectAccess clients from the intranet. For information about providing connectivity for DirectAccess clients to an IPv4-only intranet, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources. When the DirectAccess client physically connects to your IPv4-only intranet or an IPv4-only subnet of your intranet, it is possible in some situations for the client to use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) to access the intranet through a proxy server and the DirectAccess server, instead of using normal IPv4-based connectivity. This can cause problems for some applications. To prevent this behavior, configure Windows Firewall rules to block traffic between your proxy servers and your DirectAccess servers. For more information, see Configure Firewall Rules to Prevent Traffic between Proxy Servers and DirectAccess Servers.

Limiting connectivity to selected resources


With the selected server access model, you can limit the access of DirectAccess clients to a specific set of servers identified by membership in Active Directory security groups. The following figure shows an example of using selected server access to restrict intranet access to specific application servers.

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For more information, see Selected Server Access Example.

IPv6 resources on the IPv6 Internet


By default, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2-based computers attempt to resolve the name 6to4.ipv6.microsoft.com to determine the IPv4 address of a 6to4 relay and teredo.ipv6.microsoft.com to determine the IPv4 addresses of Teredo servers on the IPv4 Internet. With the 6to4 relay at 6to4.ipv6.microsoft.com and the Teredo servers at teredo.ipv6.microsoft.com, Windows 7-based clients on the IPv4 Internet can reach the IPv6 Internet. When Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2-based computers are configured as DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server becomes the 6to4 relay and the Teredo server so that DirectAccess clients can tunnel IPv6 traffic destined for the intranet to the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess server does not also forward default route traffic to the IPv6 Internet, DirectAccess clients will not be able to reach the IPv6 Internet. If you want DirectAccess clients to reach the IPv6 Internet, configure the DirectAccess server with one of the following: A direct, native connection to the IPv6 Internet Configure the DirectAccess server to forward default route traffic using its native connection to the IPv6 Internet. You can also use a separate router for your connection to the IPv6 Internet and configure the DirectAccess server to forward its default route traffic to the router. A 6to4-tunneled connection to the IPv6 Internet Configure the DirectAccess server to forward default route traffic using the Microsoft 6to4 Adapter interface to a 6to4 relay on the IPv4 Internet. You can configure a DirectAccess server for the IPv4 address of the Microsoft 6to4 relay on the IPv4 Internet with the netsh interface ipv6 6to4 set relay name=192.88.99.1 state=enabled command. Use 192.88.99.1, the IPv4 anycast address of 6to4 relays on the Internet, unless your Internet

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service provider recommends a specific unicast IPv4 address of the 6to4 relay that they maintain. For more information, see Connect to the IPv6 Internet in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The combinations of intranet Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity prior to deploying DirectAccess are the following: There is no existing IPv6 infrastructure You have an Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)-based IPv6 infrastructure You have an existing native IPv6 infrastructure In each of these combinations, you will need to ensure that the IPv6 routing infrastructure can forward packets between DirectAccess clients and intranet resources.

No existing IPv6 infrastructure


Having no existing IPv6 infrastructure is currently the most common situation. When the DirectAccess Setup Wizard detects that the DirectAccess server has no native or ISATAP-based IPv6 connectivity, it automatically derives a 6to4-based 48-bit prefix for the intranet, configures the DirectAccess server as an ISATAP router, and registers the name ISATAP with its Domain Name System (DNS) server. Note By default, DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 block the resolution of the name ISATAP with the global query block list. To enable ISATAP, you must remove the name ISATAP from the block list. For more information, see Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Windows-based ISATAP hosts that can resolve the name ISATAP perform address autoconfiguration with the DirectAccess server, resulting in the automatic configuration of the following: An ISATAP-based IPv6 address on an ISATAP tunneling interface. A 64-bit route that provides connectivity to the other ISATAP hosts on the intranet.
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A default IPv6 route that points to the DirectAccess server.

The default IPv6 route ensures that intranet ISATAP hosts can reach DirectAccess clients. Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses ISATAP for the simulated intranet.

Existing ISATAP infrastructure


If you have an existing ISATAP infrastructure, the DirectAccess Setup wizard will prompt you for the 48-bit prefix of the organization and will not configure itself as an ISATAP router. To ensure that DirectAccess clients are reachable from the intranet, you will need to modify your IPv6 routing infrastructure so that default route traffic is forwarded to the DirectAccess server.

Existing native IPv6 infrastructure


If you have an existing native IPv6 infrastructure, the DirectAccess Setup wizard will prompt you for the 48-bit prefix of the organization and will not configure itself as an ISATAP router. To ensure that DirectAccess clients are reachable from the intranet, you will need to modify your IPv6 routing so that default route traffic is forwarded to the DirectAccess server. If your intranet IPv6 address space is using something other than a single 48-bit IPv6 address prefix, you will need to modify the default connection security rules in the Group Policy objects created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to include the additional IPv6 address prefixes for your intranet. If you are currently connected to the IPv6 Internet, you must configure your default route traffic so that it is forwarded to the DirectAccess server, and then configure the appropriate connections and routes on the DirectAccess server so that the default route traffic is forwarded to the router that is connected to the IPv6 Internet. For more information, see Connect to the IPv6 Internet in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note If you are using IPv6 addresses that are not based on a 6to4 prefix on your intranet, a 6to4-based DirectAccess client computer that uses IP-HTTPS to connect to the DirectAccess server will not be able to reach intranet locations. To correct this condition, add a 6to4 route (2002::/16) to your intranet that points to the DirectAccess server or reconfigure the DirectAccess server to use IPv6 addresses from your intranet prefix on its Internet interface rather than 6to4 addresses and change the client and server tunnel endpoints in your DirectAccess client and server Group Policy objects to the assigned IPv6 address.

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Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). A DirectAccess client sends only Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) traffic to the DirectAccess server. When DirectAccess clients send Domain Name System (DNS) name query requests across the infrastructure tunnel to the IPv6 address of an intranet DNS server, they request only IPv6 records (AAAA DNS records). Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-only applications on the DirectAccess client will never send IPv4 traffic across the DirectAccess intranet tunnel. The same DirectAccess client, when directly connected to the intranet, sends DNS name queries to intranet DNS servers and requests all records, both IPv4 and IPv6. For an IPv4-only server application, intranet DNS servers send back IPv4 records and the client application uses IPv4 to communicate. The end result is that an IPv6-capable client application on a DirectAccess client can use IPv4 to access an IPv4-only server application while connected to the intranet, but cannot by default reach the same server application when connected to the Internet. The solutions for providing connectivity for IPv6-capable applications on DirectAccess clients to IPv4-only intranet applications are the following: Upgrade or update the IPv4-only intranet application to support IPv6. This update might include updating the operating system of the server, updating the application running on the server, or both. This is the recommended solution. For built-in applications and system services on computers running Windows XP or Windows Server 2003, you must upgrade Windows XP to Windows 7 or Windows Vista and upgrade Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008. Use a conventional remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection on the DirectAccess client to reach the IPv4-only application. Use an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway, which perform IPv6/IPv4 traffic translation and IPv6-to-IPv4 DNS name resolution services for traffic between DirectAccess clients and IPv4-only intranet application servers. A combination of IPv6/IPv4 translator with IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway is a NAT64 with DNS64. The types of DirectAccess connectivity that are possible for IPv6-capable and IPv4-only client and server applications are summarized in the following: IPv6-capable client application on the DirectAccess client with an IPv6-capable server application on the intranet End-to-end connectivity for DirectAccess clients. IPv6-capable client application on the DirectAccess client with an IPv4-only server application on the intranet
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Translated connectivity for DirectAccess clients only with an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway. IPv4-only client application on the DirectAccess client with either an IPv6-capable or IPv4-only server application on the intranet No connectivity for DirectAccess clients. When you deploy an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway, you typically configure it to provide coverage for specific portions of your intranet DNS namespace. Once deployed, the IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway will make the necessary DNS resolutions and IPv6/IPv4 traffic translations, allowing IPv6-capable applications on DirectAccess clients to access IPv4-only resources located within that portion of the DNS namespace. The following figure shows an example of using a separate NAT64 and DNS64 device to provide IPv6/IPv4 traffic translation and access to IPv4-only application servers on an intranet.

If you are using an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway in your DirectAccess deployment, you must identify the portions of your intranet namespace that contain IPv4-only application servers and add them to the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) of your DirectAccess clients with the IPv6 addresses of your IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway. For more information, see Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Because Windows Server 2008 R2 does not provide IPv6/IPv4 translator or IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway functionality, the configuration of these devices is beyond the scope of this design guide. Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) includes NAT64 and DNS64 functionality and can be used in conjunction with a DirectAccess deployment. For more information, see UAG and DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159955). IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway devices are also available from Layer 2 and Layer 3 switch and router vendors.

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Choose an Access Model


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The three access models for DirectAccess, as previously described in Evaluating DirectAccess Design Examples, are the following: Full Intranet Access Selected Server Access End-to-End Access

The following topics describe the benefits and limitations of these access models.

Full Intranet Access


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The full intranet access model allows DirectAccess clients to connect to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-reachable resources inside your intranet and provides Internet Protocol security (IPsec)based end-to-edge peer authentication and encryption that terminates at the DirectAccess server. See Full Intranet Access Example for more information. The following are the benefits of the full intranet access model: Does not require intranet application servers that are running Windows Server 2008 or later. Works with any IPv6-capable application servers. Most closely resembles current virtual private network (VPN) architecture and is typically easier to deploy. Can be used with smart cards for an additional level of authorization. Is fully configurable with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Does not require IPsec-protected traffic on the intranet. Does not provide end-to-end authentication or data protection with intranet servers.

The following are the limitations of the full intranet access model: Because the DirectAccess server is terminating the IPsec tunnels, there is extra processing load on DirectAccess server to perform encryption and decryption. This load can
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be mitigated by moving the IPsec gateway function to a different server with IPsec offload network adapters. For more information, see Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers. Note To demonstrate full intranet access for DirectAccess, set up the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).

Selected Server Access


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The DirectAccess Setup Wizard allows you to configure one of the following for the selected server access model: The only servers that DirectAccess clients can communicate with are selected intranet servers using Internet Protocol security (IPsec) peer authentication and end-to-end data integrity. The only servers that DirectAccess clients can communicate with are selected intranet servers using IPsec peer authentication but no IPsec protection. Communications between DirectAccess clients and selected intranet servers must perform IPsec peer authentication and end-to-end data integrity. Communications with all other intranet endpoints use clear text. Communications between DirectAccess clients and intranet servers must perform IPsec peer authentication but no IPsec protection. Communications with all other intranet endpoints use clear text. In each of these cases, the traffic sent between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server is encrypted over the Internet. See Selected Server Access Example for more information. The following are the benefits of the selected server access model: You can easily confine the access of DirectAccess clients to specific application servers. Provides additional end-to-end authentication and data protection beyond that provided with traditional virtual private network (VPN) connections. Can be used with smart cards for an additional level of authorization. Is fully configurable with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard.

By customizing the default Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you can restrict certain users or computers from accessing particular application servers or specify that certain client applications will not be able to access intranet resources remotely. However, customization of connection security

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rules requires knowledge of and experience with connection security rule design and configuration. The following are the limitations of the selected server access model: Selected servers must run Windows Server 2008 or later. Selected servers cannot run Windows Server 2003 or earlier. Selected servers when using IPsec peer authentication without IPsec protection must be running Windows Server 2008 R2 or later. Note To demonstrate selected server access, configure the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) with the Selected Server Access extension (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=192278).

End-to-End Access
Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The end-to-end access model allows you to configure DirectAccess clients so that communications between DirectAccess clients and all intranet servers perform IPsec peer authentication, data confidentiality (encryption), and data integrity from the DirectAccess client to the intranet resource. The traffic sent between DirectAccess clients and servers is encrypted over both the Internet and the intranet. For more information, see the End-to-end Access Example. The following are the benefits of the end-to-end access model: Provides additional end-to-end authentication, data integrity, and data confidentiality beyond that provided with traditional virtual private network (VPN) connections. There is less processing overhead on the DirectAccess server, which is acting only as a router and providing denial of service protection (DoSP) for the IPsec-encrypted DirectAccess traffic. By customizing the default Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you can define policies that restrict certain users or computers from accessing particular application servers or specify that certain applications will not be able to access intranet resources remotely. However, customization of the default connection security rules requires knowledge of and experience with connection security rule design and configuration. The following are the limitations of the end-to-end access model: All intranet application servers accessible to DirectAccess clients must run Windows Server 2008 or later. Application servers cannot run Windows Server 2003 or earlier.
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Your intranet must allow the forwarding of IPsec-encrypted traffic.

Is not fully configurable with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. You use the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to create the initial set of DirectAccess client and server Group Policy objects and settings and then you must customize the default Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules. Cannot use smart cards for an additional level of authorization. Cannot access IPv4-only intranet resources, even with an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway.

Choose a Configuration Method


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). You can use the following methods to deploy and configure DirectAccess: The DirectAccess Management console Custom configuration using the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool and Group Policy The following sections describe the benefits and limitations of each of these methods.

DirectAccess Management Console


The DirectAccess Management Console provides several options for deploying DirectAccess. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard guides you through four steps to determine how the DirectAccess deployment should proceed, and before the changes are applied, you have the option of saving the settings into an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file. The XML file can be modified and provides a way to examine which options are being set. You can also use the engine.ps1 PowerShell script to run the XML file. For more information, see Appendix C - DirectAccess User Interface Scripting in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide and Perform DirectAccess Scripting (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=157388).

Custom configuration using the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool and Group Policy
For customized DirectAccess deployments that need to be modified from the default settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to meet a unique set of needs, you can use Network Shell (Netsh) commands and Group Policy settings for the Group Policy objects for DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, and selected servers. Custom configuration allows for maximum flexibility
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and the creation of unique solutions, including many permutations that are not covered in this Design Guide. For information about Netsh commands for DirectAccess, see Appendix A Manual DirectAccess Server Configuration and Appendix B Manual DirectAccess Client Configuration. For information about Group Policy settings for DirectAccess, see Group Policy Management Console and Editor.

Design for Remote Management


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Because DirectAccess client computers are connected to the intranet whenever the DirectAccess client is connected to the Internet, regardless of whether the user has logged on to the computer, they can be more easily managed as intranet resources and kept current with Group Policy changes, operating system updates, anti-malware software updates, and other changes. Intranet management servers that client computers use to keep themselves current can consist of the following: Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager 2007 servers Windows Update servers Servers for anti-malware updates, such as antivirus servers

In some cases, intranet servers or computers must initiate connections to DirectAccess clients. For example, helpdesk department computers can use remote desktop connections to connect to and troubleshoot remote DirectAccess clients. To ensure that DirectAccess clients will accept incoming traffic from these types of computers and require the protection of that traffic over the Internet, you must identify the set of these intranet management computers and configure their addresses in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Once you have identified the computers, record their names, their Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses (if you have no Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) infrastructure), or their IPv6 addresses (if you have an IPv6 infrastructure, either their public native or Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol [ISATAP] addresses) and configure them in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates an additional set of connection security rules for a management tunnel between DirectAccess clients and the DirectAccess server. This management tunnel is encrypted with Internet Protocol security (IPsec), uses computer credentials for authentication, and is separate from the intranet and infrastructure tunnels in the full intranet and selected server access models. Because DirectAccess clients can be behind network address translators (NATs) and use Teredo for the IPv6 connectivity across the Internet, any inbound rules for Windows Firewall with
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Advanced Security that permit unsolicited incoming traffic from management computers must be modified to enable edge traversal and must have an inbound ICMPv6 Echo Request rule with edge traversal enabled. For more information, see Packet Filters for Management Computers Notes When you are using end-to-end peer authentication with data integrity and remote management traffic is sent within the intranet tunnel, you should use Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)-Null instead of Authentication Header (AH) for data integrity. If the computer that is managing a DirectAccess client from the intranet is running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and IPsec transport mode is required between the managing computer and the DirectAccess client, both computers must have the same quick mode lifetimes. To demonstrate remote management, configure the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) with the Remote Management extension (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=192280).

Design for Intranet Server Availability Prior to User Logon


The intranet servers that are available to a DirectAccess client computer depend on whether the user has logged on. By default, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for the full intranet access model creates connection security rules for the following Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnels: Infrastructure tunnel This rule provides connectivity to specific intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers and uses only computer account-based credentials for authentication. This is a required connection security rule. If the specified DNS servers are also domain controllers, you do not have to add these domain controllers to the list of intranet servers that are available prior to user logon. If the domain controllers that you want to make accessible to DirectAccess clients are separate from the specified DNS servers, you must add them to the intranet servers that are available prior to user logon. Intranet tunnel This rule provides connectivity to all intranet resources reachable by the DirectAccess client computer and uses a combination of computer and user account-based credentials for authentication. This is a required connection security rule. Management tunnel This rule provides connectivity to DirectAccess client computers on the Internet from management servers on the intranet and uses only computer-based credentials for authentication. Management servers can remotely manage DirectAccess clients on the Internet, such as computers that create remote desktop connections. This is an optional connection security rule, depending on whether you have defined the IPv6 addresses of
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management servers in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. If you do not configure management servers, these computers will not be able to initiate communications with DirectAccess clients until the user has logged on. The security settings for the connection security rules for the infrastructure and management tunnels are the same. Therefore, DirectAccess clients can also use the management tunnel rule to initiate communications with intranet servers in the same way as the infrastructure tunnel rule. Because these connection security rules do not use user account-based credentials, DirectAccess client computers will only have connectivity to those intranet endpoints that are specified for the infrastructure and management tunnel rules before user logon. Additional computers that should be available to DirectAccess client computers prior to user logon are the following: Domain controllers, which are not DNS servers and have already been configured in Step 3 of the DirectAccess wizard Additional intranet DNS servers that have not been configured in Step 3 of the DirectAccess wizard When using Network Access Protection (NAP), Health Registration Authorities (HRAs) and remediation servers Servers needed for computer logon operations and system health updates, such as operating system and anti-malware update servers If you have configured force tunneling and DirectAccess client computers need to access the Internet prior to user logon, your intranet proxy servers One way to determine the additional intranet servers that must be made available to the services of a DirectAccess client computer is to analyze the Windows Logs and Application and Services Logs with Event Viewer and note the system services that were unable to start or complete operations prior to computer logon. If the cause of the problem is due to an inability to reach an intranet server and if these failed system services are crucial to the operation of the computer, the intranet server for that service should be added to list of servers that are available prior to user logon. To add to the set of servers that are available prior to user logon, you can do the following: Use the Management page of step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, which adds more Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses to the list of permitted endpoints for the management tunnel. This is the recommended method because it is much easier to configure, especially if you are not managing a customized DirectAccess deployment and can run the DirectAccess Setup Wizard without modifying one or more custom settings. For more information, see Add Servers that are Available to DirectAccess Clients before User Logon. Use Netsh.exe commands to manually add more IPv6 addresses to the list of permitted endpoints on the infrastructure or management tunnels This is not recommended because it must be done manually with multiple commands and if done incorrectly can impair connectivity. However, if you are managing a customized DirectAccess deployment and cannot run the DirectAccess Setup Wizard without modifying one or more custom settings, you must use this method. If you have not already defined
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management servers with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, use the infrastructure tunnel. Otherwise, use the management tunnel. For more information, see Add Servers that are Available to DirectAccess Clients before User Logon.

Design Packet Filtering for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Packet filtering must be modified for multiple components on your network to allow the following types of traffic: DirectAccess client traffic to and from DirectAccess servers on the Internet DirectAccess server traffic to and from the intranet Encapsulated DirectAccess client traffic to and from the intranet

Teredo discovery traffic for DirectAccess clients located behind network address translators (NATs) Management server traffic to DirectAccess clients Packet Filters for Your Internet Firewall Packet Filters for Your Intranet Firewall Confining ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet Packet filters for Teredo Connectivity Packet Filters for Management Computers The following topics describe the required packet filtering for each of these types of traffic:

Packet Filters for Your Internet Firewall


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Most organizations use an Internet firewall between the Internet and the computers on their perimeter network. This firewall is typically configured with packet filters that only allow specific types of traffic to and from the perimeter network computers. When you add a DirectAccess server to your perimeter network, you must configure additional packet filters to allow the traffic to
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and from the DirectAccess server for all of the types of traffic that a DirectAccess client uses to obtain Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity to the DirectAccess server. If your DirectAccess server is on the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet, the DirectAccess server must have two consecutive, public IPv4 addresses and your Internet firewall must pass the traffic to the DirectAccess server without translating addresses or port numbers. Configure packet filters on your Internet firewall to allow the following types of IPv4 traffic for the DirectAccess server: Protocol 41 inbound and outbound For DirectAccess clients that use the 6to4 IPv6 transition technology to encapsulate IPv6 packets with an IPv4 header. In the IPv4 header, the Protocol field is set to 41 to indicate an IPv6 packet payload. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) destination port 3544 inbound and UDP source port 3544 outbound For DirectAccess clients that use the Teredo IPv6 transition technology to encapsulate IPv6 packets with an IPv4 and UDP header. The DirectAccess server is listening on UDP port 3544 for traffic from Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) destination port 443 inbound and TCP source port 443 outbound For DirectAccess clients that use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) to encapsulate IPv6 packets within an IPv4-based HTTPS session. The DirectAccess server is listening on TCP port 443 for traffic from IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. If your DirectAccess server is on the IPv6 Internet, you must configure packet filters on your Internet firewall to allow the following types of IPv6 traffic for the DirectAccess server: Protocol 50 DirectAccess on the IPv6 Internet uses the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to protect the packets to and from the DirectAccess server without the encapsulation headers required for IPv6 transition technologies. In the IPv6 header, the Protocol field is set to 50 to indicate an ESP-protected payload. UDP destination port 500 inbound and UDP source port 500 outbound DirectAccess on the IPv6 Internet uses the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and Authenticated Internet Protocol (AuthIP) protocols to negotiate IPsec security settings. The DirectAccess server is listening on UDP port 500 for incoming IKE and AuthIP traffic. UDP destination port 4500 inbound and UDP source port 4500 outbound To support IPsec NAT-Traversal (NAT-T) for translated IPv6 clients on the IPv6 Internet, the DirectAccess server is listening on UDP port 4500 for incoming IPsec NAT-T traffic. All Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic inbound and outbound

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Packet Filters for Your Intranet Firewall


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Some organizations use an additional intranet firewall between the perimeter network and the intranet to filter out malicious traffic that makes it past the Internet firewall and perimeter network servers. If you use an intranet firewall and the DirectAccess server is on the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet, you must configure the following additional packet filters: All IPv4 and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) traffic to and from the DirectAccess server The DirectAccess server must reach and be reachable by Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain controllers, management servers, and other intranet resources. You can begin with this initial filter and then refine the filter over time to allow the subset of traffic needed by the DirectAccess server. For AD DS, the DirectAccess server must be able to communicate with the domain controller that is acting as the primary domain controller (PDC) emulator for the domain in which the DirectAccess server is a member. The DirectAccess server must also be able to reach at least one domain controller and at least one global catalog for each domain in which DirectAccess client computer accounts are members. Protocol 41 inbound and outbound Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) encapsulates IPv6 packets with an IPv4 header. In the IPv4 header, the Protocol field is set to 41 to indicate an IPv6 packet payload. Use this packet filter if you are using ISATAP to send IPv6 traffic across your IPv4only intranet.

Confining ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). By default, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates Group Policy objects for DirectAccess clients and servers for settings that allow the following behaviors:

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Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic, for both Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), is exempted from Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection Teredo discovery traffic does not travel within the IPsec tunnels between DirectAccess clients and servers These default settings allow Teredo-based DirectAccess clients to perform Teredo discovery of intranet resources. However, these settings also allow the following: Any computer with a Teredo or 6to4 client can send Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic to intranet locations through the DirectAccess server to probe for valid intranet destination IPv6 addresses. The amount of this traffic is limited by the Denial of Service Protection (DoSP) component of the DirectAccess server. A malicious user on the same subnet as a Teredo-based DirectAccess client can determine the IPv6 addresses of intranet servers by capturing ICMPv6 Echo Request and Echo Reply message exchanges. To prevent these possible security issues, you can modify the default configuration for the following: Configure the global IPsec settings for the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients to not exempt ICMP traffic from IPsec protection (from the IPsec Settings tab for the properties of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in). Configure the global IPsec settings for the Group Policy object for the DirectAccess server to not exempt ICMP traffic from IPsec protection (from the IPsec Settings tab for the properties of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in). For the Group Policy object for the DirectAccess server, create a new connection security rule that exempts ICMPv6 traffic when it is tunneled from the DirectAccess server. For the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients, create a new connection security rule that exempts ICMPv6 traffic when it is tunneled to the DirectAccess server. The last two connection security rules allow unprotected ICMPv6 traffic to and from the IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess client and server on the Internet to aid in troubleshooting. For example, you can use the Ping.exe tool from the DirectAccess client to test reachability to the DirectAccess server without IPsec protection. With these modifications: All ICMPv6 traffic sent through the DirectAccess server must be sent using a tunnel. Only DirectAccess clients can send ICMPv6 traffic to intranet locations. Malicious users on the same subnet as the DirectAccess client will only be able to determine the IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server. Intranet IPv6 addresses will be tunneled and encrypted with IPsec. For the steps to configure the global IPsec settings and connection security rules, see Configure Settings to Confine ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Although these modifications address the security issues of the default configuration, Teredo discovery messages can no longer pass through the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients cannot use Teredo as a connectivity method. Therefore, if you make these changes, you must also do the following: Disable Teredo client functionality on your DirectAccess clients
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From the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients, set Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\Networking\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\Teredo State to Disabled. Disable Teredo server and relay functionality on your DirectAccess server Type the netsh interface teredo set state state=disabled command from an administratorlevel command prompt on your DirectAccess server. If you previously added a packet filter on your Internet firewall to allow Teredo traffic to and from the DirectAccess server, remove it. Without Teredo connectivity, DirectAccess clients that are located behind network address translators (NATs) will use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) for IPv6 connectivity to the DirectAccess server. However, IP-HTTPS-based connections have lower performance and higher overhead than Teredo-based connections.

Packet filters for Teredo Connectivity


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The following packet filters facilitate traffic for DirectAccess clients that use Teredo. If you do not configure these packet filters, DirectAccess clients that are behind a network address translator (NAT) will not by default be able to connect to intranet resources or be managed by intranet management servers. The alternative is to disable the Teredo client on DirectAccess clients. However, without Teredo connectivity, DirectAccess clients that are located behind NAT will use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity to the DirectAccess server. IP-HTTPS-based connections have lower performance and higher overhead than Teredo-based connections.

Packet filters to allow inbound ICMP Echo Requests on all computers


DirectAccess clients that are behind NATs on the Internet attempt to use Teredo for IPv6 connectivity to the DirectAccess server. DirectAccess clients are Teredo clients to the DirectAccess server, which is acting as a Teredo server and relay. To ensure that a destination is reachable, Teredo clients send an Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) Echo Request message and wait for an ICMPv6 Echo Reply message. For a Teredo-based DirectAccess client to communicate with an intranet resource, that resource must accept inbound ICMPv6 Echo Request messages. Therefore, for DirectAccess clients to
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reach any location on the intranet, you must allow inbound ICMPv6 Echo Request messages on all of your intranet hosts. If your intranet is using a NAT64 to translate IPv6 traffic to Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) traffic, you must also allow inbound ICMP for IPv4 (ICMPv4) Echo Request messages on all of your intranet hosts. For information about how to configure packet filters for ICMPv6 and ICMPv4 Echo Request traffic, see Configure Packet Filters to Allow ICMP Traffic.

Enable edge traversal on inbound management traffic


If you are using Windows Firewall with Advanced Security to block unsolicited inbound traffic, you will already have a set of inbound rules that allow the traffic from your management servers. Because DirectAccess clients that are located behind NATs will use Teredo for IPv6 connectivity to the DirectAccess server, you must enable edge traversal on this set of inbound rules.

Enable inbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests for management traffic


For a computer that is being managed to be reachable over Teredo, ensure that the computer has an inbound rule for ICMPv6 Echo Request messages with edge traversal enabled. The Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool command for this rule is the following: netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Inbound ICMPv6 Echo Request with Edge traversal" protocol=icmpv6:128,0 dir=in action=allow edge=yes profile=public,private

Packet Filters for Management Computers


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). To allow management computers to initiate connections with your intranet computers, you might already have in place a set of inbound firewall rules for management traffic on your intranet. To allow DirectAccess clients to be managed in the same way when they are on the Internet, you can do one of the following: Configure your existing set of inbound firewall rules for management traffic so that they also apply to the public and private profiles and have edge traversal enabled. Although easier to configure, this option is not recommended because the inbound rules might allow greater exposure what is intended for DirectAccess management functionality.

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Create a duplicate set of inbound firewall rules for your management traffic in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients so that they only apply to the public and private profiles, have the appropriate source Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of management computers or the IPv6 prefix of your intranet, and have edge traversal enabled. This is the recommended option because it applies the rules only to DirectAccess clients, is scoped for your intranet IPv6 addresses or prefix, and does not affect other domain computers on the intranet or Internet. For information about creating inbound rules, see Create an Inbound Program or Service Rule (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159864). For more information, see Configure Packet Filters to Allow Management Traffic to DirectAccess Clients in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. You can enable edge traversal for a Windows Firewall inbound rule in the following ways: Using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, obtain properties of an inbound rule. On the Advanced tab, in Edge traversal, select Allow edge traversal. Use the edge=yes option for the netsh advfirewall firewall command when adding or changing an inbound rule. Here is an example of how to use a Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool command to enable edge traversal for the built-in Remote Desktop (TCP-In) inbound rule: netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name=Remote Desktop (TCP-In) dir=in new edge=yes To further ensure that the Remote Desktop connection is authenticated and encrypted, use the following Netsh command: netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name=Remote Desktop (TCP-In) dir=in new security=authenc edge=yes To use the security=authenc setting, ensure that there is a connection security rule that protects the connection between the remote desktop computer and the DirectAccess client. Note If the computer that is managing a DirectAccess client from the intranet is running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and Internet Protocol security (IPsec) transport mode is required between the managing computer and the DirectAccess client, both computers must have the same quick mode lifetimes.

DirectAccess and Third-party Host Firewalls


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988).

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Because DirectAccess relies on Internet Protocol security (IPsec), Authenticated Internet Protocol (AuthIP), and Windows Firewall connection security rules, Microsoft recommends that you do not disable the Windows Firewall service when using a third-party host firewall. When Windows Firewall is enabled, DirectAccess clients can use the built-in IPsec functionality and Windows Firewall connection security rules to protect DirectAccess connections and traffic. Your third-party firewall should be certified by the Microsoft Driver Logo Program for seamless DirectAccess functionality. For a list of logo requirements and certified third-party host firewalls, see Windows Quality Online Services (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=18084). Check with your host firewall vendor to see if it supports one of the following options for seamless DirectAccess functionality: Uses Windows Firewall functionality. Microsoft Forefront Client Security is an example. Uses Windows Firewall categories and does not replace Windows Firewall connection security (IPsec). Windows Firewall categories allow third-party host firewalls in Windows 7 to selectively replace specific elements of Windows Firewall functionality while retaining others. Categories make it possible for third-party host firewalls to operate side-by-side with Windows Firewall. To determine if Windows Firewall is providing connection security when a third-party host firewall is installed, type netsh advfirewall monitor show firewall at a command prompt. In Global Settings, in the Categories section, Windows Firewall should be listed for the ConSecRuleRuleCategory category. Third-party host firewalls should also support edge traversal to allow intranet servers and computers to initiate connections to Teredo-based DirectAccess clients for remote management. Check the documentation for your third-party host firewall to determine if edge traversal is supported and how to enable it. If supported, the documentation for your third-party firewall typically refers to this setting as NAT traversal, enabling Teredo, or IPv6 transition technologies. For more information, see Enabling Third Party Firewall DirectAccess Clients (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=163777). For more information about Windows Firewall categories, see INetFwProduct Interface (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=157401). For more information about third-party firewall requirements for Teredo, see Teredo co-existence with third-party firewalls (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=157705).

Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access
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Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). By default, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules that specify the use of the following types of credentials when negotiating the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) security associations for the tunnels to the DirectAccess server: The infrastructure tunnel uses Computer certificate credentials for the first authentication and User (NTLMv2) for the second authentication. User (NTLMv2) credentials force the use of Authenticated Internet Protocol (AuthIP) and provide access to a Domain Name System (DNS) server and domain controller before the DirectAccess client can use Kerberos credentials for the intranet tunnel. The intranet tunnel uses Computer certificate credentials for the first authentication and User (Kerberos V5) for the second authentication. You can also specify additional authentication with selected server access, peer authentication methods for end-to-end access, and the use of smart cards for additional authorization. Note If you modify the connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you must use Network Shell (Netsh) commands. There are connection security rule settings that cannot be modified with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snapin. If you modify these connection security rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, they will be overwritten with default values, which can result in incompatible connection security rules that prevent DirectAccess connections.

Additional end-to-end peer authentication for selected server access


If you configure selected server access, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules to use Computer certificate or Computer (Kerberos V5) credentials for the first authentication and User (Kerberos V5) credentials for the second authentication to the selected servers.

Peer authentication for end-to-end access


When you manually configure the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules for end-to-end access, you can configure your own methods for the first and second IPsec peer authentication. However, the following are recommended: First authentication: Computer certificate or Computer (Kerberos V5) Second authentication: User (Kerberos V5)

If you modify the connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, Note you must use Network Shell (Netsh) commands. There are connection security rule settings that cannot be modified with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap49

in. If you modify these connection security rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, they will be overwritten with default values, which can result in incompatible connection security rules that prevent DirectAccess connections.

Smart cards for additional authorization


On the Connectivity page of Step 2 in the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you can require the use of smart cards for access to the intranet. When this option is selected, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures the IPsec connection security rule for the intranet tunnel on the DirectAccess server to require tunnel mode authorization with smart cards. Tunnel mode authorization is a new feature of Windows Firewall with Advanced Security for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that allows you to specify that only authorized computers or users can establish an inbound tunnel. To use smart cards with IPsec tunnel mode authorization for the intranet tunnel, you must deploy a public key infrastructure (PKI) with smart cards infrastructure. Because your DirectAccess clients are using smart cards for access to the intranet, you can also use authentication mechanism assurance, a new feature of Windows Server 2008 R2, to control access to resources, such as files, folders, and printers, based on whether the user logged on with a smart card-based certificate. Authentication mechanism assurance requires a domain functional level of Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information, see What's New in AD DS: Authentication Mechanism Assurance (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159947).

Allowing access for users with unusable smart cards


To allow temporary access for users with smart cards that are unusable, do the following: 1. Create an Active Directory security group to contain the user accounts of users who temporarily cannot use their smart cards. 2. For the DirectAccess server Group Policy object, configure global IPsec settings for IPsec tunnel authorization and add the Active Directory security group to the list of authorized users. To grant access to a user that cannot use their smart card, temporarily add their user account to the Active Directory security group. Remove the user account from the group when the smart card is usable.

Prompts for smart card credentials while on the intranet


Due to the timing between intranet detection and the automatic establishment of tunnels to the DirectAccess server, it is possible for users of DirectAccess clients using smart cards to be prompted for smart card credentials when they are directly connected to the intranet. This is a prompt that users can ignore without loss of connectivity. The solutions to this issue are the following: Move the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) routing function to a separate server and then add packet filters to this server that block all User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and AuthIP from the Internet Protocol
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version 6 (IPv6) address prefix of the intranet to the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess servers tunnel endpoint. These filters will drop the tunnel establishment traffic sent by DirectAccess clients while intranet detection is in progress. For an example of moving the ISATAP routing function to another server, see Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers. Add a connection security rule that sends tunnel endpoint traffic to an invalid destination while intranet detection is occurring. For example, use the following Network Shell (netsh) command-line tool command: netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="Corp connectivity to prevent smart card prompt" endpoint1=IntranetIPv6Prefix endpoint2=IntranetIPv6Prefix localtunnelendpoint=InvalidIPv6Address mode=tunnel action=requireinrequireout auth1=computercert auth1ca="CN=NonExistentCA". Both of these solutions prevent the tunnel negotiation with the DirectAccess server during intranet detection when the DirectAccess client is on the intranet. By preventing tunnel negotiation, smart card authorization will never occur and the user will not be prompted for their smart card credentials.

Under the covers: Smart card authorization


Smart card authorization works by enabling tunnel mode authorization on the intranet tunnel connection security rule of the DirectAccess server for a specific Kerberos-based security identifier (SID). For smart card authorization, this is the well-known SID (S-1-5-65-1), which maps to smart card-based logons. This SID is present in a DirectAccess clients Kerberos token and is referred to as This Organization Certificate when configured in the global IPsec tunnel mode authorization settings. When you enable smart card authorization in Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures the global IPsec tunnel mode authorization setting with this SID for the DirectAccess server Group Policy object. To view this configuration in the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in for the DirectAccess server Group Policy object, do the following: 1. Right click Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, and then click Properties. 2. On the IP Settings tab, in IPsec tunnel authorization, click Customize. 3. Click the Users tab. You should see the NT AUTHORITY\This Organization Certificate as an authorized user. Note If you manually configure this setting with the Users tab, you must specify the name LocalComputerName\This Organization Certificate rather than NT AUTHORITY\This Organization Certificate. To perform the equivalent configuration of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard with the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool, use the following commands: netsh advfirewall consec add rule name=Smart card tunnel endpoint1=IntranetIPv6AddressSpace endpoint2=Any localtunnelendpoint=DirectAccessServerIPv6Address remotetunnelendpoint=any

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auth1=Computercert auth1ca=Certificate Auth name certmapping:yes auth2=userkerb applyauthz=yes netsh advfirewall set global ipsec authzusergrp=O:LSD:(A;;CC;;;S-1-5-65-1)

Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The DirectAccess server must be configured with addressing and routing to support the following: Reachability from the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet Reachability from your intranet for IPv4 traffic

If your intranet is connected to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet, reachability from the IPv6 Internet for native IPv6 traffic If your intranet has deployed native IPv6 connectivity, reachability from your intranet for native IPv6 traffic The following sections describe the address and routing configuration of the DirectAccess server to support these reachability requirements.

IPv4 address and routing configuration


For the Internet interface on the DirectAccess server that is connected to the IPv4 Internet, manually configure the following: Two, static, consecutive public IPv4 addresses with the appropriate subnet masks. A default gateway IPv4 address of your Internet firewall or local Internet service provider (ISP) router. A connection-specific Domain Name System (DNS) suffix that is different from your intranet namespace. In most cases, you can use the DNS suffix of your ISP. IPv4 addresses in the ranges 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16 are private IPv4 addresses and cannot be used. The DirectAccess server requires two consecutive public IPv4 addresses so that it can act as a Teredo server and Windows-based Teredo clients can use the DirectAccess server to perform detection of the type of network address translator (NAT) that they are behind. For more information, see Teredo Overview (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=157322). The DirectAccess Management console sorts the public IPv4 addresses assigned to the Important
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not consider the following sets of addresses as consecutive: w.x.y.9 and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.10, w.x.y.9; w.x.y.99 and w.x.y.100, which is sorted as w.x.y.100, w.x.y.99; w.x.y.1, w.x.y.2, and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.1, w.x.y.10, w.x.y.2. Use a different set of consecutive addresses. For intranet interfaces on the DirectAccess server that are connected to your IPv4-based intranet, manually configure the following: An IPv4 intranet address with the appropriate subnet mask. A connection-specific DNS suffix of your intranet namespace.

Important Do not configure a default gateway on any intranet interfaces. To configure the DirectAccess server to reach all the locations on your intranet, do the following: 1. List the IPv4 address spaces for all the locations on your intranet. 2. Use the route add -p or netsh interface ipv4 add route commands to add the IPv4 address spaces as static routes in the IPv4 routing table of the DirectAccess server. Note The DirectAccess server in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=150613) does not need a default route or specific routes for the intranet address space because it is directly connected to a single-subnet simulated Internet and a singlesubnet simulated intranet.

IPv6 address and routing configuration


For the Internet interface on the DirectAccess server connected to the IPv6 Internet, you can use the autoconfigured address configuration provided by your ISP. Use the route print command to ensure that a default IPv6 route pointing to the ISP router exists in the IPv6 routing table. Additionally, you should manually configure a connection-specific DNS suffix that is different from your intranet namespace on the Internet interface. In most cases, you can use the DNS suffix of your ISP. Next, determine the following: If your ISP and your intranet routers are using default router preferences as described in RFC 4191. If your ISP is using a higher default router preference than your local intranet routers. If both of these are true, no other configuration for the default route is needed. The higher preference for the ISP router ensures that the active default IPv6 route of the DirectAccess server points to the IPv6 Internet. If you are not using default router preference levels, configure your intranet interfaces with the netsh interface ipv6 set InterfaceIndex ignoredefaultroutes=enabled command. This command ensures that additional default routes pointing to intranet routers will not be added to

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the IPv6 routing table. You can obtain the InterfaceIndex of your intranet interfaces from the display of the netsh interface show interface command. Additionally, you must configure a connection-specific DNS suffix of your intranet namespace on the intranet interface. To configure the DirectAccess server to reach all the IPv6 locations on your intranet, do the following: 1. List the IPv6 address spaces for all the locations on your intranet. 2. Use the netsh interface ipv6 add route command to add the IPv6 address spaces as static routes in the IPv6 routing table of the DirectAccess server. Note The instructions in this section only apply if your organization has deployed native IPv6 connectivity and the DirectAccess server is connected to the IPv6 Internet through an IPv6-capable ISP.

Design Active Directory for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, and selected servers must be members of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain. DirectAccess also uses Active Directory security groups and Group Policy objects (GPOs) to identify sets of computers and the sets of settings that are applied to them. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard uses security groups to identify the following: The computer accounts of DirectAccess clients (required) The computer accounts of application servers for selected server access (optional)

Warning You must not use a built-in security group, such as Domain Computers or Domain Users, for the security group for DirectAccess clients. You must create and populate these groups before running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. For more information, see Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates GPOs for the following:

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DirectAccess clients that contains settings for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) transition technologies, Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules, intranet detection settings, and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules (required). The DirectAccess server that contains settings for IPv6 transition technologies and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules (required). Selected servers that contain settings for Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules (optional). If you remove a computer from a DirectAccess client or selected server security group, the next update of Group Policy will remove the DirectAccess settings from the computer.

Active Directory and the DirectAccess server


The DirectAccess server must be a domain member and cannot be a domain controller. Additionally, an Active Directory domain controller cannot be reachable from the Internet interface of DirectAccess server; the Internet interface cannot be attached to a network that has been assigned the domain profile of Windows Firewall. If any of these conditions exist, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard cannot be run. If a domain controller is reachable from the Internet interface of DirectAccess server, when the Network Location Awareness service assigns the Domain profile to the Internet interface, the connection security rules that allow the DirectAccess server to act as an Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnel endpoint are not active. As a result, DirectAccess clients on the Internet cannot establish the infrastructure and intranet tunnels with the DirectAccess server. In some configurations, you must have an Active Directory domain controller that is on the perimeter network, and therefore reachable from the Internet interface of DirectAccess server. For example, for small offices that use a single router and a single subnet for an intranet in which there is no physical perimeter network, all of your DirectAccess server interfaces can reach the domain controller. In these configurations, you can prevent the DirectAccess server from reaching the domain controller by adding packet filters on the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server that prevent connectivity to the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the perimeter network domain controller. Additionally, because the DirectAccess server is an IPv6 router, if you have a native IPv6 infrastructure, the Internet interface can also reach the domain controllers on the intranet. In this case, add IPv6 packet filters to the Internet interface that prevent connectivity to the intranet domain controllers. For more information, see Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

Active Directory Sites and Services configuration


When you are using Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) and your Windows-based ISATAP hosts obtain an ISATAP-based IPv6 address, they begin to use ISATAPencapsulated traffic to communicate if the destination is also an ISATAP host. Because ISATAP uses a single 64-bit subnet for your entire intranet, your communication goes from a segmented,
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multi-subnet Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) communication model to a flat, single-subnet communication model with IPv6. This can affect the behavior of Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and other applications that rely on your Active Directory Sites and Services configuration. For example, if you used the Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in to configure sites, IPv4-based subnets, and inter-site transports for forwarding of requests to servers within sites, this configuration is not used by ISATAP hosts. To configure Active Directory sites and services for forwarding within sites for ISATAP hosts, you have to configure an IPv6 subnet object equivalent to each IPv4 subnet object, in which the IPv6 address prefix for the subnet expresses the same range of ISATAP host addresses as the IPv4 subnet. For example, for the IPv4 subnet 192.168.99.0/24 and the 64-bit ISATAP address prefix 2002:836b:1:1::/64, the equivalent IPv6 address prefix for the IPv6 subnet object is 2002:836b:1:1:0:5efe:192.168.99.0/120. For an arbitrary IPv4 prefix length (set to 24 in the example), the corresponding IPv6 prefix length is 96 + IPv4PrefixLength. For the IPv6 addresses of DirectAccess clients, you should add the following: An IPv6 subnet for the range 2001:0:WWXX:YYZZ::/64, in which WWXX:YYZZ is the colon-hexadecimal version of the first consecutive public IPv4 address (w.x.y.z) assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. This IPv6 prefix is for Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. If you have a native IPv6 infrastructure, an IPv6 subnet for the range 48bitIntranetPrefix:5555::/64, in which 48-bitIntranetPrefix is the 48-bit native IPv6 prefix that is being used on your intranet. This IPv6 prefix is for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based DirectAccess clients. If you are using a 6to4-based IPv6 prefix on your intranet, an IPv6 subnet for the range 2002:WWXX:YYZZ:2::/64, in which WWXX:YYZZ is the colon-hexadecimal version of the first consecutive public IPv4 address (w.x.y.z) assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. This IPv6 prefix is for IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. A series of 6to4-based IPv6 prefixes that begin with 2002: and represent the regional, public IPv4 address prefixes that are administered by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and regional registries. The 6to4-based prefix for a public IPv4 address prefix w.x.y.z/n is 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::/[16+n], in which WWXX:YYZZ is the colon-hexadecimal version of w.x.y.z. For example, the 7.0.0.0/8 range is administered by American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for North America. The corresponding 6to4-based prefix for this public IPv6 address range is 2002:700::/24. For information about the IPv4 public address space, see IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry (http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml). These IPv6 prefixes are for 6to4-based DirectAccess clients.

DirectAccess and user profiles for remote users


Using roaming user profiles for DirectAccess clients for all of the contents of the user profile folder can result in long logon and logoff times. If you want to store user profiles on network locations for DirectAccess clients, use folder redirection for the folders of the user profile rather than roaming user profiles for the entire user profile.
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For more information, see the Managing Roaming User Data Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=73435).

Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The design of your Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure can impact how you configure DirectAccess. The biggest design aspect of your DNS infrastructure is whether you use split-brain DNS.

Split-brain DNS
Split-brain DNS is the use of the same DNS domain for both Internet and intranet resources. For example, the Contoso Corporation is using split brain DNS; contoso.com is the domain name for intranet resources and Internet resources. Internet users use http://www.contoso.com to access Contosos public Web site and Contoso employees on the Contoso intranet use http://www.contoso.com to access Contosos intranet Web site. A Contoso employee with their laptop that is not a DirectAccess client on the intranet that accesses http://www.contoso.com sees the intranet Contoso Web site. When they take their laptop to the local coffee shop and access that same URL, they will see the public Contoso Web site. When a DirectAccess client is on the Internet, the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) sends DNS name queries for intranet resources to intranet DNS servers. A typical NRPT for DirectAccess will have a rule for the namespace of the organization, such as contoso.com for the Contoso Corporation, with the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of intranet DNS servers. With just this rule in the NRPT, when a user on a DirectAccess client on the Internet attempts to access the uniform resource locator (URL) for their Web site (such as http://www.contoso.com), they will see the intranet version. Because of this rule, they will never see the public version of this URL when they are on the Internet. If you want users on DirectAccess clients to see the public version of this URL when they are on the Internet, you must add the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the URL as an exemption rule to the NRPT of DirectAccess clients. However, if you add this exemption rule, users on DirectAccess clients will never see the intranet version of this URL when they are on the Internet. For split-brain DNS deployments, you must list the FQDNs that are duplicated on the Internet and intranet and decide which resources the DirectAccess client should reach, the intranet version or the public (Internet) version. For each name that corresponds to a resource for which you want
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DirectAccess clients to reach the public version, you must add the corresponding FQDN as an exemption rule to the NRPT for your DirectAccess clients. In a split-brain DNS environment, if you want both versions of the resource to be available, configure your intranet resources with alternate names that are not duplicates of the names that are being used on the Internet and instruct your users to use the alternate name when on the Intranet. For example, configure and use the alternate name www.internal.contoso.com for the intranet name www.contoso.com. In a non-split-brain DNS environment, the Internet namespace is different from the intranet namespace. For example, the Contoso Corporation uses contoso.com on the Internet and corp.contoso.com on the intranet. Because all intranet resources use the corp.contoso.com DNS suffix, the NRPT rule for corp.contoso.com routes all DNS name queries for intranet resources to intranet DNS servers. DNS name queries for names with the contoso.com suffix do not match the corp.contoso.com intranet namespace rule in the NRPT and are sent to Internet DNS servers. With a non-split-brain DNS deployment, because there is no duplication of FQDNs for intranet and Internet resources, there is no additional configuration needed for the NRPT. DirectAccess clients can access both Internet and intranet resources for their organization. Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses contoso.com on the simulated Internet and corp.contoso.com on the simulated intranet.

DNS server requirements for ISATAP


For the intranet DNS servers that are being used by DirectAccess clients, you must use at least one DNS server that runs Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 with the Q958194 hotfix (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159951) installed, or Windows Server 2008 with SP2 or later. The DNS Server service in these versions of Windows support processing DNS name queries on the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) interface. Alternately, you can use a non-Microsoft DNS server that is capable of listening on ISATAP interfaces to perform DNS queries and secure DNS dynamic updates. By default, the DNS Server service in Windows Server 2008 and later blocks name resolution for the name ISATAP through the DNS Global Query Block List. If you are using ISATAP on your intranet, you must remove the ISATAP name from the list for all DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 and later. For more information, see Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

AAAA records for servers that do not perform DNS dynamic update
For servers running IPv6-capable non-Windows operating systems that do not support DNS dynamic update for IPv6 addresses, manually add AAAA records for the names and IPv6 addresses of these servers.
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Local name resolution behavior for DirectAccess clients


If a name cannot be resolved with DNS, the DNS Client service in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 can use local name resolution, with the Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) and NetBIOS over TCP/IP protocols, to resolve the name on the local subnet. Local name resolution is typically needed for peer-to-peer connectivity when the computer is located on private networks, such as single subnet home networks. When the DNS Client service performs local name resolution for intranet server names and the computer is connected to a shared subnet on the Internet, malicious users can capture LLMNR and NetBIOS over TCP/IP messages to determine intranet server names. In Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you configure the local name resolution behavior based on the types of responses received from intranet DNS servers. You have the following options: Use local name resolution only if the internal network DNS servers determined that the name does not exist This option is the most secure because the DirectAccess client will only perform local name resolution for server names that cannot be resolved by intranet DNS servers. If the intranet DNS servers can be reached, the names of intranet servers will be resolved. If the intranet DNS servers cannot be reached or if there are other types of DNS errors, the intranet server names will not be leaked to the subnet through local name resolution. Use local name resolution if the internal network DNS servers determined that the name does not exist or if the internal network DNS servers are not reachable and the DirectAccess client computer is on a private network This option is moderately secure because it allows the use of local name resolution on a private network when the intranet DNS servers are unreachable. Use local name resolution if there is any type of error when attempting to resolve the name using internal network DNS servers This is the least secure option because the names of intranet network servers can be leaked to the local subnet through local name resolution. Choose the option that complies with your security requirements.

NRPT rules
In step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you configure the rules in the NRPT, an internal table used by the DNS Client service to determine where to send DNS name queries. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard automatically creates two rules for DirectAccess clients: A namespace rule for the domain name of the DirectAccess server and the IPv6 addresses corresponding to the intranet DNS servers configured on the DirectAccess server. For example, if the DirectAccess server is a member of the corp.contoso.com domain, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates a namespace rule for the .corp.contoso.com DNS suffix.

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An exemption rule for the FQDN of the network location server. For example, if the network location server URL is https://nls.corp.contoso.com, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates an exemption rule for the FQDN nls.corp.contoso.com. You might need to configure additional NRPT rules in step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard in the following cases: You need to add more namespace rules for the DNS suffixes for your intranet namespace. If the FDQN of your intranet and Internet CRL distribution points are based on your intranet namespace, you must add exemption rules for the FQDNs of your Internet and intranet CRL distribution points. If you have a split-brain DNS environment, you must add exemption rules for the names of resources for which you want DirectAccess clients located on the Internet to access the public (Internet) version, rather than the intranet version. If you are redirecting traffic to an external Web site through your intranet Web proxy servers, the external Web site is only available from the intranet, and the external Web site is using the addresses of your Web proxy servers to permit the inbound requests, then you must add an exemption rule for the FQDN of the external Web site and specify that the rule use your intranet Web proxy server, rather than the IPv6 addresses of intranet DNS servers. For example, the Contoso Corporation is testing an external Web site named test.contoso.com. This name is not resolvable via Internet DNS servers, but Contosos Web proxy server knows how to resolve the name and to direct requests for the Web site to the external Web server. To prevent users who are not on the Contoso intranet from accessing the site, the external Web site only allows requests from the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet address of the Contoso Web proxy. Therefore, intranet users can access the Web site because they are using the Contoso Web proxy but DirectAccess users cannot because they are not using the Contoso Web proxy. By configuring an NRPT exemption rule for test.contoso.com that uses the Contoso Web proxy, Web page requests for test.contoso.com will be routed to the intranet Web proxy server over the IPv4 Internet. You can also configure NRPT rules from Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Configure the NRPT with Group Policy in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Notes The maximum number of rules in the NRPT is 1000. If you are configuring namespace rules and your DNS servers are located outside of the intranet, you should protect the DNS queries to these servers with either Internet Protocol security (IPsec) or DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC). The DirectAccess Setup Wizard in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) creates two rules in the NRPT: a namespace rule for corp.contoso.com with the IPv6 address of the intranet DNS server and an exemption rule for nls.corp.contoso.com. You can view the NRPT rules configured with Group Policy from CLIENT1 by running the netsh namespace show policy

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command at a command prompt. You can view the active NRPT rules with the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command.

DNS server querying behavior for DirectAccess clients


A DirectAccess client with active rules in the NRPT is configured with two sets of DNS servers; the DNS servers in the namespace rules of the NRPT and interface-configured DNS servers. If an FQDN matches a namespace rule, only the DNS servers specified in the namespace rule are queried. Even if the DNS servers in the matching namespace rule are not reachable, the DirectAccess client does not query the interface-configured DNS servers. A DirectAccess client with active rules in the NRPT will only query interface-configured DNS servers in the following cases: The FQDN matches an exemption rule. The FQDN does not match any NRPT rules.

Unqualified, single-label names and DNS search suffixes


Unqualified, single-label names are sometimes used for intranet servers so that you can specify a single name, such as http://paycheck. The DNS Client service combines these names with your DNS suffix search list to create a series of FQDNs to resolve with DNS. By default, your computers domain name is in the DNS suffix search list and additional DNS suffixes can be added. For example, when a user on a computer that is a member of the corp.contoso.com domain types http://paycheck in their Web browser, Windows constructs the name paycheck.corp.contoso.com as the FQDN. Note You can use the Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates/Network/DNS Client/DNS Suffix Search List Group Policy setting to add DNS suffixes to the DNS suffix search lists of domain-joined client computers. To ensure that unqualified, single-label names resolve to the same intranet resources whether DirectAccess clients are connected to the intranet or the Internet, your DNS suffix search list should match the namespace rules in your NRPT. As a general rule, each DNS suffix for an intranet namespace should correspond to a namespace rule in your NRPT. Note If the name of a server on the local subnet is a duplicate of a server name on the intranet, the DirectAccess client will always connect to the intranet resource. For example, if your home network server is named Server1 and there is an intranet server of the same name, you will always connect to the intranet Server1. To connect to the local subnet resource,
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append .local to the name of the server. For example, to connect to the local subnet server named Server1, use the name Server1.local.

External DNS
The DirectAccess Setup wizard configures DirectAccess clients with the IPv4 addresses of the 6to4 relay and the Teredo server with Group Policy settings in Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies. For the URL for the Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS) server (the IP-HTTPS State setting), the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures https://Subject:443/IPHTTPS, in which Subject is the Subject field of the HTTPS certificate that you specify in Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. If the Subject field of the IP-HTTPS certificate is an FQDN, you must ensure that the FQDN is resolvable using Internet DNS servers. If you modify the 6to4 Relay Name or Teredo Server Name Group Policy settings to use FQDNs rather than an IPv4 address, you must ensure that the FQDNs are resolvable using Internet DNS servers. You must also ensure that the FQDNs for your Internet-accessible certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points are resolvable using Internet DNS servers. For example, if the URL http://crl.contoso.com/crld/corp-DC1-CA.crl is in the CRL Distribution Points field of the IP-HTTPS certificate of the DirectAccess server, you must ensure that the FQDN crl.contoso.com is resolvable using Internet DNS servers.

Design Your PKI for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). A DirectAccess deployment needs a public key infrastructure (PKI) to issue certificates to DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, selected servers, and the network location server.

Autoenrollment for computer certificates


The DirectAccess Setup Wizard allows you to configure the full intranet access and selected server access models that by default use certificates for Internet Protocol security (IPsec) peer authentication. The easiest way to get certificates installed on both DirectAccess clients and servers is to configure autoenrollment for computer certificates. For example, autoenrollment at the domain level ensures that all domain members obtain a computer certificate from an enterprise certification authority (CA).

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For more information, see Configure Computer Certificate Autoenrollment in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses autoenrollment of computer certificates to simplify computer certificate enrollment for members of the corp.contoso.com domain.

Manual enrollment for network location server and IP-HTTPS certificates


You also need to manually enroll the following certificates: An additional certificate on the DirectAccess server for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) authentication An additional certificate for the network location server for HTTPS authentication The IP-HTTPS certificate for the DirectAccess server must have the following properties: In the Subject field, either an Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address of the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server or the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) corresponding to the Internet name of the DirectAccess server, which must be resolvable with Internet-based DNS servers. For the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication object identifier (OID). For the CRL Distribution Points field, a certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point that is accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the Internet. The HTTPS certificate for the network location server must have the following properties: In the Subject field, either an Internet Protocol (IP) address of the intranet interface of the network location server or the FQDN of the network location uniform resource locator (URL). For the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication OID. For the CRL Distribution Points field, a CRL distribution point that is accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the intranet. If the DirectAccess server is the network location server, you need an additional certificate for HTTPS authentication. You cannot use the IP-HTTPS certificate for the network location server HTTPS certificate. You should configure both certificates with friendly names that indicate their purpose so that they are easier to select in the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. For more information, see the following topics in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide: Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate

Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses manually enrolled certificates on the network location server and the DirectAccess server.
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Certificate revocation checking and CRL distribution points


The following types of connections require a certificate revocation check: The IP-HTTPS connection between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server. If the certificate revocation check fails, DirectAccess clients cannot make IP-HTTPS-based connections to a DirectAccess server. Therefore, an Internet-based CRL distribution point location must be present in the IP-HTTPS certificate and accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the Internet. The HTTPS-based connection between the DirectAccess client and the network location server. If the certificate revocation check fails, DirectAccess clients cannot successfully access an HTTPS-based URL on the network location server. Therefore, an intranet-based CRL distribution point location must be present in the network location server certificate and be accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the intranet, even when there are DirectAccess rules in the NRPT. The IPsec tunnels between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server. See Enabling strong CRL checking for IPsec authentication in this topic. For both Internet and intranet-based CRLs, the CRL distribution points must be highly available. CRL distribution points can be accessed through Web servers using an HTTP-based URL, such as http://crl.corp.contoso.com/crld/corp-DC1-CA.crl. Note Checking of CRL distribution points based on a universal naming convention (UNC) path, such as \\crl.corp.contoso.com\crld\corp-DC1-CA.crl, is disabled by default in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. For information about how to enable checking of UNCbased CRL distribution points, see the following KnowledgeBase article (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196867). UNC-based CRL distribution points can be used only for intranet CRL locations. For the Internet location of the CRL distribution point, you should always use an HTTP-based URL. DirectAccess clients that use IPHTTPS to send IPv6 packets across the IPv4 Internet check the Internet CRL distribution point. IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients can be located behind proxy servers that do not forward file and printer sharing traffic. For more information, see Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note If your intranet CRL distribution points are only reachable over IPv6, you must configure a Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rule to exempt IPsec protection from the IPv6 address space of your intranet to the IPv6 addresses of your CRL distribution points.
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Note For ease of configuration, the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=150613) uses the URL http://crl.contoso.com/crld/corp-DC1-CA.crl for both Internet and intranet CRL distribution points. For the intranet, an A record in the intranet DNS resolves the name crl.contoso.com to the intranet IPv4 address of DA1, the DirectAccess server. For the Internet, an A record in the Internet DNS resolves the name crl.contoso.com to an Internet IPv4 address of DA1.

Using a commercial CA for the IP-HTTPS certificate


You can also use a certificate issued from a commercial CA for the IP-HTTPS certificate installed on the DirectAccess server. With a commercial CA certificate, you do not have to create a highlyavailable Internet CRL distribution point. This is already set up and maintained by the commercial CA vendor. If you use a commercial CA certificate, you must also ensure that the root CA certificate for the IP-HTTPS certificate is installed in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities folder in the computer certificate store of your DirectAccess clients.

Enabling strong CRL checking for IPsec authentication


By default, the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients uses weak CRL checking when performing certificate-based IPsec peer authentication. With weak CRL checking, certificate revocation checking fails only if the validating computer confirms that the certificate has been revoked in the CRL. Revoking computer certificates is one way of blocking DirectAccess for specific DirectAccess clients. A simpler and preferred method is to disable the computer account in Active Directory. This method immediately prevents DirectAccess connections, such as when a laptop computer is lost or stolen, and does not have the delay associated with propagating CRL updates to CRL distribution points. For an additional level of protection, you can configure strong CRL checking, in which certificate revocation checking fails if the validating computer confirms that the certificate has been revoked or for any error encountered during certificate revocation checking, including the inability to access the CRL distribution point. For more information, see Configure Strong Certificate Revocation Checking for IPsec Authentication in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note If you enable strong CRL checking and the DirectAccess server cannot reach the CRL distribution point, certificate-based IPsec authentication for all DirectAccess connections will fail. If you are using Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess and you enable Note
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connections will fail. Health certificates do not contain CRL distribution points because their lifetime is on the order of hours, instead of years for computer certificates.

Smart cards for additional authorization


To use smart cards with IPsec tunnel mode authorization, you must first have a PKI deployment and a smart card infrastructure. After your smart card deployment has been completed, you enable smart card authorization on the Connectivity page of Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Note You should design your PKI to replicate the entire smart card certificate chain to the current user certificate store in a timely manner. If the PKI is slow in replicating the certificate chain, users will obtain a smart card certificate and leave the intranet, but be unable to use smart card authorization. To correct this condition, they might have to return to the intranet and logon with their smart card credentials to force the PKI to install the entire certificate chain in the local users certificate store.

Using Suite B certificates for DirectAccess


Suite B is a set of cryptographic algorithms defined by the National Security Agency (NSA). You can use Suite B-based certificates for DirectAccess by deploying a PKI that uses Suite B cryptographic algorithms. For information about deploying a Windows-based PKI that supports Suite B and issues Suite B-based certificates, see Suite B PKI in Windows Server 2008 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190434). Important Appendix A of this white paper describes setting the IKEFlags registry value to 0x40 to disable the use of the Authenticating IP (AuthIP). DirectAccess cannot function without AuthIP. Therefore, you must not set this registry value in a DirectAccess deployment. AuthIP in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 supports the use of Diffie Hellman (DH) for key exchange for AuthIP, which you enable with the netsh advfirewall set global mainmode mmforcedh yes command.

Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988).
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You will need Web locations for the following resources: The network location server through a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)based uniform resource locator (URL) (required) An HTTP-based certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point for the HTTPS certificate of the network location server that is accessible on the intranet (optional) The intranet CRL distribution points can also be based on a universal naming convention (UNC) path of a file server. An HTTP-based CRL distribution point for the Internet Protocol over HTTPS (IP-HTTPS) certificate of the DirectAccess server that is accessible on the Internet (required) For more information, see Configure IIS for Network Location in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. In all of these cases, the Web server providing these resources must be highly available. If these resources cannot be reached, the following occurs: If the DirectAccess client on the intranet is unable to reach the HTTPS-based URL of the network location server, a DirectAccess client cannot detect when it is on the intranet and might not be able to access intranet resources. If the DirectAccess client on the intranet is unable to reach the intranet CRL distribution point to perform certificate revocation checking for the network location server, a DirectAccess client cannot detect when it is on the intranet and might not be able to access intranet resources. If the DirectAccess client on the Internet is unable to reach the Internet CRL distribution point to perform certificate revocation checking for the IP-HTTPS certificate, a DirectAccess client cannot use IP-HTTPS. Because IP-HTTPS is the last transition technology that is used for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity to the DirectAccess server, DirectAccess clients will not be able to establish a connection to the DirectAccess server when behind a firewall or Web proxy or behind a network address translator (NAT) when the Teredo client has been disabled. If you configure strong CRL checking on the DirectAccess server and it cannot reach the CRL distribution points in the DirectAccess clients certificate, certificate-based authentication for the IPsec tunnels will fail and DirectAccess clients will be unable to access intranet resources. For Internet Information Services (IIS)-based Web servers, see Planning Redundancy for a Network Location Server and Planning Redundancy for CRL Distribution Points for information about high availability for Web servers. Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses an application server as the network location server and the DirectAccess server as the Internet and intranet CRL distribution point.

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Choose an Internet Traffic Separation Design


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). With Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT), DirectAccess clients by default separate their intranet and Internet traffic in the following way: Domain Name System (DNS) name queries for intranet fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) and all intranet traffic is exchanged over the tunnels created with the DirectAccess server or directly with intranet servers. Intranet traffic from DirectAccess clients is IPv6 traffic. DNS name queries for FQDNs that correspond to exemption rules or do not match the intranet namespace and all traffic to Internet servers is exchanged over the physical interface that is connected to the Internet. Internet traffic from DirectAccess clients is typically Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) traffic. This is the default and recommended operation of DirectAccess. In contrast, some remote access virtual private network (VPN) implementations, including the VPN client in Windows 7, by default send all of their trafficboth intranet and Internetover the remote access VPN connection. Internet-bound traffic is routed by the VPN server to intranet IPv4 Web proxy servers for access to IPv4 Internet resources. It is possible to separate the intranet and Internet traffic for remote access VPN clients using split tunneling, in which you configure the Internet Protocol (IP) routing table on VPN clients so that traffic to intranet locations is sent over the VPN connection and traffic to all other locations is sent using the physical interface connected to the Internet. You can configure DirectAccess clients to send all of their traffic through the tunnels to the DirectAccess server with force tunneling. When force tunneling is configured, DirectAccess clients that detect that they are on the Internet modify their IPv4 default route so that default route IPv4 traffic is not sent. With the exception of local subnet traffic, all traffic sent by the DirectAccess client is IPv6 traffic that goes through tunnels to the DirectAccess server. Enabling force tunneling has the following consequences: DirectAccess clients use only Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) to obtain IPv6 connectivity to the DirectAccess server over the IPv4 Internet. IPHTTPS-based connections have lower performance and higher overhead on the DirectAccess server than 6to4 and Teredo-based connections. The only locations that a DirectAccess client can reach by default with IPv4 traffic are those on its local subnet. All other traffic sent by the applications and services running on the DirectAccess client is IPv6 traffic sent over the DirectAccess connection. Therefore, IPv4-only applications on the DirectAccess client cannot be used to reach Internet resources, except those on the local subnet.

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Connectivity to the IPv4 Internet must be done through servers and devices on the intranet that translate the IPv6 traffic from DirectAccess clients to IPv4 traffic for the IPv4 Internet. If you do not have the appropriate servers or translators, your DirectAccess clients will not have access to IPv4 Internet resources, even though they are directly connected to the IPv4 Internet. To configure force tunneling, you must do the following: Configure IPv4 Internet access for your DirectAccess clients Enable force tunneling on DirectAccess clients Add a special entry in the NRPT on DirectAccess clients Configure your DirectAccess clients to always use the IP-HTTPS transition technology

Configure your Internet firewall filters to allow only inbound and outbound Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) traffic to and from the DirectAccess server The following sections describe these elements of configuration in more detail. For more information about configuring the settings for DirectAccess clients, see Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Notes Due to the infrastructure requirements and reduced performance for accessing IPv4 Internet resources, Microsoft does not recommend the use of force tunneling for DirectAccess. Force tunneling relies on modifying the IPv4 default route in the IPv4 routing table to prevent the DirectAccess client computer from sending traffic directly to IPv4 Internet locations. A user with administrative rights can modify their IPv4 default route to point to their Internet service providers router on the subnet.

Configure IPv4 Internet access


To make IPv4-based Internet resources available to DirectAccess clients that use force tunneling, you can do one of the following: Use a dual protocol (IPv4 and IPv6) proxy server, which can receive IPv6-based requests for Internet resources and translate them to requests for IPv4-based Internet resources. Place an IPv6/IPv4 translator (NAT64) and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway (DNS64) in front of your IPv4-based proxy server. The NAT64/DNS64 will translate IPv6-based proxy requests to IPv4-based requests before they are serviced by your IPv4-based proxy server.

Enable force tunneling


You enable force tunneling on DirectAccess clients with the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connections\Route all traffic through the internal network setting in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients.

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Modify the NRPT


To route DNS name resolution and connection traffic to these servers or devices for translation and forwarding to the IPv4 Internet, you must add a rule to the NRPT for DirectAccess clients that specifies any DNS suffix and the IPv6 address of the DNS64. If you are configuring the NRPT through the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, add a rule for the following: Name suffix is set to . DNS server IPv4 or IPv6 addresses are set to the static IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of the dual-protocol proxy server or DNS64 If you are configuring the NRPT through the Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy Group Policy setting, create a rule with the following: The Any suffix Enabled for DirectAccess

For DNS servers, add the static IPv6 addresses of the dual-protocol proxy server or IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway With this NRPT rule, a DirectAccess client sends DNS name queries that do not match any of the other rules in the NRPT to the IPv6 address of the dual-protocol proxy server or DNS64.

Configure the use of IP-HTTPS


To configure DirectAccess clients so that they always use IP-HTTPS, do the following for the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients: Disable the 6to4 transition technology with the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\6to4 State Group Policy setting. Disable the Teredo transition technology with the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\Teredo State Group Policy setting. Enable the IP-HTTPS transition technology with the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\IP-HTTPS State Group Policy setting.

Modify Internet firewall settings


If you followed the directions in Packet Filters for Your Internet Firewall, you configured your Internet firewall to allow the following traffic for the DirectAccess server: Protocol 41 inbound and outbound for 6to4 traffic User Datagram Protocol (UDP) destination port 3544 inbound and UDP source port 3544 outbound for Teredo traffic Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) destination port 443 inbound and TCP source port 443 outbound for IP-HTTPS traffic

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Because a force tunneling deployment only uses IP-HTTPS traffic, you should remove the following packet filters for the DirectAccess server on your Internet router: Protocol 41 inbound and outbound UDP destination port 3544 inbound and UDP source port 3544 outbound

If your DirectAccess server is directly attached to the Internet, use the following commands at an administrator-level Command Prompt: netsh advfirewall firewall set rule dir=in name=Core Networking Teredo (UDPIn) enable=no This command blocks inbound Teredo traffic. netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name=Protocol 41 (6to4) dir=in action=block profile=public,private protocol=41 This command blocks 6to4 traffic on the Internet interface.

Design Protection for Traffic between DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). DirectAccess clients on the Internet can communicate with each other directly without having to go through the DirectAccess server. For example, two DirectAccess clients on the Internet named DACL1 and DACL2 have public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses and configure themselves as 6to4 hosts with 6to4 addresses. DACL1 and DACL2 register their 6to4 addresses with intranet DNS servers. When DACL1 initiates communication with DACL2 by name, the intranet DNS server responds with the 6to4-based address of DACL2. DACL1 then uses 6to4 tunneling to communicate directly with DACL2. Without data confidentiality, the traffic between DACL1 and DACL2 is sent as clear text. Some applications provide their own data confidentiality and somesuch as Remote Assistance and File and Printer Sharingdo not. To protect the traffic between DirectAccess clients for all applications, do the following: 1. Create a connection security rule with the following properties: Rule Type: Isolation Requirements: Request authentication for inbound and outbound connections Authentication Method: Computer Certificate for the first authentication Profile: Private and Public

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To configure this connection security rule using the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool, you can use the following command: netsh advfirewall consec add rule endpoint1=any endpoint2=any action=requestinrequestout profile=public,private auth1=computercert auth1ca=CAName 2. Create a connection security rule with the following properties: Rule Type: Custom Endpoints: Endpoint 1 address for your intranet IPv6 prefix, Endpoint 2 address for your intranet IPv6 prefix Requirements: No authentication Protocols and Ports: Any Profile: Domain, Private, and Public

3. Create an inbound rule for each application that needs to accept unsolicited inbound connection requests. For example, for Remote Desktop, the inbound rule has the following properties: Rule Type: Port Protocols and Ports: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 3389

Action: Allow the connection if it is secure, Require the connections to be encrypted Profile: Private and Public To configure this Windows Firewall rule for Remote Desktop using Netsh.exe, you can use the following command: netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name=RemoteDesktop profile=public,private program=system action=allow security=authenc protocol=tcp localport=3389 For additional protection, you can require protection for all inbound connections to the DirectAccess client. You can specify this when creating the rule in the following ways: From the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, on the Requirements page, select Require authentication for inbound connections and request authentication for outbound connections instead of Request authentication for inbound and outbound connections. For the Network Shell (Netsh) command, specify the action=requireinrequestout parameter instead of action=requestinrequestout. With this additional protection, outbound connections to other DirectAccess clients is encrypted regardless of the application. Outbound connections to Internet destinations and nonDirectAccess clients is sent as clear text. For more information, see Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

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Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Computers running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2 use corporate connectivity detection to determine whether the computer can access the resources of your intranet. Corporate connectivity detection is separate from network location detection. A DirectAccess client can successfully detect corporate connectivity when it is directly connected to the intranet or when it is roaming on the Internet. Corporate connectivity determination is used for the following: Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain members detect corporate connectivity before initiating updates of Group Policy settings. Network Access Protection (NAP) clients use successful corporate connectivity detection to perform another health check if the NAP client determines that it is unhealthy because it could not reach a NAP health policy server in a previous heath check. DirectAccess clients use corporate connectivity detection to determine when to use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS). If the DirectAccess client cannot access intranet resources using Teredo, it attempts to connect to the DirectAccess server using IP-HTTPS. Corporate connectivity detection relies on the ability to perform the following checks for different purposes, depending on the computers configuration: Resolve a specific intranet fully qualified domain name (FQDN) name to a specific Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address. Determine whether an Internet Protocol security (IPsec) security association (SA) has been established for an IPv6 address that is based on the IPv6 prefix of the intranet. Access a specific intranet Web site. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard automatically configures the following for corporate connectivity detection: The intranet-specific name and IPv6 address and registers the corresponding AAAA record in an intranet Domain Name System (DNS) server. The IPv6 prefix of the intranet. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard does not automatically configure the settings and infrastructure needed for DirectAccess clients to access a specific intranet Web site. This additional configuration is required for branch scenarios in which a Web proxy server is between the DirectAccess client and the intranet resources that it is trying to reach. This additional configuration also aids in diagnosing DirectAccess connections.

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To configure settings and infrastructure needed for DirectAccess clients to access a specific intranet Web site, do the following: 1. Determine a Web site on your intranet that is not accessible from the Internet, is highly available, and is reachable with IPv6. To ensure its ongoing reachability with IPv6, either assign a static IPv6 address if you have a native IPv6 infrastructure or a static Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address if you are using Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP). For example, the Contoso Corporation uses cweb.corp.contoso.com as its central, highly-available intranet Web site. This Web server uses ISATAP and a static IPv4 address. 2. Enable the Computer Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates/Network/Network Connectivity Status Indicator/Corporate Website Probe URL Group Policy setting in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients and configure it for the highly available intranet URL. For example, enable and configure the Corporate Website Probe URL setting with http://cweb.corp.contoso.com. Note If the name of the highly-available intranet Web site changes, you will have to update the Corporate Website Probe URL setting with the new URL. You also need to add the IPv6 address for the infrastructure tunnel endpoint to the Computer Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates/Network/Network Connectivity Status Indicator/Corporate Site Prefix List Group Policy setting in the Group Policy object (GPO) for DirectAccess clients. The IPv6 address for the infrastructure tunnel endpoint is configured in the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToDnsDc in the GPO for DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note If you use the Use local name resolution if the internal network DNS servers determined that the name does not exist or if the internal network DNS servers are not reachable and the DirectAccess client computer is on a private network option for local host name resolution, the Corporate Website Probe URL setting must be specified as a FQDN, rather than an unqualified, single-label name. If you use an unqualified, single-label name, corporate connectivity detection might incorrectly detect that corporate connectivity exists and diagnostics for DirectAccess can be affected.

Choose a DirectAccess and VPN Coexistence Design


This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. Important For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access
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Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Because the migration of remote access virtual private network (VPN) solution to DirectAccess will take time, both of these solutions for remote access connectivity to intranet resources can be used simultaneously for different sets of clients. For example, intranet client computers running Windows Vista or Windows XP can continue to use your remote access VPN solution and computers running Windows 7 can begin to use DirectAccess. If a computer running Windows 7 is both a DirectAccess client and a remote access VPN client, ensure the following: The remote access VPN server is not blocking access to the network location server on the intranet, even when the network access of VPN clients is restricted. When the remote access VPN connection is active, the DirectAccess client should successfully detect that it is located on the intranet, regardless of its VPN-based network access status (restricted or full access). Firewall or connection security rules of the DirectAccess client should not block access to locations needed to remediate the system health of the computer when it has its access restricted as a remote access VPN client. The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the VPN server on the Internet either does not match the intranet namespace or there is a corresponding exemption rule for the FQDN in the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). The same computer acting as a DirectAccess server and a remote access VPN server with Routing and Remote Access is not a supported configuration, except when used with Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG). For more information, see Overview of Forefront UAG (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=160322).

DirectAccess and third-party VPN clients


When deploying DirectAccess with third-party VPN clients, it may be necessary to set the following registry values to enable the seamless coexistence of the two remote access solutions: Some third-party VPN clients do not create connections in the Network Connections folder. This can cause DirectAccess to determine it has no intranet connectivity when the VPN connection is established and connectivity to the intranet exists. This condition occurs when third-party VPN clients register their interfaces by defining them as Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) ENDPOINT types. You can enable coexistence with these types of VPN clients by setting the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\NlaSvc\Parameters\Sho wDomainEndpointInterfaces (REG_DWORD) registry value to 1 on DirectAccess clients. Some third-party VPN clients use a split-tunneling configuration, which allows the VPN client computer to access the Internet directly, without having to send the traffic through the VPN connection to the intranet. Split-tunnel configurations typically leave the Default Gateway setting on the VPN client as either not configured or as all zeros (0.0.0.0) . You can confirm this behavior by establishing a successful VPN connection to your intranet and using the Ipconfig.exe tool at command prompt to display the Default Gateway setting for the VPN connection. By default, the DirectAccess client does not identify these types of configurations.
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To configure DirectAccess clients to detect these types of VPN client configurations and coexist with them, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\NlaSvc\Parameters\Inte rnet\ EnableNoGatewayLocationDetection (REG_DWORD) registry value to 1. For more information about third-party VPN clients that provide their own implementations of Internet Protocol security (IPsec), see Recommendations for Virtual Private Network Client Coexistence with the Internet Protocol Security Implementation in Microsoft Windows (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=163776).

Use the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA)


The DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA) is a free Solution Accelerator download that helps streamline end-user support for DirectAccess. The DCA installs on DirectAccess clients and adds an icon to the notification area of the desktop. With this icon, users can determine their intranet connectivity status. The DCA also provides tools to help users reconnect on their own if problems arise and creates diagnostics to help mobile users provide IT staff with key information. For more information, see Deploying, Managing, and Using the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant. To download the DCA, see Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=181782).

Planning the Placement of a DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The DirectAccess server is a required component of any DirectAccess design. A DirectAccess server must be running Windows Server 2008 R2. See the following topics for more information about DirectAccess server deployment: When to Install a DirectAccess Server Where to Place the DirectAccess Server Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server
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When to Install a DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). All DirectAccess designs described in this guide require that you install at least one DirectAccess server. In some cases, there are more than one DirectAccess server to provide redundancy and increased capacity. For more information, see the following topics: Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server DirectAccess Capacity Planning

Where to Place the DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Because DirectAccess servers provide intranet connectivity to DirectAccess clients on the Internet, DirectAccess servers are installed in your perimeter network, typically between your Internet-facing firewall and your intranet. The following figure shows an example.

The DirectAccess server must be joined to an Active Directory domain, running Windows Server 2008 R2, and have at least two physical network adapters installed. The DirectAccess server must have at least two, consecutive public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses assigned to the interface that is connected to the perimeter network, or, in the absence of an Internet firewall, connected directly to the Internet. Addresses in the ranges 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16 are private IPv4 addresses and cannot be used. The DirectAccess server requires two consecutive public IPv4 addresses so that it can act as a Teredo server and Windows-based Teredo clients can use the DirectAccess server to perform
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detection of the type of network address translator (NAT) that they are behind. For more information, see Teredo Overview (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=157322). Note The DirectAccess Management console sorts the public IPv4 addresses assigned to the Internet adapter alphabetically. Therefore, the DirectAccess Management console does not consider the following sets of addresses as consecutive: w.x.y.9 and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.10, w.x.y.9; w.x.y.99 and w.x.y.100, which is sorted as w.x.y.100, w.x.y.99; w.x.y.1, w.x.y.2, and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.1, w.x.y.10, w.x.y.2. Use a different set of consecutive addresses. On the DirectAccess server, you install the DirectAccess Management Console feature through Server Manager. You use the DirectAccess management console to configure DirectAccess settings for the DirectAccess server and clients and monitor the status of the DirectAccess server. DirectAccess servers should not host any other primary functions; they should be dedicated to DirectAccess.

Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). To provide service redundancy for DirectAccess, use Forefront UAG for scalability, highavailability, and enhanced management for a DirectAccess deployment. For more information, see UAG and DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159955). To provide hardware redundancy, DirectAccess can be configured inside a Hyper-V Failover cluster. The recommended configuration consists of two Hyper-V hosts with failover clustering supporting a single shared DirectAccess server in a virtual machine. The two Hyper-V hosts protect the system from a single node failure for the DirectAccess server. In addition to the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you need the following configuration: The Hyper-V servers must be using identical server hardware. Each Hyper-V server must have at least three physical network adapters to support Internet, intranet, and Failover Clustering connectivity. Network interface card (NIC) teaming is not supported. A fourth network adapter is a requirement if the Hyper-V clustering solution is using iSCSI interfaces.

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The Hyper-V servers are joined to the domain and connected to the appropriate networks. Ensure that the Hyper-V nodes are enabled to support Data Execution Prevention and Processor Virtualization. Make the following Hyper-V configuration settings: To improve overall performance, configure the following in the properties for the virtual machine in Failover Cluster Manager: Do not set a preferred owner. Set Failback to Prevent Failback. If Failback is enabled, unnecessary outages may occur when the DirectAccess VM resource is migrated or recovers from a node failure. To speed up client reconnection in the event of a quick migration or node failure, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\PolicyAgent\ Oakley\NLBSFlags registry value to 1 on the DirectAccess virtual machine for faster idle timeout of IPsec security associations (SAs). With the NLBSFlags registry value set to 1, the total time it takes for IPsec to fail over is two minutes; one minute for the idle time to expire plus one minute for IKE to renegotiate SAs. The Hyper-V nodes do not need this configuration change. With Hyper-V and Failover Clustering the primary failover mechanisms are the following: Live migration There should be no discernable client connectivity outage when the clustered DA server is live migrated. Quick migration With the NLBSFlags registry value set to 1, the maximum client connectivity outage on a quick migration should be less than two minutes. Resource move With the NLBSFlags registry value set to 1, the maximum client connectivity outage on a manual resource move should be less than two minutes. Hyper-V and Failover Clustering also support automatic recovery from a single node failure. When failover occurs a client should be reconnected within two minutes; there is no action needed from the user. If the NLBSFlags registry value is set to 1 and the host is back online in less than two minutes, the maximum client connectivity outage on a mode failure should be less than two minutes.

Planning the Placement of a Network Location Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access
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Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The network location server is a required component of any DirectAccess design. To function as a network location server, a computer must be able to host and service requests for a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL).

Where to Place the Network Location Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The network location server is a critical part of a DirectAccess deployment. If DirectAccess client computers on the intranet cannot successfully locate and access the secure Web page on the network location server, they might not be able to access intranet resources. When DirectAccess clients obtain a physical connection to the intranet or experience a network status change on the intranet (such as an address change when roaming between subnets), they attempt a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) connection to a configured uniform resource locator (URL). If the DirectAccess client can successfully obtain an HTTPS connection to the configured URL, including a revocation check of the Web servers certificate, they determine that they are on the intranet. To ensure that the FQDN of the network location server is reachable for a DirectAccess client with DirectAccess-based rules in the NRPT, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard by default adds the FQDN of the network location server as an exemption rule to the NRPT. When the DirectAccess client attempts to resolve the FQDN of the network location server, the FQDN matches the exemption rule in the NRPT and the DirectAccess client uses interface-configured DNS servers, which are reachable to resolve the name and connect to the network location server.

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Note Because the FQDN of network location URL is added as an exemption rule to the NRPT, the intranet Web server at that FQDN will not be accessible to DirectAccess clients on the Internet. To ensure that DirectAccess clients can correctly detect when they are on the Internet, DirectAccess clients on the Internet must not be able to successfully access the network location URL. You can accomplish this by ensuring that the FQDN cannot be resolved using Internet DNS servers, configuring the Web server to deny connections from Internet-based clients, or by ensuring that the certificate validation process fails when DirectAccess clients are on the Internet. In the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you can specify that the DirectAccess server act as the network location server or you can type the HTTPS-based URL for network location, specifying a network location server that is separate from the DirectAccess server. Using a separate network location server that is a highly available intranet Web server is strongly recommended. Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses a separate application server as the network location server, not the DirectAccess server.

Highly available intranet Web server as the network location server


The recommended configuration for a network location server is a highly available and, depending on the number of DirectAccess clients, high-capacity intranet Web server. The Web server must be able to support HTTPS-based URLs with certificate-based authentication. Internet Information Services 7.0, included with Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008, can be used as a network location server. The content of the HTTPS-based URL is not important, only the DirectAccess clients ability to successfully access the page at the URL. The certificate used by the Web server to act as a network location server has the following requirements: In the Subject field, either an Internet Protocol (IP) address of the intranet interface of the Web server or the FQDN of the network location URL. For the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication object identifier (OID). For the CRL Distribution Points field, a certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point that is accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the intranet. The FQDN in the URL or the universal naming convention (UNC) path of the CRL distribution point location should either match an exemption rule or no rules in the NRPT so that the DirectAccess client can use interface-configured intranet DNS servers to resolve the name. If the DirectAccess client cannot resolve the FQDN in the URL or UNC of the CRL distribution point, access the CRL distribution point, and verify that the network location servers certificate has not been revoked, intranet detection fails.
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For more information, see Install and Configure IIS for a Network Location Server Certificate in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

Authentication and authorization for the network location URL


A DirectAccess client computer performs intranet detection when it starts up on the network, before the user has logged on. The Network Location Awareness service on the DirectAccess client must be able to access the network location URL using the credentials of the computer account. Therefore, you must choose a network location URL that does not require authentication or authorization with user account credentials. If authentication or authorization with user account credentials is required to access the network location URL, the DirectAccess client computer will not successfully detect the intranet, which might impair intranet connectivity.

DirectAccess server as the network location server


If you have to use the DirectAccess server as the network location server, which is highly discouraged, you must do the following: Install the Web server (IIS) server role on the DirectAccess server computer. Obtain an additional certificate to be used for HTTPS connections to the DirectAccess server from DirectAccess clients on the intranet. This additional certificate must be a different certificate than that used for Internet Protocol over HTTPS (IP-HTTPS) connections and have the following properties: In the Subject field, either an IP address of the intranet interface of the DirectAccess server or the FQDN of the network location URL. For the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication OID. For the CRL Distribution Points field, a CRL distribution point that is accessible by DirectAccess clients that are connected to the intranet. To ensure that DirectAccess clients can correctly detect when they are on the Internet, you can configure IIS on the DirectAccess server to deny connections from Internet-based clients with the IP and Domain Restrictions Web server (IIS) role service or ensure that the CRL distribution point location in the certificate being used for network location cannot be accessed from the Internet. For more information, see Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server and Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide.

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Planning Redundancy for a Network Location Server


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). For Internet Information Services (IIS)-based Web servers that are acting as network location servers, you can configure redundancy with Network Load Balancing. For more information, see Overview of the Network Load Balancing Deployment Process (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=159956).

Planning the Placement of CRL Distribution Points


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points are a critical component of the following aspects of DirectAccess: DirectAccess clients use certificate revocation checking to validate the DirectAccess server certificate for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) connections. Without a reachable CRL distribution point on the Internet, all IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess connections will fail. DirectAccess clients use certificate revocation checking to validate the certificate for the HTTPS connection to the network location server. Without a reachable CRL distribution point on the intranet, intranet detection fails, which can impair intranet connectivity for DirectAccess clients.

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Where to Place the CRL Distribution Points


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). You need certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points on both the intranet (for intranet detection) and the Internet (for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol [IPHTTPS] connections).

Intranet location for intranet detection


For intranet detection, you must configure your public key infrastructure (PKI) to publish the CRL in a location that is resolvable and accessible from DirectAccess clients on the intranet. Use either a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that does not match the intranet namespace or add the FQDN in the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) as an exemption rule. The CRL distribution point should be hosted on an intranet Web or file server that provides high availability and, depending on the number of DirectAccess clients, high capacity.

Internet location for IP-HTTPS connections


For IP-HTTPS connections, you must configure your PKI to publish the CRL in a location that is resolvable and accessible from DirectAccess clients on the Internet. Either use an FQDN that does not match the intranet namespace or add the FQDN in the NRPT as an exemption rule. The CRL distribution point should be hosted on an Internet-facing and publically accessible Web or file server that provides high availability and, depending on the number of DirectAccess clients, high capacity. For more information, see Configure Active Directory Certificate Services for CRL Locations and Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Note For ease of configuration, the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=150613) uses the URL http://crl.contoso.com/crld/corp-DC1-CA.crl for both Internet and intranet CRL distribution points. For the intranet, an A record in the intranet DNS resolves the name crl.contoso.com to the intranet IPv4 address of DA1, the DirectAccess server. For the Internet, an A record in the Internet DNS resolves the name crl.contoso.com to an Internet IPv4 address of DA1.

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Planning Redundancy for CRL Distribution Points


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). If the intranet certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point becomes unavailable, intranet detection will fail for DirectAccess clients on the intranet. If the Internet CRL distribution point becomes unavailable, DirectAccess clients on the Internet will be unable to use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based connections to the DirectAccess server. For CRL distribution point redundancy, you can do the following: For a single CRL distribution point, you can configure redundancy for Internet Information Services (IIS)-based Web servers or Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008based file servers with Network Load Balancing. For more information, see Overview of the Network Load Balancing Deployment Process (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=159956). You can also configure multiple CRL distribution points on different Web or file servers on your intranet or the Internet.

Planning DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP)


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Network Access Protection (NAP) for DirectAccess connections is use of a health certificate for the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) peer authentication of the intranet tunnel. A health certificate is a certificate with the System Health object identifier (OID). A NAP client can only obtain a health certificate from a Health Registration Authority (HRA) if it complies with system health requirements as configured on a NAP health policy server. Using NAP for enforcement of system health for DirectAccess connections requires the deployment of the IPsec enforcement method, which includes the following elements:
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NAP health policy servers HRAs on the intranet NAP certification authorities (CAs) Remediation servers NAP client settings

For information about how to deploy IPsec enforcement, see IPsec Enforcement Design. In your deployment of IPsec enforcement, on the DirectAccess server, you need to install an IPsec exemption certificate. For more information about the DirectAccess with NAP solution, see DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP). Note To prevent timing problems that might occur when obtaining Kerberos authentication and accessing the Web location on the intranet HRA, you can configure Internet Information Services (IIS) on the HRA to use NTLM authentication with the %windir %\system32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe set config -section:system.webServer/security/authentication/windowsAuthentication /-providers.[value='Negotiate'] command.

Configuration changes for the infrastructure tunnel


To allow DirectAccess clients the ability to obtain a health certificate from an HRA on the intranet and to remediate their noncompliant system health, you must make the following configuration changes: For the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients, add the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of your intranet HRAs and remediation servers to the set of accessible endpoints in the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc connection security rule. For the GPO for DirectAccess servers, add the IPv6 addresses of your intranet HRAs and remediation servers to the set of accessible endpoints in the DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToDnsDc connection security rule. If you are using Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) for intranet IPv6 connectivity, you must assign static Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses to your HRAs and remediation servers. If you are using native IPv6 connectivity, you must assign static IPv6 addresses to your HRAs and remediation servers. Note If you modify the connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you must use Network Shell (Netsh) commands. There are connection security rule settings that cannot be modified with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snapin. If you modify these connection security rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced
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Security snap-in, they will be overwritten with default values, which can result in incompatible connection security rules that prevent DirectAccess connections.

Configuration changes for the intranet tunnel


After you have confirmed that health certificates are being obtained by compliant NAP clients, you must choose the NAP enforcement mode for your DirectAccess clients: In reporting mode, DirectAccess clients will be able to perform peer authentication for the intranet tunnel on the DirectAccess server even when they are not compliant with system health requirements. Users on noncompliant DirectAccess clients receive no notification that they are not compliant. In deferred enforcement mode, DirectAccess clients will be able to perform peer authentication for the intranet tunnel on the DirectAccess server even when they are not compliant with system health requirements. However, users on noncompliant DirectAccess clients receive a notification that they are not compliant and a date by which they will no longer be able to connect if they are still noncompliant. In full enforcement mode, DirectAccess clients will not be able to perform peer authentication for the intranet tunnel when they are not compliant with system health requirements. Users on noncompliant DirectAccess clients will receive a notification that they are not compliant. For reporting mode and deferred enforcement mode, there are no changes that need to be made to the settings of the DirectAccess server Group Policy object for the intranet tunnel. For full enforcement mode, you must require health certificates for the Computer certificate authentication method and enable authorization for IPsec tunneling in the DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToCorp connection security rule. For more information, see Checklist: Configuring Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess and Configure DirectAccess Connection Security Rules for NAP in the DirectAccess Deployment Guide. Notes If you modify the connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you must use Network Shell (Netsh) commands. There are connection security rule settings that cannot be modified with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snapin. If you modify these connection security rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, they will be overwritten with default values, which can result in incompatible connection security rules that prevent DirectAccess connections. You can demonstrate NAP functionality for DirectAccess with the DirectAccess with NAP test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=186697).

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Planning DirectAccess with an Existing Server and Domain Isolation Deployment


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Server and Domain Isolation (SDI) allows administrators to dynamically segment their Windows environment into more secure and isolated logical networks using Internet Protocol security (IPsec) without costly changes to their network infrastructure or applications. This creates an additional layer of policy-driven protection, helps better protect against costly network attacks, and helps prevent unauthorized access to trusted networked resources, achieve regulatory compliance, and reduce operational costs. For more information, see Server and Domain Isolation (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=95395). Both DirectAccess and SDI use a set of Windows Firewall with Advanced Security connection security rules in Group Policy objects (GPOs) to determine when and how to protect intranet traffic. You should perform a careful analysis of your existing SDI global IPsec settings and connection security rules and the global IPsec settings and rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to determine whether they are compatible. A mismatch in global IPsec or connection security rule settings between DirectAccess and SDI can cause an IPsec negotiation failure and a lack of connectivity when a DirectAccess client attempts to access an intranet resource protected with SDI. For example, you need to ensure that the global main mode IPsec settings of your DirectAccess clients match the global main mode IPsec settings of your SDI deployment. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard will configure default global main mode IPsec settings for DirectAccess clients to match those of the default global main mode IPsec settings for Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. If you have changed the global main mode IPsec settings for your SDI deployment from their default values, you need to configure the global main mode IPsec settings of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to match them. Additional design considerations for deploying DirectAccess in an existing SDI environment are the following: To allow for Teredo client discovery, you should exempt Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) from IPsec protection in your SDI deployment. If you are only using SDI for data integrity, you must use Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)-NULL, rather than Authentication Header (AH). If you are using AH, you should reconfigure your SDI deployment to use ESP-NULL before deploying DirectAccess.

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Planning DirectAccess with Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) can be installed on a DirectAccess server to provide an additional layer of protection and for additional Forefront TMG features, such as a full Internet Protocol version 4 (IPV4) firewall and secure Web publishing for computers that are not DirectAccess clients. Forefront TMG integrates with the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) Denial of Service Protection (DoSP) component of DirectAccess to ensure that only IPsec-protected traffic is allowed to pass through. For this reason, you must configure DirectAccess before installing Forefront TMG. Forefront TMG also allows Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic through by default, which is required to support Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Forefront Threat Management Gateway and DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=169278).

DirectAccess Capacity Planning


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). To design a scalable DirectAccess infrastructure, you must analyze the elements of a DirectAccess deployment and develop an implementation plan that considers several factors, including: Performance. Which types of resources are most used by each server role in your DirectAccess deployment? How will you monitor performance? Roles. Do servers in your DirectAccess deployment perform multiple functions? How does this affect performance? Availability. Do you require 100 percent availability for all server roles in your deployment? Access profile. When and where does your network experience peak activity? Is the activity consistent or does it change over time?
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See the following topics for additional information: Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers Capacity Planning for Network Location Servers Capacity Planning for CRL Distribution Points Planning for Multi-site DirectAccess

Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Capacity planning for DirectAccess servers can be done in the following ways: Move the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway function to a separate server that has IPsec offload hardware Use DirectAccess with Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG)

Increasing the number of concurrent Teredo clients


By default, the DirectAccess server can support 128 concurrent Teredo-based DirectAccess clients based on the default maximum number of entries in the neighbor cache. To increase the number of entries allowed in the neighbor cache, run the netsh interface ipv6 set global neighborcachelimit=Maximum command, in which Maximum is the maximum number of expected concurrent Teredo-based DirectAccess clients.

Moving the IPsec gateway function to a separate server


The DirectAccess server as configured by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard has the following functions: Teredo server and relay 6to4 relay Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) server Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) router Native Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) router IPsec gateway
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It is possible to move these functions to other computers. One configuration that supports scalability for many DirectAccess connections is to move the IPsec gateway and ISATAP router functions to another computer with IPsec offload hardware, which can handle the processorintensive cryptographic operations and support many IPsec tunnels. The following figure shows an example.

In this example, Server 1 provides the 6to4 relay, Teredo server, and IP-HTTPS server functions and Server 2 provides ISATAP router and IPsec gateway functions. DirectAccess clients use Server 1 to tunnel traffic across the IPv4 Internet and establish the infrastructure and intranet IPsec tunnels with Server 2. Intranet computers forward traffic to DirectAccess clients to Server 2. The requirements of this configuration are the following: Both Server 1 and Server 2 must have two physical interfaces, one classified as a public interface and one classified as a domain interface. Server 1 has its public interface on the Internet. The subnet for the link between the Server 1 and Server 2, the intra-server subnet, must use native IPv6 addressing. You cannot use 6to4 or ISATAP tunneling on this link. You must pick a unique 64-bit prefix for your intranet and configure static IPv6 addresses for each interface on this subnet. You must configure a default IPv6 route (::/0) on Server 2 that points to Server 1s interface on the intra-server subnet. Because Server 2 computer is a native IPv6 router, you must configure outbound firewall rules on the interface on the intra-server subnet to prevent reachability to intranet domain controllers. The tunnel endpoints in the Group Policy objects for the DirectAccess clients and server must specify the native IPv6 address of Server 2s interface on the intra-server subnet. With this configuration, Server 2 acts as the IPsec intranet and infrastructure tunnel endpoint, providing decryption services for packets from DirectAccess clients and encryption services for packets to DirectAccess clients. The following figure shows an example of the traffic between DirectAccess clients and intranet servers for the full intranet access model.

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The traffic over the Internet between the DirectAccess client and Server 2 is encrypted through the intranet tunnel. The traffic over the intranet between Server 2 and intranet servers is clear text. The recommended method to deploy this configuration is the following: 1. While configured with two consecutive public IPv4 addresses, complete the DirectAccess Setup Wizard on Server 2. 2. Set up the intra-server subnet and the static IPv6 addressing of Server 1. Reconfigure Server 2 with the appropriate IPv4 addresses for the intra-server subnet and remove the two consecutive public IPv4 addresses. Configure Server 1 with the two consecutive public IPv4 addresses on the Internet interface. 3. Configure Server 1 as a default advertising router for the intra-server subnet, and a 6to4 relay, Teredo server and relay, and IP-HTTPS server on the Internet. 4. Disable the 6to4 relay, Teredo server and relay, and IP-HTTPS server functionality on Server 2. 5. Configure Group Policy settings for the new IPsec tunnel endpoint on Server 2. For deployment instructions to move the IPsec gateway function to a separate server, see Checklist: Moving the IPsec Gateway to Another Server.

Using DirectAccess with UAG


You can expand the capacity of a single Forefront UAG DirectAccess server deployment by creating a load-balanced Forefront UAG array that provides high availability and scalability. For more information, see Configuring NLB for a Forefront UAG DirectAccess array (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=160075).

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Capacity Planning for Network Location Servers


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The network location function for DirectAccess can be placed on an intranet Web server or the DirectAccess server. Microsoft highly recommends placing the network location function on a separate intranet Web server. You must plan the capacity of the network location server so that it can handle the DirectAccess clients on your intranet performing intranet detection. To provide capacity for an Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0-based Web server, including the DirectAccess server, see the documentation for the Web Server (IIS) role on Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 for recommendations on scaling IIS capacity.

Capacity Planning for CRL Distribution Points


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points on the Internet for the Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) certificate and on the intranet for the network location certificate can be located on Web or file servers. You must plan for the capacity of CRL distribution points so that your Internet and intranet-connected DirectAccess clients can perform certificate revocation checking for the IP-HTTPS connection and for network location detection. For an Internet Information Services (IIS)-based Web server or a Windows-based file server, including the DirectAccess server, see the documentation for the Web Server (IIS) and File Services roles on Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 for recommendations on scaling capacity.

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Planning for Multi-site DirectAccess


DirectAccess servers can be installed in multiple sites of an organization to increase capacity and provide more efficient routing when accessing site-specific intranet resources. Setting up multisite DirectAccess requires careful design and planning so that the following goals are met: A DirectAccess client can connect to the DirectAccess server of any site and can access the intranet resources in that site. A DirectAccess client can be managed by a management server of any site. A DirectAccess client can travel to any site and determine that it is connected to the intranet. Note You can also deploy multi-site DirectAccess with geo-locator services such as Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB). This topic does not describe planning for multi-site DirectAccess in conjunction with a geo-locator service. Additional information about using geo-locator services for multi-site DirectAccess will be added to this topic when it becomes available. The following figure shows an example of DirectAccess deployed in two sites of the Contoso Corporation.

Example of a DirectAccess multi-site deployment Site 1 is the Contoso Corporations main office in the United States, corresponding to the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain and Domain Name System (DNS) namespace

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usa.corp.contoso.com. Site 2 is the Contoso Corporations main office in Europe, corresponding to the AD DS domain and DNS namespace europe.corp.contoso.com. DirectAccess Client 1 is a member of the usa.corp.contoso.com domain. When on the Internet, DirectAccess Client 1 connects to the DirectAccess server for the site containing the resources it needs to access. To access a resource in Site 1, the DirectAccess client creates infrastructure and intranet tunnels to DirectAccess Server 1. To access a resource in Site 2, the DirectAccess client creates separate infrastructure and intranet tunnels to DirectAccess Server 2. The following figure shows an example of the infrastructure and intranet tunnels created by DirectAccess Client 1 to reach resources in Site 1 and Site 2.

Example of the tunnels created by DirectAccess Client 1 to access the resources of different sites DirectAccess Client 1 can be managed by the management servers in Site 1 or Site 2. The following sections describe the design and planning of multi-site DirectAccess for different elements of DirectAccess and intranet infrastructure.

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IPv6 connectivity for multi-site DirectAccess


In a single-site DirectAccess deployment, a DirectAccess server acts as a default Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) router for an organization. Default route traffic that is traveling out of the site destined for DirectAccess clients on the Internet must go through the DirectAccess server. In a multi-site DirectAccess deployment, DirectAccess servers still act as default routers for a site to facilitate traffic to Internet destinations. However, additional routing support must be configured so that IPv6 traffic between computers directly attached to the intranet in different sites does not flow through the DirectAccess servers. Inter-site IPv6 traffic between intranet computers must flow through intranet IPv6 routers if you have native IPv6 connectivity or Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) site border routers if you have ISATAP-based connectivity.

Native IPv6 connectivity


For native IPv6 connectivity, your intranet should support the following: Reachability between all IPv6 subnets of your organization Default route traffic destined for the Internet for each site flows through the sites DirectAccess server

ISATAP connectivity
Because most organizations do not have native IPv6 connectivity on their intranets, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard can automatically configure the DirectAccess server as an ISATAP router, deploying ISATAP-based IPv6 connectivity on your intranet. For information about Active Directory Sites and Services configuration for ISATAP-based intranets, see the Active Directory Sites and Services configuration section of Design Active Directory for DirectAccess. With a single-site DirectAccess deployment, the single DirectAccess server acting as the ISATAP router for the site achieves the goals of providing IPv6 reachability throughout the intranet and default route traffic flows through the DirectAccess server. For a multi-site DirectAccess deployment using only ISATAP-based IPv6 connectivity, you must also deploy ISATAP site border routers. When you deploy DirectAccess servers in multiple sites, by default there is ISATAP-based IPv6 connectivity within each site and the default route traffic flows through the sites DirectAccess server. Without ISATAP border routers, the inter-site traffic follows the default route path and flows to the DirectAccess server, which can then use 6to4 encapsulation to forward the traffic over the Internet to the DirectAccess server of the destination site. Because there are no connection security rules for inter-site traffic, by default the DirectAccess server can send the traffic as clear text across the Internet. If you deploy ISATAP border routers, ISATAP hosts have additional routes for intranet sites and forward inter-site traffic to the ISATAP border routers. The ISATAP site border routers have a different role than the DirectAccess server that is acting as a default router for each site. The DirectAccess server configures each ISATAP host within its site with the 64-bit IPv6 prefix of the ISATAP subnet for the site and a default route that points to the DirectAccess server. An ISATAP border router advertises the following routes to ISATAP hosts within its site:
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The 64-bit prefix of the site

This provides fault tolerance for ISATAP hosts to configure their ISATAP address in case they do not receive the router advertisement from the DirectAccess server. The 64-bit prefixes of the other sites that are reachable through the ISATAP border router This provides reachability to the other sites. ISATAP hosts perform router discovery with all ISATAP routers within their sites (the DirectAccess server and the ISATAP border routers), resulting in the routes needed to reach the following: All the IPv6 destinations within its own site through the sites 64-bit prefix route, as received from the DirectAccess server and the ISATAP border routers All the IPv6 destinations within the other sites in the organization through site-specific 64bit prefix routes, as received from the ISATAP border routers DirectAccess clients anywhere on the Internet through the default route, as received from the DirectAccess server If your ISATAP border routers have multiple physical interfaces and your intranet backbone is IPv6-capable, attach an interface of the ISATAP border router to the backbone and configure the appropriate routes to advertise over the ISATAP border routers ISATAP interface. The following figure shows an example.

Example of connecting ISATAP border routers to an IPv6-capable backbone If the intranet backbone is not IPv6-capable or you cannot place physical interfaces of the ISATAP border routers on the backbone, you can tunnel inter-site IPv6 traffic between ISATAP border routers using an IPv6-in-Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) point-to-point tunnel. This simple router-to-router tunnel allows an ISATAP border router to forward the traffic destined to another site directly to the other sites ISATAP border router by encapsulating IPv6 packets with an IPv4
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header. With an IPv6-in-IPv4 point-to-point tunnel, you can set up the ISATAP border router anywhere within the site. The combination of IPv6-in-IPv4 point-to-point tunnels and routes provides inter-site reachability. The following figure shows an example of ISATAP border routers within Site 1 and Site 2 that use an IPv6-in-IPv4 point-to-point tunnel to forward inter-site traffic.

Example of an IPv6-in-IPv4 point-to-point tunnel between ISATAP border routers To provide fault tolerance for inter-site traffic, you can deploy an additional ISATAP border router in each site that has the identical routing configuration as the initial ISATAP border routers, but use their own IPv6-in-IPv4 point-to-point tunnel. The following figure shows an example.

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Example of using multiple ISATAP border routers between sites ISATAP routing can be configured using many modern hardware routers. See the documentation for your router for support and configuration information. A computer running Windows Server 2008 or later can also act as an ISATAP border router.

Active Directory for multi-site DirectAccess


For the configuration of multi-site DirectAccess discussed in this topic, each site is configured for a different AD DS domain with a corresponding DNS suffix. For our example, Site 1 uses the usa.corp.contoso.com AD DS domain and Site 2 uses europe.corp.contoso.com. Other configurations are possible but are beyond the scope of this topic. For information about Active Directory and DirectAccess, see Design Active Directory for DirectAccess.

DNS for multi-site DirectAccess


For the configuration of multi-site DirectAccess discussed in this topic, each site is configured for a different DNS suffix. For our example, Site 1 uses the usa.corp.contoso.com DNS suffix and Site 2 uses europe.corp.contoso.com. Other configurations are possible but are beyond the scope of this topic.

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Intranet DNS records


For a multi-site DirectAccess deployment, you might have to create the following additional DNS records within each site: Address (A) or IPv6 address (AAAA) records for the network location server fully qualified domain name (FQDN) with the addresses of the site-specific network location server A or AAAA records for the intranet certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point FQDN with the addresses of the site-specific Web or file servers that host the CRL files For each ISATAP site boundary router within the site, an A record for the name ISATAP with the IPv4 address of an ISATAP boundary router interface that is attached to the local site You can also create multiple A or AAAA records for the network location server and CRL distribution points in all your sites and deploy GSLB within your intranet to return the A or AAAA record for the network location server and CRL distribution point within each site.

Internet DNS records


For a multi-site DirectAccess deployment, you must create A records for the Internet FQDN of each DirectAccess server and the FQDN of each CRL distribution point server. These records allow the DirectAccess client to resolve the address of the DirectAccess server of the site in which it is a domain member for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS)-based connections and validate the DirectAccess servers Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate. For our example, the following A records are needed: The name da1.contoso.com and the public IPv4 address of DirectAccess Server 1. The name da2.contoso.com and the public IPv4 address of DirectAccess Server 2. The name crl.contoso.com and the public IPv4 address of CRL distribution point server.

NRPT
In a multi-site DirectAccess deployment, DirectAccess clients create infrastructure and intranet tunnels to the DirectAccess server that is connected to the site containing the destination of the traffic. To create the infrastructure tunnel to the DirectAccess server for each site and send DNS query traffic for site-specific resources to site-specific DNS servers, DirectAccess clients must be configured with Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) namespace rules that include the DNS suffixes of all sites. For our example, the DirectAccess client Group Policy objects (GPOs) for both Site 1 and Site 2 must be configured with the following namespace rules: usa.corp.contoso.com suffix with the IPv6 address of a DNS server in Site 1 europe.corp.contoso.com suffix with the IPv6 address of a DNS server in Site 2

You can configure the namespace rules for other sites in step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard or in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy node of the GPO for DirectAccess clients.

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PKI for multi-site DirectAccess


To distribute computer certificates to DirectAccess clients and servers with your public key infrastructure (PKI), enabling computer certificate autoenrollment for the domains in all sites containing a DirectAccess server is recommended. You can also use manual enrollment.

Intranet CRL distribution points


DirectAccess clients use the intranet CRL distribution point to perform certificate revocation checking and validate the SSL certificate of the network location server. The recommended configurations of intranet CRL distributions points are the following: A single CRL path (a uniform resource locator [URL] or universal naming convention [UNC]) with a single, highly-available, organization-wide intranet CRL distribution point server This is the easiest to deploy, but requires certificate revocation checking traffic to cross site boundaries. Intranet DNS records resolve the FQDN in the CRL path to the CRL distribution point server. For our example, the certification authority (CA) publishes its CRL files to a hosting server named crl.corp.contoso.com in Site 1. The issued certificates contain the CRL path http://crl.corp.contoso.com and all of the DirectAccess clients in both sites obtain the CRL files from this server for certificate revocation checking. An intranet DNS record resolves crl.corp.contoso.com to the IP address of the CRL distribution point server. A single CRL path with per-site, highly-available, intranet CRL distribution point servers In this configuration, the CA publishes its CRL files to a specific server and the files are automatically replicated or shared to CRL distribution point servers within each site. DNS records within each site resolve the FQDN in the path to per-site server IP addresses. For our example, the Contoso CA publishes its CRL files to a Web server in Site 1, which automatically replicate to a Web server in Site 2. The issued certificates contain the CRL path http://crl.corp.contoso.com. In Site 1, a DNS record resolves crl.corp.contoso.com to the IP addresses of Web servers in Site 1. In Site 2, a DNS record resolves crl.corp.contoso.com to the IP addresses of Web servers in Site 2. DirectAccess clients and servers obtain CRL files from the CRL distribution point servers within their site. Per-site CRL path with per-site, highly-available, intranet CRL distribution point servers This configuration requires a CA for each site with a site-specific CRL path and CRL distribution point server. DNS records within each site resolve the FQDN in the path to a persite server IP address. A DirectAccess client on the intranet that is not connected to its own site must cross site boundaries to obtain CRL files for its own CA. For our example, a CA in Site 1 publishes its CRL files to Web servers in Site 1. The certificates issued by the CA in Site 1 contain the CRL path http://crl_site1.corp.contoso.com. In Site 1, a DNS record resolves crl_site1.corp.contoso.com to the IP addresses of the Web servers in Site 1. The CA in Site 2 publishes its CRL files to Web servers in Site 2. The certificates issued by the CA in Site 2 contain the CRL path http://crl_site2.corp.contoso.com. In Site 2, a DNS record resolves crl_site2.corp.contoso.com to the IP addresses of the Web servers in Site 2.
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Certificate requirements for network location certificates


For the network location server SSL certificate with a single network location URL and organization-wide CRL paths: In the Subject field, the FQDN of the single network location URL In the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication object identifier (OID) In the CRL Distribution Points field, the organization-wide CRL distribution points

For the network location server SSL certificate with a single network location URL and per-site CRL paths: In the Subject field, the FQDN of the single network location URL In the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication OID In the CRL Distribution Points field, the site-specific intranet CRL distribution points

Internet CRL distribution point


DirectAccess clients use the Internet CRL distribution point to perform certificate revocation checking and validate the SSL certificate of the DirectAccess server when using IP-HTTPS-based connections. The combinations of Internet CRL distributions points depend on the CAs that issue the SSL certificates to the DirectAccess servers: A single, highly-available, organization-wide CA and highly-available Internet CRL distribution point servers A single CA publishes the CRL files to Internet-facing CRL distribution point servers and Internet DNS records map the FQDN in the CRL path to Internet-accessible IP addresses. For our example, a single CA issues SSL certificates to both DirectAccess servers and the CRL files are hosted by highly-available Internet-facing Web servers using the CRL path crl.contoso.com. Per-site CAs and multiple Internet CRL distribution point servers Each CA publishes its CRL files to site specific Internet-facing Web servers and Internet DNS records map the FQDN in the CRL paths to Internet-accessible IP addresses. For our example, the CA in Site 1 issues an SSL certificate to DirectAccess Server 1 and the CRL files are hosted by Internet-facing Web servers in Site 1 using the FQDN crl_site1.contoso.com. Internet DNS records resolve crl_site1.contoso.com to the IP addresses of the Internet-facing Web servers for Site 1. The CA in Site 2 issues an SSL certificate to DirectAccess Server 2 and the CRL files are hosted by Internet-facing Web servers in Site 2 using the FQDN crl_site2.contoso.com. Internet DNS records resolve crl_site2.contoso.com to the IP addresses of the Internet-facing Web servers for Site 2.

Certificate requirements for IP-HTTPS certificates


For a single CA that issues SSL certificates that are installed on DirectAccess servers for IPHTTPS connections:

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In the Subject field, either an IPv4 address of the Internet interface of the site-specific DirectAccess server or the FQDN (recommended) of the IP-Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) URL In the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication OID In the CRL Distribution Points field, the organization-wide CRL distribution points on the Internet For per-site CAs that issue SSL certificates that are installed on DirectAccess servers for IPHTTPS connections: In the Subject field, either an IPv4 address of the Internet interface of the site-specific DirectAccess server or the FQDN (recommended) of the IP-HTTPS URL In the Enhanced Key Usage field, the Server Authentication OID In the CRL Distribution Points field, the site-specific CRL distribution points on the Internet

Network location servers for multi-site DirectAccess


The following are combinations of deploying network location servers for multi-site DirectAccess: A single organization-wide network location URL with highly-available Web servers located in a single site This is the easiest to deploy, but network location detection traffic for DirectAccess clients that are not connected to the site containing the Web servers must cross site boundaries. Intranet DNS records resolve the FQDN in the network location URL to the Web servers. For our example, Web servers in Site 1 host the URL https://nls.corp.contoso.com and all the DirectAccess clients in Site 1 and Site 2 attempt to access it during network location detection. A single, organization-wide network location URL with per-site, highly-available Web servers All of the DirectAccess clients are configured with the same network location URL but network location detection traffic stays within the site to which the DirectAccess client is attached. DNS records within each site resolve the FQDN in the network location URL to the IP addresses of the Web servers in the site. This is the recommended configuration. For our example, DNS records in Site 1 resolve the name nls.corp.contoso.com to Web servers in Site 1 that host the https://nls.corp.contoso.com URL. DNS records in Site 2 resolve the name nls.corp.contoso.com to Web servers in Site 2 that host the https://nls.corp.contoso.com URL. Note A site-specific network location URL with per-site Web servers is not recommended because it requires either inter-site network location detection traffic or multiple DNS records and Web servers in each site, one for each site-specific URL.
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Force tunneling for multi-site DirectAccess


DirectAccess clients configured for force tunneling send all of their Internet traffic through their DirectAccess server. Force tunneling configuration consists of enabling the Route all traffic through the internal network Group Policy setting and adding an NRPT rule to send DNS queries for all names to either a dual protocol (IPv4 and IPv6) proxy server or an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway in front of your IPv4-based proxy server. Because both of these settings are stored in the Group Policy objects for DirectAccess clients, you can define force tunneling on a per-site basis. For our example, you can configure force tunneling behavior for the DirectAccess clients of Site 1 but not for the DirectAccess clients of Site 2. Additionally, you can configure all of your DirectAccess clients in multiple sites to use a single, common dual protocol proxy server or IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway that are in a specific site. For example, you can configure force tunneling for both Site 1 and Site 2, but DirectAccess clients from both sites use a dual protocol proxy server or IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway that are located in Site 1.

Connection security rules for multi-site DirectAccess


DirectAccess clients use connection security rules to determine when to create the tunnels needed to access intranet resources, for management traffic, end-to-end protection, and for correct intranet behavior. In a single-site DirectAccess deployment, the default set of connection security rules can consist of the following, based on your selections in the DirectAccess Setup Wizard: The intranet tunnel rule Used by the DirectAccess client to access intranet resources. The intranet tunnel rule has the default name DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp. The network location exemption rule Used by the DirectAccess client to exempt Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection when the network location server is only available over IPv6. The network location server exemption rule has the default name DirectAccess Policy-clientToNlaExempt. The management tunnel rule If you specified management servers in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, this rule is used to allow incoming connections from management servers on the intranet. The management tunnel rule for a DirectAccess client GPO of a site has the default name DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt. Selected server transport rule If you specified selected servers in Step 4 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, this rule is used by DirectAccess clients to protect traffic end-to-end between the DirectAccess client and the intranet resource. The selected server transport rule for a DirectAccess client GPO of a site has the default name DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer.
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To ensure that every DirectAccess client from any home site operates properly from the Internet and when connected to any site, DirectAccess clients must be configured with the connection security rules for the DirectAccess client GPOs of all sites. Therefore, for the DirectAccess client GPO of each site, you must add the following connection security rules: The infrastructure tunnel rules for all other sites For each site, you must create rules with different names that have the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc connection security rules of the other sites. For our example, you create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToDnsDc_Site2 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2. You also create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToDnsDc_Site1 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1. The intranet tunnel rules for all other sites For each site, you must create rules with different names that have the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp connection security rules of the other sites. For our example, you create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToCorp_Site2 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2. You also create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToCorp_Site1 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1. The network location server exemption rules for all other sites For each site, you must create rules with different names that have the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-clientToNlaExempt connection security rules of the other sites. For our example, you create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToNlaExempt_Site2 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToNlaExempt connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2. You also create a connection security rule named DirectAccess PolicyClientToNlaExempt_Site1 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToNlaExempt connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1. The management tunnel rules for all other sites For each site, you must create rules with different names that have the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt connection security rules of the other sites. For our example, management servers have been specified for both sites. You create a connection security rule named DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt_Site2 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1 with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2. You also create a connection security rule named DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt_Site1 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2
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with the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1. The selected server transport rules for all other sites For each site, you must create rules with different names that have the settings of the DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer connection security rules of the other sites. For our example, selected servers have been specified for both sites. You create a connection security rule named DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer_Site2 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1 with the settings of the DirectAccess PolicyclientToAppServer connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2. You also create a connection security rule named DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer_Site1 in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 2 with the settings of the DirectAccess PolicyclientToAppServer connection security rule in the DirectAccess client GPO of Site 1.

Additional DirectAccess Resources


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). You can find DirectAccess product information including overviews, Webcasts, step-by-step guides, virtual labs, and announcements at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=160519. Also see DirectAccess on Microsoft TechNet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=151854). For information about how to configure DirectAccess in a test lab, see Step-by-Step Guide: Demonstrate DirectAccess in a Test Lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613). To learn how to troubleshoot DirectAccess issues in the DirectAccess test lab, see Step-by-Step Guide: Troubleshoot DirectAccess in a Test Lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=181160). For design, deployment, and troubleshooting information about the DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP) solution, see DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP).

Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988).
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Review this section for information about DirectAccess server, DirectAccess client, and network infrastructure requirements. Hardware and software requirements for Windows 7-based computers described in this section apply to both x86 (32-bit) and x64 (64-bit) systems.
Element Requirements

DirectAccess client

Operating system: Windows 7 Ultimate or later, Windows 7 Enterprise or later, Windows Server 2008 R2 or later Member of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain Computer certificate for Internet Protocol security (IPsec) authentication

DirectAccess server

Operating system: Windows Server 2008 R2 or later Member of an AD DS domain At least two network adapters that are connected to the Internet and your intranet 2 consecutive, public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses configured on the Internet network adapter (cannot be behind a network address translator [NAT]) Certificates: Computer certificate for IPsec authentication, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS) If acting as a network location server, Internet Information Services (IIS) and an additional SSL certificate installed Note There are no built-in limitations on the number of simultaneous DirectAccess connections that a DirectAccess server can support.

Active Directory

At least one Active Directory domain must be deployed with at least one Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008-based domain controller (an Internet Protocol version 6 [IPv6]-capable domain controller and global catalog). Windows Server 2008 R2 domain or forest functional levels are not required.
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Element

Requirements

Workgroups are not supported. For more information about installing Active Directory, see the AD DS Installation and Removal Step-byStep Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=139657). Group Policy Required for centralized administration and deployment of DirectAccess settings. The DirectAccess Setup wizard creates a set of Group Policy objects and settings for DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, and selected servers. Required to issue computer certificates for authentication, and optionally, health certificates when using Network Access Protection (NAP). External certificates are not required. For more information about setting up a PKI with Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS), see Active Directory Certificate Services (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=106710). At least one running Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 with the Q958194 hotfix (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=159951), Windows Server 2008 SP2 or later, or a thirdparty DNS server that supports DNS message exchanges over the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP).

Public key infrastructure (PKI)

Domain Name System (DNS) server

Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). The DirectAccess solution uses a combination of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) end-to-end connectivity, Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection of intranet traffic, separation of Domain
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Name System (DNS) traffic with the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT), and network location detection that DirectAccess clients use to determine when they are on the intranet. The following sections describe the role that these technologies have in providing DirectAccess clients with transparent access to intranet resources.

IPv6
IPv6 is the new version of the Network layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack that is designed to replace Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), which is in wide use today on intranets and the Internet. IPv6 provides an address space large enough to accommodate end-to-end addressing of nodes on the IPv6 Internet, and with IPv6 transition technologies, of nodes on the IPv4 Internet. DirectAccess uses this capability to provide end-to-end addressing from DirectAccess clients on the IPv4 or IPv6 Internet to computers on an intranet. Because most of the current Internet is IPv4-based and many organizations have not deployed native IPv6 addressing and routing on their intranets, DirectAccess uses IPv6 transition technologies to provide IPv6 connectivity over these IPv4-only networks. Teredo, 6to4, Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS), and the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) are examples of IPv6 transition technologies. These technologies allow you to use IPv6 on the IPv4 Internet and your IPv4-only intranet. IPv6 transition technologies can simplify and reduce the costs of an IPv6 deployment.

IPv6 connectivity across the IPv4 Internet


To send IPv6 packets across the IPv4 Internet, a DirectAccess client can use 6to4, Teredo, or IPHTTPS. If the DirectAccess client has been assigned a public IPv4 address, it will use 6to4. If assigned a private IPv4 address, it will use Teredo. If the DirectAccess client cannot connect to the DirectAccess server with either 6to4 or Teredo, it will use IP-HTTPS.

6to4
6to4, defined in RFC 3056, is an IPv6 transition technology that provides IPv6 connectivity across the IPv4 Internet for hosts or sites that have a public IPv4 address. For more information, see IPv6 Transition Technologies (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=117205).

Teredo
Teredo, defined in RFC 4380, is an IPv6 transition technology that provides IPv6 connectivity across the IPv4 Internet for hosts that are located behind an IPv4 network address translation (NAT) device and are assigned a private IPv4 address. For more information, see Teredo Overview (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=157322).

IP-HTTPS
IP-HTTPS is a new protocol for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that allows hosts behind a Web proxy server or firewall to establish connectivity by tunneling IPv6 packets inside an IPv4-based HTTPS session. HTTPS is used instead of HTTP so that Web proxy servers will
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not attempt to examine the data stream and terminate the connection. IP-HTTPS is typically used only if the client is unable to connect to the DirectAccess server using the other IPv6 connectivity methods or if force tunneling has been configured. For the details of IP-HTTPS, see the IP over HTTPS (IP-HTTPS) Tunneling Protocol Specification (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=157309). Note The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) demonstrates DirectAccess connectivity across a simulated Internet subnet using 6to4, Teredo, and IPHTTPS.

IPv6 connectivity across an IPv4-only intranet


ISATAP, defined in RFC 4214, is an IPv6 transition technology that provides IPv6 connectivity between IPv6/IPv4 hosts across an IPv4-only intranet. ISATAP can be used for DirectAccess to provide IPv6 connectivity to ISATAP hosts across your intranet. For more information, see IPv6 Transition Technologies (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=117205). Notes ISATAP can also be used to provide IPv6 connectivity when the client is at a remote location. ISATAP deployments can either connect to the IPv6 Internet or use 6to4 to transfer IPv6 traffic across the IPv4 Internet. The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses ISATAP across the simulated intranet.

IPsec
IPsec is a framework of open standards for ensuring private, secure communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks through the use of cryptographic security services. IPsec provides aggressive protection against attacks through end-to-end security. The only computers that must know about IPsec protection are the sender and receiver in the communication. IPsec provides the ability to protect communication between workgroups, local area network computers, domain clients and servers, branch offices (which might be physically remote), extranets, and roaming clients. IPsec protection can be used in two different modes: transport mode and tunnel mode. Transport mode is designed to protect an Internet Protocol (IP) packet payload. Tunnel mode is designed to protect an entire IP packet. For more information, see IPsec Protocol Types (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=157319). DirectAccess uses IPsec settings in the form of connection security rules in the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in and the Network Shell (Netsh) command-line tool advfirewall context for peer authentication, data integrity, and data confidentiality (encryption) of
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DirectAccess connections. Multiple rules can be applied to a computer simultaneously, each providing a different function. The result of all of these rules working together is a DirectAccess client that can have protected communications with the DirectAccess server and intranet servers, encrypting traffic sent over the Internet and optionally protecting traffic from end-to-end. Note Windows Server 2003 and earlier versions of Windows Server do not fully support the use of IPsec with IPv6. IPv6-capable resources on servers running Windows Server 2003 will only be available to DirectAccess clients if you use the full intranet access model. IPv4-only resources on servers running Windows Server 2003, including most built-in applications and system services, require an IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway to be available to DirectAccess clients.

Encryption
When a DirectAccess client sends data to the intranet, the traffic is encrypted over the Internet. For the full intranet and selected server access models, multiple connection security rules configured on the DirectAccess client defines tunnel mode IPsec settings for communication between the DirectAccess client and the intranet: The first rule for the infrastructure tunnel requires authentication with a computer certificate and encrypts traffic with IPsec and the Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). This rule provides protected communication with Active Directory domain controllers, DNS servers, and other intranet resources before the user has logged on. The second rule for the intranet tunnel requires authentication with a computer certificate and user-based Kerberos credentials. This rule provides protected communication to intranet resources after the user has logged on. For the end-to-edge and selected server access models, termination of IPsec tunnels between the DirectAccess client and the intranet is done by the IPsec Gateway component on the DirectAccess server. This component can be located on a separate server with an IPsec offload network adapter to increase performance.

Data integrity
Data integrity allows the receiving IPsec peer to cryptographically verify that the packet was not changed in transit. When encrypting data with IPsec, data integrity is also provided. It is possible to specify data integrity without encryption. This might be helpful in order to mitigate the threat of spoofing or man-in-the-middle attacks and allow you to ensure that DirectAccess clients are connecting to their intended servers. Note When sensitive data is being transmitted, IPsec with only data integrity should only be used when some other form of encryption is also implemented. It is possible to have endto-end data integrity using transport mode rules while using end-to-edge encryption for the tunnel mode rules, which is how the selected server access model works.
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DirectAccess accomplishes data integrity through the use of transport and tunnel mode IPsec settings. These settings can be applied to DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, or application servers and provide data integrity by requiring ESP-NULL (recommended) or Authentication Header (AH) for IPsec-protected communications. Some network infrastructure devices or traffic monitoring and inspection solutions might not be able to parse packets with an IPsec ESP or AH header. In this case, you can use authentication with null encapsulation to perform IPsec peer authentication, but no per-packet data integrity.

Separation of DNS traffic


To separate Internet traffic from intranet traffic for DirectAccess, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 include the NRPT, a new feature that allows DNS servers to be defined per DNS namespace, rather than per interface. The NRPT stores a list of rules. Each rule defines a DNS namespace and configuration settings that define the DNS clients behavior for that namespace. When a DirectAccess client is on the Internet, each name query request is compared against the namespace rules stored in the NRPT. If a match is found, the request is processed according to the settings in the NRPT rule. The settings determine which DNS servers to which the request will be sent. If a name query request does not match a namespace listed in the NRPT, it is sent to the DNS servers configured in the TCP/IP settings for the specified network interface. For a remote client, this will typically be the Internet DNS servers as configured through the Internet service provider (ISP). For a DirectAccess client on the intranet, this will typically be the intranet DNS servers as configured through the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Single-label names, such as http://internal, will typically have configured DNS search suffixes appended to the name before they are checked against the NRPT. If no DNS search suffixes are configured and the single-label name does not match any other single-label name rules in the NRPT, the request will be sent to the DNS servers specified in the clients TCP/IP settings. Namespaces, such as .internal.contoso.com, are added to the NRPT followed by the IPv6 addresses of the DNS servers to which requests matching that namespace should be directed. If an IP address is entered for the DNS server, then all DNS requests will be sent directly to the DNS server over the DirectAccess connection. There is no need to specify any additional security for this configuration. However, if a name is specified for the DNS server (such as dns.contoso.com) in the NRPT, then that name must be publicly resolvable when the client queries the DNS servers specified in its TCP/IP settings. To prevent an attacker from hijacking this external name query request and injecting a malicious reply, enabling IPsec protection for the DNS message exchanges is strongly recommended in this configuration. The NRPT allows DirectAccess clients to use intranet DNS servers for name resolution (dedicated DNS servers are not required). DirectAccess is designed to prevent the exposure of your intranet namespace to the Internet.

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NRPT exemptions
There are some names that need to be treated differently from all others with regards to name resolution; these names must not be resolved using intranet DNS servers. To ensure that these names are resolved with interface-configured DNS servers, you must add them as NRPT exemptions. If no DNS server addresses are specified in the NRPT rule, the rule is an exemption. If a DNS name matches a rule in the NRPT that does not contain addresses of DNS servers or does not match a rule in the NRPT, the DirectAccess client sends the name query to interface-configured DNS servers. If any of the following servers have a name suffix that matches an NRPT rule for the intranet namespace, that server name must be an NRPT exemption: Network location servers Intranet certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points System health remediation servers

These servers must always be resolved with interface-configured DNS servers. Note The DirectAccess Setup Wizard in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) creates two rules in the NRPT: a namespace rule for corp.contoso.com with the IPv6 address of the intranet DNS server and an exemption rule for nls.corp.contoso.com. You can view the NRPT rules configured with Group Policy from CLIENT1 by running the netsh namespace show policy command at a command prompt. You can view the active NRPT rules with the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command.

Network location detection


DirectAccess clients use network location detection to determine if they are on the intranet by attempting to access a network location server. If the DirectAccess client can successfully access a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) on the network location server, it determines that it is on the intranet and removes the DirectAccess rules from the NRPT.

The network location server


A network location server is an intranet Web server that hosts an HTTPS-based URL. The DirectAccess server can be the network location server but a separate, highly-available Web server is highly recommended. The Web server does not have to be dedicated as a network location server. Because the behavior of the DirectAccess client depends on the response from the network location server, it is critical to ensure that this Web site is highly available and available from each remote branch site. Branch locations may need a separate dedicated network location Web site
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at each branch location to ensure that the Web site remains accessible even in the event of a link failure.

How network location detection works


When a DirectAccess client starts up or experiences a network change event (such as change in link status or a new IP address), it adds the DirectAccess rules to the NRPT. The DirectAccess client then attempts to resolve the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) in the URL for the network location server, which is stored in the Computer Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates/Network/Network Connectivity Status Indicator/Domain Location Determination URL Group Policy setting. Because the NRPT has active DirectAccess rules, this FQDN should either match an exemption rule or no rules in the NRPT so that the DirectAccess client can use normal name resolution and interface-configured DNS servers. After resolving the FQDN, the DirectAccess client attempts to connect to the HTTPS-based URL of the network location server, which includes a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based authentication and verification of the server certificate offered by the network location server. For authenticating the DirectAccess clients access to the URL, use anonymous authentication. The network location server should not require any type of user credentials for authentication or authorization. Certificate verification includes validating the certificate and verifying that it has not been revoked by accessing the CRL location defined in the network location servers SSL certificate. When the DirectAccess client successfully accesses the HTTPS-based URL of the network location server, it determines that it is on the intranet. The DirectAccess client then removes the DirectAccess NRPT rules from the active table and the DirectAccess client uses interface-configured DNS servers to resolve all names. For more information, see Network Location Detection. Notes Just like the URL for the network location server, the FQDN in the URL or the universal naming convention (UNC) path for the CRL distribution point should either match an exemption rule or no rules in the NRPT so that the DirectAccess client can use normal name resolution and interface-configured intranet DNS servers to resolve the name. If the DirectAccess client cannot resolve the FQDN for the CRL distribution point, intranet location detection fails. The DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) uses APP1, a separate application server, as the network location server and the network location URL https://nls.corp.contoso.com. The SSL certificate on APP1 has the CRL distribution point http://crl.contoso.com/crld/corp-DC1-CA.crl, which for ease of configuration is hosted on DA1, the DirectAccess server. To demonstrate network location detection, do the following: 1. Connect CLIENT1 to the Internet subnet. 2. Open a Command Prompt. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh dnsclient show state command. Notice that the Machine Location field states Outside corporate network.
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4. Run the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command. Notice that there are two active NRPT rules: A namespace rule for corp.contoso.com and an exemption rule for nls.corp.contoso.com. 5. Disconnect CLIENT1 from the Internet subnet and connect it to the Corpnet subnet. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh dnsclient show state command. Notice that the Machine Location field states Inside corporate network. 7. Run the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command. Notice that there are now no active NRPT rules.

Appendix C: Documenting Your DirectAccess Design


Important This topic describes design considerations for DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For the design considerations of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Design Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179988). Documenting your DirectAccess design will help you explain the infrastructure and policy decisions and record the results of the deployment phases of the project. You can use the following sections to create a document with your goals and proposed timeline, and you can add to these sections at the end of each phase of your DirectAccess deployment.

Concepts
Provide a brief description of how DirectAccess works or use the following description: DirectAccess gives users the experience of being seamlessly connected to their corporate network (intranet) any time they have Internet access. With DirectAccess, users are able to access intranet resources (such as e-mail servers, shared folders, or intranet Web sites) securely without connecting to a virtual private network (VPN). DirectAccess provides increased productivity for mobile workforce by offering the same connectivity experience both in and outside of the office. DirectAccess is on whenever the user has an Internet connection, giving users access to intranet resources whether they are traveling, at the local coffee shop, or at home. DirectAccess is supported by Windows 7 Ultimate or later, Windows 7 Enterprise or later, and Windows Server 2008 R2 or later.

Goals
List your reasons for deploying DirectAccess and state how your design plan will achieve these goals. Also provide the following:
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Benefits. Describe the pre-deployment state of the network and the benefits you expect to see as a result of the DirectAccess deployment. Requirements. List what is required to achieve your goals. Examples include operating system updates, equipment purchases, training, cross-team collaboration, and project schedules. Progress. Describe your current progress. For more information, see Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals.

Infrastructure design plan


List the names and locations of servers and other devices that will be used in your DirectAccess deployment. Include current and future plans. Provide the following details: IPv6 connectivity. Describe how you deployed Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity across your intranet. Include details on routers, default routing design, and IPv6 Internet connectivity. Servers, devices, and roles. List all servers and devices, including their roles, in your DirectAccess design. Include computers and other devices used for DirectAccess certificate validation and connectivity. Packet filtering. List the packet filters configured on Internet and intranet firewalls, across intranet hosts, and for DirectAccess clients. Capacity management and redundancy. Describe your expectations for capacity management and redundancy in the DirectAccess design. Scaling plan. Describe changes that will be required to support the expansion of the DirectAccess deployment to include additional capacity.

Custom configuration plan


Use this section to document how you had to customize the default configuration of DirectAccess to implement specific requirements on your network. Baseline configuration. List the steps in the DirectAccess Setup Wizard and the options chosen for your initial configuration. NRPT rules. List any additional Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules for intranet namespaces or exemptions that you needed for your deployment. Connection security rules. List any changes made to the default connection security rules in the form of Network Shell (Netsh) commands, including the Group Policy object, the rule name, and the changes made.

Integration strategy
Describe your design for integrating DirectAccess with the following technologies and solutions: VPN. Describe the changes made to your VPN configuration to accommodate DirectAccess detection of the intranet when connected and for third-party VPN clients.

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NAP. Describe the changes to DirectAccess settings and connection security rules for Network Access Protection (NAP) health evaluation and enforcement of DirectAccess connections. Server and domain isolation. Describe changes made to your existing server and domain isolation deployment to accommodate DirectAccess client connectivity to intranet resources.

Staging strategy
Describe how you staged the deployment of DirectAccess in your organization. Include the following information: Staging milestones. List the set of infrastructure and deployment milestones and their requirements. Timeline. Provide details of your proposed timeline to deploy DirectAccess on your intranet. Include your initial timeline and any deviation from that timeline. Staging results. Provide the results for each stage of your DirectAccess deployment. Trends. Describe any trends in connectivity issues encountered.

Lessons learned
Use this section to describe problems that were encountered and solutions that were implemented during your DirectAccess deployment.

DirectAccess Deployment Guide


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). DirectAccess is one of the most anticipated features of the Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems. DirectAccess allows remote users to securely access intranet shares, Web sites, and applications without connecting to a virtual private network (VPN). DirectAccess establishes bi-directional connectivity with a users intranet every time a users DirectAccess-enabled portable computer connects to the Internet, even before the user logs on. Users never have to think about connecting to the intranet, and IT administrators can manage remote computers outside the office, even when the computers are not connected to the VPN. DirectAccess is supported by Windows 7 Enterprise, Windows 7 Ultimate, and Windows Server 2008 R2.

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About this guide


This guide is intended for use by system administrators and system engineers. It provides detailed instructions for deploying a DirectAccess design that has been preselected by you or an infrastructure specialist or system architect in your organization. If your organization has not yet selected a design, see the DirectAccess Design Guide. You can then use this guide to deploy DirectAccess in your production environment. This guide provides steps for deploying the following primary DirectAccess access methods: 1. Full intranet access 2. Selected server access 3. End-to-end access This guide also provides steps for deploying the following additional DirectAccess configurations: 1. DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP) 2. Using Hyper-V to provide redundancy 3. Adding capacity by moving the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway function to another server Use the checklists in Implementing Your DirectAccess Design Plan to determine how best to use the instructions in this guide to deploy your particular design. For information about hardware and software requirements for deploying DirectAccess, see Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements in the DirectAccess Design Guide. This guide, combined with the DirectAccess Design and Troubleshooting Guides, is also available as a Microsoft Word file (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=163662) in the Microsoft Download Center.

Planning Your DirectAccess Deployment


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). After you collect information about your environment and decide on a DirectAccess design by following the guidance in the DirectAccess Design Guide, you can begin to plan the deployment of your organization's DirectAccess design. With the completed DirectAccess design and the information in this topic, you can determine which tasks to perform to deploy DirectAccess in your organization.

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Reviewing your DirectAccess design


If the design team that constructed the original DirectAccess design for your organization is different from the deployment team that will implement the design, make sure that the deployment team reviews all final decisions with the design team. Review the following points regarding your DirectAccess design: Evaluate the design team's strategy to determine the best physical topology for the placement of DirectAccess servers in your corporate network by reviewing the following topics in the DirectAccess Design Guide: Planning the Placement of a DirectAccess Server Planning the Placement of a Network Location Server Planning the Placement of CRL Distribution Points

It is possible that the design team might leave the subject of DirectAccess server placement for the deployment team. The deployment team is then responsible for documenting and implementing the physical topology of DirectAccess and dependent servers. The deployment team can review the preceding topics and also the DirectAccess Capacity Planning and Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements topics in the DirectAccess Design Guide to help determine the number of servers and the hardware requirements for the organization. Ensure that members of the deployment team understand the reasons the selected DirectAccess design is being deployed and how client and server computers will be affected. Ensure that members of the deployment team also understand the stages of the DirectAccess deployment and what decisions govern when to advance from one deployment stage to the next. For more information, see Planning a DirectAccess Deployment Strategy. After the design teams and deployment teams agree on these issues, they can proceed with the deployment of the DirectAccess design. For more information, see Implementing Your DirectAccess Design Plan.

Reviewing DirectAccess concepts


For more information about how DirectAccess works and how to set up DirectAccess in a test lab, see the following resources: DirectAccess Design Guide Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts

Test Lab Guide: Demonstrate DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkID=150613) DirectAccess overviews, Webcasts, and other resources are available at the DirectAccess Web site (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=160519)

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Implementing Your DirectAccess Design Plan


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). Consider the following factors before you implement your design plan: Staging strategy You can also use small-scale pilot or lab deployments to become familiar with DirectAccess processes, update your infrastructure, and refine your criteria for compliance. For more information about the phases of a DirectAccess deployment, see Checklist: Staging a DirectAccess Deployment. Server placement A DirectAccess server infrastructure includes DirectAccess servers, network location servers, and CRL distribution points. For more information about planning placement, load balancing, and redundancy for these servers, see the DirectAccess Design Guide. Documenting your DirectAccess deployment Documenting your DirectAccess deployment helps you to set clear goals and record whether these goals are met. For more information, see Appendix C: Documenting Your DirectAccess Design.

How to implement your DirectAccess design using this guide


The next step in implementing your design is to determine in what order each of the deployment tasks must be performed. This guide uses checklists to help you walk through the various infrastructure and server requirements, configuration of a specific access model, and then more advanced optional configurations. The following illustration shows the order in which checklists for a specific DirectAccess access model must be followed.

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Use the following checklist to become familiar with the options for staging a DirectAccess deployment in your organization: Checklist: Staging a DirectAccess Deployment Use the following checklist to become familiar with the deployment tasks to prepare your infrastructure for DirectAccess: Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess Use the following checklist to become familiar with preparing your DirectAccess server prior to configuring the DirectAccess feature for your organization's DirectAccess access model: Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server Use the following checklists to become familiar with the deployment tasks when implementing your organization's access model: Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-to-End Access

Use the following checklists to become familiar with the deployment tasks for implementing optional DirectAccess configuration options: Checklist: Implementing a Redundant DirectAccess Design
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Checklist: Configuring Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess Checklist: Moving the IPsec Gateway to Another Server

Checklist: Staging a DirectAccess Deployment


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about staging your DirectAccess deployment. Perform these tasks after you have completed lab testing of DirectAccess. For instructions to configure DirectAccess in a test lab, see Test Lab Guide: Demonstrate DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613). Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Staging a DirectAccess deployment
Task Reference

Identify and prioritize goals; decide on an access model; identify pilot computers; document deployment decisions and processes.

Identifying Your DirectAccess Deployment Goals Choose an Access Model Appendix C: Documenting Your DirectAccess Design

Implement a DirectAccess pilot Implementing Your deployment; start with a single DirectAccess Design Plan DirectAccess server and expand the number of DirectAccess clients until you have fully deployed DirectAccess for the scope of your pilot. Scale out; implement redundancy as needed; reevaluate goals and assess DirectAccess Capacity Planning

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Task

Reference

benefits.

Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server

Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to help you prepare your network and security infrastructure for a DirectAccess deployment. It also contains links to procedures that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Preparing your infrastructure for DirectAccess
Task Reference

Review important concepts for DirectAccess. Review the client, server, and network infrastructure requirements for DirectAccess. Create Active Directory security groups for DirectAccess clients (required) and selected servers (optional) and add members. Configure packet filtering on Internet and intranet firewalls.

Appendix B: Reviewing Key DirectAccess Concepts Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory

Packet Filters for Your Internet Firewall Packet Filters for Your Intranet Firewall
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Task

Reference

Configure packet filtering for Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic. Configure packet filtering for remote management computers.

Configure Packet Filters to Allow ICMP Traffic Configure Settings to Confine ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet Design for Remote Management Configure Packet Filters to Allow Management Traffic to DirectAccess Clients

Compile a list of additional Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) namespace or exemption rules. Add intranet A records as needed for your network location server and CRL distribution points. Add Internet Domain Name System (DNS) Address (A) records as needed for the DirectAccess server as Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) server and certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points. Configure your DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 to support resolution of the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) name. Configure your public key infrastructure (PKI) for CRL distribution points.

Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess

Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess

Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List

Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates Configure Active Directory Certificate Services for CRL Locations Configure Computer Certificate Autoenrollment
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Configure autoenrollment of computer certificates.

Task

Reference

Modify the permissions on the Web Server certificate template. If needed by your design, configure an Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) uniform resource locator (URL) on your separate network location server.

Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template Configure IIS for Network Location

If needed by your design, install Install and Configure IIS for a a custom SSL certificate on your Network Location Server separate network location server. Certificate

Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server


iImportant This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about preparing the computer that will be the DirectAccess server prior to installing the DirectAccess feature and running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. It also contains links to procedures that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server
Task Reference

Install two network adapters (interfaces) on your DirectAccess server. Connect the internal

See your hardware documentation.

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Task

Reference

network interface to your internal network. From the Network Connections folder, configure your network connections (interfaces) with meaningful names indicating the network to which they are attached, such as Internet and Internal network. Configure your internal network interface with a static Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address configuration. Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server IPv4 General tab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=145843)

Join the DirectAccess Active Directory Domain Services Home server computer to the page on Microsoft Technet appropriate Active (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=127814) Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain. Connect the Internet interface to the Internet. On the Internet interface, configure at least two consecutive, static, public IPv4 addresses that are resolvable and reachable on the Internet. Addresses within the address ranges 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, or 192.168.0.0/16 are not public IPv4 addresses. Configure your Internet and intranet interfaces with different connectionspecific Domain Name System (DNS) suffixes. Configure your intranet interface with the DNS Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server IPv4 General tab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=145843)

Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server IPv4 and IPv6 Advanced DNS tab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=145844)

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Task

Reference

suffix for your organization. Configure static routes for your intranet on the DirectAccess server. If a domain controller is reachable from the Internet interface, configure packet filters to prevent access. Design Addressing and Routing for the DirectAccess Server Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers

Verify that the View Certificates DirectAccess server has a (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=145845) computer certificate installed with the computer authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). Install a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) authentication. If the DirectAccess server is acting as the network location server, install the IIS (Web server) role. If the DirectAccess server is acting as the network location server, install an additional SSL certificate. Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate

Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server

Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server

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Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about deploying DirectAccess in the full intranet access model. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess design for full intranet access
Task Reference

Review important concepts and the example for the DirectAccess full intranet access model. (Optional, but recommended) Demonstrate full intranet access in a test lab. Configure the required infrastructure for DirectAccess. Prepare the DirectAccess server computer for the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Install the DirectAccess feature on the DirectAccess server. Configure the

Full Intranet Access Full Intranet Access Example

DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613)

Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server

Install the DirectAccess Feature

Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard


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Task

Reference

DirectAccess server for the full intranet access method with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Configure the Corporate Website Probe URL and Corporate Site Prefix List Group Policy settings. If needed by your design plan, deploy and configure IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway devices.

for Full Intranet Access

Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources See the IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway device documentation. Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients Connect to the IPv6 Internet

If needed by your design plan, configure force tunneling. If needed by your design plan, configure a connection or routing to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet. If needed by your design plan, configure client authentication and certificate mapping for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) connections. If needed by your design plan, configure connection security rules to protect traffic sent between DirectAccess clients.

Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections

Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients

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Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about deploying DirectAccess in the selected server access model. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess design for selected server access
Task Reference

Review important concepts and the example for the DirectAccess selected server access model.

Selected Server Access Selected Server Access Example

(Optional, but DirectAccess test lab recommended) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) Demonstrate selected with the Selected Server Access extension server access in a test lab. (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=192278) Configure the required infrastructure for DirectAccess. Prepare the DirectAccess server computer for the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Install the DirectAccess feature on the DirectAccess server. Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server

Install the DirectAccess Feature

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Task

Reference

Configure the Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard DirectAccess server for for Selected Server Access the selected server access method with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Configure the Corporate Website Probe URL and Corporate Site Prefix List Group Policy settings. If needed by your design plan, deploy and configure IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway devices. Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources See the IPv6/IPv4 translator and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway device documentation. Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients Connect to the IPv6 Internet

If needed by your design plan, configure force tunneling. If needed by your design plan, configure a connection or routing to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet. If needed by your design plan, configure client authentication and certificate mapping for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) connections. If needed by your design plan, configure connection security rules to protect traffic sent between DirectAccess clients.

Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections

Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients

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Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-to-End Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about deploying DirectAccess in the end-to-end access model. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess design for end-to-end access
Task Reference

Review important concepts and the example for the DirectAccess end-to-end access model. Configure the required infrastructure for DirectAccess. Prepare the DirectAccess server computer for the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Install the DirectAccess feature on the DirectAccess server. Configure the DirectAccess server for the end-to-end access method with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Customize the connection security policies created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for

End-to-End Access End-to-end Access Example

Checklist: Preparing Your Infrastructure for DirectAccess Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server Install the DirectAccess Feature Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for End-to-End Access Configure Connection Security Rules for End-to-end Access
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Task

Reference

end-to-end access. Configure the Corporate Website Probe URL Group Policy setting. Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients Connect to the IPv6 Internet

If needed by your design plan, configure force tunneling. If needed by your design plan, configure a connection or routing to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet. If needed by your design plan, configure client authentication and certificate mapping for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS) connections. If needed by your design plan, configure connection security rules to protect traffic sent between DirectAccess clients.

Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections

Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients

Checklist: Implementing a Redundant DirectAccess Design


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about deploying a redundant design DirectAccess with Hyper-V. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design.

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Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Implementing a redundant DirectAccess design
Task Reference

Review important concepts for using Hyper-V to provide redundancy for DirectAccess. As needed by your design plan, configure DirectAccess for the full intranet, selected server, or end-to-end access model.

Planning Redundancy for a DirectAccess Server Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-toEnd Access

Configure two Hyper-V hosts Planning Redundancy for a with failover clustering DirectAccess Server supporting a single shared DirectAccess server in a virtual machine and modify the Hyper-V configuration for DirectAccess.

Checklist: Configuring Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989).

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This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about deploying Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Configuring NAP with DirectAccess
Task Reference

Review important concepts for using NAP with DirectAccess.

Planning DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP)

(Optional, but DirectAccess with NAP test lab recommended) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=186697) Demonstrate DirectAccess with NAP in a test lab. Deploy NAP with the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) enforcement method. As needed by your NAP design plan, install an IPsec enforcement exemption certificate on the DirectAccess server. As needed by your DirectAccess design plan, configure DirectAccess for the full intranet, selected server, or end-to-end access model. As needed by your design plan, modify the connection security rules for DirectAccess clients and servers. Implementing Your NAP Design Plan Checklist: Implementing an IPsec Enforcement Design Create an IPsec NAP Exemption Group

Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-to-End Access Configure DirectAccess Connection Security Rules for NAP

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Checklist: Moving the IPsec Gateway to Another Server


This checklist includes cross-reference links to important concepts about adding capacity to your DirectAccess deployment by moving the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway function to another server when you are using the full intranet or selected server access models. It also contains links to procedures and other checklists that will help you complete the tasks that are required to implement this design. Note Complete the tasks in this checklist in order. When a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic, a procedure, or to another checklist, return to this topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks in this checklist. Checklist: Moving the IPsec gateway to another server
Task Reference

Review important concepts for moving the IPsec gateway to another server. As needed by your design plan, configure the second server (the IPsec gateway) for the full intranet or selected server access model.

Capacity Planning for DirectAccess Servers Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Full Intranet Access Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for Selected Server Access Configure the Intra-Server Subnet Configure the IPv6 Connectivity Server

Configure both servers on an intra-server subnet to support the dual-server configuration. Configure the IPv6 connectivity server as the 6to4 relay, Teredo server, and Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) server. Configure the IPsec gateway server and the Group Policy settings for the new configuration.

Configure the IPsec Gateway Server

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Procedures Used in this Guide


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The procedures in this section appear in the checklists of this guide. They should be used within the context of the checklists in which they appear. They are presented here in alphabetical order. Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates Configure Active Directory Certificate Services for CRL Locations Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections Configure Computer Certificate Autoenrollment Configure Connection Security Rules for End-to-end Access Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings Configure DirectAccess Connection Security Rules for NAP

Configure Firewall Rules to Prevent Traffic between Proxy Servers and DirectAccess Servers Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients Configure IIS for Network Location Configure Packet Filters to Allow ICMP Traffic Configure Packet Filters to Allow Management Traffic to DirectAccess Clients Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template Configure Settings to Confine ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet Configure Strong Certificate Revocation Checking for IPsec Authentication Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server Configure the DirectAccess IPsec Gateway on a Different Server Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for End-to-End Access Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Full Intranet Access Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Selected Server Access Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway Configure the NRPT with Group Policy Connect to the IPv6 Internet Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate
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Install and Configure IIS for a Network Location Server Certificate Install the DirectAccess Feature Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List

Add Servers that are Available to DirectAccess Clients before User Logon
Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To add intranet servers that are available to DirectAccess clients prior to user logon, you can add them as management servers with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard (recommended) or add their Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses to the list of permitted endpoints for the infrastructure or management tunnel with the Netsh.exe tool, depending on whether you are managing a customized DirectAccess deployment and can run the DirectAccess Setup Wizard without modifying one or more custom settings. For more information, see Design for Intranet Server Availability Prior to User Logon. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create and apply the configuration of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard or modify Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To make intranet servers available to DirectAccess clients before user logon using the DirectAccess Setup Wizard 1. Click Start, click Run, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Setup. 3. In the details pane, click Configure for step 3. 4. On the Location page, click Next. 5. On the DNS and Domain Controller page, click Next. 6. On the Management page, right-click the empty row, and then click New. 7. In the IPv4 Address dialog box, specify either the host name or IPv4 address of the intranet server, and then click OK. In the IPv6 Address/Prefix dialog box, specify either the host name or IPv6 address or prefix of the intranet server, and then click OK. 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for additional intranet servers. 9. Click Finish. 10. Click Save, and then click Finish.
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11. In the DirectAccess Review dialog box, click Apply. In the DirectAccess Policy Configuration message box, click OK. To make intranet servers available to DirectAccess clients before user logon using the Netsh.exe tool and the management tunnel 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt command. 5. From the display of the consec show rule command, note the IPv6 addresses for Endpoint2. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyClientToMgmt new endpoint2=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command, where ExistingIPv6Addresses is the comma-separated list of IPv6-addresses from step 5. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}" command. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToMgmt new endpoint1=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command. To make intranet servers available to DirectAccess clients before user logon using the Netsh.exe tool and the infrastructure tunnel 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 5. From the display of the consec show rule command, note the IPv6 addresses for Endpoint2. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyClientToDnsDc new endpoint2=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command, where ExistingIPv6Addresses is the comma-separated list of IPv6-addresses from step 5. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store
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gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}" command. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToDnsDc new endpoint1=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command. DirectAccess clients and servers update their connection security rules in the next update of computer configuration Group Policy. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure a CRL Distribution Point for Certificates


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To successfully authenticate an Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS)-based connection, DirectAccess clients must be able to check for certificate revocation of the secure sockets layer (SSL) certificate submitted by the DirectAccess server. To successfully perform intranet detection, DirectAccess clients must be able to check for certificate revocation of the SSL certificate submitted by the network location server. This procedure describes how to do the following: Create a Web-based certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point using Internet Information Services (IIS) Configure permissions on the CRL distribution shared folder Publish the CRL in the CRL distribution shared folder

To complete these procedures, you must be delegated permissions to configure IIS, file sharing permissions on a shared folder, and Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS). In this procedure, you create and configure a Web site to contain the CRL files. To create a Web-based CRL distribution point 1. On the IIS server, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. 2. In the console tree, open the server name, and then Sites. 3. Right-click Default Web Site, and then click Add virtual directory. 4. In Alias, type the name of the site containing the CRL distribution list (example:
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CRLD). 5. In Physical path, click the ellipsis (). 6. Click the appropriate drive, and then click Make New Folder. 7. Type the name of a folder that will contain the CRL distribution list files (example: CRLDist), press ENTER, and then click OK twice. 8. In the contents pane, double-click Directory Browsing. 9. In the Actions pane, click Enable. 10. In the console tree, click the new site name folder. 11. In the contents pane, double-click Configuration Editor. 12. In Section, open system.webServer\security\requestFiltering. 13. In the contents pane, double-click allowDoubleEscaping to change it from False to True. 14. In the Actions pane, click Apply. In this procedure, you configure the permissions on the CRL distribution file share so that the certification authority (CA) can write CRL files. To configure permissions on the CRL distribution file shared folder 1. On the computer that will contain the CRL distribution file shared folder, click Start, and then click Computer. 2. Double-click the appropriate drive. 3. In the details pane, right-click the folder that will store the CRL files, and then click Properties. 4. Click the Sharing tab, and then click Advanced Sharing. 5. Select Share this folder. 6. In Share name, add $ to the end of the folder name to hide the share (example: CRLDist$), and then click Permissions. 7. Click Add, and then click Object Types. 8. Select Computers, and then click OK. 9. In Enter the object names to select, type the name of the CA, and then click OK. 10. In Group or user names, click the name of the CA computer. In Permissions, click Full Control, and then click OK twice. 11. Click the Security tab, and then click Edit. 12. Click Add, and then click Object Types. 13. Select Computers, and then click OK. 14. In Enter the object names to select, type the name of the CA, and then click OK. 15. In Group or user names, click the name of the CA computer. In Permissions, click Full Control, click OK, and then click Close. In this procedure, you manually publish the CRL from the CA and check for CRL files in the folder on the IIS server.
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To publish the CRL 1. On the computer running AD CS, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Certification Authority. 2. In the console tree, double-click the CA name, right-click Revoked Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Publish. 3. If prompted, click New CRL, and then click OK. 4. Click Start, type \\IisServer\SharedFolder$, and then press ENTER. 5. In the SharedFolder$ window, you should see two CRL files named CAName and CAName+. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Active Directory Certificate Services for CRL Locations


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). If you are using Active Directory Certificate Services, you must configure the certification authority (CA) that issues the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates to the network location server and the DirectAccess server with additional certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution settings. These settings are required so that DirectAccess clients can perform certificate revocation checking for SSL certificates of the network location server (when located on the intranet) and the DirectAccess server (for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol [IP-HTTPS]based connections). Prior to this procedure, you should have determined the following: 1. The uniform resource locator (URL) or universal naming convention (UNC) path for the CRL distribution point that is accessible from the intranet for the SSL certificate needed for network location detection. 2. The URL or UNC path for the CRL distribution point that is accessible from the Internet for the SSL certificate needed by the DirectAccess server for IP-HTTPS connections. 3. The UNC path for the shared folder that will contain the CRL files written by the CA. Note The computer account of the CA must have read and write permissions to the folder corresponding to the shared folder that will contain the CRL files.
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To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change global settings on an AD CS-based CA. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). The following procedure is for configuring a single CRL distribution point for issued certificates and to configure a single corresponding location to store the CRL files. If you are using the same URL or UNC path for both your intranet and Internet CRL location, you only need to perform this procedure once. If you are using different locations for the intranet and Internet CRL distribution points, perform this procedure twice on the appropriate CA. To configure CRL distribution settings 1. On the CA computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Certification Authority. 2. In the console tree, right-click the name of the CA, and then click Properties. 3. Click the Extensions tab, and then click Add. 4. In Location, type the URL or UNC path for the CRL distribution point. For example, type http://crl.contoso.com/crld/. 5. In Variable, click <CAName>, and then click Insert. 6. In Variable, click <CRLNameSuffix>, and then click Insert. 7. In Variable, click <DeltaCRLAllowed>, and then click Insert. 8. In Location, type .crl at the end of the Location string, and then click OK. 9. Select Include in CRLs. Clients use this to find Delta CRL locations. and Include in the CDP extension of issued certificates, and then click OK. 10. Click Add. 11. In Location, type the UNC path for the shared folder location that will contain the CRL files. 12. In Variable, click <CAName>, and then click Insert. 13. In Variable, click <CRLNameSuffix>, and then click Insert. 14. In Variable, click <DeltaCRLAllowed>, and then click Insert. 15. In Location, type .crl at the end of the string, and then click OK. 16. Select Publish CRLs to this location and Publish Delta CRLs to this location, and then click OK. 17. Click Yes to restart Active Directory Certificate Services. 18. Go to the location specified in step 11 and verify that CRL files exist. 19. Access the UNC or URL specified in step 4 and verify that the same CRL files exist. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

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Configure Client Authentication and Certificate Mapping for IP-HTTPS Connections


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). This procedure helps mitigate possible security issues for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-connected DirectAccess clients. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure HTTPS settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure client authentication and certificate mapping for the IP-HTTPS certificate 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, type the certutil store my command. 3. From the output of the Certutil.exe tool, find the certificate that is being used for IPHTTPS authentication and note the Cert Hash(sha1) field. 4. From the Command Prompt window, type the netsh http add sslcert ipport=IPHTTPSPublicIPv4Address:443 certhash=HashofDA_IPHTTPSCert appid={00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF} dsmapperusage=enable command. IPHTTPSPublicIPv4Address is the public IPv4 address that the DirectAccess server is listening on for incoming IP-HTTPS connections. You can obtain this address from the URL in the display of the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command. IPHTTPSPublicIPv4Address is either the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address in the uniform resource locator (URL) or the IPv4 address to which the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) in the URL resolves on the Internet. IPHTTPSPublicIPv4Address can also be set to 0.0.0.0. HashofDA_IPHTTPSCert is the certificate hash from step 3, a 20-byte hexadecimal number, with the spaces removed. Note You can also use the GuidGEN.exe tool (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=121586) to generate the GUID for the appid parameter.

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If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Computer Certificate Autoenrollment


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The default connection security rules use a computer certificate for Internet Protocol security (IPsec) peer authentication. This requires a certificate on DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, and selected servers with either the Client Authentication or IP Security IKE Intermediate object identifier (OID). The easiest way to deploy certificates containing the Client Authentication OID to both DirectAccess clients and servers is to configure certificate autoenrollment for the built-in Computer Certificate template. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure computer certificate auto-enrollment 1. On a domain controller, click Start, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management console, open the domain that contains DirectAccess client and server computer accounts. 3. In the console tree, right-click the Group Policy object that applies to all of your domain accounts, and then click Edit. 4. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies. 5. In the details pane, right-click Automatic Certificate Request Settings, point to New, and then click Automatic Certificate Request. 6. In the Automatic Certificate Request Wizard, click Next. 7. On the Certificate Template page, click Computer, click Next, and then click Finish. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

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Configure Connection Security Rules for End-to-end Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). After you have used the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to create a base configuration for selected server access, you must manually modify the connection security rules to require end-to-end IPsec peer authentication and encryption between the DirectAccess client and intranet resources. You can configure these rules for the following: Encryption is required between DirectAccess clients and intranet resources only when the DirectAccess client is on the Internet (no encryption when the DirectAccess client is on the intranet). Encryption is always required between DirectAccess clients and intranet resources (encryption when the DirectAccess client is on the intranet or the Internet). Because the default connection security rules contain settings that are not configurable with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you must modify the connection security rules with commands in the netsh advfirewall consec context. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). In this procedure, you configure end-to-end access connection security rules to require encryption only when DirectAccess clients are on the Internet. To configure end-to-end access connection security rules to require encryption only when DirectAccess clients are on the Internet 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the following commands: set store gpo="DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12}" consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer new qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb action=requireinrequireout consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes
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consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes set store gpo="DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc423c397e8ad300} consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToMgmt new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToCorp new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToDnsDc new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{f7b77f47-7c33-4d8c-bb9aa913c5675d8d} consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-appServerToIpHttpsClientPolicy new qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-appServerToClient new qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb In this procedure, you configure end-to-end access connection security rules to always require encryption. To configure end-to-end access connection security rules to always require encryption 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the following commands: set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12} consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer new endpoint2=any qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42147

3c397e8ad300} consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToMgmt new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToCorp new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToDnsDc new exemptipsecprotectedconnections=yes set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{f7b77f47-7c33-4d8c-bb9aa913c5675d8d} consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-appServerToIpHttpsClientPolicy new endpoint2=any qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-appServerToClient new endpoint2=any qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Connection Security Rules for Traffic Between DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To protect the traffic sent between DirectAccess clients, you must configure additional connection security rules. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure connection security rules for traffic between DirectAccess clients 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}
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command. 4. To exempt the traffic between DirectAccess clients and intranet resources when the DirectAccess clients are connected to the intranet, from the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec add rule name=RuleName endpoint1=IntranetIPv6Prefix endpoint2=IntranetIPv6Prefix action=noauthentication profile=domain,public,private command. 5. To create an inbound firewall rule for an application that needs to accept unsolicited inbound connection requests, from the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the firewall add rule name=RuleName profile=public,private program=system action=allow security=authenc protocol=Protocol localport=Port command. For example, to create an inbound firewall rule for Remote Desktop traffic, run the firewall add rule name=RemoteDesktop profile=public,private program=system action=allow security=authenc protocol=tcp localport=3389 command. 6. To request protection of traffic between DirectAccess clients for all applications, from the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec add rule name=RuleName endpoint1=any endpoint2=any action=requestinrequestout profile=public,private auth1=computercert auth1ca=CANameString command. 7. To require protection of traffic between DirectAccess clients for all applications, from the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec add rule name=RuleName endpoint1=any endpoint2=any action=requireinrequestout profile=public,private auth1=computercert auth1ca=CANameString command. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Corporate Connectivity Detection Settings


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). You need to configure the Corporate Website Probe URL and Corporate Site Prefix List Group Policy settings for the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients so that they can correctly determine corporate (intranet) network access. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477).

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To configure the NRPT with Group Policy 1. On a domain controller, click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open the domain. 3. In the console tree, right-click the DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12} Group Policy object, and then click Edit. 4. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connectivity Status Indicator, and then double-click Corporate Website Probe URL in the details pane. 5. Click Enabled. 6. In Corporate Website Probe URL, type the uniform resource locator (URL) of a highly available intranet Web server that is available to any computer connected to the intranet, either through a local area network (LAN) connection (such as wired or wireless) or DirectAccess. Note This URL is different that the network location server URL, which is designed to be accessible only from a computer connected to the intranet through a LAN connection. 7. Click Apply, and then click OK. 8. Start a command prompt as an administrator. 9. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 10. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 11. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDccommand. 12. From the display of the consec show rule command, note the IPv6 address expressed as a range for Endpoint2. 13. In the details pane of the Group Policy Management Editor, double-click Corporate Site Prefix List in the details pane. 14. In Corporate Site Prefix List, type a comma, and then the IPv6 address for Endpoint2 with /128. For example, for the Endpoint2 IPv6 address 2002:836b:2::836b:2, type 2002:836b:2::836b:2/128. 15. Click Apply, and then click OK. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

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Configure DirectAccess Connection Security Rules for NAP


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). Configuring DirectAccess with Network Access Protection (NAP) consists of the following: Adding the Health Registration Authorities (HRAs) and remediation servers on your intranet to the list of management servers. If you are using NAP full enforcement, configuring the intranet tunnel connection security rule on the DirectAccess server to require health certificates for authentication. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). The following procedure uses the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to add your HRAs and remediation servers to the list of management servers. To add HRAs and remediation servers as management servers using the DirectAccess Setup Wizard 1. Click Start, click Run, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Setup. 3. In the details pane, click Configure for step 3. 4. On the Location page, click Next. 5. On the DNS and Domain Controller page, click Next. 6. On the Management page, right-click the empty row, and then click New. 7. In the IPv4 Address dialog box, specify either the host name or Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address of the HRA or remediation server, and then click OK. In the IPv6 Address/Prefix dialog box, specify either the host name or Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address or prefix of the HRA or remediation server, and then click OK. 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for additional servers. 9. Click Finish. 10. Click Save, and then click Finish. 11. In the DirectAccess Review dialog box, click Apply. In the DirectAccess Policy Configuration message box, click OK.

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The following procedure uses Netsh.exe commands to modify the connection security rules for the management tunnel to allow DirectAccess clients to access the HRAs and remediation servers on the intranet. Note Before performing this procedure, you must determine the list of IPv6 addresses for the HRAs and remediation servers on your intranet. To add HRAs and remediation servers as management servers using the Netsh.exe tool 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. This is the Group Policy object (GPO) for DirectAccess clients. 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt command. 5. From the display of the consec show rule command, note the IPv6 addresses for Endpoint2. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyClientToMgmt new endpoint2=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command, where ExistingIPv6Addresses is the comma-separated list of IPv6 addresses from step 5 and ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses is the comma-separated list of IPv6 addresses for your HRAs and remediation servers on the intranet. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}" command. This is the GPO for the DirectAccess server. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToMgmt new endpoint1=ExistingIPv6Addresses,ListOfAdditionalServerIPv6Addresses command. The following procedure modifies the intranet tunnel connection security rule on the DirectAccess server to require the use of health certificates by DirectAccess clients. Perform this procedure only when you are using NAP full enforcement for DirectAccess connections. To modify the connection security rule for the intranet tunnel 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}
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command. This is the GPO for the DirectAccess server. 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToCorp command. 5. From the display of the consec show rule command, note the certification authority (CA) name string for Auth1CAName. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec set rule DirectAccess PolicyDaServerToCorp new auth1=computercert auth1ca=CANameString auth1healthcert=yes applyauthz=yes command. Important When you use Netsh.exe to customize connection security rules for DirectAccess, those changes are overwritten the next time you apply the settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. To ensure that the custom settings are maintained, you should either no longer use the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for configuration changes or compile a list of custom changes in a script and run the script each time you apply the DirectAccess Setup Wizard settings. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Firewall Rules to Prevent Traffic between Proxy Servers and DirectAccess Servers
Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To prevent DirectAccess clients from using IP-HTTPS to connect to your intranet through your proxy servers and DirectAccess servers when they are connected to your IPv4-only intranet or an IPv4-only subnet of your intranet, you can do one of the following: On your DirectAccess servers, create an inbound rule that blocks all traffic from the IPv4 addresses of your proxy servers. On your proxy servers, create an outbound rule that blocks all traffic to the external (Internet) IPv4 addresses of your DirectAccess servers.

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To create an inbound rule on a DirectAccess server to drop traffic from your proxy servers 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, click Run, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, rightclick Inbound Rules, and then click New Rule. 3. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. 4. On the Programs page, click Next. 5. On the Protocols and Ports page, click Next. 6. On the Scope page, under Which remote IP addresses does this rule apply?, click These IP addresses. 7. Click Add, type the IPv4 address of a proxy server in This IP address or subnet, and then click OK. Repeat this step for the additional IPv4 addresses of your proxy servers. 8. When you have added all of the IPv4 addresses of your proxy servers, click Next. 9. On the Action page, click Block the connection, and then click Next. 10. On the Profile page, click Next. 11. On the Name page, for Name, type Drop inbound proxy server traffic, and then click Finish. To create an outbound rule on a proxy server to drop traffic to your DirectAccess servers 1. On a proxy server running Windows Server 2008 or later, click Start, click Run, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, rightclick Outbound Rules, and then click New Rule. 3. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. 4. On the Programs page, click Next. 5. On the Protocols and Ports page, click Next. 6. On the Scope page, under Which remote IP addresses does this rule apply?, and then click These IP addresses. 7. Click Add, type the IPv4 address assigned to an external (Internet) interface of a DirectAccess server in This IP address or subnet, and then click OK. Repeat this step for the additional external IPv4 addresses of your DirectAccess servers. 8. When you have added all of the external IPv4 addresses of your DirectAccess servers, click Next. 9. On the Action page, click Block the connection, and then click Next. 10. On the Profile page, click Next. 11. On the Name page, for Name, type Drop outbound DirectAccess server traffic, and then click Finish.
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Configure Force Tunneling for DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). Before configuring force tunneling settings for DirectAccess clients, you should have deployed and determined the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of either your dual protocol (Internet Protocol version 4 [IPv4] and IPv6) proxy servers or your IPv6/IPv4 translator (NAT64) and IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway (DNS64) devices that are in front of your IPv4-based proxy servers. For more information about these devices, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure force tunneling 1. On a domain controller, click Start, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management snap-in, open the appropriate forest and domain object, right-click the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients, and then click Edit. 3. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connections. 4. In the details pane, double-click Route all traffic through the internal network. 5. In the Route all traffic through the internal network dialog box, click Enabled, and then click OK. 6. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy. 7. In the details pane, in To which part of the namespace does this rule apply?, click Any. 8. Click the DNS Settings for Direct Access tab, and then click Enable DNS settings for Direct Access in this rule. 9. In DNS servers (optional), click Add. In DNS server, type the IPv6 address of your dual protocol (IPv4 and IPv6) proxy server or your NAT64/DNS64 devices that are in front
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of your IPv4-based proxy server. Repeat this step if you have multiple IPv6 addresses. 10. Click Create, and then click Apply. 11. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies. 12. In the details pane, double-click 6to4 State. 13. In the 6to4 State dialog box, click Enabled, click Disabled State in Select from the following states, click Apply, and then click OK. 14. In the details pane, double-click Teredo State. 15. In the Teredo State dialog box, click Enabled, click Disabled State in Select from the following states, click Apply, and then click OK. 16. In the details pane, double-click IP-HTTPS State. 17. In the IP-HTTPS State dialog box, click Enabled State in Select Interface state from the following options, click Apply, and then click OK. DirectAccess clients will apply these settings the next time they update their Computer Configuration Group Policy. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure IIS for Network Location


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). If the Internet Information Services (IIS) server is being used for only Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)-based connections, determine an alias name that will be used by DirectAccess clients and create an address (A) record in your intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers so that the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IIS server using the alias name can be resolved by intranet-connected DirectAccess clients. If the IIS server is being used only for network location, you do not need to use an alias name. For example, the IIS server app1.corp.contoso.com is an intranet server providing only HTTPbased connections for intranet clients. APP1 is also the network location server. The alias for network location detection for the APP1 Web server is nls.corp.contoso.com. The network administrator creates an A record in the corp.contoso.com forward lookup zone that has the IPv4 address of app1.corp.contoso.com.

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Once you have determined the FQDN of the network location server, construct the URL https://FQDN (without the trailing /). This is the network location URL that you configure in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Note If you are not using an alias name, you cannot connect to the IIS server that is acting as a network location server from a DirectAccess client that is on the Internet. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure IIS global settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To mitigate security risks posed by computers on the Internet, you must install the IP and Domain Restrictions role service for IIS on the network location server. To install the IP and Domain Restrictions role service 1. On the IIS server, click Start, click Run, type servermanager.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Roles, and then click Web Server (IIS). In the details pane, in Role Services, click Add Role Services. 3. On the Select Role Services page, in Role services, under Security, click IP and Domain Restrictions, and then click Next. 4. Click Install. 5. Verify that all installations were successful, and then click Close. The following procedure describes how to configure IIS to use the custom SSL certificate for network location for the HTTPS security binding. To configure the HTTPS security binding 1. On the IIS server, click Start, type inetmgr.exe, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, open the Sites container for the IIS server, and then click Default Web site. 3. In the Actions pane, click Bindings. 4. In the Site Bindings dialog box, click Add. 5. In the Add Site Binding dialog box, in the Type list, click https. In SSL Certificate, click the certificate with the FQDN of the network location server (example: nls.corp.contoso.com). 6. Click OK, and then click Close. Note If you are using an alias name, you cannot use an IIS server that is also being used for Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based connections. The certificate
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configured for HTTPS bindings is for the alias name and HTTPS connections using other FQDNs will not validate. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Packet Filters to Allow ICMP Traffic


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To provide connectivity for Teredo-based DirectAccess clients, you need to configure Windows Firewall with Advanced Security rules for all of your domain member computers to allow Internet Control Message Protocol for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) (ICMPv6) Echo Request messages and, when using a NAT64 to translate IPv6 to IPv4 traffic on your intranet, Internet Control Message Protocol for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) (ICMPv4) Echo Request messages. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To create and enable firewall rules for ICMPv6 traffic 1. Click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open Forest/Domains/YourDomain, right-click the Group Policy object (GPO) that applies to all of your intranet domain members, and then click Edit. 3. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. 4. In the console tree, right-click Inbound Rules, and then click New Rule. 5. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. On the Program page, click Next. On the Protocols and Ports page, for Protocol type, click ICMPv6, and then click Customize. In the Customize ICMP Settings dialog box, click Specific ICMP types, select Echo Request, and then click OK. Click Next. On the Scope page, click Next. On the Action page, click Next. On the Profile page, click Next. On the Name page, for Name, type Inbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests, and then click Finish. 6. In the console tree, right-click Outbound Rules, and then click New Rule.
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7. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. On the Program page, click Next. On the Protocols and Ports page, for Protocol type, click ICMPv6, and then click Customize. In the Customize ICMP Settings dialog box, click Specific ICMP types, select Echo Request, and then click OK. Click Next. On the Scope page, click Next. On the Action page, click Allow the connection, and then click Next. On the Profile page, click Next. On the Name page, for Name, type Outbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests, and then click Finish. The following procedure is only needed when you are using a NAT64 on your intranet. To create and enable firewall rules for ICMPv4 traffic 1. Click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open Forest/Domains/YourDomain, right-click the Group Policy object (GPO) that applies to all of your intranet domain members, and then click Edit. 3. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. 4. In the console tree, right-click Inbound Rules, and then click New Rule. 5. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. On the Program page, click Next. On the Protocols and Ports page, for Protocol type, click ICMPv4, and then click Customize. In the Customize ICMP Settings dialog box, click Specific ICMP types, select Echo Request, and then click OK. Click Next. On the Scope page, click Next. On the Action page, click Next. On the Profile page, click Next. On the Name page, for Name, type Inbound ICMPv4 Echo Requests, and then click Finish. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Packet Filters to Allow Management Traffic to DirectAccess Clients


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To allow unsolicited incoming traffic from intranet computers to DirectAccess clients, the inbound rules that allow management computers to initiate connections with intranet computers must have edge traversal enabled for Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. See Packet Filters for

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Management Computers for more information about whether to use your existing inbound rules or to create new inbound rules just for DirectAccess clients. For existing or duplicated inbound rules for management traffic to DirectAccess clients, you can enable edge traversal in the following ways: With the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in With commands in the netsh advfirewall firewall set rule context

To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To enable edge traversal for an inbound rule with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in 1. Click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open Forest\Domains\YourDomain, right-click the appropriate Group Policy object (GPO), and then click Edit. For example, your inbound rules for management traffic that are specific to DirectAccess clients would reside in the DirectAccess client GPO named DirectAccess Policy{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}. 3. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security\Inbound Rules. 4. In the contents pane, right-click a rule for management traffic, and then click Properties. 5. Click the Advanced tab, in Edge traversal, select Allow edge traversal, and then click OK. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the additional rules for management traffic. To enable edge traversal for an inbound rule with the Netsh.exe command-line tool 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\GPOName command. For example, the name of the DirectAccess client GPO for the corp.contoso.com domain is DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}. Therefore, the command is set store gpo=corp.contoso.com\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}". 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the firewall show rule name=all command. 5. From the display of this command, copy or write down the names of the inbound rules for management traffic to DirectAccess clients. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the firewall name=RuleName edge=yes
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command for each rule noted in step 5. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). For the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to run, at least one physical interface of the DirectAccess server computer must not be in the domain profile. Windows Firewall places an interface in the domain profile if a domain controller for the domain for which the computer is a member is reachable on that interface. The Internet interface of the DirectAccess server is attached to the perimeter network. If your perimeter network contains a domain controller, such as a read-only domain controller, Windows Firewall will place the Internet interface in the domain profile. To prevent the Internet interface from reaching the domain controllers on the perimeter network, you must configure outbound rules on the Internet interface to prevent connectivity to the IP addresses of the perimeter network domain controllers. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create Windows Firewall rules. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To add packet filters to prevent access to domain controllers from the Internet interface 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, click Run, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, right-click Outbound Rules, and then click New Rule. 3. On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. 4. On the Program page, click Next. 5. On the Protocol and Ports page, click Next. 6. On the Scope page, in Which local IP addresses does this rule apply to?, click These IP addresses, and then click Add. In IP Address, specify the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server, and then click OK. 7. In Which remote IP addresses does this rule apply to?, click These IP addresses, and then click Add. In IP Address, specify the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of the
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domain controllers that are reachable from the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server, and then click OK. 8. Click Next. 9. On the Action page, click Next. 10. On the Profile page, clear Domain, and then click Next. 11. On the Name page, specify a name for the rule, and then click Finish. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The DirectAccess server requires and network location servers might require certificates for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication that have customized certificate properties. To request and modify these certificates from an Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS)-based certification authority (CA), you must modify the permissions of the Web Server certificate template. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create and enable certificate template settings on an AD CS-based CA. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure permissions for the Web Server certificate template 1. On the CA computer, click Start, type certtmpl.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the contents pane, right-click the Web Server template, and then click Properties. 3. Click the Security tab, and then click Add. 4. In Enter the object names to select, type the name of the security group that contains the computers that are allowed to request customized certificates, and then click OK. This security group should contain, at least temporarily when requesting custom certificates, the computer accounts of the DirectAccess server and network location server. As a security best practice, do not use the Authenticated Users group. 5. In Permissions, click Enroll under Allow, and then click OK.
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If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Settings to Confine ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). As described in Confining ICMPv6 Traffic to the Intranet, the default settings created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard allow the following: Any computer with a Teredo or 6to4 client can send Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic to intranet locations through the DirectAccess server to probe for valid intranet destination IPv6 addresses. The amount of this traffic is limited by the Denial of Service Protection (DoSP) feature of the DirectAccess server. A malicious user on the same subnet as a Teredo-based DirectAccess client can determine the IPv6 addresses of intranet servers by capturing ICMPv6 Echo Request and Echo Reply message exchanges. This procedure allows you to prevent these possible security issues. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to modify Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To confine ICMPv6 traffic to the intranet 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the following commands: set store gpo="DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12}" consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp 4. From the display of the last two commands, copy or write down the IPv6 addresses for the RemoteTunnelEndpoint. 5. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the following commands: set global ipsec defaultexemptions neighbordiscovery,dhcp
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consec add rule name=Exempt ICMPv6 to Tunnel endpoint profile=private,public action=noauthentication mode=tunnel endpoint1=any endpoint2=IPv6AddressesOfTheRemoteTunnelEndpoints protocol=icmpv6 set store gpo="DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc423c397e8ad300}" set global ipsec defaultexemptions neighbordiscovery,dhcp consec add rule name=Exempt ICMPv6 from Tunnel endpoint profile=private,public action=noauthentication mode=tunnel endpoint1=IPv6AddressesOfTheRemoteTunnelEndpoints endpoint2=any protocol=icmpv6 6. Click Start, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 7. In the console tree, open Forest/Domains/YourDomain, right-click the DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} GPO, and then click Edit. 8. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. 9. Right-click Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, and then click Properties. 10. Click the IPsec Settings tab. In IPsec exemptions, in Exempt ICMP from IPsec, click No, and then click OK. 11. Close the Group Policy Management Editor. 12. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management console, open Forest/Domains/YourDomain, right-click the DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa94bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300} GPO, and then click Edit. 13. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. 14. Right-click Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, and then click Properties. 15. Click the IPsec Settings tab. In IPsec exemptions, in Exempt ICMP from IPsec, click No, and then click OK. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure Strong Certificate Revocation Checking for IPsec Authentication


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see

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the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). By default, the DirectAccess server uses weak certificate revocation list (CRL) checking when performing certificate-based Internet Protocol security (IPsec) peer authentication with DirectAccess clients. For weak CRL checking, certificate revocation checking fails only if the validating computer confirms that the certificate has been revoked in the CRL. This procedure describes how to enable strong CRL checking, in which certificate revocation checking fails if the validating computer confirms that the certificate has been revoked or for any error encountered during certificate revocation checking, including the inability to access the CRL distribution point. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure strong certificate revocation checking for IPsec authentication 1. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the following commands: set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc423c397e8ad300} set global ipsec strongcrlcheck 2 exit 4. To update the DirectAccess server with this Group Policy change immediately, type the gpupdate /target:computer command. Notes If you enable strong CRL checking and the DirectAccess server cannot reach the CRL distribution point, certificate-based IPsec authentication for all DirectAccess connections will fail. If you are using Network Access Protection (NAP) with DirectAccess and you enable strong CRL checking, certificate-based IPsec authentication for all DirectAccess connections will fail. Health certificates do not contain CRL distribution points because their lifetime is on the order of hours, instead of years for computer certificates. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

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Configure the DirectAccess IPsec Gateway on a Different Server


Configuring the DirectAccess Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway on a different server consists of the following procedures: Configure the Intra-Server Subnet Configure the IPv6 Connectivity Server Configure the IPsec Gateway Server

See Checklist: Moving the IPsec Gateway to Another Server for information about when these procedures need to be performed.

Configure the Intra-Server Subnet


When configuring the DirectAccess Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway on a different server, the intra-server subnet exists between the two servers and provides a way for the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity server to forward and receive tunneled packets to and from DirectAccess clients on the Internet. With this procedure, you attach both servers to the intra-server subnet and configure the IPv6 connectivity server to be an advertising, default IPv6 router for the subnet. Before performing this procedure, you should determine a 64-bit prefix for the intra-server subnet. For example, you can use the following: 6to4-basedPrefix:3::/64 if you are using a 6to4-based prefix based on the first public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address assigned to Internet interface of the IPv6 connectivity server. NativePrefix:SubnetID::/64 if you are using a 48-bit native IPv6 prefix. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to modify IPv6 interface settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure the intra-server subnet 1. On the IPsec gateway server, remove the two consecutive public IPv4 addresses assigned to the Internet interface. 2. On the IPv6 connectivity server, configure the two consecutive public IPv4 addresses on the Internet interface, and then connect it to the Internet. 3. Connect an interface of the IPv6 connectivity server and the IPsec gateway server to the same switch to create a subnet. 4. On the IPv6 connectivity server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 5. In the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces
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command. This command lists the interfaces and their interface indexes. 6. In the Command Prompt window, run the following commands: netsh interface ipv6 SubnetInterfaceNameOrIndex forwarding=enabled advertise=enabled advertisedefaultroute=enabled netsh interface ipv6 add route 64BitPrefixOfSubnet publish=yes 7. On the IPsec gateway server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 8. In the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 show addresses command. 9. In the display, copy or note the public address assigned to the subnet interface of the IPsec gateway server. You will need this address for the Configure the IPsec Gateway Server procedure. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the IPv6 Connectivity Server


This procedure configures the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity server to act as a 6to4 relay, Teredo server, and Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IPHTTPS) server. Before performing this procedure, you should determine the following: The public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address or publically resolvable fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to use in the uniform resource locator (URL) for the IPHTTPS server. The 64-bit prefix for the logical IP-HTTPS subnet between the IPsec connectivity server and IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard uses the following: 6to4-basedPrefix:2::/64 if you are using a 6to4-based prefix based on the first public IPv4 address assigned to Internet interface of the IPsec connectivity server. NativePrefix:SubnetID::/64 if you are using a 48-bit native IPv6 prefix. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to modify IPv6 settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure the IPv6 connectivity server 1. On the IPv6 connectivity server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. In the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces command. This command lists the interfaces and their interface indexes.
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3. In the Command Prompt window, run the following commands: netsh interface ipv6 set interface InternetInterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled netsh interface teredo set state type=server servername=FirstPublicIPv4Address netsh interface ipv6 set interface TeredoInterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled netsh interface 6to4 set state enabled netsh interface ipv6 set interface 6to4InterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled netsh interface ipv6 set interface IPHTTPSInterface forwarding=enabled advertise=enabled 4. Install a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate using manual enrollment. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. 5. Use the netsh http add sslcert command to configure the SSL binding. 6. In the Command Prompt window, run the following commands: netsh interface httpstunnel add interface type=server url=https://PublicIPv4AddressOrFQDN:443/iphttps state=enabled authmode=certificates netsh interface ipv6 add route IP-HTTPSPrefix::/64 IPHTTPSInterface publish=yes If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the IPsec Gateway Server


In this procedure, you configure the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) gateway server to act only as the IPsec tunnel endpoint and Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) router and modify Group Policy settings for the new dual-server configuration. Before performing this procedure, you should have determined the public IPv6 address that is assigned to the intra-server subnet interface on the IPsec gateway server (PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface). For more information, see Configure the Intra-Server Subnet. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to modify IPv6 and Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure the IPsec gateway server 1. On the IPsec gateway server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. In the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces command. This command lists the interfaces and their interface indexes. 3. In the Command Prompt window, type the following commands:
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netsh interface ipv6 set teredo default netsh interface ipv6 set interface TeredoInterfaceIndex forwarding=disabled netsh interface 6to4 set state default netsh interface ipv6 set interface 6to4InterfaceIndex forwarding=disabled netsh interface ipv6 set interface IPHTTPSInterface forwarding=disabled advertise=disabled netsh interface httpstunnel add interface state=default 4. On a domain controller, start a command prompt as an administrator. 5. From the Command Prompt window, type the following commands netsh advfirewall set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}" netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp new remotetunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc new remotetunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt new remotetunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface netsh advfirewall set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa94bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}" netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToMgmt new localtunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToCorp new localtunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface netsh advfirewall consec set rule name=DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToDnsDc new localtunnelendpoint=PublicIpv6AddressOfIPsecGWServerSubnetInterface If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989).

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If your DirectAccess server is acting as the network location server, you must install the Web Server (IIS) server role with the IP and Domain Restrictions role service. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to install a server role. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To install the IIS server role 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, click Run, type servermanager.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Roles. In the details pane, click Add Roles, and then click Next. 3. On the Select Server Roles page, click Web Server (IIS), and then click Next twice. 4. On the Select Role Services page, in Role services, under Security, click IP and Domain Restrictions, and then click Next. 5. Click Install. 6. Verify that all installations were successful, and then click Close. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for End-to-End Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). Unlike full intranet and selected server access, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard does not configure the DirectAccess server for end-to-end access. However, you can use the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to create a foundation configuration and then customize the connection security rules for end-to-end connectivity. The four steps in the wizard configure DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, infrastructure servers, and application servers. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for end-to-end access, you should have determined the following: If you have an existing IPv6 infrastructure, the 48-bit address prefix used by your organization and the 64-bit address prefix that you have
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designated for IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design. Whether you are using the DirectAccess server or a separate server as the network location server. For more information, see Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess. The list of additional NRPT rules. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The option for local name resolution behavior. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The list of names or IP addresses of management computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Design for Remote Management. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for end-to-end access, you should have completed the following: Created at least one Active Directory security group for DirectAccess client computers. For more information, see Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory. Installed an additional certificate on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, installed the Web Server (IIS) role with the IP and Domain Restrictions role service and an additional certificate for network location on the DirectAccess server computer. For more information, see Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server. To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create and apply the configuration of the DirectAccess
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Setup Wizard. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To run the DirectAccess Setup wizard for end-to-end access 1. Click Start, click Run, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Setup. 3. In the details pane, click Configure for step 1. 4. On the DirectAccess Client Setup page, click Add. 5. In the Select Group dialog box, specify the names of the security groups that you created to contain DirectAccess client computers, click OK, and then click Finish. Do not specify the names of built-in security groups, such as Domain Computers or Domain Users. 6. Click Configure for step 2. 7. On the Connectivity page, for Interface connected to the Internet, select the network connection that is attached to the Internet. For Interface connected to the internal network, select the network connection that is attached to your intranet. Click Next. 8. If you have an existing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) infrastructure, a Prefix Configuration page displays. In The IPv6 prefix that is used in your internal network, type the 48-bit address prefix used by your organization. In The IPv6 prefix that is used to assign IPv6 addresses to remote client computers, type the 64-bit address prefix that you have designated for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based IPv6 DirectAccess clients. 9. On the Certificate Components page, for Select the root certificate to which remote client certificates must chain, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the root certificate for your public key infrastructure (PKI) that issues computer certificates to your DirectAccess clients and servers, and then click OK. 10. For Select the certificate that will be used to secure remote client connectivity over HTTPS, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the certificate installed on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections, and then click OK. Click Finish. 11. Click Configure for step 3. 12. On the Location page: If you are using a separate network location server, click Network Location server is run on a highly available server, type the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) for network location without a trailing / (such as https://nls.corp.contoso.com), click Validate, and then click Next. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, click Network Location server is run on the DirectAccess server, click Browse, click the certificate for network location, click OK, and then click Next. 13. On the DNS and Domain Controller page, add the appropriate rules for the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) as needed by your design. To add an NRPT rule, right172

click the empty row, and then click New. Select the appropriate local name resolution option, and then click Next. 14. On the Management page, add the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients as needed by your design. To add a management computer, right-click the empty row, and then click New. Click Finish. 15. Click Configure for step 4. 16. On the DirectAccess Application Server Setup page: a. Click Require end-to-end authentication and traffic protection for the specified servers. b. Click Add. In the Select Group dialog box, specify the Domain Computers group for each of the domains of your organization. c. Select Allow access to only those servers in the selected security groups. 17. Click Finish. 18. Click Save, and then click Finish. 19. In the DirectAccess Review dialog box, click Apply. In the DirectAccess Policy Configuration message box, click OK. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Full Intranet Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The DirectAccess Setup Wizard steps you through the configuration of a DirectAccess server for full intranet access. The four steps in the wizard configure DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, infrastructure servers, and application servers. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for full intranet access, you should have determined the following: Whether you are using smart card authorization. For more information, see Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme. If you have an existing IPv6 infrastructure, the
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48-bit address prefix used by your organization and the 64-bit address prefix that you have designated for IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design. Whether you are using the DirectAccess server or a separate server as the network location server. For more information, see Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess. The list of additional NRPT rules. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The option for local name resolution behavior. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The list of names or IP addresses of management computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Design for Remote Management. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for full intranet access, you should have completed the following: Created at least one Active Directory security group for DirectAccess client computers. For more information, see Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory. Installed an additional certificate on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, installed the Web Server (IIS) role with the IP and Domain Restrictions role service and an additional certificate for network location on the DirectAccess server computer. For more information, see Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server.
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To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create and apply the configuration of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To run the DirectAccess Setup wizard for full intranet access 1. Click Start, click Run, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Setup. 3. In the details pane, click Configure for step 1. 4. On the DirectAccess Client Setup page, click Add. 5. In the Select Group dialog box, specify the names of the security groups that you created to contain DirectAccess client computers, click OK, and then click Finish. Do not specify the names of built-in security groups, such as Domain Computers or Domain Users. 6. Click Configure for step 2. 7. On the Connectivity page, for Interface connected to the Internet, select the network connection that is attached to the Internet. For Interface connected to the internal network, select the network connection that is attached to your intranet. If you are using smart card authorization, select Require smart card login for remote users, and enforce this policy on the DirectAccess server. Click Next. 8. If you have an existing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) infrastructure, a Prefix Configuration page displays. In The IPv6 prefix that is used in your internal network, type the 48-bit address prefix used by your organization. In The IPv6 prefix that is used to assign IPv6 addresses to remote client computers, type the 64-bit address prefix that you have designated for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based IPv6 DirectAccess clients. 9. On the Certificate Components page, for Select the root certificate to which remote client certificates must chain, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the root certificate for your public key infrastructure (PKI) that issues computer certificates to your DirectAccess clients and servers, and then click OK. 10. For Select the certificate that will be used to secure remote client connectivity over HTTPS, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the certificate installed on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections, and then click OK. Click Finish. 11. Click Configure for step 3. 12. On the Location page: If you are using a separate network location server, click Network Location server is run on a highly available server, type the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) for network location without a trailing / (such as https://nls.corp.contoso.com), click Validate, and then click Next. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, click Network Location server is run on the DirectAccess server, click Browse, click
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the certificate for network location, click OK, and then click Next. 13. On the DNS and Domain Controller page, add the appropriate rules for the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) as needed by your design. To add an NRPT rule, rightclick the empty row, and then click New. Select the appropriate local name resolution option, and then click Next. 14. On the Management page, add the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients as needed by your design. To add a management computer, right-click the empty row, and then click New. Click Finish. 15. Click Configure for step 4. 16. On the DirectAccess Application Server Setup page, click Finish. 17. Click Save, and then click Finish. 18. In the DirectAccess Review dialog box, click Apply. In the DirectAccess Policy Configuration message box, click OK. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for Selected Server Access


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The DirectAccess Setup Wizard steps you through the configuration of a DirectAccess server for selected server access. The four steps in the wizard configure DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, infrastructure servers, and application servers. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for selected server access, you should have determined the following: Whether you are using smart card authorization. For more information, see Choose an Authentication and Authorization Scheme. If you have an existing IPv6 infrastructure, the 48-bit address prefix used by your organization and the 64-bit address prefix that you have designated for IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Choose an
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Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design. Whether you are using the DirectAccess server or a separate server as the network location server. For more information, see Design Your Web Servers for DirectAccess. The list of additional NRPT rules. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The option for local name resolution behavior. For more information, see Design Your DNS Infrastructure for DirectAccess. The list of names or IP addresses of management computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Design for Remote Management. The type of selected server access for your organization. For more information, see Selected Server Access. Prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for selected server access, you should have completed the following: Created at least one Active Directory security group for DirectAccess client computers and at least one Active Directory security group for selected servers. For more information, see Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory. Installed an additional certificate on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, installed the Web Server (IIS) role with the IP and Domain Restrictions role service and an additional certificate for network location on the DirectAccess server computer. For more information, see Configure the DirectAccess Server as the Network Location Server.
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To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create and apply the configuration of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To run the DirectAccess Setup wizard for selected server access 1. Click Start, click Run, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, click Setup. 3. In the details pane, click Configure for step 1. 4. On the DirectAccess Client Setup page, click Add. 5. In the Select Group dialog box, specify the names of the security groups that you created to contain DirectAccess client computers, click OK, and then click Finish. Do not specify the names of built-in security groups, such as Domain Computers or Domain Users. 6. Click Configure for step 2. 7. On the Connectivity page, for Interface connected to the Internet, select the network connection that is attached to the Internet. For Interface connected to the internal network, select the network connection that is attached to your intranet. If you are using smart card authorization, select Require smart card login for remote users, and enforce this policy on the DirectAccess server. Click Next. 8. If you have an existing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) infrastructure, a Prefix Configuration page displays. In The IPv6 prefix that is used in your internal network, type the 48-bit address prefix used by your organization. In The IPv6 prefix that is used to assign IPv6 addresses to remote client computers, type the 64-bit address prefix that you have designated for Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based IPv6 DirectAccess clients. 9. On the Certificate Components page, for Select the root certificate to which remote client certificates must chain, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the root certificate for your public key infrastructure (PKI) that issues computer certificates to your DirectAccess clients and servers, and then click OK. 10. For Select the certificate that will be used to secure remote client connectivity over HTTPS, click Browse. In the list of certificates, click the certificate installed on the DirectAccess server computer for IP-HTTPS connections, and then click OK. Click Finish. 11. Click Configure for step 3. 12. On the Location page: If you are using a separate network location server, click Network Location server is run on a highly available server, type the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) for network location without a trailing / (such as https://nls.corp.contoso.com), click Validate, and then click Next. If you are using the DirectAccess server as the network location server, click
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Network Location server is run on the DirectAccess server, click Browse, click the certificate for network location, click OK, and then click Next. 13. On the DNS and Domain Controller page, add the appropriate rules for the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) as needed by your design. To add an NRPT rule, rightclick the empty row, and then click New. Select the appropriate local name resolution option, and then click Next. 14. On the Management page, add the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of computers that will be initiating connections to DirectAccess clients as needed by your design. To add a management computer, right-click the empty row, and then click New. Click Finish. 15. Click Configure for step 4. 16. On the DirectAccess Application Server Setup page: a. Click Require end-to-end authentication and traffic protection for the specified servers. b. Click Add. In the Select Group dialog box, specify the names of the security groups that contain the selected servers. c. If you want to confine the access of DirectAccess clients to only the selected servers, select Allow access to only those servers in the selected security groups. d. If you want to use authentication with null encapsulation, select Configure the IPsec connection security rules on these servers to perform authentication without traffic protection. 17. Click Finish. 18. Click Save, and then click Finish. 19. In the DirectAccess Review dialog box, click Apply. In the DirectAccess Policy Configuration message box, click OK. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS Gateway


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). An IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway translates between Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) for DNS name queries. You need an IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway and an IPv6/IPv4 translator for DirectAccess clients to reach an IPv4-only resource on your intranet. For
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more information about these devices, see Choose Solutions for IPv4-only Intranet Resources. If you are using these devices in your DirectAccess deployment, you must identify the portions of your intranet namespace that contain IPv4-only application servers and add them to the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) of your DirectAccess clients with the IPv6 addresses of your IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateways. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to change Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure the NRPT for an IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway 1. Identify the intranet namespaces that contain only IPv4-only resources. 2. Click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 3. In the console tree, open the domain. 4. In the console tree, right-click the DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12} Group Policy object, and then click Edit. 5. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings, and then click Name Resolution Policy. 6. In the details pane, click the DNS Settings for Direct Access tab, select Enable DNS setting for DirectAccess in this rule, specify the intranet namespace as a suffix rule, click Add, type the IPv6 address of your IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway, and then click Create. 7. Repeat step 6 for additional namespaces as needed. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Configure the NRPT with Group Policy


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). You can configure the rules directly to the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) with Group Policy, rather than using the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure Group Policy settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477).
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To configure the NRPT with Group Policy 1. Click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open the domain. 3. In the console tree, right-click the DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176a4420a810f12} Group Policy object, and then click Edit. 4. In the console tree of the Group Policy Management Editor, open Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings, and then click Name Resolution Policy. To create a new NRPT rule for DirectAccess, in the details pane, click DNS Settings for Direct Access, select Enable DNS settings for DirectAccess in this rule. Specify the namespace to which the rule applies, the certification authority and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of Domain Name System (DNS) servers (if needed), and then click Create. To modify an existing rule, click the rule in the NRPT, and then click Edit Rule. When you are done making changes, click Update. To delete an existing rule, click the rule in the NRPT, and then click Delete Rule. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Connect to the IPv6 Internet


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To provide connectivity to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet for DirectAccess clients, you must configure the DirectAccess server with direct or tunneled connection to the IPv6 internet. For tunneled connections, you can use 6to4 or an IPv6-in-Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) tunnel to a service provider that is providing tunneled access to the IPv6 Internet. Before performing this procedure: If you have a direct connection to the IPv6 Internet, you must determine the interface name or index of the DirectAccess server Internet interface and the next-hop IPv6 address for default route traffic. If you are using 6to4, you must determine the IPv4 address of your 6to4 relay. If your Internet service provider (ISP) does not provide one, use 192.88.99.1. If you are using an IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnel to a service provider, you must determine a name for the tunnel interface on the DirectAccess server, a public IPv4 address on the DirectAccess server to use as the local tunnel endpoint, the public IPv4 address of the service providers tunnel server, and an IPv6 next-hop address.
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To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to configure IPv6 settings. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To configure a default IPv6 route for a direct connection to the IPv6 Internet 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 add route ::/0 InterfaceNameOrIndex NextHopIPv6Address command. To configure a 6to4-tunneled connection to the IPv6 Internet 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, type the netsh interface ipv6 6to4 set relay name=6to4RelayAddress state=enabled command. To configure an IPv6-in-IPv4-tunnel to the IPv6 Internet 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, type the following commands: netsh interface ipv6 add v6v4tunnel TunnelInterfaceName localaddress=DirectAccessServerPublicIPv4Address remoteaddress=ServiceProviderPublicIPv4Address netsh interface ipv6 add route ::/0 TunnelInterfaceName NextHopIPv6Address If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Create DirectAccess Groups in Active Directory


In the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, you must select one or more security groups that contain the computer accounts for DirectAccess client and can optionally select or more security groups that contain the computer accounts of selected servers for selected server access. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the Domain Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to create Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) security groups. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see
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the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). To create a security group for DirectAccess client computers 1. Click Start, type dsa.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the Active Directory Users and Computers console tree, right-click Users, point to New, and then click Group. 3. In the New Object - Group dialog box, under Group name, type the group name (example, DA_Clients). 4. Under Group scope, choose Global, under Group type, choose Security, and then click OK. To create a security group for selected servers 1. Click Start, type dsa.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the Active Directory Users and Computers console tree, right-click Users, point to New, and then click Group. 3. In the New Object - Group dialog box, under Group name, type the group name (example, DA_SelServers). 4. Under Group scope, choose Global, under Group type, choose Security, and then click OK. 5. In the contents pane, double-click the group that you just added, and then click the Members tab. 6. Click Add and specify the computer account name of a selected server, and then click OK. Repeat this step for the other selected server computer accounts. 7. Click OK. Note You must add at least one member computer to the selected security group to specify it in Step 4 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Install a Network Location Server Certificate on the DirectAccess Server


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see
183

the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). A DirectAccess server acting as a network location server must obtain an additional customized Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate using the Web Server certificate template. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to obtain a customized certificate. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To install a certificate for network location 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, type mmc, and then press ENTER. Click Yes at the User Account Control prompt. 2. Click File, and then click Add/Remove Snap-ins. 3. Click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, select Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK. 4. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, open Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. 5. Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate. 6. Click Next twice. 7. On the Request Certificates page, click the Web Server certificate template, and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate. If the Web Server certificate template does not appear, ensure that the DirectAccess server computer account has enroll permissions for the Web Server certificate template. For more information, see Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template. 8. On the Subject tab of the Certificate Properties dialog box, in Subject name, for Type, select Common name. 9. In Value, type the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the intranet name of the DirectAccess server (for example, da1.corp.contoso.com), and then click Add. 10. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish. 11. In the details pane of the Certificates snap-in, verify that a new certificate with the FQDN was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication. 12. Right-click the certificate, and then click Properties. 13. In Friendly Name, type Network Location Certificate, and then click OK. Note Steps 14 and 15 are optional, but make it easier for you to select the certificate for network location in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

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Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The DirectAccess server needs a customized Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate to authenticate Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based DirectAccess connections. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to request and customize an SSL certificate. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To obtain an additional certificate for IP-HTTPS 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, type mmc, and then press ENTER. Click Yes at the User Account Control prompt. 2. Click File, and then click Add/Remove Snap-ins. 3. Click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, select Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK. 4. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, open Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. 5. Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate. 6. Click Next twice. 7. On the Request Certificates page, click the Web Server certificate template, and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate. If the Web Server certificate template does not appear, ensure that the DirectAccess server computer account has enroll permissions for the Web Server certificate template. For more information, see Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template. 8. On the Subject tab of the Certificate Properties dialog box, in Subject name, for Type, select Common name. 9. In Value, type the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the Internet name of the DirectAccess server (for example, da1.contoso.com), and then click Add. 10. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish. 11. In the details pane of the Certificates snap-in, verify that a new certificate with the FQDN was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication. 12. Right-click the certificate, and then click Properties. 13. In Friendly Name, type IP-HTTPS Certificate, and then click OK.
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Note Steps 12 and 13 are optional, but make it easier for you to select the certificate for Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) connections in Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Warning The DirectAccess Setup Wizard by default configures the URL of the IP-HTTPS server in the DirectAccess client and server GPOs based on the following format: https://SubjectFieldIP-HTTPSCertificate:443://IPHTTPS. This URL must not be more than 256 characters long. Otherwise, the IP-HTTPS component on the DirectAccess client and server will not operate correctly. Therefore, the FQDN in Step 9 of this procedure must not be more than 234 characters. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Install and Configure IIS for a Network Location Server Certificate


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The network location server uses a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate to authenticate Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based requests from DirectAccess clients. The SSL certificate has a customized subject name. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to request an SSL certificate and to configure certificate settings for Internet Information Services (IIS). Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). In this procedure, you request and customize an SSL certificate. To obtain an additional SSL certificate for network location 1. On the network location server, click Start, type mmc, and then press ENTER. 2. Click File, and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. 3. Click Certificates, click Add, select Computer account, click Next, select Local
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computer, click Finish, and then click OK. 4. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, open Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. 5. Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate. 6. Click Next twice. 7. On the Request Certificates page, click the Web Server certificate template, and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate. If the Web Server certificate template does not appear, ensure that the network location server computer account has enroll permissions for the Web Server certificate template. For more information, see Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template. 8. On the Subject tab of the Certificate Properties dialog box, in Subject name, for Type, select Common Name. 9. In Value, type the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the network location server (for example, nls.corp.contoso.com), and then click Add. 10. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish. 11. In the details pane of the Certificates snap-in, verify that a new certificate with the FQDN was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication. In this procedure, you configure the HTTPS security binding on the network location server to use the new SSL certificate. To configure the HTTPS security binding 1. On the network location server, click Start, type inetmgr.exe, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, open the site that contains the network location Web page. 3. In the Actions pane, click Bindings. 4. In the Site Bindings dialog box, click Add. 5. In the Add Site Binding dialog box, in Type, click https. In SSL Certificate, click the certificate with the FQDN. 6. Click OK, and then click Close. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Install the DirectAccess Feature


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see
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the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). You configure DirectAccess client and server settings and monitor DirectAccess connectivity with the DirectAccess management console, which you must install as a feature with Server Manager. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group, or otherwise be delegated permissions to install features from Server Manager. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477). To install the DirectAccess feature from Server Manager 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, click Run, type servermanager.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the main window, under Features Summary, click Add features. 3. On the Select Features page, select DirectAccess Management Console. 4. In the Add Features Wizard window, click Add Required Features. 5. On the Select Features page, click Next. 6. On the Confirm Installation Selections page, click Install. 7. On the Installation Results page, click Close. If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). By default, DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 use the global query block list to block the resolution of the name ISATAP. To allow name resolution for the ISATAP name, you must remove ISATAP from the global query block list of the DNS Server service for each DNS server on your intranet running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008. To complete these procedures, you must be a member of the local Administrators group on the DNS server, or otherwise be delegated permissions to modify registry values on the DNS server. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at Local and Domain Default Groups (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477).
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To remove ISATAP from the DNS global query block list on a DNS server 1. Click Start, type regedit.exe, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree, open Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\DNS\Par ameters. 3. In the contents pane, double-click the GlobalQueryBlockList value. 4. In the Edit Multi-String dialog box, remove the name ISATAP from the list, and then click OK. 5. Start a command prompt as an administrator. 6. In the Command Prompt window, run the following commands: net stop dns net start dns If you arrived at this page by clicking a link in a checklist, use your browsers Back button to return to the checklist.

Appendix A Manual DirectAccess Server Configuration


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). You can also configure a DirectAccess server manually with a series of commands at a Command Prompt window or within a script. The following sections describe the commands to configure a DirectAccess server for the equivalent default configuration of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard.

Configure Internet access components


Component Purpose Command

Teredo server

Configure Teredo with the name or IPv4 address of the Teredo server. Configure the IPv6

netsh interface ipv6 set teredo server FirstIPv4AddressOfDirectAccessServer

IPv6 interfaces

1. Run the following command for the 6to4


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Component

Purpose

Command

interfaces for the correct forwarding and advertising behavior.

and Teredo interfaces: netsh interface ipv6 set interface InterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled 2. If a LAN interface is present with a native IPv6 address, run the following command: netsh interface ipv6 set interface InterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled 3. For the IP-HTTPS interface, run the following command: netsh interface ipv6 set interface IPHTTPSInterface forwarding=enabled advertise=enabled

6to4 SSL certificates for IPHTTPS connections

Enable 6to4. Configure the certificate binding.

netsh interface 6to4 set state enabled 1. Install the SSL certificate using manual enrollment. 2. Use the netsh http add sslcert command to configure the certificate binding.

IP-HTTPS Interface

Configure the IPHTTPS interface.

netsh interface httpstunnel add interface server https://PublicIPv4AddressOrFQDN:443/iphttps enabled certificates netsh interface ipv6 add route IPHTTPSPrefix::/64 IPHTTPSInterface publish=yes IP-HTTPSPrefix is one of the following: 6to4-basedPrefix:2 if you are using a 6to4-based prefix based on the first public IPv4 address assigned to Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. NativePrefix:5555 if you are using a 48bit native IPv6 prefix. 5555 is the Subnet ID value chosen by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard.

IP-HTTPS Routing

Configure IPv6 routing for the IPHTTPS interface.

Configure intranet access components


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Component

Purpose

Command

ISATAP ISATAP ISATAP

Enable ISATAP. Configure the ISATAP router address. Configure ISATAP routing.

netsh interface isatap set state enabled netsh interface isatap set router DirectAccessServerIntranetIPv4Address netsh interface ipv6 add route IntranetPrefix:1::/64 ISATAPInterfaceIndex publish=yes IntranetPrefix is one of the following: The 48-bit 6to4-based prefix based on the first public IPv4 address assigned to Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. Your 48-bit native IPv6 prefix.

ISATAP

Configure intranet interface forwarding and advertising on the ISATAP interface. If you have native IPv6, configure intranet interface forwarding and advertising on the LAN interface. Publish the ISATAP name in DNS on the DNS server.

netsh interface ipv6 set interface ISATAPInterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled advertise=enabled netsh interface ipv6 set interface LANInterfaceIndex forwarding=enabled advertise=enabled

Network Interface

DNS

dnscmd /recordadd DNSSuffix isatap A DirectAccessServerIntranetIPv4Address

Configure IPsec DoSP


Purpose Command

Enable IPsec Denial of Service Protection (DoSP) on the Internet interface. Enable IPsec DoSP on the intranet interface.

netsh ipsecdosp add interface InternetInterfaceName public netsh ipsecdosp add interface intranetInterfaceName internal

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Configure connection security rules


There are separate connection security rules for the full intranet access model for the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients.

DirectAccess server configuration (full intranet access model)


Purpose Command

Connection security rule for traffic to the intranet DNS server and domain controller (the infrastructure tunnel). Connection security rule for traffic to management servers.

netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToDNSDC" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=DNSDCIPv6Address Endpoint2=Any LocalTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface RemoteTunnelEndpoint=Any Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserNTLM qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToMgMt" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=ManagementServerIPv6 Addresses Endpoint2=Any LocalTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface RemoteTunnelEndpoint=Any Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserNTLM qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1AES128+60min+100000kb netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToCorp" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=IntranetIPv6Prefix Endpoint2=Any LocalTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface RemoteTunnelEndpoint=Any Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA= Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserKerb qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AES128+60min+100000kb

Connection security rule for traffic to the intranet (the intranet tunnel).

Connection security rules for client configuration (full intranet access model)
Purpose Command

Connection security rule for traffic to the

netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToDNSDC" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=Any Endpoint2=DNS-DCIPv6Address LocalTunnelEndpoint=Any
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Purpose

Command

intranet DNS server and domain controller (the infrastructure tunnel). Connection security rule for traffic to management servers.

RemoteTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserNTLM qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AES128+60min+100000kb

netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToCorp" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=Any Endpoint2=IntranetIPv6Prefix LocalTunnelEndpoint=Any RemoteTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA= Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserKerb qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AES128+60min+100000kb netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="DirectAccess Policy ClientToMgmt" mode=tunnel profile=public,private Endpoint1=Any Endpoint2=ManagementServerIPv6 Addresses LocalTunnelEndpoint=Any RemoteTunnelEndpoint=IPv6AddressOfDirectAccessServerInternetInterface Action=RequireInRequireOut Auth1=ComputerCert Auth1CA=CANameString Auth2=UserNTLM qmsecmethods=ESP:SHA1AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AES128+60min+100000kb netsh advfirewall consec add rule name=DirectAccess Policy clientToNlaExempt mode=tunnel profile=public,private endpoint1=IntranetIPv6Prefix endpoint2=NetworkLocationServerIPv6Address action=noauthentication protocol=tcp port2=443

Connection security rule for traffic to the intranet (the intranet tunnel).

Connection security rule to exempt IPsec protection to the network location server.

Appendix B Manual DirectAccess Client Configuration


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). Manual configuration of DirectAccess clients consist of IPv6 transition technology settings and the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT).
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IPv6 transition technology settings


Purpose Command Group Policy Setting

Configure the Teredo client as an enterprise client and configure the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address of the Teredo server (the DirectAcce ss server). Configure the public IPv4 address of the 6to4 relay (the DirectAcce ss server).

netsh interface teredo set state type=enterpriseclient servername= FirstPublicIPv4AddressOfDirectAcces sServer

Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\Teredo State=Enterprise Client and Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\Ipv6 transition Technologies\Teredo Server Name=FirstPublicIPv4AddressOfDirectAcce ssServer

netsh interface 6to4 set relay name= FirstPublicIPv4AddressOfDirectAcces sServer

Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\Ipv6 transition Technologies\6to4 Relay Name=FirstPublicIPv4AddressOfDirectAcce ssServer

Enable the netsh interface httpstunnel add IP-HTTPS interface client https://SubjectOfIPclient and HPPTSCertificate/IPHTTPS configure the IPHTTPS Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\Ipv6 transition Technologies\IP-HTTPS State set to Enabled and the IP-HTTPS URL of https://SubjectOfIPHPPTSCertificate:443/IPHTTPS

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NRPT
For DirectAccess, the NRPT must be configured with the namespaces of your intranet with a leading dot (for example, .internal.contoso.com or .corp.contoso.com). For a DirectAccess client, any name request that matches one of these namespaces will be sent to the specified intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers. Include all intranet DNS namespaces that you want DirectAccess client computers to access. There are no command line methods for configuring NRPT rules. You must use Group Policy settings. To configure the NRPT through Group Policy, use the Group Policy add-in at Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. You can create a new NRPT rule and edit or delete existing rules. For more information, see Configure the NRPT with Group Policy.

Appendix C - DirectAccess User Interface Scripting


Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). DirectAccess user interface (UI) scripting allows you to use PowerShell scripts to run a combination of Netsh.exe and PowerShell commands and configure a DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard generates an Extensible Markup Language (XML) data file that can be passed as an input to the engine.ps1 PowerShell script. The location for the data file is %WINDIR%\DirectAccess\DirectAccessConfig.xml. This XML data file is generated whenever you save or apply settings with the DirectAccess Management Console. For more information and the engine.ps1 script file, see Perform DirectAccess Scripting (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=157388). By accessing the tag names inside the XML file, you can configure the DirectAccess server and all of the required Group Policies. Here is an example of a data file:
<root> <ServerData> <CorpPrefix>2002:836b:1::/48</CorpPrefix> . . </ServerData>

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. . </root>

CorpPrefix can be accessed by a script using the format $xmldata.root.ServerData.CorpPrefix. Three helper functions provide the ability to do the following: Expand variables Construct commands Run commands and log output Executing PowerShell commands Executing Netsh.exe commands

These functions are extensible and more commands can be added as needed. The functions are: pscmdexec(string command, string description) netshcmdexec(string command, string description) Executing Internet Protocol security (IPsec) or Windows Firewall-related Netsh.exe commands netshipseccmdexec(string setstorecommand, string ipseccommand, string description)

Script usage
The script takes in as arguments the data file path and the log file path along with the mandatory mode parameter.
Engine.ps1 mode <serveronly|gpsettingonly|all> [data <dataFilePath>] [-log <logFilePath>]

The first option <serveronly|gpsettingonly|all> is the following: Serveronly Configures only the DirectAccess server. Required settings and policies are not created for Group Policy. GPSettingOnly Creates and configures Group Policy. It does not configure the DirectAccess server. All Configures both the DirectAccess server and the Group Policies. This mode is equivalent to clicking Apply in the DirectAccess Management Console. The data and log options are optional. If they are not present, the script uses %WINDIR %\DirectAccess\DirectAccessConfig.xml and generates the log file in the current directory with the name DirectAccessLog.txt.

Log file
The script generates a log file named DirectAccessLog.txt when run, which contains the details of what actions the script performed, with timestamps. The log file contents have the following format: Time Stamp Step: description
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Executing: the command being run Output: output of the command

Limitation of the script


The script relies on the Dnscmd.exe tool to perform registration of the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) name on the Domain Name System (DNS) server. Either install Dnscmd.exe on the computer on which the script is being run with the Remote Server and Tools feature or add a new Address (A) record in DNS server for the name ISATAP with the intranet Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address of the DirectAccess server. You can get this address from the XML file at <root>-<ServerData>-<TransitionTechnologies>-<ISATAP><CorpV4Address>.

Appendix D - DirectAccessConfig.xsd
Important This topic describes deployment of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2. For deployment of DirectAccess in Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG), see the Forefront UAG DirectAccess Deployment Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=179989). The DirectAccessConfig.xml file contains DirectAccess configuration data of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. The following is the Extended Markup Language (XML) schema definition (XSD) file for DirectAccessConfig.xml. To create a DirectAccessConfig.xsd file, copy the contents to Notepad, and then save the file as DirectAccessConfig.xsd.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns="http://www.microsoft.com/networking/DirectAccess/v1" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://www.microsoft.com/networking/DirectAccess/v1" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" elementFormDefault="qualified"> <xs:element name="root"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="ServerData"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="CorpPrefix" type="ipv6Prefix" /> <xs:element name="InternetInterface" type="interface" /> <xs:element name="InternalNetworkInterface" type="interface" /> 197

<xs:element name="TransitionTechnologies"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="ISATAP" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> This MUST be specified if there is no pre-existing IPv6 or ISATAP deployment on the internal network. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="IsatapRouterName" type="domainName" /> <xs:element name="IsatapInterfaceName" type="domainName" /> <xs:element name="CorpV4Address" type="ipv4Address" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="Teredo"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="FirstInternetGlobalAddress" type="ipv4Address" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="IPHttps"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="IpHttpsPrefix" type="ipv6Prefix" /> <xs:element name="IpHttpsCertHash" type="xs:hexBinary" /> 198

<xs:element name="IpHttpsServerURL" type="xs:anyURI" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="DOSPConfig"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="IPsecUnauthenticatedPerIPRate" default="10240" type="xs:unsignedInt" /> <xs:element name="IPsecAuthenticatedRate" default="0" type="xs:unsignedInt" /> <xs:element name="ICMPv6Rate" default="10240" type="xs:unsignedInt" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="IsV6Deployed" type="xs:boolean" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="IIS" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> This MUST be specified in case network location server is run on the DirectAccess server and certificate used for securing location identification is same as that used by remote client to secure connectivity over IPHTTPS. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="IpHttpsAddresses"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="Address" type="ipAddress" /> </xs:sequence> 199

</xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="InOutAddresses"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="Address" type="ipAddress" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="GPO"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="Common"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="AppServers" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> List of application server addresses that will enforce authorization. This must be specified in case the authorization option is other than NoAuthorization. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="Address" type="ipv6Address" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="DnsServers"> 200

<xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="Address" type="ipv6Address" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="MgmtServers" minOccurs="0"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="Address" type="ipv6PrefixOrAddress" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="CorpV6" type="ipv6Prefix" /> <xs:element name="NonCorpV6" type="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="TunnelEndpointDnsDcMgmt" type="ipv6Address" /> <xs:element name="TunnelEndpointCorp" type="ipv6Address" /> <xs:element name="RootCert" type="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="RootCertNetshFormatted" type="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="CertType"> <xs:simpleType> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:enumeration value="Root"/> <xs:enumeration value="Intermediate"/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="SmartCard"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="Option"> <xs:simpleType> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> 201

<xs:enumeration value="NoSmartCard"/> <xs:enumeration value="RemoteSmartCard"/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="SDDLString" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> This MUST be specified in case SmartCard option selected is RequireSmartCard. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="DistinguishedDomainName" type="distinguishedDomainName" /> <xs:element name="DomainName" type="domainName" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="ClientPolicies"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="SecurityGroups"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="SecurityGroup" type="sg" maxOccurs="unbounded" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="NRPT"> <xs:complexType> 202

<xs:sequence> <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="entry"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="DirectAccessDNSServers" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation> List of DNS server IPv6 addresses (, delimited) for the DNS suffix specified in Name element above. Can be empty if specifying NRPT exepmption. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> </xs:all> <xs:attribute name="PolicyName" type="xs:string" use="required" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:unique name="NRPTRuleName"> <xs:selector xpath="*" /> <xs:field xpath="@PolicyName" /> </xs:unique> </xs:element> <xs:element name="DnsFallBackOptions"> <xs:simpleType> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:enumeration value="DnsFallbackNameDoesNotExist"/> <xs:enumeration value="DnsAlwaysFallbackForAnyError"/> <xs:enumeration value="DnsAlwaysFallbackPrivateOnly"/> </xs:restriction> 203

</xs:simpleType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="NCSI"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="NcsiUrl" type="xs:anyURI" /> <xs:element name="NcsiRrName" type="domainName" /> <xs:element name="NcsiRrIp" type="ipv6Address" fixed="0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="NID"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="NidCertHash" type="xs:hexBinary" minOccurs="0"/> <xs:element name="NidUrl" type="xs:anyURI" /> <xs:element name="NidAddress" type="ipv6Address" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="ClientToDnsPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc" /> <xs:element name="ClientToCorpPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp" /> <xs:element name="ClientToMgmtPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt" minOccurs="0" /> <xs:element name="ClientToApplicationServerPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer" minOccurs="0" /> <xs:element name="ClientToApplicationServerExemptPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServerExempt" minOccurs="0" /> <xs:element name="ClientToNlaExemptPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-clientToNlaExempt" /> <xs:element name="IpHttpsOutRuleName" type="xs:string" default="Core Networking - IPHTTPS (TCP-Out)" /> 204

</xs:all> <xs:attribute name="GPOName" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="ServerPolicies"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="SecurityGroups"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="SecurityGroup" type="sg" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="ServerToDnsPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToDnsDc" /> <xs:element name="ServerToCorpPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToCorp" /> <xs:element name="ServerToMgmtPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-DaServerToMgmt" minOccurs="0" /> <xs:element name="IpHttpsInRuleName" type="xs:string" default="Core Networking - IPHTTPS (TCP-In)" /> </xs:all> <xs:attribute name="GPOName" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300}" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="AppServerPolicies"> <xs:complexType> <xs:all> <xs:element name="SecurityGroups" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> List of security groups containing servers that will enforce authorization. 205

MUST be specified in case AuthorizationOption is other than NoAuthorization. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="SecurityGroup" type="sg" maxOccurs="unbounded" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="AuthenticationOption"> <xs:simpleType> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:enumeration value="NoAuthentication"/> <xs:enumeration value="SelectedServerEndToEnd"/> <xs:enumeration value="EndToEndAuthentication"/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="EndToEndIPsecCompatibilityMode" type="xs:boolean" minOccurs="0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en-us"> Whether IPsec connection security rules on application servers should allow null encryption. MUST be specified in case AuthorizationOption is other than NoAuthorization. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> <xs:element name="ApplicationServerToClientPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-appServerToClient" minOccurs="0" /> <xs:element name="ApplicationServerToIpHttpsClientPolicy" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-appServerToIpHttpsClientPolicy" minOccurs="0" /> 206

</xs:all> <xs:attribute name="GPOName" type="xs:string" default="DirectAccess Policy-{f7b77f47-7c33-4d8c-bb9a-a913c5675d8d}" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:all> </xs:complexType> <xs:unique name="GPONames"> <xs:selector xpath="*" /> <xs:field xpath="@GPOName" /> </xs:unique> </xs:element> </xs:all> <xs:attribute name="State" type="xs:string" fixed="Complete" use="required" /> <xs:attribute name="Version" type="xs:decimal" default="1.0" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element>

<xs:complexType name="sg"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> Type representing a security group. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:all> <xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="Type"> <xs:simpleType> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:enumeration value="computer"/> <xs:enumeration value="group"/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:element> 207

</xs:all> </xs:complexType>

<xs:complexType name="interface"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> Type representing an network interface. Holds interface properties. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:all> <xs:element name="Name" type ="xs:string" /> <xs:element name="Id" type="guid" /> </xs:all> </xs:complexType>

<xs:simpleType name="ipv4Address"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of an IPv4 address </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="((0|(1[0-9]{0,2})|(2(([0-4][0-9]?)|(5[0-5]?)|([6-9]?)))|([3-9] [0-9]?))\.){3}(0|(1[0-9]{0,2})|(2(([0-4][0-9]?)|(5[0-5]?)|([6-9]?)))|([3-9][0-9]?))" /> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="ipv6Address"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of an IPv6 address 208

</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="((([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:){7})([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))|((([0-9a-fA-F] {1,4}:){6})(([0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3})))|((([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([09a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(::)(([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*)|((([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([09a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(::)(([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(([0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\. [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3})))" /> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="ipv6Prefix"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of an IPv6 prefix </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="((([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:){7})([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4})/\d+)|((([0-9a-fA-F] {1,4}:){6})(([0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}))/\d+)|((([0-9a-fA-F] {1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(::)(([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*/\d+)|((([0-9afA-F]{1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(::)(([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}:)*([0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}))*(([0-9] {1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}))/\d+)" /> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="ipv6PrefixOrAddress"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of an IPv6 prefix or address </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:union memberTypes="ipv6Prefix ipv6Address" /> </xs:simpleType> 209

<xs:simpleType name="ipAddress" > <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of an IP address. This can be IPv4 or IPv6. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:union memberTypes="ipv4Address ipv6Address" /> </xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="guid"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation xml:lang="en"> The representation of a GUID, generally the id of an element. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="\{[a-fA-F0-9]{8}-[a-fA-F0-9]{4}-[a-fA-F0-9]{4}-[a-fA-F0-9]{4}[a-fA-F0-9]{12}\}"/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="domainName"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation> The domainName type represents a DNS domain name. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]*[a-zA-Z0-9]\.)*[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]*[azA-Z0-9]" /> </xs:restriction> 210

</xs:simpleType>

<xs:simpleType name="distinguishedDomainName"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation> This type represents a domain name in distinguished name format. </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="(DC=[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]*[a-zA-Z0-9],)*DC=[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z09\-]*[a-zA-Z0-9]" /> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType>

</xs:schema>

DirectAccess Troubleshooting Guide


This guide provides troubleshooting information for DirectAccess in the Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems. It is designed to help you identify and resolve problems that might be related to DirectAccess.

In this guide
This guide is intended for use by a network or system administrator. This guide provides information to help you identify and resolve problems quickly. Use this guide to assist you while performing root-cause analysis of incidents and problems with components of a DirectAccess infrastructure. Before you read this guide, you should have a good understanding of the way DirectAccess works and how it is deployed in your organization. The following topics are included in this guide: Introduction to Troubleshooting DirectAccess A-Z List of Problem Topics for DirectAccess Tools for Troubleshooting DirectAccess General Methodology for Troubleshooting DirectAccess Connections Troubleshooting DirectAccess Problems
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To learn how to use DirectAccess troubleshooting tools and techniques in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613), see the Test Lab Guide: Troubleshoot DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=181160). This guide, combined with the DirectAccess Design and Deployment Guides, is also available as a Microsoft Word file (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=163662) in the Microsoft Download Center. For a list of all the DirectAccess troubleshooting resources, see Troubleshoot DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190435).

Introduction to Troubleshooting DirectAccess


This guide explains how to troubleshoot DirectAccess. If you are not familiar with this guide, review the following sections of this introduction.

When to use this guide


Use this guide when: You have problems updating or operating DirectAccess infrastructure components. You have problems with a new DirectAccess deployment. You want to learn about troubleshooting techniques to use with DirectAccess.

How to use this guide


This guide contains the following topics: A-Z List of Problem Topics for DirectAccess Tools for Troubleshooting DirectAccess This topic lists problem topics alphabetically. You can use it to find a problem topic quickly. This topic describes how to use command line tools, services, and logs on your computer to gather information for troubleshooting DirectAccess. General Methodology for Troubleshooting DirectAccess Connections Troubleshooting DirectAccess Problems This topic provides a step-by-step process for troubleshooting DirectAccess connections. This topic links to step-by-step procedures that help you identify and fix specific DirectAccess problems. You can use this topic to find a solution for a problem.

Additional resources
To learn how to use DirectAccess troubleshooting tools and techniques in a test lab, see the Test Lab Guide: Troubleshoot DirectAccess (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=181160).
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For a list of all the DirectAccess troubleshooting resources, see Troubleshoot DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190435).

A-Z List of Problem Topics for DirectAccess


The following is a list of topics you can use to troubleshoot DirectAccess problems. This list will be updated as new problems and solutions are found. For an overview of DirectAccess troubleshooting techniques and to view categories used to classify these topics, see Troubleshooting DirectAccess Problems. Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server from the IPv6 Internet Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with 6to4 Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with IP-HTTPS Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with Teredo DirectAccess Client Cannot Access Intranet Resources DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server DirectAccess Client Cannot Resolve Names with Intranet DNS Servers DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Internet When on the Intranet DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet DirectAccess Client Connection is Slow Fixing Problems Encountered during the Steps of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

Fixing Problems Encountered when Applying the Settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard Fixing problems that Prevent You from Running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard Fixing Problems with Creating Protected Connections to an Intranet Resource Intranet Management Server Cannot Connect to a DirectAccess Client

Tools for Troubleshooting DirectAccess


Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 provide many tools for gathering information for DirectAccess problem determination and resolution. The topics in this section describe the following tool sets: Network Diagnostics and Tracing Command Line Tools Snap-in Tools DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA)

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Network Diagnostics and Tracing


Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 include extensive network diagnostics and tracing facilities that are designed for gathering troubleshooting information on the DirectAccess client when attempting to connect to the DirectAccess server. This topic describes the following: Windows Network Diagnostics Troubleshooting item in Control Panel Network tracing for DirectAccess Windows Firewall tracing

Windows Network Diagnostics


To access Windows Network Diagnostics, right-click the network connection icon in the notification area, and then click Troubleshoot problems. Windows Network Diagnostics has extensive support for DirectAccess connections and in many cases provides the user with information about the root cause of the problem. Use Windows Network Diagnostics as your first troubleshooting tool on the DirectAccess client.

Troubleshooting item in Control Panel


To focus troubleshooting on DirectAccess and collect additional information, you can use the Connection to a Workplace Using DirectAccess troubleshooter in the Troubleshooting item of Control Panel. To start the DirectAccess troubleshooter 1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. 2. In System and Security, click Find and fix problems. 3. Click Network and Internet, and then click Connection to a Workplace Using DirectAccess. Note For this troubleshooting tool to work correctly, you must configure the Computer Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates/Network/Network Connectivity Status Indicator/Corporate Website Probe URL Group Policy setting in the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Design Your Intranet for Corporate Connectivity Detection.

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Network tracing for DirectAccess


Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new Netsh.exe context for network tracing; netsh trace. Commands in the netsh trace context allow you to selectively enable tracing for providers and scenarios. A provider represents an individual component in the network protocol stack, such as Windows Sockets (WinSock), Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) Services, or Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS). A tracing scenario is a collection of providers for a specific function, such as file sharing or wireless LAN access. You can also apply filters to exclude irrelevant details and reduce the size of the resulting Event Tracing Log (ETL) file. To perform detailed troubleshooting for networking issues, a helpdesk staff person or Microsofts Customer Service and Support organization typically needs both internal component tracing information and a capture of the network traffic that occurred when duplicating the problem. Prior to Windows 7, this information had to be obtained two different ways; use Netsh.exe commands to enable and disable tracing and a packet sniffer program such as Network Monitor to capture the network traffic. Even with this information, it was difficult to tie these two sources of information together to determine when network traffic was sent relative to the events in the tracing logs. When you perform network tracing in Windows 7 with commands in the netsh trace context, ETL files can contain both network traffic and component tracing information in sequence. The ETL files can be displayed with Microsoft Network Monitor 3.3 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=157376), which provides much more efficient way to analyze and troubleshoot network problems. To capture a network trace for a DirectAccess client 1. Open an administrator-level command prompt. 2. In the command prompt window, type the netsh trace start scenario=directaccess capture=yes report=yes command. 3. Reproduce the problem that you are having with DirectAccess. 4. In the command prompt window, type the netsh trace stop command. Netsh.exe writes tracing information to the NetTrace.etl file in the %TEMP%\NetTraces folder. To see the contents of this file, open it with Network Monitor 3.3. Netsh.exe also writes additional environment and troubleshooting information to the NetTrace.cab file in the %TEMP%\NetTraces folder.

Windows Firewall tracing


Windows Firewall tracing provides detailed component interaction information for the Windows Filtering Platform (WFP). WFP is a set of application programming interface (API) and system services that provide a platform for creating network filtering applications. The WFP API allows developers to write code that interacts with the packet processing that takes place at several layers in the networking stack of the operating system. Network data can be filtered and also modified before it reaches its destination. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security uses WFP for
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firewall filtering and connection security. You can use Windows Firewall tracing to capture and analyze Internet Protocol security (IPsec) security negotiation. To capture a network trace for WFP 1. Open an administrator-level command prompt. 2. In the command prompt window, type the netsh wfp capture start cab=off command. 3. Reproduce the problem that you are having with DirectAccess. 4. In the command prompt window, type the netsh wfp capture end command. Netsh.exe writes tracing information to the Wfpdiag.xml file, which you can review for information about connection security issues.

Command Line Tools


Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 provide a variety of command line tools to obtain troubleshooting information. This topic describes the following tools: The Netsh.exe Command Line Tool The Ping.exe Command Line Tool The Nslookup.exe Command Line Tool The Ipconfig.exe Command Line Tool The Certutil.exe Command Line Tool The Nltest.exe Command Line Tool

The Netsh.exe Command Line Tool


The following Network Shell (Netsh) commands can be used to gather information when troubleshooting DirectAccess: netsh dnsclient show state netsh namespace show effectivepolicy and netsh namespace show policy netsh interface 6to4 show relay netsh interface teredo show state netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces netsh interface istatap show state and netsh interface istatap show router netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa netsh advfirewall monitor show consec rule name=all netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile
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netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces level=verbose netsh interface ipv6 show route

Note The example displays of Netsh.exe commands in this topic were obtained from the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).

netsh dnsclient show state


This command shows the settings for the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) on a DirectAccess client, including where the client is located (either on the intranet or on the Internet), whether the client has been configured with DirectAccess NRPT rules, and whether they are enabled. The following is an example of output from the netsh dnsclient show state command.
Name Resolution Policy Table Options -------------------------------------------------------------------Query Failure Behavior exist in DNS Query Resolution Behavior Network Location Behavior settings are to be used Machine Location DirectAccess Settings DNSSEC Settings : Inside corporate network : Configured and Disabled : Not Configured : Resolve only IPv6 addresses for names : Let Network ID determine when DirectAccess : Only use LLMNR and NetBIOS if the name does not

In this example, the DirectAccess client is located on the intranet (Machine location: Inside corporate network) and has been configured with DirectAccess NRPT rules, but they are disabled (DirectAccess Settings: Configured and Disabled). You use the netsh dnsclient show state command to determine the results of network location detection (the Machine location field) and the state of DirectAccess NRPT rules (the DirectAccess Settings field).

netsh namespace show effectivepolicy and netsh namespace show policy


This command shows the rules in the NRPT on a DirectAccess client. The netsh namespace show policy shows the NRPT rules as configured with Group Policy and the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command shows the active rules. The following is an example of output from the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command.
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DNS Effective Name Resolution Policy Table Settings

Settings for nls.corp.contoso.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------Certification authority C1-CA DNSSEC (Validation) IPsec settings DirectAccess (DNS Servers) DirectAccess (Proxy Settings) : disabled : disabled : : Bypass proxy : DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-D

Settings for .corp.contoso.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------Certification authority C1-CA DNSSEC (Validation) IPsec settings DirectAccess (DNS Servers) DirectAccess (Proxy Settings) : disabled : disabled : 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.1 : Bypass proxy : DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-D

In this example, the DirectAccess client is located on the Internet and has a namespace entry for its intranet namespace (the rule for .corp.contoso.com) and an exemption rule for the FQDN of its network location server (the rule for .nls.corp.contoso.com). You use the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command to determine the results of network location detection and the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers for additional troubleshooting. If there are active rules in the NRPT, the DirectAccess client has determined that it is not on the intranet. If there are no active rules in the NRPT, the DirectAccess client has determined that it is on the intranet or it has not been correctly configured with NRPT rules. If there are no rules in the NRPT as configured through Group Policy (from the display of the netsh namespace show policy command), the DirectAccess client has not been properly configured. Verify that the computer account of the DirectAccess client is a member of the appropriate security group.

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Note The DirectAccess server is not a DirectAccess client and is not configured with NRPT rules. The netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command on a DirectAccess server should always display no rules.

netsh interface 6to4 show relay


This command shows the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the 6to4 relay on a DirectAccess client. On a DirectAccess client, this is set by default through Group Policy to the first consecutive IPv4 address that is assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. The following is an example of output from the netsh interface 6to4 show relay command.
Relay Name Use Relay Resolution Interval : 131.107.0.2 (Group Policy) : default : default

In this example, the DirectAccess client has been configured with the 6to4 relay IPv4 address of 131.107.0.2 through Group Policy. You use the netsh interface 6to4 show relay command to determine where the DirectAccess client is sending its default route IPv6 traffic when it has been configured with a public IPv4 address and using 6to4 to tunnel IPv6 traffic across the Internet.

netsh interface teredo show state


This command shows the state and configuration of the Teredo component on a DirectAccess server or client. On a DirectAccess client, the Teredo client configuration is set by default through Group Policy and the Server Name is set to the first consecutive IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. The following is an example of output from the netsh interface teredo show state command on a DirectAccess client.
Teredo Parameters --------------------------------------------Type Server Name : client : 131.107.0.2 (Group Policy)

Client Refresh Interval : 30 seconds Client Port State Error : unspecified : offline : client is in a managed network

In this example, the DirectAccess client has been configured with the Teredo server IPv4 address of 131.107.0.2 through Group Policy and is in an offline state.
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The following is an example of output from the netsh interface teredo show state command on a DirectAccess server.
Teredo Parameters --------------------------------------------Type Virtual Server Ip : server : 0.0.0.0

Client Refresh Interval : 30 seconds State : online

Server Packets Received : 0 Success Failure : 0 (Bubble 0, Echo 0, RS1 0 RS2 0) : 0 (Hdr 0, Src 0, Dest 0, Auth 0)

Relay Packets Received Success Failure

: 0 : 0 (Bubble 0, Data 0) : 0 (Hdr 0, Src 0, Dest 0)

Relay Packets Sent Success Failure

: 2 : 0 (Bubble 0, Data 0) : 2 (Hdr 0, Src 2, Dest 0)

Packets Received in the last 30 seconds: Bubble 0, Echo 0, RS1 0, RS2 0 6to4 source address 0, native IPv6 source address 0 6to4 destination address 0, native IPv6 destination address 0

Estimated Bandwidth consumed in the last 30 seconds (in BPS): Bubble 0, Echo 0, Primary 0, Secondary 0 6to4 source address 0, native IPv6 source address 0 6to4 destination address 0, native IPv6 destination address 0

In this example, the DirectAccess server is acting as a Teredo server and a Teredo relay and is in an online state. You use the netsh interface teredo show state command on a DirectAccess client to determine the Teredo server of a DirectAccess client and its current state. You use the netsh interface
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teredo show state command on a DirectAccess server to determine whether it is acting as a Teredo server and its current state.

netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces


This command shows the state and configuration of the Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) component on a DirectAccess server or client. On a DirectAccess client, the IP-HTTPS client configuration is set by default through Group Policy. The uniform resource locator (URL) of the IP-HTTPS server is based on the Subject field in the certificate chosen for IP-HTTPS connections in Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. The following is an example of output from the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on a DirectAccess client.
Interface IPHTTPSInterface (Group Policy) Parameters

-----------------------------------------------------------Role URL Last Error Code Interface Status : client : https://da1.contoso.com:443/IPHTTPS : 0x0 : IPHTTPS interface deactivated

In this example, the DirectAccess client has been configured as an IP-HTTPS client with the URL https://da1.contoso.com:443/IPHTTPS. The following is an example of output from the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on a DirectAccess server.
Interface IPHTTPSInterface Parameters -----------------------------------------------------------Role URL : server : https://da1.contoso.com:443/IPHTTPS

Client authentication mode : certificates Last Error Code Interface Status : 0x0 : IPHTTPS interface active

In this example, the DirectAccess server has been configured as an IP-HTTPS server with the URL https://da1.contoso.com:443/IPHTTPS and uses certificates for authentication. You use the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on a DirectAccess client to determine the URL of the IP-HTTPS server and the current state of the IP-HTTPS client component. You use the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on a DirectAccess server to determine URL of the IP-HTTPS server and to verify that it is acting as an IP-HTTPS server and the authentication method. The URL for the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on both the DirectAccess client and server should be the same.

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netsh interface istatap show state and netsh interface istatap show router
These commands show the state and configuration of the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) component on the ISATAP router (the DirectAccess server) or an ISATAP host. Unlike 6to4, Teredo, and IP-HTTPS transition technologies, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard does not configure a name or IPv4 address for an ISATAP router in Group Policy. Instead, it attempts to register the name ISATAP and an assigned intranet IPv4 address with its DNS server. ISATAP hosts on the intranet use the name ISATAP to resolve the IPv4 address of the ISATAP router (the DirectAccess server). The following is an example of output from the netsh interface istatap show state command on a DirectAccess server.
ISATAP State : enabled

In this example, the DirectAccess server has the ISATAP component enabled. The following is an example of output from the netsh interface istatap show router command on the DirectAccess server.
Router Name Use Relay Resolution Interval : isatap.corp.contoso.com : default : default

In this example, the DirectAccess server has constructed the ISATAP router name from the name ISATAP and the DNS suffix assigned to the computer (corp.contoso.com). You use the netsh interface istatap show state and netsh interface istatap show router commands on the DirectAccess server to ensure that it is configured to act as an ISATAP router. You use the netsh interface istatap show state and netsh interface istatap show router commands on an intranet node to ensure that it has a default configuration. To determine if an ISATAP host has successfully configured an ISATAP-based address, use the ipconfig command and look for an interface named Tunnel adapter isatap.ComputerDNSSuffix. Ensure that it has been assigned an ISATAP-based IPv6 address that begins with 2 or 3 and a default gateway.

netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa


This command shows the currently active main mode security associations (SAs) on a DirectAccess client, a DirectAccess server, or an intranet resource. The following is an example of output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command on a DirectAccess client.
Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:2::836b:2 222

Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert:

ComputerCert UserNTLM None-AES128-SHA256 a075a1437682ad8e:0afed90d0f2a8cac No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:2::836b:2 ComputerCert UserNTLM None-AES128-SHA256 9e355ec21d66e39b:d748c6e2ddd09424 No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3 CORP\User1 host/APP1.corp.contoso.com ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 912ff504e979e831:4eb6fb986fa84eb9 No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:3::836b:3 host/CLIENT2.corp.contoso.com CORP\DA1$

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Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert:

ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 96d2b451be5756e9:0d2515c811c26034 No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:3::836b:3 NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM host/da1.corp.contoso.com ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 2ba50b46a6820026:24b64b78e8f7ac0d No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:43:59 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: Ok. 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:3::836b:3 CORP\User1 host/da1.corp.contoso.com ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 4775f7dd32e268b2:b0ad96d598518fa7 No

The following is an example of output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command on the DirectAccess server of the DirectAccess client.
Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:44:03 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: 2002:836b:2::836b:2 224

Remote IP Address: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert:

2002:836b:65::836b:65 ComputerCert UserNTLM None-AES128-SHA256 a075a1437682ad8e:0afed90d0f2a8cac No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:44:03 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: 2002:836b:2::836b:2 2002:836b:65::836b:65 ComputerCert UserNTLM None-AES128-SHA256 9e355ec21d66e39b:d748c6e2ddd09424 No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:44:03 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: 2002:836b:3::836b:3 2002:836b:65::836b:65 NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM host/CLIENT2.corp.contoso.com ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 96d2b451be5756e9:0d2515c811c26034 No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:44:03 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: 2002:836b:3::836b:3 2002:836b:65::836b:65 host/da1.corp.contoso.com

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Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert:

CORP\CLIENT2$ ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 2ba50b46a6820026:24b64b78e8f7ac0d No

Main Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:44:03 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Auth2 Local ID: Auth2 Remote ID: Auth1: Auth2: MM Offer: Cookie Pair: Health Cert: Ok. 2002:836b:3::836b:3 2002:836b:65::836b:65 host/da1.corp.contoso.com CORP\User1 ComputerCert UserKerb None-AES128-SHA256 4775f7dd32e268b2:b0ad96d598518fa7 No

You can correlate the main mode SAs on the DirectAccess client and server through the Cookie Pair. You use the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command to verify that the DirectAccess client and server can successfully negotiate main mode Internet Protocol security (IPsec) SAs. If there are no main mode IPsec SAs on the DirectAccess client after attempting to access an intranet resource, investigate the inability to perform IPsec peer authentication with installed certificates.

netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa


This command shows the currently active quick mode SAs on a DirectAccess client, a DirectAccess server, or an intranet resource. The following is an example of output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command on a DirectAccess client.
Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:38 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:2::836b:2 226

Local Port: Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS:

Any Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:38 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:3::836b:3 Any Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:38 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3 Any Any Any Both ESP:SHA256-None+60min+100000kb None

Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:38 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: 2002:836b:65::836b:65 2002:836b:3::836b:3 Any

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Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: Ok.

Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

The following is an example of output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command on the DirectAccess server of the DirectAccess client.
Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:47 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: 2002:836b:2::836b:2 2002:836b:65::836b:65 Any Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:47 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: 2002:836b:3::836b:3 2002:836b:65::836b:65 Any Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

Quick Mode SA at 09/11/2009 10:56:47 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Local IP Address: Remote IP Address: Local Port: 2002:836b:3::836b:3 2002:836b:65::836b:65 Any 228

Remote Port: Protocol: Direction: QM Offer: PFS: Ok.

Any Any Both ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb None

You can correlate the quick mode SAs on the DirectAccess client and server through the local and remote Internet Protocol (IP) address pairs and Quick Mode (QM) offers. You use the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command to verify that the DirectAccess client and server can successfully negotiate quick mode IPsec SAs. If there are no quick mode IPsec SAs on the DirectAccess client after attempting to access an intranet resource, investigate the correlation of quick mode settings between the DirectAccess client, the DirectAccess server, and the intranet node.

netsh advfirewall monitor show consec rule name=all


This command shows the active connection security rules on a DirectAccess client, DirectAccess server, or intranet node. The following is an example of the output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show consec rule name=all command on a DirectAccess client.
Connection Security Rules:

Rule Name:

DirectAccess Policy-clientToNlaExempt

---------------------------------------------------------------------Enabled: Profiles: Type: Mode: LocalTunnelEndpoint: RemoteTunnelEndpoint: Endpoint1: Endpoint2: 1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3 Port1: Port2: Protocol: Any 443 TCP 229 Yes Private,Public Dynamic Tunnel Any Any 2002:836b:2:1::/64 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3-2002:836b:2:

Action: ExemptIPsecProtectedConnections: ApplyAuthorization:

NoAuthentication No No

Rule Name:

DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer

---------------------------------------------------------------------Enabled: Profiles: Type: Mode: Endpoint1: Endpoint2: 1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3 Protocol: Action: Auth1: Auth1CAName: A Auth1CertMapping: Auth1ExcludeCAName: Auth1CertType: Auth1HealthCert: Auth2: MainModeSecMethods: 1,DHGroup2-3DES-SHA1 QuickModeSecMethods: ESP:SHA256-None+60min+100000kb,AH:SHA256+6 No No Root No UserKerb DHGroup2-AES128-SHA256,DHGroup2-AES128-SHA Any RequestInRequestOut ComputerCert,ComputerKerb DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-DC1-C Yes Private,Public Dynamic Transport Any 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.3-2002:836b:2:

0min+100000kb,AuthNoEncap:SHA256+60min+100000kb

Rule Name:

DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt

---------------------------------------------------------------------Enabled: Profiles: Type: Mode: Yes Private,Public Dynamic Tunnel

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LocalTunnelEndpoint: RemoteTunnelEndpoint: Endpoint1: Endpoint2: 6b:2:1:200:5efe:157.60.79.2 Protocol: Action: Auth1: Auth1CAName: A Auth1CertMapping: Auth1ExcludeCAName: Auth1CertType: Auth1HealthCert: Auth2: MainModeSecMethods: 1,DHGroup2-3DES-SHA1 QuickModeSecMethods: S128+60min+100000kb ExemptIPsecProtectedConnections: ApplyAuthorization:

Any 2002:836b:2::836b:2 Any 2002:836b:2:1:200:5efe:157.60.79.2-2002:83

Any RequireInRequireOut ComputerCert DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-DC1-C

No No Root No UserNTLM DHGroup2-AES128-SHA256,DHGroup2-AES128-SHA

ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AE

No No

Rule Name:

DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp

---------------------------------------------------------------------Enabled: Profiles: Type: Mode: LocalTunnelEndpoint: RemoteTunnelEndpoint: Endpoint1: Endpoint2: Protocol: Action: Yes Private,Public Dynamic Tunnel Any 2002:836b:3::836b:3 Any 2002:836b:2:1::/64 Any RequireInRequireOut

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Auth1: Auth1CAName: A Auth1CertMapping: Auth1ExcludeCAName: Auth1CertType: Auth1HealthCert: Auth2: MainModeSecMethods: 1,DHGroup2-3DES-SHA1 QuickModeSecMethods: S128+60min+100000kb ExemptIPsecProtectedConnections: ApplyAuthorization:

ComputerCert DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-DC1-C

No No Root No UserKerb DHGroup2-AES128-SHA256,DHGroup2-AES128-SHA

ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AE

No No

Rule Name:

DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc

---------------------------------------------------------------------Enabled: Profiles: Type: Mode: LocalTunnelEndpoint: RemoteTunnelEndpoint: Endpoint1: Endpoint2: 1:0:5efe:10.0.0.1 Protocol: Action: Auth1: Auth1CAName: A Auth1CertMapping: Auth1ExcludeCAName: Auth1CertType: No No Root Any RequireInRequireOut ComputerCert DC=com, DC=contoso, DC=corp, CN=corp-DC1-C Yes Private,Public Dynamic Tunnel Any 2002:836b:2::836b:2 Any 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.1-2002:836b:2:

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Auth1HealthCert: Auth2: MainModeSecMethods: 1,DHGroup2-3DES-SHA1 QuickModeSecMethods: S128+60min+100000kb ExemptIPsecProtectedConnections: ApplyAuthorization:

No UserNTLM DHGroup2-AES128-SHA256,DHGroup2-AES128-SHA

ESP:SHA1-AES192+60min+100000kb,ESP:SHA1-AE

No No

Ok.

You use the netsh advfirewall monitor show consec rule name=all command to verify that a DirectAccess client, DirectAccess server, or selected server has been configured with the correct connection security rules.

netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile


This command shows the networks to which the computer is attached and the firewall profiles (public, private, or domain) assigned to each network. The following is an example of the output from the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command on a DirectAccess server.
Domain Profile: ---------------------------------------------------------------------corp.contoso.com

Public Profile: ---------------------------------------------------------------------Unidentified network Ok.

In this example, the DirectAccess server is attached to two networks (corp.contoso.com and Unidentified network). The corp.contoso.com network is assigned the domain profile and the Unidentified network is assigned the public profile. You use the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command to determine the profiles that are assigned to DirectAccess clients when troubleshooting network location detection and the profiles assigned to a DirectAccess server when troubleshooting DirectAccess Setup Wizard problems.

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netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces


This command shows the set of IPv6 interfaces on a computer and their state. The following is an example of the output from the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces command on a DirectAccess server.
Idx --1 13 14 11 15 16 17 12 Met ---------50 25 25 20 25 50 50 20 MTU ---------4294967295 1280 1280 1500 1280 1280 1280 1500 State -----------connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected Name --------------------------Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1 isatap.corp.contoso.com isatap.isp.example.com Corpnet 6TO4 Adapter Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface IPHTTPSInterface Internet

You use the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces command to quickly determine the set of IPv6 interfaces and whether ISATAP, 6to4, Teredo, and IP-HTTPS tunneling interfaces are present and their state (connected or disconnected).

netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces level=verbose


This command shows the set of IPv6 interfaces on a computer and detailed information about their configuration. The following is an example of the output from the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces level=verbose command on a DirectAccess server.
Interface Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1 Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits : loopback_1 : 1 : connected : 50 : 4294967295 bytes : 31000 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 0

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Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: 64 : 1 : disabled : disabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface isatap.corp.contoso.com Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising : tunnel_4 : 13 : connected : 25 : 1280 bytes : 16500 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 0 : 64 : 1 : enabled : enabled

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Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : enabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface isatap.isp.example.com Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration : tunnel_5 : 14 : connected : 25 : 1280 bytes : 36000 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 0 : 64 : 1 : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled

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Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface Corpnet Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric : ethernet_6 : 11 : connected : 20 : 1500 bytes : 19500 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 1 : 64 : 1 : enabled : disabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : disabled : enabled

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Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface 6TO4 Adapter Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit : tunnel_6 : 15 : connected : 25 : 1280 bytes : 37000 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 0 : 64 : 1 : enabled : disabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0

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Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: disabled : disabled

Interface Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns : tunnel_7 : 16 : connected : 50 : 1280 bytes : 13500 ms : 15000 ms : 2000 ms : 0 : 64 : 1 : enabled : disabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface IPHTTPSInterface Parameters

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---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns : tunnel_8 : 17 : connected : 50 : 1280 bytes : 35000 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 1 : 64 : 1 : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : disabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

Interface Internet Parameters ---------------------------------------------IfLuid IfIndex State : ethernet_9 : 12 : connected

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Metric Link MTU Reachable Time Base Reachable Time Retransmission Interval DAD Transmits Site Prefix Length Site Id Forwarding Advertising Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Unreachability Detection Router Discovery Managed Address Configuration Other Stateful Configuration Weak Host Sends Weak Host Receives Use Automatic Metric Ignore Default Routes Advertised Router Lifetime Advertise Default Route Current Hop Limit Force ARPND Wake up patterns Directed MAC Wake up patterns

: 20 : 1500 bytes : 37000 ms : 30000 ms : 1000 ms : 1 : 64 : 1 : enabled : disabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : enabled : disabled : enabled : disabled : 1800 seconds : disabled : 0 : disabled : disabled

You use the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces level=verbose command on a DirectAccess server to verify that forwarding has been enabled on the 6to4, Teredo, IP-HTTPS, ISATAP, and local area network (LAN) interfaces and that advertising has been enabled on the IP-HTTPS and ISATAP interfaces.

netsh interface ipv6 show route


This command shows the entries in the IPv6 route table. The following is an example of the output from the netsh interface ipv6 show route command on a DirectAccess server.
Publish ------No Type -------Manual Met --256 Prefix -----------------------::1/128 Idx --1 Gateway/Interface Name -----------------------Loopback Pseudo-Interface

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1 No nterface Yes No Yes No No oso.com Yes No No face No No No No nterface No No No com No com No No No Manual Manual Manual 256 256 256 fe80::45d1:e335:2f5e:865c/128 fe80::6d5c:17f7:69e8:dd2b/128 fe80::8000:f227:7c94:fffd/128 11 17 16 Corpnet IPHTTPSInterface Teredo Tunneling Pse Manual 256 fe80::200:5efe:131.107.0.3/128 14 isatap.isp.example. Manual Manual Manual 256 256 256 fe80::/64 fe80::5efe:10.0.0.2/128 17 13 IPHTTPSInterface isatap.corp.contoso.com 14 isatap.isp.example. Manual Manual Manual Manual 256 256 256 256 2002:836b:3::836b:3/128 fe80::/64 fe80::/64 fe80::/64 15 11 12 16 6TO4 Adapter Corpnet Internet Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-I Manual Manual Manual 256 256 256 2002:836b:2:2::/64 2002:836b:2:2::/128 17 17 IPHTTPSInterface IPHTTPSInterface 17 IPHTTPSInter Manual Manual Manual Manual Manual 1000 256 256 256 256 2002::/16 2002:836b:2::836b:2/128 2002:836b:2:1::/64 2002:836b:2:1::/128 15 15 13 13 6TO4 Adapter 6TO4 Adapter isatap.corp.contoso.com isatap.corp.contoso.com 13 isatap.corp.cont Manual 8 2001::/32 16 Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-I

2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.2/128

2002:836b:2:2:6d5c:17f7:69e8:dd2b/128

fe80::200:5efe:131.107.0.2/128

udo-Interface No No 1 No No nterface Manual Manual 256 256 ff00::/8 ff00::/8 17 16 IPHTTPSInterface Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-I Manual Manual 256 256 fe80::c862:7866:fd45:2ccf/128 ff00::/8 1 12 Internet

Loopback Pseudo-Interface

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No No

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Corpnet Internet

You use the netsh interface ipv6 show route command to troubleshoot reachability problems for communication between DirectAccess clients and the DirectAccess server and between DirectAccess clients and intranet resources. You can also use the netsh interface ipv6 show route command to determine the IPv6 prefix that the DirectAccess server is advertising to IPHTTPS clients, which is the 64-bit route that begins with 2 or 3 and has the Gateway/Interface Name of IPHTTPSInterface.

The Ping.exe Command Line Tool


You use the Ping.exe command line tool in DirectAccess to verify name resolution and reachability. For example, you can use Ping.exe for the following: Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-based reachability of the DirectAccess server across the Internet IPv6-based reachability of intranet resources beyond the DirectAccess server, such as the intranet DNS server Intranet name resolution For example, if you cannot reach any intranet resources, you can do the following from the DirectAccess client: 1. Use the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command to obtain the IPv6 address of your intranet Domain Name System (DNS) server. If your computer has determined that it is on the intranet, the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command will display no intranet DNS servers. 2. Use the Ping.exe tool to ping the IPv6 address of your intranet DNS server. 3. If step 2 is not successful, troubleshoot IPv6 routing and reachability issues between the DirectAccess client and intranet DNS server. 4. If step 2 is successful, use the Ping.exe tool with the -6 option to ping the name of the intranet server. 5. If step 4 is not successful, troubleshoot Internet Protocol security (IPsec) security issues between the DirectAccess client and DirectAccess server. This simplified troubleshooting example is based on the end-to-edge and selected server deployment models and their default IPsec global settings, which exempt Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic from IPsec protection. Therefore, it is possible for step 2 to succeed (the DirectAccess client sends only ICMP for IPv6 [ICMPv6] traffic, which is exempt from IPsec protection) and step 4 to fail (the DirectAccess client sends DNS traffic, which is not exempt from IPsec protection).

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The Nslookup.exe Command Line Tool


You use the Nslookup.exe command line tool in DirectAccess to test whether intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers can respond to DNS queries of DirectAccess clients. However, you must remember to specify the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address of the intranet DNS server in the command line. The correct syntax is for using Nslookup.exe for DirectAccess troubleshooting is nslookup IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address (example: nslookup dc1.corp.contoso.com 2002:836b:2:1::5efe:10.0.0.1). To emulate the behavior of the DirectAccess client, you can use the q=aaaa command-line parameter to request only IPv6 addresses in the response. The syntax is nslookup q=aaaa IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address (example: nslookup q=aaaa dc1.corp.contoso.com 2002:836b:2:1::5efe:10.0.0.1). You can obtain the IPv6 address of your intranet DNS servers from the display of the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command. Important Nslookup.exe does not use the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). If you do not specify the IPv6 address of the intranet DNS server, Nslookup.exe will send its queries to interface-configured DNS servers.

The Ipconfig.exe Command Line Tool


You use the Ipconfig.exe command line tool to display the current Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration. For DirectAccess, you use Ipconfig.exe to determine the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) configuration of a DirectAccess client, server, or intranet node. The following is an example of the output from the ipconfig command on the DirectAccess client in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613) when it is connected to the intranet subnet.
Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 2:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. :

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::b52f:36dc:be07:9d6d%15 IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 131.107.0.101 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0

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Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Wireless LAN adapter Wireless Network Connection:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

Tunnel adapter isatap.{3119B40F-CEC7-404A-B368-0BE67966EBF5}:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

Tunnel adapter isatap.{04076670-7AF6-4B18-BF7E-8CB8393C4B4D}:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

Tunnel adapter 6TO4 Adapter:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. :

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:65::836b:65 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:2::836b:2

Tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

In this example, the DirectAccess client is using 6to4 to reach the DirectAccess server (the interface named Tunnel adapter 6TO4 Adapter has a 6to4-based IPv6 address and default gateway).
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The following is an example of the output from the ipconfig command on the DirectAccess server in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).
Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Internet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. : isp.example.com

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::c862:7866:fd45:2ccf%12 IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 131.107.0.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 131.107.0.3 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Ethernet adapter Corpnet:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. : corp.contoso.com

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::45d1:e335:2f5e:865c%11 IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 10.0.0.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Tunnel adapter isatap.corp.contoso.com:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. : corp.contoso.com

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.2 Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::5efe:10.0.0.2%13 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Tunnel adapter isatap.isp.example.com:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. : isp.example.com

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::200:5efe:131.107.0.2%14 Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::200:5efe:131.107.0.3%14 246

Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Tunnel adapter 6TO4 Adapter:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. : isp.example.com

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:2::836b:2 IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:3::836b:3 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Tunnel adapter Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. :

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::8000:f227:7c94:fffd%16 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Tunnel adapter IPHTTPSInterface:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix

. :

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2002:836b:2:2:6d5c:17f7:69e8:dd2b Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::6d5c:17f7:69e8:dd2b%17 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

In this example, the DirectAccess server has an ISATAP address (on the interface named Tunnel adapter isatap.corp.contoso.com) and is using 6to4, Teredo, and IP-HTTPS. You can also use the Ipconfig.exe command line tool to display the contents of the Domain Name System (DNS) Resolver cache with the ipconfig /displaydns command. From the contents of the DNS Resolver cache, you can determine the results of resolving intranet resource names. Note The display of the ipconfig /displaydns command can also contain the results of DNS queries for personal communications and care should be taken to preserve the privacy of the computer user.

The Certutil.exe Command Line Tool


You use the Certutil.exe command line tool to display information about the digital certificates that are installed on a DirectAccess client, DirectAccess server, or intranet resource.
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The following is an example of the output from the certutil store my command on the DirectAccess client in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).
================ Certificate 0 ================ Serial Number: 61b96b4300000000000b Issuer: CN=corp-DC1-CA, DC=corp, DC=contoso, DC=com NotBefore: 8/28/2009 11:57 AM NotAfter: 8/28/2010 11:57 AM Subject: CN=CLIENT2.corp.contoso.com Certificate Template Name (Certificate Type): Machine Non-root Certificate Template: Machine, Computer Cert Hash(sha1): d2 48 b0 ac d0 75 d2 17 d3 a2 52 73 03 fb 6d 93 05 d6 c5 9c Key Container = 7658bfbea27b8a8b1a912b2792198aa7_81cb8b83-9acb-41a0-a19f-615d9 d8a0337 Simple container name: le-Machine-e4918f29-7e62-48c3-a958-445f367d773d Provider = Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider Private key is NOT exportable Encryption test passed CertUtil: -store command completed successfully.

You use the Certutil.exe command line tool for DirectAccess troubleshooting to determine the subject, enhanced key usage (EKU), and certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points fields of installed certificates. Use the certutil -v store my > cert.txt command and then view the contents of the Cert.txt file.

The Nltest.exe Command Line Tool


You use the Nltest.exe command line tool to display information about Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). The following is an example of the output from the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=150613).
DC: \\DC1.corp.contoso.com Address: \\2002:836b:2:1:0:5efe:10.0.0.1 Dom Guid: e8bae90e-02c4-4489-8abd-e63353fed05a Dom Name: corp.contoso.com Forest Name: corp.contoso.com Dc Site Name: Default-First-Site-Name 248

Flags: PDC GC DS LDAP KDC TIMESERV GTIMESERV WRITABLE DNS_DC DNS_DOMAIN DNS_FOREST FULL_SECRET WS The command completed successfully

You use the Nltest.exe command line tool (the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command) for DirectAccess troubleshooting to determine whether DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, and intranet resources can locate and contact domain controllers for Internet Protocol security (IPsec) authentication.

Snap-in Tools
Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 also provide a set of snap-ins to gather troubleshooting information or modify settings to correct problems. The following snap-ins can be used for DirectAccess troubleshooting: DirectAccess Management Group Policy Management Console and Editor Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Event Viewer Certificates

DirectAccess Management
With the Monitoring node of the DirectAccess Management snap-in, you can monitor the overall status and obtain performance counters for DirectAccess server components. To view the status of the DirectAccess server with DirectAccess monitoring 1. On the DirectAccess server, click Start, type damgmt.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the DirectAccess Management console, click Monitoring. 3. In the details pane, click Details to obtain performance monitor counters for a component. The Teredo Relay, Teredo Server, ISATAP, and 6to4 components display a green (healthy) status if there was traffic activity on any of the tunnel interfaces during the last 10 seconds. IP-HTTPS and Network Security components display a green status if there were one or more active sessions or tunnels in the last 10 seconds. If there was no traffic or active sessions in the last 10 seconds, the component shows with a yellow status. If a component has failed, its status is red.

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Log files of the DirectAccess Management snap-in


For additional information about events and errors encountered by the Setup node of the DirectAccess Management snap-in and the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, see the %SystemRoot %\Tracing\DASetup.log file. For additional information about events and errors encountered by the Monitoring node of the DirectAccess Management snap-in, see the %SystemRoot%\Tracing\DAMontr.log file. Warning When you click the Monitoring node in the console tree, the DirectAccess Management snap-in begins recording trace data in the DAMontr.log and continues until all instances of the DirectAccess Management snap-in have been closed, including the DirectAccess Management console in the Administrative Tools group, the DirectAccess Management snap-in for a custom console, or from within Server Manager. This continuous tracing adds 80 Megabytes (MB) of data per day to the DAMontr.log file, which can result a large file size over time. The logging continues regardless of which node you select in the DirectAccess Management console tree. When you close all instances of the DirectAccess Management snap-in, run it again, then click the Monitoring node in the console tree, the DirectAccess Management snap-in automatically deletes DaMontr.log when the file size is larger than 10 MB. If you want to keep an instance of the DirectAccess Management snap-in open continuously, you can create and run a script to delete the DaMontr.log file at regular intervals.

Group Policy Management Console and Editor


DirectAccess clients, servers, and selected servers obtain their DirectAccess settings through Group Policy objects. The primary tools for viewing and changing the configuration of settings within Group Policy objects are the Group Policy Management Console and Group Policy Management Editor snap-ins. For DirectAccess, you use the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in to view or modify the following configuration: Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) transition technologies Intranet connectivity Connection security rules

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NRPT rules
Rules in the NRPT that you configure in step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard are created in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Name Resolution Policy node of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. Use the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in to verify the configuration of NRPT rules and modify them as needed.

IPv6 Transition Technologies settings


The DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures settings for the 6to4, Teredo, and Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) IPv6 transition technologies in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies node of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. The following table lists the IPv6 transition technology settings and their values as set by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard.
Setting name Description Value set by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

6to4 Relay Name

Allows you to specify a 6to4 relay name for a 6to4 host. A 6to4 relay is used as a default gateway for IPv6 network traffic sent by the 6to4 host. Allows you to specify the interval at which the 6to4 relay name is resolved. Allows you to configure the state of the 6to4 client. Allows you to configure the state of the IP-HTTPS client. Allows you to specify a router name or IPv4 address for an ISATAP router. Allows you to configure the state of the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) host. Allows you to specify the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port

The first consecutive Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. N/A (not configured)

6to4 Relay Name Resolution Interval 6to4 State IP-HTTPS State

N/A The IP-HTTPS uniform resource locator (URL) and the interface in a default state. N/A

ISATAP Router Name

ISATAP State

N/A

Teredo Client Port

N/A
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Setting name

Description

Value set by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

the Teredo client will use to send packets. Teredo Default Qualified Allows you to set Teredo to be Set to enabled state. ready to communicate. By default, Teredo enters a dormant state when not in use. The qualification process brings it out of a dormant state. Allows you to configure the rate at which Teredo clients refresh the Network Address Translator (NAT) translation table. Allows you to specify the name of the Teredo server. Allows you to specify the state of the Teredo service. N/A

Teredo Refresh Rate

Teredo Server Name

The first consecutive IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. N/A

Teredo State

Use the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in to verify the configuration of 6to4, Teredo, and IP-HTTPS settings for DirectAccess clients and modify them as needed.

Intranet connectivity settings


Settings for the intranet and network location detection processes are configured by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connection Status Indicator node of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients.

Setting name

Description

Value set by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

Corporate DNS Probe Host Address Corporate DNS Probe Host Name

The expected address when querying the Corporate DNS Probe Host Name. A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to query to determine corporate connectivity.

::1

directaccesscorpConnectivityHost. ComputerDNSSuffix

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Setting name

Description

Value set by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

Corporate Site Prefix List

The list of IPv6 addresses and prefixes that define the address space of the corporate network. A URL to request to determine corporate connectivity. The Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)based URL of the network location server.

The IPv6 prefix of the intranet.

Corporate Website Probe URL Domain Location Determination URL

N/A (not configured)

The URL specified during the DirectAccess Setup Wizard or obtained from the Subject field of the certificate on the DirectAccess server that was selected for network location.

Use the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in to verify the configuration of these corporate connectivity settingsmost importantly for DirectAccess, the Domain Location Determination URL settingand modify them as needed.

Connection security rules


The DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures connection security rules to define traffic protection in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security node of the Group Policy objects for DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, and selected servers. Note Use the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in only to view the connection security rules. Because the DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates the connection security rules with advanced settings for which there is no user interface equivalent, you must not modify the connection security rules with the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in. Instead, use netsh advfirewall consec set rule commands.

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security


Use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder to view the active firewall rules, connection security rules, and Internet Protocol security (IPsec) security associations (SAs).

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To use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in 1. Click Start, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, doubleclick Monitoring. To view the active firewall rules, in the console tree, click Firewall. To view the active connection security rules, in the console tree, click Connection Security Rules. To view the active main mode or quick mode SAs, in the console tree, double-click Security Associations, and then click Main Mode or Quick Mode. On a DirectAccess client, if there are active connection security rules whose names begin with DirectAccess Policy, the DirectAccess client has determined that it is not connected to your intranet. If there are active connection security rules but no main mode or quick mode SAs after attempting to access an intranet resource, the DirectAccess client is unable to negotiate IPsec protection with the DirectAccess server.

Event Viewer
Use the Event Viewer snap-in on a DirectAccess client to examine Windows events for operational Internet Protocol security (IPsec) and Windows Firewall events, network location detection events, and IPsec negotiation events. To start the Event Viewer snap-in 1. Click Start, type eventvwr.msc, and then press ENTER. 2. In the console tree of Event Viewer, navigate to the appropriate location. 3. In the contents pane, double-click a Windows event to view its details. For troubleshooting DirectAccess problems, view the events in the following locations: Applications and Service Logs\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Use this event log to view Windows Firewall and connection security (IPsec) operational events, such as changes to network profiles or firewall settings. Applications and Services Logs\Microsoft\Windows\NCSI\Operational Use this event log to view network location detection, also known as Inside/Outside detection, and its results. Windows Logs\Security IPsec events in the Windows Logs\Security event log are configured through audit settings, which are not enabled by default. To enable audit settings and view IPsec audit events for IPsec security negotiations, use Auditpol.exe, a command line tool that modifies audit polices of the local computer to enable or disable the various categories and subcategories of events
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and then view the events in the Event Viewer snap-in. To enable audit policies for IPsec security negotiation, run the auditpol /set /subcategory:IPsec Main Mode,IPsec Extended Mode /success:enable /failure:enable command at an elevated command prompt. Then, view events 4653, 4654 and 4984 in the Windows Logs\Security event log.

Certificates
Use the Certificates snap-in to view the properties of certificates in the computer store of a DirectAccess client, DirectAccess server, intranet server, or the network location server. To view certificates in the computer store with the Certificates snap-in 1. Click Start, type mmc, and then press ENTER. 2. Click File, and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. 3. Click Certificates, click Add, select Computer account, click Next, select Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK. 4. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, open Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. 5. To view the properties of a certificate, double-click the certificate in the details pane. You use the Certificates snap-in for DirectAccess troubleshooting to verify the subject, enhanced key usage (EKU), and certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution points on the Details tab for the properties of installed certificates.

DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA)


The DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA) is a free Solution Accelerator download that helps streamline end-user support for DirectAccess. The DCA installs on DirectAccess clients and adds an icon to the notification area of the desktop. With this icon, users can determine their intranet connectivity status. The DCA also provides tools to help users reconnect on their own if problems arise and creates diagnostics to help mobile users provide IT staff with key information. For more information, see Deploying, Managing, and Using the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant. For information about the messages displayed by the DCA and how to use them for troubleshooting DirectAccess, see Using the DCA Software. To download the DCA, see Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?Linkid=181782).

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General Methodology for Troubleshooting DirectAccess Connections


DirectAccess connections initiated by DirectAccess clients occur in the following stages: 1. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity to the DirectAccess server. 2. Negotiation of protection of DirectAccess traffic with the DirectAccess server (for the full intranet and selected server access models). 3. IPv6 connectivity to the intranet resource. 4. Negotiation of protection of DirectAccess traffic with the intranet server (for the selected server and end-to-end access models). You can use the following process as a general methodology for incrementally stepping through the DirectAccess connection requirements for a DirectAccess client on the Internet to successfully access an intranet resource: 1. The DirectAccess client computer must be running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2. 2. The DirectAccess client computer must be a member of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain and its computer account must be a member of one of the security groups configured in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 3. The DirectAccess client computer must have received computer configuration Group Policy settings for DirectAccess. To verify, use the Resultant Set of Policy snap-in to ensure that DirectAccess Policy{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} is listed for the computer configuration Group Policy objects associated with the DirectAccess client computer. 4. The DirectAccess server computer must have received computer configuration Group Policy settings for DirectAccess. To verify, use the Resultant Set of Policy snap-in to ensure that DirectAccess Policy{ab991ef0-6fa9-4bd9-bc42-3c397e8ad300} is listed for the computer configuration Group Policy objects associated with the DirectAccess server computer. 5. The DirectAccess client must have a global IPv6 address. Use the ipconfig command to display the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration. Is there an IPv6 address assigned to an interface that begins with 2 or 3? If so, go to step 6. If not, use the netsh interface 6to4 show relay, netsh interface teredo show state, and netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces commands on the DirectAccess client and server to verify the configuration of 6to4, Teredo, and Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS). If the DirectAccess client is connected to the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Notes

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Adapter should also be assigned a default gateway. For a private IPv4 address, your Teredo interface should be configured with an address that starts with 2001. For IP-HTTPS, look at the Tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface. Unless you had a native IPv6 infrastructure in place prior to running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the Tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface should be configured with an address that starts with 2002. For more information, see Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with IPHTTPS. If you have configured force tunneling, only the Tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface will be enabled. For more information and additional troubleshooting steps, see Fixing Connectivity Issues Between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Server over the Internet. 6. The DirectAccess client must be able to reach the IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess server. Use the ipconfig command on the DirectAccess server to display the TCP/IP configuration. Note the global IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess server (those starting with 2 or 3). From the DirectAccess client, ping any of the global IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess server, starting with the IPv6 addresses that begin with 2002. If successful, go to step 7. If not successful, troubleshoot the IPv6 reachability between the DirectAccess client and server. For more information and additional troubleshooting steps, see Fixing Connectivity Issues Between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Server over the Internet. 7. The intranet servers have a global IPv6 address. Use the ipconfig command on the intranet server to display the TCP/IP configuration. Is there an IPv6 address assigned to an interface that begins with 2 or 3? If so, go to step 8. If not, troubleshoot the IPv6 infrastructure on your intranet. For Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP), ensure that your Domain Name System (DNS) servers running Windows Server 2008 with Service Pack 2 or later have the name ISATAP removed from their global query block lists. Additionally, verify that the DirectAccess server has registered an ISATAP A record in the intranet DNS. For additional information and troubleshooting steps, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Access Intranet Resources. Note If you are using an IPv6/IPv4 translator such as a NAT64, the intranet server might not have a global IPv6 address. In this case, ensure that the NAT64 has a global IPv6 address. 8. The DirectAccess client on the Internet must correctly determine that it is not on the intranet. Type the netsh dnsclient show state command. The determined network location is displayed in the Machine Location field (Outside corporate network or Inside corporate network).
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If the DirectAccess client has correctly determined that it is outside the corporate network (not on the intranet), go to step 9. If the DirectAccess client has incorrectly determined that it is inside the corporate network (on the intranet), use the netsh namespace show policy command to display the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules configured through Group Policy. There should be NRPT rules for the intranet namespace and an exemption rule for the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the network location server. Determine the network location uniform resource locator (URL) from the reg query HKLM\software\policies\microsoft\windows\NetworkConnectivityStatusIndicator\Corpo rateConnectivity /v DomainLocationDeterminationUrl command. Determine whether the FQDN from this URL either does not match the DNS suffix for your intranet namespace in the NRPT or matches an exemption rule in the NRPT. For additional information and troubleshooting steps, see DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet. 9. The DirectAccess client must not be assigned the domain firewall profile. Use the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command to display the attached networks and their determined firewall profiles. None of your networks should be assigned the domain profile. If none of your networks have been assigned the domain profile, go to step 10. If any of your networks has been assigned the domain profile, determine if you have an active remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection or a domain controller that is available on the Internet. 10. The DirectAccess client must have IPv6 reachability to its intranet DNS servers. From the display of the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command, obtain the IPv6 addresses of your intranet DNS servers. Ping these IPv6 addresses from the DirectAccess client. If successful, go to step 11. If not successful, troubleshoot the IPv6 reachability between the DirectAccess client and the intranet DNS servers. Ensure that your DirectAccess server has only a single IPv4 default gateway that is configured on the Internet interface. Also ensure that your DirectAccess server has been configured with the set of IPv4 routes on the intranet interface that allow it to access all of the IPv4 destinations of your intranet. The use of the Ping.exe tool assumes the default global Internet Protocol security Note (IPsec) settings that exempt Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic from IPsec protection. 11. The DirectAccess client must be able to use intranet DNS servers to resolve intranet FQDNs. Use the nslookup q=aaaa IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address command to resolve the names of intranet servers (example: nslookup q=aaaa dc1.corp.contoso.com

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2002:836b:2:1::5efe:10.0.0.1). The Nslookup.exe tool should display the IPv6 addresses of the specified intranet server. If the Nslookup.exe tool performs successful name resolution, go to step 12. If there is no response from the intranet DNS server, test DNS name resolution from an intranet computer with the nslookup q=aaaa IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address command. If there is no response, ensure that the DNS Server service on Windows-based DNS servers is listening on its assigned IPv6 addresses. Use the Interfaces tab for the properties of the DNS server in the DNS Manager snap-in. Otherwise, go to step 14. If the name was not found, determine why the corresponding AAAA record is not in your intranet DNS. For additional information and troubleshooting steps, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Resolve Names with Intranet DNS Servers. 12. The DirectAccess client must have reachability to the intranet servers. Use the Ping.exe tool to ping the IPv6 addresses of intranet servers. If successful, go to step 13. If not successful, troubleshoot the IPv6 reachability between the DirectAccess client and the intranet servers. Note The use of the Ping.exe tool assumes the default global IPsec settings that exempt ICMP traffic from IPsec protection. 13. The DirectAccess client must be able to communicate with intranet servers using application layer protocols. Use the appropriate program to access the intranet server. If File and Printer Sharing is enabled on the intranet server, test application layer protocol access with the net view \\IntranetFQDN command. The application on the DirectAccess client must be IPv6capable. If not, you must use an intermediate NAT64/DNS64, such as the Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) 2010. If not successful, go to step 14. 14. For the end-to-edge or selected server access models, the DirectAccess client must be able to successfully negotiate main mode and quick mode IPsec security associations (SAs) with the DirectAccess server for the infrastructure tunnel. On the DirectAccess client, ensure that the Windows Firewall service is running using the Services snap-in or the sc query mpssvc command at a Windows command prompt. If you are using a third-party host firewall, see DirectAccess and Third-party Host Firewalls. On the DirectAccess client, use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in or the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa and netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa commands to determine if there are main mode and quick mode SAs to the IPv6 address 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ. WWXX:YYZZ is the colon-hexadecimal representation of the first consecutive IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess
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server. For example, for 131.107.0.1, the corresponding IPv6 address is 2002:836b:1::836b:1 (131=0x83, 107=0x6b). If successful, go to step 15. If not successful, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess server to ensure that it can access a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the DirectAccess server and an Active Directory domain controller. Ensure that the DirectAccess client and DirectAccess server have the proper certificates for IPsec peer authentication. If the proper certificates are installed on the DirectAccess client and DirectAccess server, use Windows Firewall tracing on the DirectAccess client and analyze the contents of the Wfpdiag.xml file. For more information, see Network Diagnostics and Tracing. 15. For the end-to-edge or selected server access models, the DirectAccess client must be able to successfully negotiate main mode and quick mode IPsec SAs with the DirectAccess server for the intranet tunnel. Verify that you have logged on to the DirectAccess client computer with a domain account. Local computer accounts do not have the credentials to authenticate the intranet tunnel. On the DirectAccess client, use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in or the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa and netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa commands to determine if there are main mode and quick mode SAs to the IPv6 address 2002:RRSS:TTUU::RRSS:TTUU. RRSS:TTUU is the colon-hexadecimal representation of the second consecutive IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. If the SAs exist and you are using an IPv6/IPv4 translator such as NAT64 to reach the intranet server, verify that the IPv6/IPv4 translator supports translating the application protocol. Some protocols embed IP address information in the packet payload and cannot be used across some IPv6/IPv4 translators. If successful, go to step 16. If not successful, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess server to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the DirectAccess server and Active Directory. Use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, ensure that the IPv6capable domain controllers that are being used by DirectAccess clients are using site-less locator records in DNS. Ensure that the DirectAccess client and DirectAccess server have the proper certificates for IPsec peer authentication. If the proper certificates are installed on the DirectAccess client and DirectAccess server, use Windows Firewall tracing on the DirectAccess client and analyze the contents of the Wfpdiag.xml file. For more information, see Network Diagnostics and Tracing.
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For additional information and troubleshooting steps, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server. 16. For the end-to-end access model or the selected servers in the selected server access model, the DirectAccess client must be able to successfully negotiate main mode and quick mode IPsec SAs with the intranet or selected server. On the DirectAccess client, use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in or the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa and netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa commands to determine if there are main mode and quick mode SAs to the IPv6 address of the intranet or selected server. If not successful, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the intranet or selected server to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the intranet or selected server and Active Directory. Use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, ensure that the IPv6capable domain controllers that are being used by DirectAccess clients are using Service Location (SRV) records in DNS that are not specific to an Active Directory site. Ensure that the DirectAccess client and intranet or selected server have the proper certificates for IPsec peer authentication. If the proper certificates are installed on the DirectAccess client and intranet or selected server, use Windows Firewall tracing on the DirectAccess client and analyze the contents of the Wfpdiag.xml file. For more information, see Network Diagnostics and Tracing. For additional information and troubleshooting steps, see Fixing Problems with Creating Protected Connections to an Intranet Resource. To troubleshoot DirectAccess connections on the DirectAccess client using the DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (DCA), see Using the DCA Software.

Troubleshooting DirectAccess Problems


Problems with DirectAccess typically fall into the following categories: Problems successfully running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard You can resolve most of these types of problems by meeting the configuration requirements of either the DirectAccess server or the network infrastructure. See Problems with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Problems with DirectAccess connections You can resolve most of these types of problems by stepping through the General Methodology for Troubleshooting DirectAccess Connections. For additional information to troubleshoot specific types of DirectAccess connection problems, see Problems with DirectAccess Connections. Problems with network location detection
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See Fixing Issues with Network Location Detection.

Problems with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard


The problems that you might encounter when using the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to configure a DirectAccess server typically fall into the following categories: Fixing problems that Prevent You from Running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard Fixing Problems Encountered during the Steps of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

Fixing Problems Encountered when Applying the Settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard

Fixing problems that Prevent You from Running the DirectAccess Setup Wizard
If the DirectAccess server does not meet the configuration requirements, when you run the DirectAccess Management snap-in and click Setup in the console tree, the DirectAccess Management snap-in displays a series of messages indicating the error conditions that exist. The following table lists the most common error messages, a description of the error condition, and the steps to correct it.
Error message Error condition and the steps to correct

The current security context is not associated or accessible to Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).

The DirectAccess server cannot reach a domain controller of the domain in which it is a member. Verify the connection to your intranet and name resolution and reachability to an intranet domain controller. The DirectAccess server cannot be a standalone server. Join it to the appropriate AD DS domain. The DirectAccess server cannot reach a domain controller of the domain in which it is a member. Verify the connection to your intranet and name resolution and reachability to an intranet domain controller. The DirectAccess server requires two physical network adapters corresponding to two local area network (LAN) or wireless LAN (WLAN)
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The DirectAccess server must be joined to an Active Directory domain. Please join this server to a domain and then try again. The Active Directory domain is unreachable. Unable to get domain information.

The DirectAccess server must have two or more physical network interfaces. Verify that you have two or more interfaces and then try

Error message

Error condition and the steps to correct

again. At least two network interfaces must be configured with static IP addresses. Please contact the network administrator to obtain and assign static IP addresses to this server.

network adapters that are installed in the DirectAccess server computer. The network connections corresponding to the network adapters for the DirectAccess servers connection to the Internet and intranet must be configured with static Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses. They cannot use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to obtain an IPv4 address configuration. At least one of the network connections corresponding to the network adapters installed in the DirectAccess server must have two, consecutive public IPv4 addresses statically assigned. These two consecutive addresses are needed by the DirectAccess server to act as a Teredo server. Obtain two consecutive addresses and assign them to a network adapter on the DirectAccess server. Note The DirectAccess Management console sorts the public IPv4 addresses alphabetically. Therefore, the DirectAccess Management console does not consider the following sets of addresses as consecutive: w.x.y.9 and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.10, w.x.y.9; w.x.y.99 and w.x.y.100, which is sorted as w.x.y.100, w.x.y.99; w.x.y.1, w.x.y.2, and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.1, w.x.y.10, w.x.y.2. Use a different set of consecutive addresses.

The DirectAccess server must have two consecutive public IPv4 addresses configured on the same physical interface. Configure IPv4 addresses and try again.

For additional information about events and errors encountered by the DirectAccess Management snap-in, see the %SystemRoot%\Tracing\DASetup.log file. For more information about the configuration requirements of the DirectAccess server, see Appendix A: DirectAccess Requirements and Checklist: Preparing Your DirectAccess Server.

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Fixing Problems Encountered during the Steps of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard
The following sections describe problems that you might encounter on the pages of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard in the DirectAccess Management snap-in and how to correct them. For additional information about events and errors encountered by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, see the %SystemRoot%\Tracing\DASetup.log file.

Step 2-DirectAccess Server


Step 2 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard has the following pages: Connectivity Prefix configuration Certificate components

Connectivity page
On the Connectivity page, you select the interface that is connected to the Internet, the interface that is connected to the intranet (internal network), and specify whether you want to require smart cards for an additional level of authorization for access to the intranet. The following table lists most typical error messages you might see when selecting the Internet or intranet (internal network) interface.
Error message Error condition and the steps to correct

The Internet interface must have two consecutive global Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses configured. Select an interface with two consecutive global IPv4 addresses.

The interface that you select must have two, consecutive public IPv4 addresses statically assigned. These two consecutive addresses are needed by the DirectAccess server to act as a Teredo server. Note The DirectAccess Management console sorts the public IPv4 addresses alphabetically. Therefore, the DirectAccess Management console does not consider the following sets of addresses as consecutive: w.x.y.9 and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.10, w.x.y.9; w.x.y.99 and w.x.y.100, which is sorted as w.x.y.100, w.x.y.99; w.x.y.1, w.x.y.2, and w.x.y.10, which is sorted as w.x.y.1, w.x.y.10, w.x.y.2. Use a different
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Error message

Error condition and the steps to correct

set of consecutive addresses. The Internet interface must not be classified as a domain network. The interface that you have specified for the Internet is connected to a network that contains a domain controller (the network has been assigned the domain firewall profile). The Internet interface must be connected to a network that has been assigned the Public or Private profiles. Select a different interface or add outbound packet filters to the selected interface that block connectivity to the IP addresses of the domain controllers. For more information, see Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers. You can use the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command to display the networks to which your computer is attached and their assigned profiles. Then, use the Network Connections window to determine the networks to which the interfaces are connected. The internal network interface must be classified as a domain network. The interface that you have specified for the intranet (internal network) is connected to a network that has been assigned the Private or Public firewall profile. The intranet interface must be connected to a network that has been assigned the Domain profile, which contains a domain controller. Select a different interface. You can use the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command to display the networks to which your computer is attached and their assigned profiles. Then, use the Network Connections window to determine the networks to which the interfaces are connected. The internal network interface does not have Domain Name System (DNS) server settings configured. Select an interface with DNS server settings configured. The intranet (internal network) interface must be manually configured with the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of at least one intranet DNS server. Select another interface or manually configure the appropriate interface with the IPv4 or Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of at least one intranet DNS server. The intranet (internal network) interface must be
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The internal network interface does not have a

Error message

Error condition and the steps to correct

connection-specific DNS suffix. Select an interface with a connection-specific DNS suffix.

manually configured with a connection-specific DNS suffix that represents your intranet DNS namespace (for example, corp.contoso.com). Select another interface or manually configure the appropriate interface with a connectionspecific DNS suffix. Your Internet interface has a native IPv6 address assigned. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard will configure IPv6 for the intranet without regard to the IPv6 configuration of the Internet interface. However, you will need to configure packet filters on the Internet interface to prevent the Internet interface from being assigned the Domain firewall profile. For more information, see Configure Packet Filters to Block Access to Domain Controllers.

IPv6 was detected on your Internet interface. DirectAccess setup will apply settings without considering the IPv6 settings on the Internet interface.

Prefix Configuration page


On the Prefix Configuration page, which the DirectAccess Setup Wizard displays only when it detects global or unique local IPv6 addresses on the intranet interface, you specify the IPv6 prefix for your organization and the 64-bit prefix assigned to Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS)-based DirectAccess clients. The following table lists the error messages you might see when specifying the organization or IP-HTTPS prefixes.
Error message Error condition and the steps to correct

The IPv6 prefix you provided for the internal network is not valid. Provide a valid IPv6 prefix. The IPv6 prefix you provided to assign to the IPv6 addresses of remote client computers is not valid. Provide a valid IPv6 prefix.

You have not specified a valid global or unique local address prefix for your organization. You have not specified a valid 64-bit global or unique local address prefix for your IP-HTTPSbased DirectAccess clients.

The network prefix you provided to assign to The 64-bit prefix for your IP-HTTPS-based IPv6 addresses must be a subset of the internal DirectAccess clients must be based on the IPv6 network IPv6 prefix. Provide a valid IPv6 prefix. prefix for your organization. For example, if your intranet IPv6 prefix is 2001:db8:4ac1::/48, your 64-bit prefix must be of the form 2001:db8:4ac1:xxxx::/64.
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Certificate Components page


On the Certificate Components page, you select a root or intermediate certificate for IPsec authentication and the certificate used by the DirectAccess server for client-based authentication of IP-HTTPS connections. The following table lists the most common error messages you might see when specifying the IPHTTPS certificate.
Error message Error condition and the steps to correct

The selected certificate has a subject name that The certificate that you selected does not have is not valid. Select a certificate with a valid a valid value in the Subject field. A valid Subject subject name. field is required to configure DirectAccess clients with a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) of the IP-HTTPS server (the DirectAccess server). To see the value of the Subject field, use the Certificates snap-in for the local computer store, obtain properties of the certificate, and then click the Details tab. The selected certificate does not have a subject The certificate that you selected does not have name. Select a certificate with a subject name. a value in the Subject field. The Subject field is required to configure DirectAccess clients with or an HTTPS-based URL of the IP-HTTPS server The selected certificate does not contain a (the DirectAccess server). subject name. The selected certificate does not have Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage enabled. The certificate that you selected does not have the Server Authentication object identifier (OID) in the Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) field. The Server Authentication OID is required by the DirectAccess server to perform HTTPS-based authentications as the IP-HTTPS server. Select a certificate with a Server Authentication OID or obtain a new certificate with a Server Authentication OID. To see the value of the EKU field, use the Certificates snap-in for the local computer store, obtain properties of the certificate, and then click the Details tab. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard cannot resolve the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) in the Subject field of the selected certificate. Select a certificate with a resolvable FQDN in the
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Unable to resolve the subject name of the certificate to a valid Internet Protocol (IP) address.

Error message

Error condition and the steps to correct

Subject field or obtain a new certificate with a resolvable FQDN.

Step 3-Infrastructure Servers


Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard has the following pages: Location DNS and Domain Controller Management

The following topics describe the most typical problems encountered on the Location and DNS and Domain Controller pages.

Location page
On the Location page, you specify the HTTPS-based URL of the network location server or you specify that the DirectAccess server is the network location server and the certificate to use for HTTPS authentication. For the HTTPS-based URL of the network location server, ensure the following: You are specifying an HTTPS-based URL, rather than a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)-based URL. The URL is valid and can be reached from the DirectAccess server. To test reachability, click Verify or type the URL in your Web browser on the DirectAccess server. You should be able to view the Web page with no errors in the certificate authentication. If you are using an IP address in the FQDN portion of the URL, it must be an IPv6 address and it must be reachable by the DirectAccess server over IPv6. If you have selected the DirectAccess server as the network location server, you might see the message The IP and Domain Restrictions role service of the Web Server (IIS) role must be installed for network location to work properly on the DirectAccess server. Install this role service and try again. The IP and Domain Restrictions role service prevents DirectAccess clients on the Internet from reaching the network location URL on the DirectAccess server. Additionally, you cannot select the certificate that you are using for IP-HTTPS as the network location server certificate. Select another certificate or obtain an additional certificate with the Server Authentication OID. For more information about the network location certificate requirements, see Design Your PKI for DirectAccess.

DNS and Domain Controller page


On the DNS and Domain Controller page, you configure the rules in the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) of DirectAccess clients. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard automatically creates default rules based on the configuration of the DirectAccess server. When you add new NRPT namespace rules, you must specify a namespace (with a leading period) and the IPv4 or IPv6
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addresses of the DNS servers. When you add new NRPT exemption rules, you must specify the FQDN. When configuring NRPT rules, ensure that: You are using a valid DNS suffix or FQDN. The FQDN for an exemption rule can be resolved to its IPv4 or IPv6 address. To test this, try to ping the name in a Command Prompt window. When configuring the IP addresses for DNS servers, ensure the following: They are not duplicated for a rule. That the DNS server is available on the network and is responding to DNS queries. To test this, use the nslookup IntranetName DNSServerIPAddress command in a Command Prompt window.

Step 4-Application Servers


The most common problem in this step is the error message You must have at least one computer object, or the corresponding IP address, in the selected security groups. Select a security group that contains at least one member.

Fixing Problems Encountered when Applying the Settings of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard
When you click Apply from the DirectAccess Review dialog box, the DirectAccess Server Setup Wizard configures the DirectAccess server and a set of Group Policy objects and their settings. The following table lists the most common types of error messages that you might encounter during this step.
Error message Error condition and the steps to correct

Registration of Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) in Domain Name System (DNS) failed.

The DirectAccess server computer cannot use DNS dynamic update to create an Address (A) record in its DNS server for the name ISATAP. This most commonly occurs when using a DNS server that is not running Windows. Troubleshoot DNS dynamic update between the DirectAccess server and its configured DNS server. You must log on to the DirectAccess server computer with a user account that has local administrator privileges.
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Membership in the local Administrators group, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this operation.

Error message

Error condition and the steps to correct

DirectAccess server configuration failed because the IP-HTTPS interface cannot be configured. DirectAccess server configuration failed because the 6to4 interface is not operational.

The IP-HTTPS interface is not active. Use the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command to display the state of the IP-HTTPS interface. The 6to4 service is not active. Use the netsh interface 6to4 show state command to display the state of the 6to4 service. If needed, start the 6to4 service with the netsh interface 6to4 set state enabled command.

DirectAccess server configuration failed The Teredo service is not active. Use the netsh because the Teredo interface is not operational. interface teredo show state command to display the state of the Teredo service. If needed, start the Teredo service with the netsh interface teredo set state default command. If you see the DirectAccess server configuration failed. message, ensure that the Internet and intranet interfaces have been configured with different connection-specific DNS suffixes. The connection-specific DNS suffix of the intranet interface should be the DNS suffix of the Active Directory domain of the DirectAccess server. A specific DNS suffix for the Internet interface is not needed, but it must be different than the DNS suffix of the intranet interface. If you see the DirectAccess server configuration failed. message, see the %SystemRoot %\Tracing\DASetup.log file for additional information about events and errors encountered by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. For example, if the DirectAccess server cannot register the IPv6 Address (AAAA) record for corpConnectivityHost.DomainName and the IPv6 address of ::1 with a DNS server that is not running Windows, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard displays the DirectAccess server configuration failed. message

Problems with DirectAccess Connections


The problems with DirectAccess connections typically fall in the following categories: Fixing Connectivity Issues Between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Server over the Internet Fixing Issues with Creating Protected Connections to the DirectAccess Server Fixing Issues with Connecting to an Intranet Resource Fixing Problems with Creating Protected Connections to an Intranet Resource

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Fixing Connectivity Issues Between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Server over the Internet
The typical problems with connectivity issues between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server over the Internet are the following: Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server from the IPv6 Internet Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with 6to4 Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with Teredo Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with IP-HTTPS DirectAccess Client Connection is Slow

Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server from the IPv6 Internet


If the DirectAccess client is on the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet (it has been assigned a globally routable IPv6 address by the local Internet service provider), it can reach the DirectAccess server in the following ways: If the DirectAccess server is also on the IPv6 Internet, the routing infrastructure of the IPv6 Internet forwards IPv6 traffic directly to the DirectAccess server (IPv6 reachability endto-end). If the DirectAccess server is on the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet and using 6to4, the routing infrastructure of the IPv6 Internet forwards the traffic to a 6to4 relay, which forwards the encapsulated IPv6 traffic across the IPv4 Internet to the DirectAccess server (IPv6 reachability from DirectAccess client to the 6to4 relay, IPv4-encapsulated IPv6 reachability from the 6to4 relay to the DirectAccess server). In either case, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows the following types of IPv6 traffic: Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) (IPv6 Next Header value of 58) Internet Key Exchange (IKE)/Authenticating Internet Protocol (AuthIP) (User Datagram Protocol [UDP] port 500) Internet Protocol security (IPsec) Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) (IPv6 Next Header value of 50) To ensure that your DirectAccess server is on the IPv6 Internet, run the ipconfig command at a Command Prompt. There should be an IPv6 address assigned to your network adapter that starts with 2 or 3 but is not based on the 2002::/16 or 2001:0::/32 prefixes.

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To troubleshoot connectivity from a DirectAccess client on the IPv6 Internet to the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 3. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 4. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 5. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the exit command. 6. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the infrastructure tunnel. If you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination. 7. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp command. 8. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the intranet tunnel. If you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination.

Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with 6to4


If the DirectAccess client is on the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet, is not on the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet, and has a public IPv4 address assigned to a local area network (LAN) or wireless LAN interface, the DirectAccess client attempts to use 6to4 to encapsulate IPv6 traffic sent to the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess server is on the IPv4 Internet (the DirectAccess tunnel endpoints are 6to4 addresses that have the form 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, where WWXX:YYZZ is the colon hexadecimal representation of w.x.y.z, a public IPv4 address), the DirectAccess client encapsulates IPv6 traffic directly to the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess server is only on the IPv6 Internet (the DirectAccess tunnel endpoints are not 6to4 addresses), the DirectAccess client encapsulates IPv6 traffic and sends it to a 6to4 relay. The 6to4 relay then forwards the native IPv6 traffic across the IPv6 Internet to the DirectAccess server.

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On the IPv4 Internet, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows IPv4 protocol 41 traffic. If the traffic is also traveling on the IPv6 Internet, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows the following types of traffic: Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) (IPv6 Next Header value of 58) Internet Key Exchange (IKE)/Authenticating Internet Protocol (AuthIP) (User Datagram Protocol [UDP] port 500) Internet Protocol security (IPsec) Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) (IPv6 Next Header value of 50) Note 6to4 addresses can also take the form 2002:WWXX:YYZZ:SubnetID:InterfaceID. In this form, 6to4 is being used to generate a 48-bit global IPv6 address prefix based on a public IPv4 address (w.x.y.z). When 6to4 is used this way, hosts use the 6to4-derived address prefix for native IPv6 addressing and the 6to4-based address is assigned to a LAN interface, not the Tunnel Adapter 6TO4 Adapter. This type of 6to4-based addressing can be used on an intranet or used for native IPv6 addressing of a single-subnet home or small office network, in which the local Internet router is providing 6to4 router functionality. To verify 6to4 functionality and configuration on a DirectAccess client 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or second bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled 6to4. You must change the first and second bit from the right to 0 to enable 6to4. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v 6to4_RouterName command. This command should display the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface 6to4 show relay command. This command should display the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface in Relay Name. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface 6to4 show state command.
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This command should display default or enabled in 6to4 Service State. The 6to4 service state should not show disabled. A value of disabled means that the DirectAccess client will never bring up a 6to4 interface. A value of default means that the DirectAccess client will bring up a 6to4 interface if it does not have a global IPv6 address assigned already and it has a public IPv4 address. A value of enabled means that the DirectAccess client will bring up a 6to4 interface whenever it has a public IPv4 address assigned. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 9. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the exit command. 10. From the Command Prompt window, note the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. 11. From the Command Prompt window, run the route print command. The IPv6 route table should have ::/0 route with the Gateway address set to the IPv6 address in step 8. The IPv6 route table should also have 2002::/16 route with the Gateway address set to On-link. To verify 6to4 functionality and configuration on the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the ipconfig command. This command should display a interface named Tunnel adapter 6TO4 Adapter that has the Domain Name System (DNS) suffix configured on the Internet interface and with two IPv6 addresses of the form 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, corresponding to the two consecutive IPv4 addresses assigned to the Internet interface. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or second bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled 6to4. You must change the first and second bit from the right to 0 to enable 6to4. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface 6to4 show state command. This command should display enabled in 6to4 Service State. The 6to4 service state should not show disabled. A value of disabled means that the DirectAccess server will
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never bring up a 6to4 interface. A value of default means that the DirectAccess server will bring up a 6to4 interface if it does not have a global IPv6 address assigned already and it has a public IPv4 address. A value of enabled means that the DirectAccess server will bring up a 6to4 interface whenever it has a public IPv4 address assigned. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the route print command. The IPv6 route table should have 2002::/16 route with the interface index of the Microsoft 6to4 Adapter and the Gateway address set to On-link. To troubleshoot connectivity from a 6to4-based DirectAccess client on the IPv4 Internet to the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface 6to4 show relay command. This command should display the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface in Relay Name. 3. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv4 address from step 2. This step ensures that the DirectAccess client can reach the first public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. 4. From the Command Prompt window, ping the next consecutive IPv4 address from step 2. This step ensures that the DirectAccess can reach the second public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the exit command. 9. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the infrastructure tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination. 10. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp command. 11. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the intranet tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination.
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Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with Teredo


If the DirectAccess client is on the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet, is not on the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Internet, and has a private IPv4 address assigned to a local area network (LAN) interface, the DirectAccess client attempts to use Teredo to encapsulate IPv6 traffic sent to the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess server is on the IPv4 Internet (the DirectAccess tunnel endpoints are 6to4 addresses that have the form 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, where WWXX:YYZZ is the colon hexadecimal representation of w.x.y.z, a public IPv4 address), the DirectAccess client encapsulates IPv6 traffic directly to the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess server is only on the IPv6 Internet (the DirectAccess tunnel endpoints are not 6to4 addresses), the DirectAccess client encapsulates IPv6 traffic and sends it to a Teredo relay. The Teredo relay then forwards the native IPv6 traffic across the IPv6 Internet to the DirectAccess server. On the IPv4 Internet, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows User Datagram Protocol (UDP) destination port 3544 traffic for Teredo-encapsulated traffic to the DirectAccess server and UDP source port 3544 traffic for Teredo-encapsulated traffic from the DirectAccess server. If the traffic is also traveling on the IPv6 Internet, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows the following types of traffic: Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) (IPv6 Next Header value of 58) Internet Key Exchange (IKE)/Authenticating Internet Protocol (AuthIP) (User Datagram Protocol [UDP] port 500) Internet Protocol security (IPsec) Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) (IPv6 Next Header value of 50) To verify Teredo functionality and configuration on a DirectAccess client 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the ipconfig command. You should see a Tunnel adapter Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface with an IPv6 address that begins with 2001. If you do not, go to step 3. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the route print command. The IPv6 route table should have a ::/0 route with the interface index of the Microsoft Teredo Tunnel Adapter and the Gateway address set to On-link. If it does, see To verify Teredo functionality and configuration on the DirectAccess server in this topic. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command.
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If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or fourth bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled Teredo. You must change the first and fourth bit from the right to 0 to enable Teredo. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v Teredo_ServerName command. This command should display the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. If there is no IPv4 address, your DirectAccess client has not been properly configured with the Group Policy settings for DirectAccess clients. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface teredo show state command. This command should display enterpriseclient or client in Type and the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface in Server Name. See the following table for information about the Teredo client state.
Teredo state Description

qualified

The Teredo tunnel interface has completed its negotiation with the Teredo server and has been used recently. The Teredo tunnel interface has completed its negotiation with the Teredo server but has not been used recently. The Teredo tunnel interface has completed its negotiation with the Teredo server. An error or other condition has occurred and the Teredo interface is not active.

dormant

probe offline

If the Teredo state is offline and the error state is Teredo server is unreachable over UDP, UDP port 3544 traffic may be blocked somewhere between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server due to the following: A third-party host firewall that is running on the DirectAccess client. An intermediate router or network firewall between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server. It is a common practice in organizations to block unexpected UDP traffic with their Internet firewalls.

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Another possibility is that the DirectAccess server is not available. See To troubleshoot connectivity from a Teredo-based DirectAccess client on the IPv4 Internet to the DirectAccess server in this topic. If the Teredo state is offline and the error state is Client is in a managed network, the DirectAccess client has detected a local Active Directory domain. In this case, the Teredo client will not bring up the Teredo tunnel adapter unless the Teredo client has been configured as an enterprise client. You can view the Teredo client type from the netsh interface teredo show state command. If set to client, a reachable domain controller will prevent Teredo from becoming active. If it set to enterpriseclient, Teredo will be active even when a domain controller is reachable. You can change a Teredo client from client to enterpriseclient with the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\Teredo State setting of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients or for an individual DirectAccess client with the netsh interface teredo set state enterpriseclient command. To verify Teredo functionality and configuration on the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the route print command. The IPv6 route table should have a 2001::/32 route with the interface index of the Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface and the Gateway address set to On-link. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or fourth bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled Teredo. You must change the first and fourth bit from the right to 0 to enable Teredo. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface teredo show state command. This command should display server in Type and online in State. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface ipv6 show global command. Note the number in the Neighbor Cache Limit field, which by default is 256. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors command. Count the number of neighbor cache entries for the interface named Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface. If there are a large number of them, run the netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors > neighbors.txt command, open the Neighbors.txt file in a Word processor or text editor that supports the display of line numbers, then delete all the lines except for the neighbor cache entries for the Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface. If the
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number of entries in the neighbor cache is comparable to the value of the Neighbor Cache Limit field, you might have run out of space to store neighbor cache entries for additional Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. To increase the number of entries allowed in the neighbor cache, run the netsh interface ipv6 set global neighborcachelimit=Maximum command, in which Maximum is the maximum number of expected Teredo-based DirectAccess clients. To troubleshoot connectivity from a Teredo-based DirectAccess client on the IPv4 Internet to the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface teredo show state command. This command should display the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface in Server Name. 3. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv4 address from step 2. If there is a name in Server Name instead of an address, ping the name and ensure that it resolves to the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. This step ensures that the DirectAccess can reach the first public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. 4. From the Command Prompt window, ping the next consecutive IPv4 address from step 2. This step ensures that the DirectAccess can reach the second public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 6. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo=DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12} command. 7. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 8. From another Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the infrastructure tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination. 9. From the Command Prompt window with the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp command. 10. From the other Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the intranet tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination.
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11. If the DirectAccess client cannot connect to an intranet resource using a specific application, use the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in on the DirectAccess client to determine if there is an inbound rule for the applications traffic. If there is, right-click the rule, click the Advanced tab, then check the Edge traversal setting. If it is set to Block edge traversal, change the setting to the appropriate level for the application.

Cannot Reach the DirectAccess Server with IP-HTTPS


A DirectAccess client on the Internet that has a private Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address attempts to use Teredo to obtain Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) connectivity to the DirectAccess server. However, private networks can block Teredo traffic because they only allow very specific types of Internet traffic, such as Domain Name System (DNS), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS). In this case, the Teredo client on the DirectAccess client cannot communicate with its Teredo server to obtain a Teredo-based IPv6 address. To provide IPv6 connectivity in this case and other situations where Teredo traffic is not forwarded, DirectAccess attempts to use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS), in which IPv6 packets are sent over an IPv4-based HTTPS session. Since most private firewalls and web proxies forward HTTPS traffic, IP-HTTPS provides IPv6 connectivity in these restrictive networking environments. The DirectAccess client obtains a 64-bit IPv6 address prefix by performing a router discovery exchange with the DirectAccess server acting as the IP-HTTPS server. The IPv6 address prefix is either automatically created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard or specified in the Prefix Configuration page of step 2. On the IPv4 Internet, there must be a routing path between the DirectAccess client and server that allows Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) destination port 443 traffic for HTTPSencapsulated traffic to the DirectAccess server and TCP source port 443 traffic for HTTPSencapsulated traffic from the DirectAccess server. To verify IP-HTTPS functionality and configuration on a DirectAccess client 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value.
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If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled IP-HTTPS. You must change the first bit from the right to 0 to enable IP-HTTPS. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command. This command should display client in Role and the IP-HTTPS URL in URL. 4. If the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command displays More data is available, your IP-HTTPS URL is longer than 256 characters. Run the reg delete HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition\iphttps\iphttpsi nterface /f command, install an IP-HTTPS certificate on the DirectAccess server that has a Subject field value less than 235 characters, configure the DirectAccess server with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to use the new certificate, apply the DirectAccess server settings, and update the computer configuration Group Policy on your DirectAccess clients. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. If the DirectAccess client is on an intranet behind a proxy server, it must be able to locate and use the intranet proxy server for IP-HTTPS-based connections. To quickly check this, use your Internet browser and attempt to reach an Internet website (such as www.microsoft.com). If successful, the DirectAccess client has determined the proper intranet proxy server. If not successful accessing any Internet locations, perform the following procedure. To configure the DirectAccess client to use an intranet proxy server 1. Configure your Internet browser to use the intranet proxy server. For Internet Explorer: Click Tools, and then click Internet Options. Click the Connections tab, and then click LAN settings.

2. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh winhttp import proxy source=ie command. If you must reconfigure the proxy server settings after leaving the intranet, repeat the previous procedure with the original proxy settings. To verify IP-HTTPS functionality and configuration on the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled IP-HTTPS.
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You must change the first bit from the right to 0 to enable IP-HTTPS. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command. This command should display server in Role, the IP-HTTPS URL in URL, and IPHTTPS interface active in Interface Status. 4. If the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command displays More data is available, your IP-HTTPS URL is longer than 256 characters. Run the reg delete HKLM\CurrentControlSet\services\iphlpsvc\Parameters\IPHTTPS\IPHTTPSInterface /f command, install an IP-HTTPS certificate on the DirectAccess server that has a Subject field value less than 235 characters, configure the DirectAccess server with the DirectAccess Setup Wizard to use the new certificate, apply the DirectAccess server settings, and update the computer configuration Group Policy on your DirectAccess server. For more information, see Install an IP-HTTPS Certificate. To troubleshoot connectivity from an IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess client on the IPv4 Internet to the DirectAccess server 1. On the DirectAccess client, open an Internet browser and ensure that you can access Internet locations. A DirectAccess client behind a captive portal that requires you to login or provide billing information can initially prevent an IP-HTTPS-based DirectAccess connection. After you have access to the Internet, try to access an intranet resource. 2. Start a command prompt as an administrator. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the ipconfig command. Check the configuration of the Tunnel adapter iphttpsinterface. If IP-HTTPS is being used, there should be an IPv6 address assigned. If there is no IPv6 address assigned, look at the other interfaces for a global IPv6 address (one beginning with 2 or 3). If there is an interface with a public IPv4 address, IP-HTTPS will not be used. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command. This command displays the IP-HTTPS URL in URL. 5. From the Command Prompt window, ping the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) from the URL in step 4. This ensures that the DirectAccess client can resolve the name of the IP-HTTPS server in the URL and reach the resolved IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. 6. Paste the URL from step 4 into your Internet browser and attempt to access it. Ensure that the IP-HTTPS website is accessible and has no certificate errors. If there are certificate errors, see the To troubleshoot certificate problems for an IP-HTTPSbased connection to the DirectAccess server procedure in this topic. 7. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh c advfirewall command. 8. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the set store gpo="DomainName\DirectAccess Policy-{3491980e-ef3c-4ed3-b176-a4420a810f12}" command.
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9. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc command. 10. From the netsh advfirewall prompt, run the exit command. 11. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the infrastructure tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination. 12. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall consec show rule name=DirectAccess Policy-ClientToCorp command. 13. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 address in RemoteTunnelEndpoint. This is the IPv6 address of the DirectAccess server for the intranet tunnel. If the IPv6 address is not a 6to4 address and you cannot reach this IPv6 address, use the tracert d IPv6Address command to trace the route to the destination. To troubleshoot certificate problems for an IP-HTTPS-based connection to the DirectAccess server 1. From the display of the netsh interface httpstunnel show interfaces command on the DirectAccess client, note the value in the Last Error Code. For an explanation of the IP-HTTPS error code, find the Last Error Code number in the list of COM Error Codes (Security and Setup) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=180807). 2. Ensure that the FQDN in the IP-HTTPS URL on the DirectAccess client matches the Subject field of the IP-HTTPS certificate on the DirectAccess server. If not, you need to either select the correct certificate on the DirectAccess server or install a certificate that can be used for IP-HTTPS connections. For information about IP-HTTPS certificate requirements, see Design Your PKI for DirectAccess. 3. Using the Certificates snap-in to view the properties of the IP-HTTPS certificate on the DirectAccess server, determine the Internet certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution point locations for the IP-HTTPS certificate (the URL without the file name). 4. From a Command Prompt window on the DirectAccess client, ping the FQDN from the CRL distribution point location in step 2. This step ensures that the DirectAccess client can resolve the name of the CRL distribution point server location and reach the resolved address. 5. Type the Internet CRL distribution point from step 2 into your Internet browser. You should see a series of files with the .crl extension. Ensure that you can open the .crl files. If you cannot reach the CRL distribution point and open the .crl files from the DirectAccess client, you cannot use IP-HTTPS. 6. Perform certificate troubleshooting on the DirectAccess client and server to ensure that the DirectAccess client can successfully validate the IP-HTTPS certificate of the DirectAccess server and the DirectAccess server can successfully validate the IP-HTTPS
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certificate of the DirectAccess client.

IP-HTTPS and authenticating proxies


IP-HTTPS does not support proxy servers that require authentication with each connection, which might cause problems with IP-HTTPS connections. To determine if you are behind this type of proxy, open your Internet browser and browse a public website. You might be prompted for authentication. Open a second Internet browser window or tab and browse a different public website. If you can get to the second website without having to specify authentication credentials, IP-HTTPS should work across the proxy. If you need to enter credentials each time you access a different website, IP-HTTPS might be blocked.

DirectAccess Client Connection is Slow


DirectAccess performance is dependent on many factors such as the speed of the DirectAccess clients connection to the Internet, Internet latency and congestion between the DirectAccess client and server, and the current load on the DirectAccess server. Another reason might be the type of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) encapsulation being used over the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet. 6to4 and Teredo tend to have higher performance because the encapsulation is simpler to process. Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) tends to have lower performance because of the higher protocol overhead and the additional Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based encryption and decryption. When examining performance issues, one of the first places to look is the display of the ipconfig command on the DirectAccess server, which indicates the type of encapsulation based on the interface that has a global IPv6 address assigned. A DirectAccess client on a private IPv4 network behind a network address translator (NAT) must connect to the DirectAccess server using either Teredo or IP-HTTPS. Each of these transition technologies requires particular types of traffic between the DirectAccess client and the DirectAccess server: Teredo requires IPv4 and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) destination port 3544 for traffic to the two public IPv4 addresses of the Teredo server and relay (the DirectAccess server). The Teredo relay requires Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) Echo Request and Echo Reply messages to be allowed for all intranet destinations, including the DirectAccess server. IP-HTTPS requires IPv4 and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) destination port 443 traffic between the DirectAccess client and the first consecutive public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess client needs to determine which of these two transition technologies to use. IPHTTPS and Teredo both attempt qualification of their interface state at the same time. If the Teredo interface is qualified, the IP-HTTPS client waits in an offline state for a computed delay for the DirectAccess client to detect corporate connectivity. The computed delay is either ten seconds or a network delay larger than ten seconds based on the round trip time of TCP packets from the
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client to the public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess client detects corporate connectivity within this network delay, the IP-HTTPS client will remain in an offline state. If the DirectAccess client does not detect corporate connectivity within this network delay, the IP-HTTPS client will attempt to qualify again. Using IP-HTTPS for DirectAccess connectivity has higher overhead and lower performance than Teredo. If the DirectAccess client is using IP-HTTPS instead of Teredo, the DirectAccess client will have a lower performance connection. However, due to network timing issues, it is possible for the DirectAccess client to have both Teredo and IP-HTTPS interfaces active, but use only the IP-HTTPS interface for traffic to the intranet. This condition occurs when the DirectAccess client takes more than the computed delay for the DirectAccess client to determine corporate connectivity over the Teredo interface. To test for this condition, run the ipconfig command at a command prompt. If you have global addresses on both the Teredo and IP-HTTPS tunnel interfaces, this condition has occurred.

Fixing Issues with Creating Protected Connections to the DirectAccess Server


For the full intranet or selected server access models, DirectAccess clients create the following Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnels to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses assigned to the DirectAccess server: The infrastructure tunnel that provides access to domain controllers, intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers, and other infrastructure servers needed by the computer before the user has logged on. The intranet tunnel that provides access to the entire intranet, which is available after the user has logged on. To troubleshoot the IPsec security associations (SAs) that the DirectAccess client and server negotiate to establish these protected tunnels, see the following topics: DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server DirectAccess Client Cannot Resolve Names with Intranet DNS Servers

If you have specified management servers in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Wizard, there is an additional management tunnel that is typically initiated by a management server on the intranet. For more information, see Intranet Management Server Cannot Connect to a DirectAccess Client.

DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server


A DirectAccess client that has determined that it is not on the intranet will have effective DirectAccess-based rules in its Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). These rules instruct the DirectAccess client to send Domain Name System (DNS) queries that match the intranet
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namespace to an intranet DNS server. When the DirectAccess client attempts to find a domain controller, it must resolve names for which the DNS suffix matches the intranet namespace and a corresponding rule in the effective NRPT. But before a DNS query can be sent to the intranet DNS server, the infrastructure tunnel must be established. After the infrastructure tunnel is successfully established, the DirectAccess client sends the DNS query to locate a domain controller. The DirectAccess client then connects to the domain controller, performs a computer-based domain logon, and connects to other infrastructure servers as needed to perform computer-based start-up functions, such as performing a health evaluation and obtaining a health certificate with Network Access Protection (NAP). When the user logs on to the computer and a process in the context of the user account attempts to access an intranet resource by its Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address, the DirectAccess client establishes the intranet tunnel. For both tunnels, success of the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnel mode security associations (SAs) depends on the connection security rules configured on DirectAccess clients and the DirectAccess server. These rules consist of a variety of settings for the following: The source or destination IPv6 addresses or address prefixes for which IPsec tunnel mode is required. The tunnel endpoints (the IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess server). The authentication methods required to successfully authenticate both IPsec peers (the DirectAccess client and server). For the infrastructure tunnel, the authentication methods are computer certificate and UserNTLM (using the computers computer account credentials). For the intranet tunnel, the authentication methods are computer certificate and UserKerb (using the users user account credentials). The encryption and data integrity methods. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures a compatible set of connection security rules for the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients that should result in a successful negotiation of IPsec SAs for both tunnels, provided the DirectAccess client and server have certificates installed in their computer store that can be used for IPsec and validated by both IPsec peers. If the DirectAccess client cannot successfully negotiate the two tunnels, it cannot connect to resources on the intranet. To verify whether the DirectAccess client can successfully create the infrastructure tunnel 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. On the DirectAccess client, click Start, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 3. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, click Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see connection security rules whose names begin with DirectAccess Policy. If not, this DirectAccess client has not received its connection security rules from computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that the DirectAccess
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client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2 and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 4. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, open Monitoring\Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see a list of connection security rules that begin with DirectAccess Policy, including rules named DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc and DirectAccess Policy-ClientCorp. 5. If you do not see these rules, from the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command. This command displays the attached networks and their determined firewall profiles. None of your networks should be in the domain profile. If any of your networks has been assigned the domain profile, determine if you have an active remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection or a domain controller that is available on the Internet. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command. There should be a main mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, in which WWXX:YYZZ is the colon hexadecimal representation of w.x.y.z, the first public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. For example, if the first public IPv4 address is 131.107.0.2, the corresponding 6to4 IPv6 address is 2002:836b:2::836b:2 (836b:2 is the colon-hexadecimal representation for 131.107.0.2). The main mode SA should also have ComputerCert for Auth1 and UserNTLM for Auth2. 7. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command. There should be a quick mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, corresponding to the first public IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess client computer cannot establish the main and quick mode SAs for the infrastructure tunnel using the default connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the most likely problem is a certificate authentication failure. For more information, see the IKE certificate selection process and IKE certificate acceptance process sections of Public Key Certificate. You can view the certificates in the local computer store on the DirectAccess client and server with the Certificates snap-in. To ensure that the DirectAccess server can access a domain controller to validate the credentials of the DirectAccess client, run the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command at an elevated command prompt. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the DirectAccess server and Active Directory. Similarly, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, ensure that the IPv6287

capable domain controllers that are being used by DirectAccess clients are using site-less locator records in DNS. To perform detailed IPsec negotiation analysis, use IPsec audit events in the Windows Logs\Security event log and network tracing for DirectAccess. For more information, see Event Viewer and Network Diagnostics and Tracing. To verify whether the DirectAccess client can successfully create the intranet tunnel 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the net view \\IntranetFileServer command. Alternately, use your Internet Web browser to access an intranet uniform resource locator (URL) or another application to access an intranet resource. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command. There should be a main mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the 6to4 IPv6 address corresponding to the second public IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. For example, if the first public IPv4 address is 131.107.0.3, the corresponding 6to4 IPv6 address is 2002:836b:3::836b:3 (836b:3 is the colon-hexadecimal notation for 131.107.0.3). The main mode SA should also have ComputerCert for Auth1 and UserKerb for Auth2. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command. There should be a quick mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the 6to4 IPv6 address corresponding to the second public IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess client computer cannot establish the main and quick mode SAs for the intranet tunnel using the default connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the most likely problem is a certificate authentication failure. For more information, see the IKE certificate selection process and IKE certificate acceptance process sections of Public Key Certificate. To ensure that the DirectAccess server can access a domain controller to validate the credentials of the DirectAccess client, run the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command at an elevated command prompt. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the DirectAccess server and Active Directory. Similarly, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, ensure that the IPv6capable domain controllers that are being used by DirectAccess clients are using site-less locator records in DNS. To perform detailed IPsec negotiation analysis, use IPsec audit events in the Windows Logs\Security event log and network tracing for DirectAccess. For more information, see Event Viewer and Network Diagnostics and Tracing.

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IPsec and certificate revocation checking


By default, the DirectAccess client does not perform certificate revocation checking on the certificates that it receives from IPsec peers for authentication. However, the DirectAccess server by default performs certificate revocation checking on the certificates that it receives from IPsec peers with either a weak or strong CRL check. With weak CRL checking, IPsec will check its local certificate revocation list (CRL) cache for revoked certificates. If the certificate being examined is in the cache as revoked, authentication will fail. If it is not listed as revoked in the local CRL cache, authentication will succeed. You can view the list of CRL files in your local CRL cache with the certutil -URLcache CRL command. Weak CRL checking is the default configuration of the DirectAccess server. With strong CRL checking, IPsec will check the certificate for revocation its local CRL cache and the published CRL distribution points. If the certificate being examined is in the cache as revoked, is listed in the CRL from the CRL distribution point as revoked, or the CRL distribution point is not accessible, authentication fails. If strong CRL checking is enabled, obtain the certificate properties of the computer certificate for the DirectAccess client, examine the CRL Distribution Point field, and verify that the DirectAccess server can access the CRL from one of the specified CRL distribution point locations. If the DirectAccess server cannot retrieve the CRL from any of these locations, all IPsec certificate authentication fails. If strong or weak CRL checking configured on either the DirectAccess server or client, you can obtain additional information through the Windows Logs\Security event log. To view the failures for IPsec in the Windows Logs\Security event log in Event Viewer, you must enable auditing on the DirectAccess client or server with the auditpol.exe /set /SubCategory:"IPsec Main Mode","IPsec Extended Mode" /success:enable /failure:enable command. Look for the following events in the Windows Logs\Security event log: Event ID 4653: Main Mode: Failed: An IPsec Main Mode Negotiation Failed Event ID 4654: Quick Mode: Failed: An IPsec Quick Mode Negotiation Failed

Event ID 4984: Extended Mode: Failed: An IPsec Extended Mode Negotiation Failed. The corresponding Main Mode Security Association has been deleted. Extended Mode failures are typically generated for problems with user authentication for tunnel mode and for IPsec authorization failures, such as when you are using smart cards for additional authorization. Event 4984 indicates that the credentials supplied are not authorized to establish the tunnel to the DirectAccess Server.

NAP health enforcement for the intranet tunnel


If NAP full enforcement mode is configured in the connection security rules for the intranet tunnel and the DirectAccess client does not receive a health certificate, the DirectAccess client will not be able to access intranet resources. The Windows Logs\Security event log will contain an IPsec audit failure. The specific event that indicates a NAP health failure is the following: MessageId=13905
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SymbolicName=ERROR_IPSEC_IKE_AUTHORIZATION_FAILURE. SA establishment is not authorized. To perform additional NAP health evaluation troubleshooting, see Introduction to Troubleshooting NAP and Fixing Health Certificate Problems in the Network Access Protection Troubleshooting Guide.

Smart card authorization


If you are using smart cards for an additional level of authorization and IPsec authentication fails, the Windows Logs\Security event log will contain IPsec audit failures. For smart card authorization, the authorization rules on the DirectAccess server require that a DirectAccess client specify a security identifier (SID) that indicates the user is in possession of a certificate that qualifies for the "This Organization Certificate" property. The specific event that indicates a failure to present a smart card-based certificate during the negotiation of the intranet tunnel is the following: MessageId=13906 SymbolicName=ERROR_IPSEC_IKE_STRONG_CRED_AUTHORIZATION_FAILURE. SA establishment is not authorized because of lack of a PKINIT-based credential of sufficient strength.

NTLM authentication failures


If there are NTLM authentication errors during authentication (specifically NTLM on the DirectAccess client fails with NO_AUTHENTICATING_AUTHORITY), there might be a bottleneck at the DirectAccess server. To increase the number of concurrent authentication calls in progress at one time between the DirectAccess server and the domain controller, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters\MaxC oncurrentApi (REG_DWORD) registry value on the DirectAccess server to 5, and then restart the NETLOGON service.

Detailed analysis of IPsec negotiation


In addition to the events in the Windows Logs\Security event log, you can use Windows Firewall tracing to capture detailed IPsec negotiation and component interaction information. For more information, see Network Diagnostics and Tracing.

DirectAccess Client Cannot Resolve Names with Intranet DNS Servers


When a DirectAccess client has determined that it is on the Internet, it uses rules in the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) to send Domain Name System (DNS) queries for intranet
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resources to intranet DNS servers. DirectAccess clients receive NRPT rules through Group Policy. To troubleshoot why a DirectAccess client cannot resolve names with an intranet DNS server 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh namespace show policy command. This command displays the NRPT rules configured through Group Policy, which are typically one or more namespace rules (with a leading period) for your intranet namespace and one or more exemption rules for names that should not be resolvable while on the Internet (fully qualified domain names [FQDNs] without a leading period for names such as your network location server). Verify that your entire intranet namespace is represented by namespace rules. If there are no rules, verify that the DirectAccess client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2, is a member of a security group specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, and has updated its computer configuration Group Policy. In the DirectAccess-based rules for your intranet namespace, there should be at least one Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address for DirectAccess (DNS Servers). 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh namespace show effective command. This command displays the current effective rules. If there are no DirectAccess-based rules, the DirectAccess client has determined that it is on the intranet. 4. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 addresses of your intranet DNS servers from step 2 or 3. This ensures that the intranet DNS server is reachable across the DirectAccess connection. 5. From the Command Prompt window, use the nslookup q=aaaa IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address command to resolve the names of intranet servers (example: nslookup q=aaaa dc1.corp.contoso.com 2002:836b:2:1::5efe:10.0.0.1). This command should display the IPv6 addresses of the specified intranet server. If there are no IPv6 addresses for the name, determine why the corresponding IPv6 (AAAA) records are not in your intranet DNS. If there is no response from the intranet DNS server, troubleshoot the infrastructure tunnel between the DirectAccess client and server. For more information, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server.

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Fixing Issues with Connecting to an Intranet Resource


Issues with connecting to and from intranet resources typically fall into the following categories: DirectAccess Client Cannot Access Intranet Resources Intranet Management Server Cannot Connect to a DirectAccess Client

DirectAccess Client Cannot Access Intranet Resources


A DirectAccess client uses Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) exclusively to access intranet resources across the DirectAccess connection with the DirectAccess server. When a DirectAccess client queries the intranet Domain Name System (DNS) servers, it requests only IPv6 addresses. The intranet DNS server will respond with IPv6 addresses in the following cases: The intranet resource server is IPv6-capable and has registered its unique local or global IPv6 addresses in DNS. In this case, the DirectAccess client can connect to the intranet resource server using end-toend IPv6 addresses. A client application on the DirectAccess client can communicate with its corresponding server application on the intranet resource server if both client and server applications are IPv6-capable. The intranet resource is not IPv6-capable, but the intranet DNS server is performing an IPv6/Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) DNS gateway function and returning the IPv6 address of an IPv6/IPv4 translator, such as a NAT64. In this case, the DirectAccess client can connect to the IPv4-only intranet resource using an intermediate IPv6/IPv4 translator. This topic does not describe troubleshooting DirectAccess connectivity when using an IPv6/IPv4 DNS gateway or IPv6/IPv4 translator. As described in Choose an Intranet IPv6 Connectivity Design, you can use native IPv6 (recommended) or Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) to deploy IPv6 connectivity on your intranet. In either case, IPv6-capable nodes on your network are reachable with IPv6 and, if they support DNS dynamic update, register their IPv6 addresses in DNS. To troubleshoot why a DirectAccess client cannot connect to an intranet resource 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh namespace show effective command. This command displays the current effective rules, which are typically one or more namespace rules (with a leading period) for your intranet namespace and one or more exemption rules for names that should not be resolvable while on the Internet (fully qualified domain names [FQDNs] without a leading period for names such as your
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network location server). Verify that your entire intranet namespace is represented by DirectAccess-based namespace rules. In the rules for your intranet namespace, there should be at least one IPv6 address for DirectAccess (DNS Servers). If there are no rules, run the netsh namespace show policy command. If there are DirectAccess-based rules, the DirectAccess client has determined that it is on the intranet. If there are no rules, verify that the DirectAccess client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2, is a member of a security group specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, and has updated its computer configuration Group Policy. 3. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 addresses of your intranet DNS servers from step 2. This step ensures that the intranet DNS server is reachable across the DirectAccess connection. 4. Verify that the FQDN of the intranet resource matches a namespace rule in the NRPT and does not match an exemption rule. This step ensures that the DirectAccess client will send its queries to the intranet DNS servers, rather than an Internet DNS server. 5. From the Command Prompt window, use the nslookup q=aaaa IntranetFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPv6Address command to resolve the names of intranet servers to IPv6 addresses (example: nslookup q=aaaa dc1.corp.contoso.com 2002:836b:2:1::5efe:10.0.0.1). This command should display the IPv6 addresses of the specified intranet server. If there are no IPv6 addresses for the name, see the To determine the IPv6 addresses that an intranet resource registers in DNS procedure in this topic. If there is no response from the intranet DNS server, troubleshoot the infrastructure tunnel between the DirectAccess client and server. For more information, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server. 6. From the Command Prompt window, ping the IPv6 addresses of the intranet resource server from step 5. This ensures that the intranet resource server is reachable across the DirectAccess connection. 7. From the DirectAccess client, attempt to connect to the intranet server using the appropriate application or run the net view \\IntranetServerName command from the Command Prompt window. If there is no response from the intranet DNS server, verify that the client and server or peer applications running on both the DirectAccess client and intranet server are IPv6capable. If the peer or client application running on the DirectAccess client is not IPv6-capable, you cannot use it over the DirectAccess connection. If the peer or client application running on the intranet server is not IPv6-capable, you can
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update the application to support IPv6 or place it behind an IPv6/IPv4 translator. Most built-in server applications and system services on computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP are not IPv6-capable. 8. If the applications running on both the DirectAccess client and intranet server are IPv6-capable, troubleshoot the intranet tunnel between the DirectAccess client and server. For more information, see DirectAccess Client Cannot Establish Tunnels to the DirectAccess Server. To determine the IPv6 addresses that an intranet resource registers in DNS 1. On the Windows-based intranet resource server, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the ipconfig command. This command displays your current Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration, including both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Verify that an IPv6 global address (an address that begins with 2 or 3) or an IPv6 unique local address (begins with fd) is assigned to an interface on the computer. If all of the IPv6 addresses begin with fe80, the intranet resource has not been configured with an IPv6 address that is registerable in DNS and reachable by DirectAccess clients. For more information, see the To troubleshoot why an intranet ISATAP host does not configure an ISATAP address procedure in this topic. 3. If there is a global or unique local IPv6 address assigned to an interface, use the nslookup q=aaaa IntranetServerFQDN IntranetDNSServerIPAddress command to determine if the intranet resource has registered its IPv6 address. For example, for the intranet resource named APP1 in the corp.contoso.com domain that has been configured to use the DNS server at 10.0.0.1, the command is nslookup q=aaaa app1.corp.contoso.com 10.0.0.1. This command should display the IPv6 addresses of the intranet resource that are registered in DNS. 4. If there are no IPv6 addresses for the name, run the ipconfig /registerdns command and go to step 3. If there are still no IPv6 addresses, troubleshoot DNS dynamic update between the intranet resource server and its DNS servers. If you are using ISATAP for IPv6 connectivity on your intranet, ISATAP hosts should automatically discover the IPv4 address of the ISATAP router (the DirectAccess server) and configure an ISATAP address on an ISATAP interface. To troubleshoot why an intranet ISATAP host does not configure an ISATAP address 1. On the Windows-based intranet resource, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query
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HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or third bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled ISATAP. You must change the first and third bit from the right to 0 to enable ISATAP. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v ISATAP_RouterName command. This command should display ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If it does not, note the value. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v ISATAP_State command. This command should display ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If it does not, ensure that the value is set to enabled. If it is set to disabled, change the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\TCPIP Settings\IPv6 Transition Technologies\ISATAP State setting in the Group Policy object for this intranet resource to either Enabled or Not Configured and update computer configuration Group Policy. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface isatap show state command. This command should display enabled in ISATAP State. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface isatap show router command. This command should display default or the name from step 3 in Router Name. 7. From the Command Prompt window, ping the name isatap or the name from step 3. This ensures that the intranet resource can resolve the name of the ISATAP router to an IPv4 address and reach the IPv4 address. Verify that the IPv4 address is assigned to the computer that is the intranet ISATAP router, which is typically the DirectAccess server. 8. If the name isatap or the name from step 3 does not resolve, check your DNS server to verify that the corresponding Address (A) record exists in your intranet DNS. 9. DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 or later will not by default answer queries for the name isatap unless you remove it from the global query block list. Verify that the name isatap has been removed from the global query block list. For more information, see Remove ISATAP from the DNS Global Query Block List. The next step in troubleshooting ISATAP connectivity is the ISATAP router.

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To troubleshoot an ISATAP router 1. On the DirectAccess server acting as the ISATAP router, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip6\Parameters /v DisabledComponents command. If the DisabledComponents registry value is present, the command displays its value. If the DisabledComponents registry value is not present, the command displays ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If DisabledComponents is present and it is not 0, convert it to a binary number. If the first or third bit from the right in the binary number is 1, DisabledComponents has disabled ISATAP. You must change the first and third bit from the right to 0 to enable ISATAP. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v ISATAP_RouterName command. This command should display ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If it does not, note the value. 4. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\TCPIP\v6Transition /v ISATAP_State command. This command should display ERROR: The system was unable to find the specified registry key or value. If it does not, ensure that the value is set to enabled. 5. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface isatap show state command. This command should display enabled in ISATAP State. 6. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface isatap show router command. This command should display isatap.IntranetDNSSuffix in Router Name. 7. From the Command Prompt window, ping the name isatap. This demonstrates that the DirectAccess server has registered the ISATAP name. Verify that the resolved IPv4 address is assigned to an intranet interface of the DirectAccess server. 8. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces command. This command lists all of the IPv6 interfaces and their interface index numbers. Note the interface index (Idx) of the interface named isatap.IntranetDNSSuffix. 9. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface ipv6 show interface ISATAPInterfaceIndex command. Verify that Advertising and Forwarding are set to Enabled. If not, run the netsh interface ipv6 set interface ISATAPInterfaceIndex advertise=enabled
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forwarding=enabled command. 10. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh interface ipv6 show route command. This command lists the routes in the IPv6 route table. Verify that there is a 64-bit route with the Gateway/Interface Name set to isatap.IntranetDNSSuffix and Publish set to Yes. This is the ISATAP subnet route that the DirectAccess server is advertising to ISATAP hosts on the intranet. The 64-bit route typically has the form 2002:WWXX:YYZZ:1::/64, in which WWXX:YYZZ is the colon hexadecimal representation of w.x.y.z, the first public IPv4 address of the DirectAccess servers Internet interface. 11. If Publish is set to No for the route in step 10, run the netsh interface ipv6 set route 64BitRoute ISATAPInterfaceIndex publish=yes.

Intranet Management Server Cannot Connect to a DirectAccess Client


Management servers specified in Step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard can initiate connections with DirectAccess clients using a management tunnel, an Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnel similar to the infrastructure tunnel automatically established by the DirectAccess client computer to access domain controllers, Domain Name System (DNS) servers, and other types of infrastructure servers. The management server can connect to the DirectAccess client before the user has logged on. Alternately, the management tunnel can be established by the DirectAccess client computer when it initiates communication with a management server. Just like the infrastructure tunnel, success of the tunnel mode security associations (SAs) for the management tunnel depends on the connection security rules configured on DirectAccess clients and the DirectAccess server. These rules consist of a variety of settings for the following: The source or destination Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of the management servers for which IPsec tunnel mode is required. The tunnel endpoints (the IPv6 addresses of the DirectAccess server). The computer certificate and UserNTLM (using the computers computer account credentials) authentication methods required to successfully authenticate the DirectAccess client and server. The encryption and data integrity methods. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures a compatible set of connection security rules for the DirectAccess server and DirectAccess clients that should result in a successful negotiation of IPsec SAs for the management tunnel. If DirectAccess server and DirectAccess client cannot successfully negotiate the management tunnel, the management server on the intranet cannot communicate with the DirectAccess client to remotely manage, install updates, or perform other management functions.
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To verify whether the management server can successfully create the management tunnel 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. On the DirectAccess client, click Start, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 3. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, click Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see connection security rules whose names begin with DirectAccess Policy. If not, this DirectAccess client has not received its connection security rules from computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that the DirectAccess client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2 and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 4. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, open Monitoring\Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see a list of connection security rules that begin with DirectAccess Policy, including a rule named DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt. 5. If you do not see these rules, from the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command. This command displays the attached networks and their determined firewall profiles. None of your networks should be in the domain profile. If any of your networks has been assigned the domain profile, determine if you have an active remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection or a domain controller that is available on the Internet. 6. Double-click the DirectAccess Policy-ClientToMgmt rule and then click the Computers tab. Verify that the IPv6 address of the management server is listed in Endpoint 2. This list of IPv6 addresses was configured in step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 7. From the intranet, use the management server to initiate communication with the DirectAccess client. For example, use the management server to establish a remote desktop connection to the DirectAccess client. 8. On the DirectAccess client, from the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command. There should be a main mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, corresponding to the first public IPv4 address assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. For example, if the first public IPv4 address is 131.107.0.2, the corresponding 6to4 IPv6 address is 2002:836b:2::836b:2 (836b:2 is the colon-hexadecimal notation for 131.107.0.2). The main mode SA should also have ComputerCert for Auth1 and UserNTLM for Auth2. 9. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command. There should be a quick mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::WWXX:YYZZ, corresponding to the first public IPv4 address
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assigned to the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess client computer cannot establish the main and quick mode SAs for the management tunnel using the default connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the most likely problem is a certificate authentication failure. For more information, see the IKE certificate selection process and IKE certificate acceptance process sections of Public Key Certificate. You can view the certificates in the local computer store on the DirectAccess client and server with the Certificates snap-in To ensure that the DirectAccess server can access a domain controller to validate the credentials of the DirectAccess client, run the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command at an elevated command prompt. If there are no domain controllers listed, troubleshoot the lack of discoverability and connectivity between the DirectAccess server and Active Directory. Similarly, use the nltest /dsgetdc: /force command on the DirectAccess client to ensure that it has access to a domain controller. If there are no domain controllers listed, ensure that the IPv6capable domain controllers that are being used by DirectAccess clients are using site-less locator records in DNS. To perform detailed IPsec negotiation analysis, use IPsec audit events in the Windows Logs\Security event log and network tracing for DirectAccess. For more information, see Event Viewer and Network Diagnostics and Tracing. If you have configured DirectAccess for the end-to-end access model, verify that the management server has been configured with compatible connection security rules to use transport mode IPsec when initiating communication with DirectAccess clients.

Fixing Problems with Creating Protected Connections to an Intranet Resource


For the selected server or end-to-end access models, DirectAccess clients use Internet Protocol security (IPsec) transport mode rules to protect the traffic from the DirectAccess client to intranet resource servers. In the case of the selected server access model, the end-to-end protection is between DirectAccess clients and a set of resource servers defined by security group membership. In the case of the end-to-end access model, the end-to-end protection is between DirectAccess clients and all intranet resource servers that are domain members.

Selected server access model


For selected server access, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard configures a compatible set of connection security rules for DirectAccess clients and the selected servers that should result in a successful establishment of transport mode IPsec security associations (SAs). If the DirectAccess client cannot successfully create the transport mode SAs, the DirectAccess client cannot connect to the selected servers on the intranet.
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To verify whether the DirectAccess client can successfully create transport mode IPsec SAs to selected servers 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. On the DirectAccess client, click Start, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 3. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, click Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see connection security rules whose names begin with DirectAccess Policy. If not, this DirectAccess client has not received its connection security rules from computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that the DirectAccess client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2 and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 4. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, open Monitoring\Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see a list of connection security rules that begin with DirectAccess Policy, including a rule named DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer. 5. If you do not see these rules, from the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command. This command displays the attached networks and their determined firewall profiles. None of your networks should be in the domain profile. If any of your networks has been assigned the domain profile, determine if you have an active remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection or a domain controller that is available on the Internet. 6. Double-click the DirectAccess Policy- clientToAppServer rule and then click the Computers tab. Verify that the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of the selected servers are listed in Endpoint 2. This list of IPv6 addresses was configured based on the selected server security groups specified in step 4 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 7. Initiate communication with the selected server. For example, use the appropriate application or the net view \\SelectedServerName command. 8. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command. There should be a main mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address of the selected server. The main mode SA should also have ComputerCert or ComputerKerb for Auth1 and UserKerb for Auth2. 9. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command. There should be a quick mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address of the selected server. If the DirectAccess client computer cannot establish the main and quick mode SAs to the selected server using the default connection security rules created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard, the most likely problem is the lack of corresponding connection security rules on the
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selected server. Verify that a rule named DirectAccess Policy-appServerToClient appears in the Connection Security Rules and Monitoring\Connection Security Rules nodes in the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in on the selected server.

End-to-end access model


For end-to-end access, you manually configure the settings created by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard for selected server access to apply to all of the computers in your domain. For more information, see Checklist: Implementing a DirectAccess Design for End-to-End Access. The result is a compatible set of connection security rules for DirectAccess clients and all intranet domain member computers for successful negotiation of end-to-end, encrypted transport mode IPsec SAs. If the DirectAccess client cannot successfully create the transport mode SAs, the DirectAccess client cannot connect to intranet resources. To verify whether the DirectAccess client can successfully create transport mode IPsec SAs to intranet resources 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. Click Start, type wf.msc, and then press ENTER. 3. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, click Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see connection security rules whose names begin with DirectAccess Policy. If not, this DirectAccess client has not received its connection security rules from computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that the DirectAccess client is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition or Windows 7 Enterprise Edition and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 4. In the tree pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in console, open Monitoring\Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, you should see a list of connection security rules that begin with DirectAccess Policy, including a rule named DirectAccess Policy-clientToAppServer. 5. If you do not see this rule, from the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show currentprofile command. This command displays the attached networks and their determined firewall profiles. None of your networks should be in the domain profile. If any of your networks has been assigned the domain profile, determine if you have an active remote access virtual private network (VPN) connection or a domain controller that is available on the Internet. 6. Initiate communication with an intranet server. For example, use an appropriate client application or the net view \\IntranetServer command. 7. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show mmsa command. There should be a main mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address of the intranet server. The main mode SA should also have ComputerCert or
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ComputerKerb for Auth1 and UserKerb for Auth2. 8. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh advfirewall monitor show qmsa command. There should be a quick mode SA with the Remote IP Address set to the IPv6 address of the intranet server. If the DirectAccess client computer cannot establish the main and quick mode SAs to intranet server using the modified connection security rules, the most likely problem is the lack of corresponding connection security rules on intranet servers. Verify that a rule named DirectAccess Policy-appServerToClient appears in the Connection Security Rules and Monitoring\Connection Security Rules nodes in the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in on your intranet servers.

Fixing Issues with Network Location Detection


DirectAccess clients determine whether they are directly attached to the intranet using a local area network (LAN) or wireless LAN (WLAN) connection whenever there is a change in network state. To detect the intranet, DirectAccess clients attempt to access a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) hosted by the network location server. This URL is configured in step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard and stored in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connection Status Indicator\Domain Location Determination URL setting of the Group Policy object for DirectAccess clients. After a network state change and before network location detection is complete, the DirectAccess client has the DirectAccess-based rules in its effective Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). If network location detection determines that the DirectAccess client is on the intranet, the DirectAccess-based rules in the effective NRPT are removed. If network location detection determines that the DirectAccess client is on the Internet, the DirectAccess-based rules in the NRPT are not removed. The most common issues that can occur with network location detection are the following: DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Internet When on the Intranet

DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet


If the DirectAccess client can successfully access the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) hosted by the network location server when directly attached to the Internet, network location detection determines that a DirectAccess client
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is on the intranet and removes the DirectAccess-based rules in the effective Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). If the DirectAccess client computer has an existing, active virtual private network (VPN) connection to the intranet, this is the desired behavior. With an existing layer 2 connection to the intranet, such as that provided by a VPN connection, the network location server is accessible and DirectAccess should not be used to provide intranet connectivity. If the DirectAccess client computer does not have an existing, active VPN connection to the intranet, the network location server should not be accessible. If it is, the DirectAccess client removes the DirectAccess-based rules in the effective NRPT and the DirectAccess client sends all Domain Name System (DNS) name queries to interface-configured DNS servers. The result is that the DirectAccess client will not be able to resolve intranet DNS server names and connect to intranet DNS servers through the DirectAccess server. If the network location server is accessible from DirectAccess clients on the Internet, it could be due to the following: Your NRPT does not have an exemption rule for the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the network location URL If the FQDN of the network location URL matches the namespace rule for your intranet, you must have an additional exemption rule for the FQDN in the NRPT. With this exemption rule, the DirectAccess client uses interface-configured DNS servers for the FQDN, which Internet DNS servers should not be able to resolve. If this exemption rule is missing and the FQDN of the network location URL matches the namespace rule for your intranet, the DirectAccess client will use intranet DNS servers to successfully resolve the FQDN and access the network location server over the DirectAccess connection. The network location URL is accessible from the Internet The network location URL is designed to be accessible only from the intranet. You should not be able to access the FQDN of the network location URL or the HTTPS-based URL from an Internet-connected computer. To test this, connect a computer that is not a DirectAccess client to the Internet and attempt to ping the FQDN of the network location URL and use an Internet browser to access the network location URL. If you can resolve the name and access the URL, remove the Internet DNS records for the FQDN or remove the network location server from the Internet. If the DirectAccess server is acting as the network location server, ensure that the IP and Domain Restrictions role service is installed for the Web server (IIS) role to prevent DirectAccess clients on the Internet from reaching the network location URL on the DirectAccess server. For more information about the technical details of the network location detection process, see Network Location Detection.

DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Internet When on the Intranet


If the DirectAccess client cannot access the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL) hosted by the network location server when directly attached to
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the intranet, network location detection determines that a DirectAccess client is on the Internet and keeps the DirectAccess-based rules in the effective Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT). With the DirectAccess-based rules in the effective NRPT, the DirectAccess client sends Domain Name System (DNS) queries for names that match the intranet namespace to the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses of intranet DNS servers. If you have native IPv6 connectivity and the IPv6 addresses of the DNS servers configured in the namespace rules are reachable, the DirectAccess client will be able to successfully resolve and connect to intranet DNS servers. However, if the NRPT rules use a different set of DNS servers than intranet computers through interface-configured DNS servers (for example, to place the load of DirectAccess and intranet clients on different sets of DNS servers), DirectAccess clients on the intranet will continue to use the DNS servers that are intended for use by DirectAccess clients on the Internet. To determine the results of network location detection on a DirectAccess client 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh namespace show policy command. There should be set of NRPT rules. If not, this DirectAccess client has not received its NRPT rules from computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that this computer is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition, Windows 7 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 R2 and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh dnsclient show state command. The determined network location is displayed in the Machine Location field (Outside corporate network or Inside corporate network). 4. To investigate the details of network location detection, click Start, type eventvwr.msc, and then press ENTER. 5. In the console tree, open Application and Services Logs\Microsoft\Windows\NCSI\Operational. 6. Double-click the most recent Information events with the event ID 4010. The text on the General tab displays the result of the latest detections (also known as Inside/Outside detections) as either INSIDE or OUTSIDE. INSIDE means the intranet has been detected. OUTSIDE means that the intranet has not been detected. Look at the events for the interfaces with interface numbers that begin with 0x47 (WLAN) and 0x60 (LAN). If any of the LAN or WLAN interfaces are INSIDE, the DirectAccess client is on the intranet. If all of the LAN and WLAN interfaces are OUTSIDE, the DirectAccess client is not on the intranet. Note You can also use the wevtutil qe Microsoft-Windows-NCSI/Operational /rd:true /f:text >> filename.log command to export the events to a text file.
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To troubleshoot why a DirectAccess client on the intranet cannot successfully access the network location URL 1. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator. 2. From the Command Prompt window, run the reg query HKLM\software\policies\microsoft\windows\NetworkConnectivityStatusIndicator\C orporateConnectivity /v DomainLocationDeterminationUrl command. This displays the network location URL. If there is no value, the DirectAccess client has not been properly configured with computer configuration Group Policy. Verify that this computer is running Windows 7 Ultimate Edition or Windows 7 Enterprise Edition and is a member of one of the security groups specified in step 1 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh namespace show policy command. 4. Compare the FQDN in the network location URL to the NRPT rules from step 3. Either the FQDN should not match the DirectAccess-based intranet namespace rules or it should match an exemption rule for the FQDN. In either case, the DirectAccess client will use interface-configured DNS server to resolve the FQDN in the network location URL. 5. From the Command Prompt window, ping the FQDN in the network location URL. This step ensures that the DirectAccess client can resolve the name and reach the network location server. 6. Attempt to access the network location URL with your Internet browser. You should see the Web page without any certificate errors. Note that the contents of the Web page do not matter, only the ability to successfully access it. If you see a certificate error, verify the following for the certificate on the network location server that is being used for HTTPS (SSL)-based connections: The DirectAccess client can validate and trust the network location certificate. The Subject field is the FQDN from the network location URL. The Enhanced Key Usage field contains the Server Authentication object identifier (OID).

The certificate revocation list (CRL) Distribution Points field contains at least one CRL distribution point that the DirectAccess client can successfully access. To test access to the CRL distribution points of the network location certificate from a DirectAccess client on the intranet 1. On the network location server, obtain the CRL distribution pointsthe Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URL without the file name or the universal naming convention (UNC) path without the file namefrom the CRL Distribution Points field of the certificate being used for HTTPS-based connections. If the network location server is running Windows, use the Certificates snap-in for the local computer store and view the Details tab for the properties of the HTTPS (Secure Sockets Layer [SSL]) certificate. 2. On the DirectAccess client, start a command prompt as an administrator.
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3. From the Command Prompt window, ping the FQDNs from the URLs or UNC paths for the CRL distribution points obtained in step 1. This step ensures that the DirectAccess client can resolve the names of the CRL distribution point locations and reach the resolved addresses. 4. For a URL-based CRL distribution point, paste it into your Internet browser. You should see a series of files with the .crl extension. Ensure that you can open all of the .crl files. 5. For a UNC path-based CRL distribution point, click Start, type the path, and then press ENTER. You should see folder with a series of files with the .crl extension. Ensure that you can open all of the .crl files. The DirectAccess client must be able to access at least one of the CRL distribution points and open the CRL files. Otherwise, certificate revocation fails and the DirectAccess determines that it is on the Internet. For more information about the technical details of the network location detection process, see Network Location Detection.

DirectAccess Technical Reference


Network Location Detection This topic describes the technical details of the DirectAccess client network location detection process.

Network Location Detection


Along with settings for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) transition technologies, DirectAccess clients that are connected to the Internet rely on the following to perform transparent connectivity to intranet resources: Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules for DirectAccess. These rules specify that the DirectAccess client forward Domain Name System (DNS) queries for fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) that match the intranet namespace to the IPv6 addresses of intranet DNS servers. This separates intranet traffic from Internet traffic. Connection security rules for DirectAccess. These rules specify that the DirectAccess client create encrypted Internet Protocol security (IPsec) tunnels to access intranet resources. There is an infrastructure tunnel that allows the client to access intranet DNS servers and domain controllers and an intranet tunnel that allows access to the entire intranet. These tunnels require computer (infrastructure and intranet tunnels) and user (intranet tunnel) credentials. The connection security rules for DirectAccess tunnels are specified for the Private and Public firewall profiles. When the DirectAccess client is connected to the intranet, the NRPT rules and connection security rules must be deactivated so that the DirectAccess client uses normal DNS name resolution methods and does not use IPsec tunnels to access intranet resources. Therefore, a
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DirectAccess client must be able to determine when it is connected to the intranet. This is known as network location detection.

Network location detection process


The Windows Network Location Awareness (NLA) service performs network location detection for every network state change, such as an Internet Protocol (IP) address change, and attempts to access a specific Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS)-based uniform resource locator (URL). You configure the network location URL through the Location page of step 3 of the DirectAccess Setup Wizard: If you select Network location server is run on a highly available server, the network location URL is the URL that you specify. If you select Network location server is run on the DirectAccess server, the DirectAccess Setup Wizard determines the network location URL from the Subject field of the specified certificate. DirectAccess clients receive the configuration of the network location URL from the DirectAccess client Group Policy object (Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Network\Network Connectivity Status Indicator\Domain Location Determination URL) and store it in the Windows Registry at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\NetworkConnectivityStatusIndic ator\CorporateConnectivity\DomainLocationDeterminationUrl. When the network state changes, the NLA service adds the DirectAccess rules to the effective NRPT. If the client can access the network location URL successfully over SSL and receive a valid HTTP response indicating a successful connection, the NLA service removes the DirectAccess NRPT rules. Otherwise, the rules remain in the NRPT. The detailed process is the following: 1. Attempt to resolve the FQDN in the network location URL. 2. The FQDN matches an exemption rule in the NRPT, which is configured by default by the DirectAccess Setup Wizard. Because the FQDN matches an exemption rule, perform a normal name resolution, which includes using interface-configured DNS servers. 3. Using the IP address returned from name resolution, perform an HTTP GET of the network location URL (an HTTPS connection). 4. Establish a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection with port 443 at the resolved IP address. 5. Perform Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication for HTTPS and validate the SSL certificate from the network location server. 6. Perform a certificate revocation check for the SSL certificate by checking the certificate revocation list (CRL) files in the CRL Distribution Point field. If the DirectAccess client can also locate and authenticate with a domain controller, it switches the network to the Domain profile. Because the DirectAccess connection security rules are specified only for the Private and Public profiles, they are deactivated. With the combination of network location detection and computer domain logon, the DirectAccess client configures itself for normal intranet access.
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Notes To demonstrate network location detection and its impact on the NRPT and connection security rules in the DirectAccess test lab (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? Linkid=150613), do the following: 1. Connect CLIENT1 to the Internet subnet. 2. Open a Command Prompt. 3. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh dnsclient show state command. Notice that the Machine Location field states Outside corporate network. 4. Run the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command. Notice that there are two active NRPT rules: A namespace rule for corp.contoso.com and an exemption rule for nls.corp.contoso.com. 5. Open the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in (wf.msc). 6. From the console tree of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, open Monitoring\Connection Security Rules. In the details pane, notice that there are three connection security rules: DirectAccess PolicyClientToCorp, DirectAccess Policy-ClientToDnsDc, and DirectAccess PolicyclientToNlaExempt. 7. Disconnect CLIENT1 from the Internet subnet and connect it to the Corpnet subnet. 8. From the Command Prompt window, run the netsh dnsclient show state command. Notice that the Machine Location field states Inside corporate network. 9. Run the netsh namespace show effectivepolicy command. Notice that there are now no active NRPT rules. 10. Refresh the details pane of the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in (Monitoring\Connection Security Rules). Notice that there are now no connection security rules.

Network location detection failures and their consequences


There are many reasons why the HTTP GET of the network location URL could fail, including the following: Network location server is offline A link failure makes the network location server unreachable Cannot resolve FQDN of the network location URL Incorrect address for the FQDN of the network location URL Cannot establish the SSL session (TCP)

Cannot validate the SSL certificate due to certificate expiration, incorrect object identifier (OID), incorrect Subject field Cannot resolve the FQDN of the CRL distribution point
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Cannot reach the CRL distribution point Cannot read the CRL files

The behavior of a DirectAccess client on the intranet when it cannot perform a successful network location detection depends on the name used by applications to access intranet resources, either FQDN or single-label, and whether the DirectAccess client can reach the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. If the DirectAccess client cannot reach the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server and tries to resolve an intranet FQDN, name resolution fails because there is no fall back behavior for FQDNs. Therefore, the DirectAccess client cannot reach the intranet resource. If the DirectAccess client cannot reach the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server and tries to resolve a single-label name, fall back behavior can use LLMNR or NetBIOS methods, including WINS. Therefore, connectivity to the intranet resource can use IPv4, rather than IPv6. A DirectAccess client on the intranet can use Internet Protocol over Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (IP-HTTPS) and an intranet proxy server to reach the Internet interface of the DirectAccess server. In this case, all DirectAccess tunneled traffic is exchanged with the DirectAccess server over the IP-HTTPS session out to the Internet and back to the intranet via the DirectAccess server. In this configuration, the DirectAccess client behaves in much the same way as if it were located on the Internet. However, intranet resources that are not available over DirectAccess are still unavailable, even though the DirectAccess client is connected to the intranet. Additionally, intranet access can have decreased performance because the traffic is routed through the IPHTTPS session, out to the Internet, and back through the DirectAccess server.

Troubleshooting network location detection


To troubleshoot problems with network location detection, see the following: DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Intranet When on the Internet DirectAccess Client Determines that it is on the Internet When on the Intranet

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