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Types&of&Air&Dryers 1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F 2. Refrigerated -
Types&of&Air&Dryers 1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F 2. Refrigerated -
Types&of&Air&Dryers 1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F 2. Refrigerated -
Types&of&Air&Dryers 1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F 2. Refrigerated -
Types&of&Air&Dryers 1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F 2. Refrigerated -

Types&of&Air&Dryers

1. Desiccant – typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F

2. Refrigerated - typical outlet dew point range: 38°F to 50°F

3. Deliquescent - typical outlet dew point range: 40°F to 80°F

4. Membrane - typical outlet dew point range: 20°F to 60°F

5. Point of Use - typical outlet dew point range: -40°F to -100°F

Understanding& Air&Dryers&and&How&They&Work &

A compressed air dryer is a device for removing water vapor

from compressed air. Compressed air dryers are commonly found in a wide range of industrial and commercial facilities.

Most compressed air users understand that air dryers are essential in any air system. The question is not so much whether an air dryer is needed, but which is the best, most cost-effective solution for a particular application.

most cost-effective solution for a particular application. The process of air compression concentrates atmospheric

The process of air compression concentrates atmospheric contaminants, including water vapor. This raises the dew point of the compressed air relative to free atmospheric air and leads to condensation within pipes as the compressed air cools downstream of the compressor.

Excessive water in compressed air, either in the liquid or vapor phase, can cause a variety

of operational problems for users of compressed air. These include freezing of outdoor air

lines; corrosion of equipment; fouling of processes and products.

There are 3 forms of water in compressed air:

Liquid water

Aerosol (mist)

Vapor (gas)

Air-water separators remove liquid water aerosols. They remove up to 99% of the liquid water mist and none of the water vapor.

Water in Aerosol or Vapor form is more difficult to remove and requires the use of a Compressed Air Dryer. For every 20°F drop in compressed air temperature, the moisture holding capacity of air is reduced by 50%. Drying prevents liquid water forming downstream where it can contaminate or damage the system causing operating problems, costly maintenance, repairs and product spoilage.

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& Selection&Considerations 1. Flow Rate (scfm) 2. Operating Pressure (psig) 3. Air Inlet & Dew
& Selection&Considerations 1. Flow Rate (scfm) 2. Operating Pressure (psig) 3. Air Inlet & Dew
& Selection&Considerations 1. Flow Rate (scfm) 2. Operating Pressure (psig) 3. Air Inlet & Dew

&

& Selection&Considerations 1. Flow Rate (scfm) 2. Operating Pressure (psig) 3. Air Inlet & Dew Point
& Selection&Considerations 1. Flow Rate (scfm) 2. Operating Pressure (psig) 3. Air Inlet & Dew Point

Selection&Considerations

1. Flow Rate (scfm)

2. Operating Pressure (psig)

3. Air Inlet & Dew Point Temperature

4. Ambient Temperature

5. Application & Environment

1. Flow Rate: Determine the maximum capacity based on your system. This is normally in

scfm and can be determined by your air compressor horsepower if you don’t know. The approximation of the air compressor horsepower times 4 will get your close to the flow rate needed. (Example: 25 HP x 4 = 100 scfm flow)

2. Operating Pressure: Determine the minimum/maximum operating pressure based on

your system. Dryers are rated at 100 psig. If your pressure increases, the moisture load is decreased, reducing the strain on the refrigeration system. As a rule of thumb, an increase in capacity of approximately 20% for every 25 psig increase from 100 psig can be estimated. For every 25 psig decrease from 100 psig, your capacity is reduced by approximately 20%.

3. Air Inlet & Dew Point Temperature: Determine the minimum/maximum operating air

inlet temperature based on your system. Then determine the dew point requirements for the application, and then select which dryer type will produce that dew point. (desiccant,

refrigerated, deliquescent, or membrane). Choose a dew point temperature below the lowest ambient temperature the compressed air system will be exposed to. Consider air airlines located in air-conditioned or unheated areas running underground or between buildings.

To calculate your dew point temperature, take the lowest air temperature and lower it by 20º. (Example: Lowest ambient temp. 58ºF – 20ºF = 38ºF dew point) Typical applications can utilize a refrigerated dryer. More critical applications that require low moisture in the air-line require a desiccant dryer. (Desiccant dryers have ¼ % to 0.5% relative humidity in the dry air). The lower the dew point, the dryer the air.

4. Ambient Temperature: Determine the minimum/maximum operating ambient air

temperature based on your system. During hot summer months, higher ambient temperatures result in higher inlet temperatures and can result in overheating a refrigerated dryer. If your ambient temperature is over 100ºF, this may exceed the maximum inlet temperature of dryer. Therefore, you may need to go to the next size dryer or select a high temperature dryer.

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5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between
5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between
5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between
5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between
5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between

5. Application & Environment: All of the above specifications will help narrow the gap between what type of dryer the system requires to fit its application and environment. Other factors like indoors/outdoors, weather, and location all can change these factors. How the air is used in the application is the most critical part in selecting the type of dryer. Refrigerated dryers have some moisture present in the outlet air, about 10% to 20% relative humidity. Most applications can use a refrigerated dryer based on their needs. Desiccant dryers have very low moisture present in the outlet air, less then ½ % relative humidity. They are used in higher quality air instrumentation applications, which provide a pure stream of air.

&

Desiccant&Dryers &

Regenerative desiccant dryers adsorb moisture on solid desiccants, such as activated alumina, silica gel, or molecular sieves. Two desiccantpacked towers operate alternately; compressed air flows through the desiccant in one tower while the desiccant in the other tower is dried, or regenerated.

the desiccant in the other tower is dried, or regenerated. Regenerative desiccant dryers supply the lowest

Regenerative desiccant dryers supply the lowest dew point, usually 40°F but as low as 100°F. They are also the most expensive, so specify a regenerative desiccant dryer only when the application calls for maximum dew point performance.

Regenerative dryers are often used to protect instrumentation and control systems, laboratory equipment, and moisturesensitive processes and materials. They also protect outdoor lines from freezing in severe weather conditions.

There are three different methods to regenerate the saturated desiccant bed: by a purge of dry air from the operating tower, by internal heaters, or by an external heat source. Here are the pluses and minuses of each:

Heatless dryers use a purge of compressed air from the active tower, expanded to atmospheric pressure to dry the desiccant. It is a simple process, with the purge air vented to atmosphere. The units require little maintenance and, because they do not deal with the high voltages or high temperature, are quite safe. Heatless dryers are also the least expensive regenerative dryers, so they are a good choice for smaller systems with sufficient excess air capacity. Unfortunately, the purge requires 15 to 18% of air capacity, which means high operating costs in larger

251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

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systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller
systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller
systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller
systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller
systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller

systems. Often the expense associated with lost compressor horsepower restricts heatless dryers to systems smaller than approximately 2,000 scfm. This is increasingly the case as energy costs rise and companies strive to minimize power consumption.

Heated regenerative desiccant dryers use electrical resistance or steam heat to dry the desiccant bed, so only about 4.5% purge air is needed to drive off the water. These units initially cost more than heatless dryers because they have additional components and more complex controls. Skilled personnel are also required for maintenance. Heated dryers are predominantly used in the 500 3,000 scfm range. However, the specific application always dictates the best choice.

Blowerpurge compressed air dryers use an external blower to force heated atmospheric air through the regenerating tower. This dries the bed without requiring compressed air. However, blower units require the highest initial investment among regenerative dryers. For two reasons, they are used almost exclusively in large systems above 3,000 scfm. One, the cost of purge air required by the heatless type dryer is proportional to the size of the system, making the expense of purging prohibitive in large installations. Two, conducting heat evenly through an Internally Heated type dryer with a large desiccant bed is a technical challenge that requires many embedded heaters; to regenerate a large desiccant bed it is much simpler to evenly heat the bed with a blower.

The desiccant in heatless dryers lasts ten to fifteen years with an oil-free compressor and five to ten years with a lubricated compressor and a good prefilter. Oil contamination destroys the sensitive desiccant in about two to three weeks. Heated dryers tend to accelerate the aging process of adsorbent desiccant. Typically, new desiccant material is needed every three to five years.

Refrigerated&Dryers &

Refrigerated dryers operate much like a household refrigerator. They cool the compressed air sufficiently to condense the entrained moisture and separate it from the air supply. An advantage refrigerated dryers hold over singletower deliquescent dryers is that they produce a constant dew point regardless of fluctuations in inlet temperature. The dryers typically deliver a dew point of either 38ºF or 50ºF depending on the design. For the best performance when operating in high ambient temperatures or in dirty environments, a watercooled condenser is recommended.

environments, a water ‐ cooled condenser is recommended. 251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085 Tel. (866)

251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

Tel. (866) 650-1937 (Toll-Free) Tel. (413) 562-2324 (International) Fax (877) 880-1937 (Toll-Free) Fax (413) 562-7234 Email: sales@ecompressedair.com

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Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current
Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current
Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current
Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current
Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current

Most refrigerated dryers run continuously; others cycle on and off. Continuous operation eliminates start/stop current inrush and extends compressor life. It also permits instantaneous response to airflow demands to produce the required dew point. Cyclingtype refrigerated dryers do not respond as quickly. On the plus side, however, they may use less electrical power during extended periods of low air consumption. While both types are dependable, servicing generally requires a qualified technician with refrigeration recovery/recycling equipment.

The major limitation with refrigerated dryers is their dew points. Because they operate by condensing water in a heat exchanger, the lowest practical dew point reached is about 38ºF. Any lower and there is the danger of water freezing and plugging or cracking the heat exchanger. While this limits them to indoor applications, refrigerated units are the most commonly used dryers.

Deliquescent&Dryers &

(Note: deliquescent salt tablets are not desiccant adsorbents). Single tower deliquescent dryers are filled with an absorbent deliquescent salt in tabular form. This material attracts moisture and gradually dissolves as compressed air passes through the deliquescent salt tablet bed. Single tower dryers are simple, durable devices that have no moving parts, consume no power, and require no special control systems.

One benefit of single tower deliquescent dryers is that operating costs are directly proportional to air use. If there is no air demand, no desiccant is consumed. The dryers are simple to maintain as well. Draining the liquid out of the dryer vessel daily and periodically refilling it with deliquescent tablets are the only requirements. For these reasons, single tower dryers are generally the most economical in terms of both initial cost and operating expense.

in terms of both initial cost and operating expense. Single tower deliquescent dryers produce a compensating

Single tower deliquescent dryers produce a compensating dew point that is directly related to the inletair temperature. In other words, they reduce the dew point by a fixed amount below the inlet temperature. Outlet dew point, therefore, varies as inlet temperature changes. The deliquescent tablets are mixtures of hygroscopic salts compressed into nuggets. Standard materials reduce the dew point by 20ºF; more aggressive desiccants reduce the dew point more than 55ºF below the inlet temperature, but they are also more expensive.

251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

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Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow
Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow
Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow
Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow
Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow

Single tower deliquescent dryers appear simple, but they encompass considerable technology, from ensuring optimum airflow through the vessel to the science of producing high quality desiccant tablets.

However, single tower deliquescent dryers are suitable for some applications where refrigerated dryers will not work, particularly in harsh environments that quickly foul the aircooled or watercooled condensers on a refrigerated unit. Also, because no power is required, deliquescent units are wellsuited for mobile applications and in hazardous areas with electrical restrictions. Single tower deliquescent dryers can be used outdoors, as well as with aircooled aftercoolers.

Membrane&Dryers &

Membrane dryer refers to a dehumidication membrane that removes water vapor from compressed air. &

Typically, the compressed air is first filtered with a high quality coalescing filter. This filter removes liquid water, oil and particulate from the compressed air. The water vapor laden air then passes through the center bore of hollow fibers in the membrane bundle. &

At the same time, a small portion of the dry air product is redirected along the outside surface of the fibers to sweep out the water vapor which has permeated the membrane. The moisture-laden sweep gas is then vented to the atmosphere, and clean, dry air is supplied to the application.

and clean, dry air is supplied to the application. The drying power of the membrane is

The drying power of the membrane is controlled by varying the compressed air flow rate and pressure. The membrane air dryers are designed to operate continuously, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Membrane air dryers are quiet, reliable and require no electricity to operate. The only maintenance required is changing the prefilter cartridge twice a year.

Point C of C Use&Dryers &

Point-of-Use Dryers deliver clean dry air exactly where needed. They offer a compact, lightweight design, simple plug & play installation and low maintenance and upkeep.

These air dryers can go 12,000 hours between desiccant replacements, often paying for themselves in a matter of months. The only maintenance required is changing the prefilter cartridge often once a year, or depending on the system usage.

often once a year, or depending on the system usage. 251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

Tel. (866) 650-1937 (Toll-Free) Tel. (413) 562-2324 (International) Fax (877) 880-1937 (Toll-Free) Fax (413) 562-7234 Email: sales@ecompressedair.com

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& Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get
& Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get
& Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get
& Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get
& Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get

&

Find the Right Air Dryer Using Our Air Dryer Sizing Tool Online Or Get a FREE Technical Assistance Dryer Evaluation

Visit Online: http://www.eCompressedair.com/Air-Dryers.aspx

Visit Online: http://www.eCompressedair.com/Air-Dryers.aspx 251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085 Tel. (866) 650-1937
Visit Online: http://www.eCompressedair.com/Air-Dryers.aspx 251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085 Tel. (866) 650-1937

251 Union Street Westfield, MA 01085

Tel. (866) 650-1937 (Toll-Free) Tel. (413) 562-2324 (International) Fax (877) 880-1937 (Toll-Free) Fax (413) 562-7234 Email: sales@ecompressedair.com

Search Our Online Store www.eCompressedair.com or Call 866-650-1937