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Calculate the viscosities of silane and hydrogen over the temperature range from 300 to 1000 K. Show that an empirical model of the form = ATb give a reasonably good fit to the behaviour and give the values of b for the two gases. Note that T is absolute temperature. H2 SiH4 2. () 2.83 4.08 /k (K) 59.7 208

A wide sheet of smooth planar film, of thickness 2B, is pulled through the region between a pair of wide parallel planes separated by a distance 2A. Figure 1 shows the geometry.

Figure 1 The entire space surrounding the film is filled with a Newtonian liquid of viscosity . Derive a model for the velocity profile x(y). Assume that there is no pressure variation in the x direction, and that gravity acts parallel to the y axis. 3. Find an expression for the force required to withdraw a wire from a container of viscous liquid as shown in Fig. 2. (Neglect the fact that some of the liquid is removed from the reservoir because it adheres to the wire as a coating.) Give magnitude of the force for the case U = 0.1 m/s, L = 0.1 m, = 1 Pa-s, Ri = 0.001 m. R0 = 0.00125 m.

Figure 2

The next three problems are for students taking as CHE7201 4. Based on the concept sketched in Fig. 3. Design a viscometer suitable for measuring liquid viscosities in the range of 1 to 100 Pa-s. In the drawing, D is a large reservoir containing a viscous fluid A and E is a cylindrical tube, open at both ends, surrounding and coaxial with B, which is a cylindrical "bob" that is dragged up through the fluid by a frictionless pulley system (C) utilising a weight W. A "design" requires specification of all geometrical dimensions of the system. In addition, present a design equation that related viscosity to the geometry of the system and describe the measurements you would make of the behaviour of the system. What range of W value (kg) do you require?

Figure 3 5. Wehbeh et al. [Phys. Fluids, A5, 25 (1993)] present, without derivation, an expression for the dimensionless drag force on a long cylinder moving at a constant speed through a closed annular reservoir:

1 32 441n 2 force 1 4 = 1+ 2VL 1 1 2 1n 1 + 2

We have assumed that the viscosity of liquids is independent of pressure. This is a good approximation at moderate absolute pressures, but liquids subjects to high pressure service, such as lubricants, show a pressure dependence of viscosity (P) that can be expressed in the form

= 0 e b ( P P0 )

where 0 and b are material parameters, and P is absolute pressure. Rework the derivation of Poiseuille's law and show that

1 e bP PR 4 Q= bP 8L 0

CHE4009 TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Assignment # 2 1. A Stormer viscometer consists essentially of two concentric cylinders, the inner of which rotates while the outer is held stationary. Viscosity is determined by measuring the rate of rotation of the inner cylinder under the application of a known torque. Apply the Navier-Stoke equations given in Table 3.4-3 (enclosed) to derive an expression for the velocity distribution in this kind of apparatus, as a function of applied torque, for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid. Neglect end effects. In the molecular flow regime, the relationship of mass flow-rate to pressure difference across a long circular tube is given theoretically by Knudsen as

8R G T 2 (1) M 0 W where 0 is the mass density measured at the upstream pressure p0, and D and L are the tube diameter and length, respectively. D3 p 0 p L m= 12 L p0

1

2.

mp flow rate for compressible fluids (consult your hand-out for the equation for compressible fluids) b. Consider the flow of nitrogen under the following conditions: D = 1 mm, L = 0.1 m, T = 300 K, p0 - pL = 10 mtorr, p0 = 20 mtorr Calculate the mass flow-rate according to Eq. (1) and compare your result to that which would be predicted through the (mis) use of K p + p L p 0 p L m= 0 0 L 2 p 0 where K = D

4

128

3.

A reservoir holds water at 250C. The water flows by gravity through a sand filter contained within the exit pipe. For the system sketched in Fig. 1 find the volume flow-rate of water. The sand grains are uniform, with a diameter of 200 m. The void fraction is = 0.3. The sand fills the 6 m length of 0.3 m diameter pipe. there is no sand in the reservoir itself.

Figure1:

4.

A drop of a viscous oil ( = 1 Pa-s, = 0.03 N/m. = 800 kg/m3) is brought to one end of an open capillary tube of diameter 0.1 mm. How long will the drop take to rise through the vertical capillary to within 90% of its equilibrium rise? Give an answer for three assumed values of contact angle: d = 0, 30 and 600. What initial volume of drop is required to support the equilibrium rise? Assume that the drop remains spherical at the tip of the capillary. Assume that the pressure within the drop that arises from surface tension is negligible, but evaluate the validity of that assumption.

The following problems are for students taking CHEE7201 5. The fluid described in Problem 4 is placed upon a porous substrate. The initial drop volume is 100 L. The porous material is a sintered ceramic made from particles with a radius of 200 m. The void volume of the porous medium is - 0.25. Estimate the time required for the drop to "disappear" from the exposed plane of the substrate. A porous sintered metal disk has a diameter of 1 cm and a thickness of 2 mm. When an oil that wets the metal is placed dropwise on the face of the disk, the oil wicks into the disk until the disk is saturated with oil. Measurements indicate that the disk capacity for 50 mg of oil. The oil has a density of 850 kg/m3. Airflow tests on the dry disk indicate that the disk will transmit 2 x 10-3 slm with a pressure differential of 104 N/m2, and with the downstream (low pressure) side at atmospheric pressure. If the disk is regarded as a bed packed with spherical particles, what particle diameter corresponds to this performance? What is the superficial velocity upstream of the ud p under this test condition? disk? What is the Reynolds number Re = (1 ) Suppose the same disk were placed into an airflow system such that the downstream side were at an absolute pressure of 100 atm. What flow-rate, in standard liters per minute would correspond to a pressure differential of 104 N/m2? What is the superficial velocity upstream of the disk? What is the Reynolds number under this test condition?

6.

Assignment 3 Refer to: Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2001. 1. Problem 9A.1, page 287. 2. Problem 9A.3, page 287. 3. Problem 9A.4, page 287. 4. Problem10B.4, page 322. 5. Problem 10D.1, page 332. For CHEE7201 students 6. Problem 9P, page 307 of Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, 1st Edition, 1960. This problem guides you through the solution procedure using the method of combination of variables. The definition of the Gamma function is

( x ) = t x 1 e t dt

0

(1 / 2) =

Assignment 4 Re: Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, 2nd Edition, 2001 Problem 1: 10B.14 (page 326) Problem 2: 10B.6 (page 323) Problem 3: 11B.6 (page 365) Problem 4: 11B.7 (page 365) CHEE7201 only Problem 10R (page 349 of the 1st Edition)

Re: Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2001 Problem 1: 17A.1 (page 539) Problem 2: 17A.2 (page 539) Problem 3: 17A.5 (page 539) Problem 4: 18A.1 (page 568)

Re: Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2001. Problem 1: 18A.4 (page 569) Problem 2: 18B.8 (page 573) Problem 3: 18B.7 (page 572)

For CHEE7201 Refer to the 1st Edition of Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot Problem 4: 17J (page 551) Another problem using the combination of variables Problem 5: 19D (page 620) Problem 6: 19K (page 624) Using the first principles to set up the mass balance equations for the unsteady state interphase diffusion problem. Show that eqs. (19.K-9) and (19.K-10) satisfy the governing equation (instead of using the Laplace tranforms required by the book). Next sketch the concentration profiles in the two phases, and explain your sketch.

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