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----------------------- Page 1----------------------MEASURMENT OF VOLTAGE, CURRENT, POWER AND POWER FACTOR USING RLC LOAD Expt No: Date:

Aim: To measure power in a single phase AC circuit using wattmeter by RLC loading. APPARTUS REQUIRED: SL.No tity 1 2 3 4 5 nt THEORY: Power in an wattmeter. A electric circuit can be measured using a Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter RLC Load Connecting Wires (0-300V) MI (0-10A) MI 300V,10A,LPF 5kW 1/18 SWG requireme 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. As per Name of the Apparatus Range / Type Quan

wattmeter consists of two coils, namely current coil and pressure coil or pote ntial is coil. The current coil marked as CV. The is marked as ML and pressure coil

current coil measure the quantity that is proportional to the current in the c ircuit the pressure coil measures the voltage in the e circuit. The given ammeter is connected flows in . coils, The wattmeter the quantity that is proportional loading. same current to Th

is loaded wattmeter. across

by direct Since the the

in series to both the the current power and

voltage

circuit are constant

consumed by the load is measured using the wattmeter and calculated using the relation given below.

PREPARED BY Page PREPARED BY Page

V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 1 V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 1

----------------------- Page 2----------------------CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: (0-10)A, MI (0-10)A, MI Fuse Fuse A A M M L L (300V, 10A, LPF) (300V, 10A, LPF)

P R R

C C D L L P C C 1 230V 1 230V L S L AC Supply AC Supply O 50Hz O 50Hz A S A D D N NL NL Autotransformer T V (0-300)V, MI (0-300)V, MI

V V

230V/(0-270)V PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE ----------------------- Page 3----------------------FORMULAE: Actual power Where W Apparent power = Where V I Power Factor, cos PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. = = W x Multiplication factor Observed wattmeter reading VI watts Voltmeter reading Ammeter reading Actual Power / Apparent Power Page 2 Page 2

2. Initially no load is applied. 3. Autotransformer switching on the power supply. 4. Set the rated voltage by using the autotransformer. Measure and record t he values of ondition. Also ned in the wattmeter itself. 5. 6. 7. o r supply. 9. Calculated the Indicated power by the given formula. Apply the load by adjusting RLC load. Measure and record the values of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter. Repeat the steps 5 and 6 until the ammeter reading reaches 10A. all the readings, reduce the load slowly t voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter on no load c is set to minimum voltage position before

carefully note the multiplication factor of the wattmeter that is mentio

8. After taking the minimum and

bring the voltage to minimum in the autotransformer. Switch off the powe

10. Calculate the power factor by the given formula. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 3 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 3 ----------------------- Page 4----------------------OBSERVATION TABLE: Multiplication Fa ctor= Wattmeter Reading Voltage Power Factor Sl.No V (V) cos Observed MODEL CALCULATION: Result A single phase wattmeter is used to measure power in AC circuit using RLC loading. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 4 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 4 ----------------------- Page 5----------------------HOUSE WIRING Expt.No: te: Expt.No: te: Aim: To Construct House wiring using Energy Meter METERIALS REQUIRED: Sl.No y 1 2 3 Switch Incandescent Lamp Lamp Holder SPST, 5A 100W Batten 3 Nos. 1 No. 1No. Name of the apparatus Range / Type Quantit Da Da Actual Current (watts) I (A) (watts) Actual Power

4 5 6 ired 7 ired 8

Ceiling rose Socket Screws Wires Switch Board

10A 1inch 1/18SWG 12 x 8 1 300V , 16A 750 rev 50Hz 1 300V , 16A

1No. 1No. As per requ As per requ 1No.

9 10

Energy Meter Main switch Box

1No. 1No.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 5 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 5 ----------------------- Page 6----------------------TOOLS REQUIRED: Sl.No 1 2 Connector screw driver Screw driver 3 4 Electrician knife THEORY: Conductors, e of proper capable them. of carrying the maximum The current which will flow through switches and other accessories should b 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. Name of the tools Combination Pliers 1 No. Quantity

following table shows the rating for different accessories. Conductors should be of copper or aluminium. In power circuit, wiring should be designed for the load which it is supposed to carry. Power sub circuits should be kept separate from lighting and fan sub circuits. Wiring should be done on the distribution system

with main and Wiring should

branch

distribution

boards

at

convenient

centers.

neat, with good appearance. Wires should pass through a pipe or box, and should not twist or cross. The conductor is carried in a rigid steel conduit conforming to standards o r in a porcelain tube. PREPARED BY Page PREPARED BY Page V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 6 V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 6

----------------------- Page 7----------------------Lamp 100W CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Ceiling rose MAIN SWITCH MAIN SWITCH ENERGY METER ENERGY METER DPIC DPIC S1 S2 L2 L1 S1 S2 L2 L1 P P Switch Board 1 230V 1 230V AC Supply AC Supply 50Hz 50Hz N N DPIC Double Pole Iro n Clad Switch PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE ----------------------- Page 8----------------------PROCEDURE: Page 7 Page 7

1. Study the given wiring diagram 2. Make box, switchboard, lamp and ceiling rose. 3. Draw the lines for wiring on the wooden board. 4. Place the wires along with the line and fix. 5. Fix the bulb ked positions on the wooden board. 6. Connect the energy meter and main switch box in marked positions on the wooden board. 7. Give a supply to the wires circuit. 8. Test the working of light and socket. Result: Thus and tested. PREPARED Page PREPARED Page BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 8 BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 8 the wiring for the bulb and ceiling rose was prepared holder, Switches, Ceiling rose, Socket in mar the location points for energy meter, main witch

----------------------- Page 9----------------------STAIRCASE WIRING Expt.No: Aim: To control the status of the given lamp by using two way switches METERIALS REQUIRED: Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Name of the apparatus Incandescent Lamp Lamp Holder SPDT Switch Wires P.V.C Pipe Range / Type 100W Pendent Type 230V,5A 1/18 requirement As per 1/4" Quantity 1 No 1 No 1 No As per Date:

requirement 6 7 Wooden Board Round block 1 No 1 No

TOOLS REQUIRED: Sl.No 1 2 3 4 Name of the tools Combination Plier Connector screw drivers Screw driver Electrician knife 1 No 1 No 1 No 1 No Quantity

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 9 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 9 ----------------------- Page 10----------------------CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Lamp 60W, Lamp 60W, 230V 230V N N 230V, 50Hz 230V, 50Hz AC Supply AC Supply 1 1 1 1 P P 2 2 3 3 3 3 SPDT - 1 SPDT - 2 2 2

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 10 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 10 ----------------------- Page 11----------------------PROCEDURE:

P P

1. Place the accessories on the wiring board as per the circuit diagram. 2. Place the P.V.C pipe and insert two wires into the P.V.C pipe. 3. Take one wire connect one end to the phase side and other end to the middle point of SPDT switch 1 4. Upper point of SPDT switch 1 is connected to the lower point of SPDT switch2. 5. Lower point of SPDT 1 is connected to the upper point SPDT switch2. 6. Another wire taken through a P.V.C pipe and middle point of SPDT switch 2 is connected to one end of the lamp holder. 7. Another end of lamp holder is connected to neutral line. 8. Screw the accessories on the board and switch on the supply. 9. Circuit is tested for all possible combination of switch position. PRECAUTIONS: While giving the connections be careful Handle the lame safely Be careful while handling the tools. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 11 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 11 ----------------------- Page 12----------------------SWITCH Sl.No 1 2 3 4 SPDT1 12 12 23 23 SPDT2 12 23 12 23 Result OFF / ON OFF / ON OFF / ON OFF / ON P P

POSITION TABLE: PREPARED Page PREPARED Page BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 12 BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 12

----------------------- Page 13----------------------Result: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 3 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 3 ----------------------- Page 14----------------------FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING Expt.No: .No: Aim: To make and check the fluorescent lamp wiring METERIALS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 3 4 5 TOOLS REQUIRED: Sl.No 1 2 3 4 Name of the tools Combination Plier Connector screw drivers Screw driver Electrician knife 1 No 1 No 1 No 1 No Quantity fluorescent lamp Choke Starter wires 1/18 requirement 40W 40W, 230V, Name of the apparatus fluorescent lamp fixture Range / Type 4 ft 1 No 1 No 1 No 1 No As per Quantity Date: Page 1 Page 1

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 14 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE

Page 14 ----------------------- Page 15----------------------CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Starte r 40W Filament Fluorescent lamp Choke 40W, 230V S S P P N N Filament

1, 230 V , 1, 230 V , 50Hz AC 50Hz AC Supply Supply PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 15 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE age 15 ----------------------- Page 16----------------------THEORY: Tube light has with tungsten material. The inside ch is used to convert color ultraviolet into sensation. A to give filament on either side. phosphorous and to They are coated coating give the so as to is used whi P P

of the tube has visible transient light high

required initia to s

choke is used te the electron movement uppress which radio-

voltage capacitor

is an iron

starter

interference with the switch closed. The current flows through the choke and the starter. The glow switch suddenly breaks thereby creating the circuit. Due to hi gh conductivity, inductive property of the choke, a transient high voltage is avail able

across the filament. Hence the electrons are emitted and travel through the tube . Then tube light is produced. PROCEDURE: 1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram as shown in figure. 2. Fix the tube holder and the choke in the tube. al 3. The phase wire directly to the tube 4. Connect the starter in series with the tube. PRECAUTIONS: While giving the connection be careful. Handle the lamp safely. Be careful while handling the tools. All the connections should be right and tight. Result: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 16 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 16 ----------------------- Page 17----------------------MEASURMENT OF ENERGY USING ENERGYMETER Expt No: : Aim: To measure the energy in a single in a phase phase circuit using direct loading APPARTUS REQUIRED: SL.No Quantity 1 . 50Hz 2 . Wattmeter 300V, 10A, UPF 1No Name of the Apparatus Range / Type 750 rev / kWh, 240V, Single phase Energy meter 1No Date is connected to the choke and neutr

3 . 4 . 5 .

Voltmeter Ammeter Load

300V, MI 10A, MI Resistive, 5kW

1No 1No 1No As p

er 6 uirement THEORY: speed The of energy meter is an integrated type of instrument, where Wires 1 / 18 SWG req

rotation of the aluminum to the power consumed and number of revolutions per minute is proportional to the energy consumed by the load. The ratings associated with the energy meter are. Voltage rating Current rating Frequency rating Meter Constant PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 17 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 17 ----------------------- Page 18----------------------The driving system of the meter provides the rotational surface of the torque fo r the moving system, which in turn activates the energy meter. The energy meter is operated at induction principle in which eddy current. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 18 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 18 ----------------------- Page 19----------------------CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Fuse L (0-10A) A MI S1 L1 M Page Page

P V

A C D

1 230V Ac Supply 50Hz

(0-300V) P V Resistive load S 5 KW T S MI V S2 L2

N NL 1 Autotransformer (0-270V) PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 19 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE 19 ----------------------- Page 20----------------------Indicated in the and creates the driving force. FORMULAE: Energy meter specification True energy = = = = Measured energy Where ` PROCEDURE: 1. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Supply is given to the switch by closing the DFST switch. = 750 rev / kWh Power (P) x time (s) P x t (ws) P x t / 3600 x 1000 kWh n / 750 kWh aluminum disc interacts with the main field Page Page

n - number of revolutions / sec

3. 4.

By adjusting the voltage is brought to the rated voltage. Load is switched On taken the for five revolutions in the energy meter i

5. Time s noted and

corresponding ammeter and voltmeter reading are noted. 6. rent and The for above procedure fixed is repeated for different load cur

number of revolutions. 7. Then the load is gradually released and supply is switched OFF.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 20 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 20 ----------------------- Page 21----------------------OBSERVATION TABLE: M.F --------------nergy Sl. No x t 3600 Wh) MODEL CALCULATIONS: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 21 PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 21 ----------------------- Page 22----------------------Result: Thus the energy in a single phase was measured using energy meter. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE PREPARED BY V.BALAJI, AP/EEE, DCE Page 22 Page 22 Supply Measured Load Current Voltage energy I (A) V n / 750 (kWh) P (W) Reading t (sec) 1000 x (k Wattmeter Time p True E