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AIR POLLUTION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Textile industry is one of the polluters of the environment. This article briefly describes the air pollution in textile industry.
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate, or biological material that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Categories of Air Pollution Air pollution is categorized by the emissions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carbon di oxide Aerosol fumes and gases Toxic gases Smoke and Dust

Carbon di oxide emission results in the generation of the green house gases such as water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluro carbon and ozone. Toxic gases spreading in the air will result in poisoning of the species up to death. Smoke results in the visibility loss. Emissions from Textile Processing Oil mist and organic emissions produced when textile materials containing lubricating oils, platicizers, and other materials that can volatilize or be thermically degraded into volatile substances, are subjected to heat. Processes that can be sources of oil mist include tentering, calendaring, heat setting, drying, and curing. Acid mist produced during the carbonization of wool and during some types of spray dyeing. Solvent vapors released during and after solvent processing operations such as dry cleaning and volatile organic compounds from mineral spirit solvents in print pastes or inks. Exhaust gases emanating from polycondensation of melt spinning fiber lines Dust and lint produced by the processing of natural fibres and synthetic staple prior to and during spinning, as well as by napping and carpet shearing. Emission in processes

Easy care finishing

Formaldehyde carcinogenic agent

Flame retardant finish


Hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds or oxides of nitrogen, highly conc. Carbon monoxide

Drying, curing

HCl and cyanide produced when drying of incompletely removed excess antistatic, flame retardant or softening compounds occurs

Summary of the wastes generated during textiles manufacturing Process Source Pollutants Energy Emissions from boiler Particulates, nitrous oxides Production (Nox) sulphur dioxide (SO2) Coating, dryingEmission from high temperatureVolatile organic components and curing ovens (VOCs) Cotton handlingEmissions from preparation, Particulates activities carding, combing, and fabrics manufacturing Sizing Emission from using sizingNitrogen oxides, sulphur compound (gums, PVA) oxide, carbon monoxide. Bleaching Emission from using chlorineChlorine, chlorine dioxide compound Dyeing Disperse dyeing using carriersCarriers Sulphur dyeing H2S Aniline dyeing Aniline vapors Printing Emission Hydrocarbons, ammonia Finishing Resin finishing Heat setting of Formaldehyde synthetic fabrics Carriers - low molecular weight Polymers - lubricating oils Emissions from storage tanks forVolatile organic components

Chemical

storage commodity and chemicals (VOCs) Waste waterEmissions from treatment tanksVolatile organic components, treatment and vessels toxic emissions source: www.e-textile.org Effect of Dust

Formation of dust film on every surface Particles fall into moving parts of machinery Dirty appearance of product

Effect of Dust - Health Hazards


Cotton dust biossinosis (lung disease) Asbestos dust lung cancer Wool dust allergic, sneezing attacks, asthma and related diseases

Pollutants Sulpher di oxide

aldehydes chlorine

Carbon di oxide

Effects On HumanSources Being Irritates respiratory Boiler flue gas, rayon system and causes plant etc. bronchitis Irritates all parts of Polyester plant respiratory system Causes lung irritation Processing house and also irritation in eyes Deprives body cells of Boiler house oxygen and cause unconsciousness by CO combining with hemoglobin

Pollution Control Spinning mill


maintaining m/c parts Maintaining hardness of rubber cots Maintaining RH% Using overhead pneumatic cleaners Cyclone filters, Cloth filters

Wet processing unit


Electrostatic precipitator scrubber oxidizer

General control measures 1. Height of chimneys: Chimneys height should not be less than 30 meters and release the pollutants not in the vicinity of living organism 2. Gravitational & inertial separator: These are working on gravitational and inertial concepts of collecting, filtering etc of the particulate matter. Eg. settling chambers, dynamic separator and wet cyclones & multiple cyclones. 3. Filters: Woven or sintered metal beds of fibres, metal turning, fibrous mats & aggregate bed filter, paper filters and fabric filters are used for the filtration of particulate matter like dust, lint and fumes. References 1. Keith Slater, "Environmental impact of textiles: production, processes and protection", Textile Institute (Manchester, England), Published by Woodhead Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1855735415, 9781855735415 2. www.e-textile.org 3. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/pdfdownload.asp? filename=2195&article=2195&status=new