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Assignments in Communicative English Class-IX (Term 2) Section-AReading (Prose) (Unseen Passages Non-MCQs) ASSIGNMENT-1

(FACTUAL)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 1. This month the Mumbai High Court directed all schools in Maharashtra to strictly abide by new guidelines for students with learning disabilities such as dyslexia (reading), dysgraphia (writing) and dyscalcula (mathematics). To make sure that there is total compliance to the guidelines, the court said that any school that failed to provide facilities to such students could face contempt of court. The court ruled that once it is established that the child has one of these conditions the school is bound to provide facilities to the students free of cost. It also makes it mandatory for all Maharashtra schools to schoolchildren who fail to do well in examinations at classes 3 and 6. 2. Because dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalcula are incurable, the child will never be able to perform like a child without these disabilities, but there are learning interventions that can be introduced to alleviate the childrens disadvantage. The court has ruled that schools have to give added help/resources to those children to mitigate their disability.

6. Now it can be argued that if schools have to provide special education for those with these learning disabilities, they should also have to provide education to suit the needs of other educationally disadvantaged pupils. It will not be long before someone successfully argues that children with memory, dexterity, social, or had parenting problems should also be given education and schooling resources to meet their needs. 7. With this ruling, schools in Maharashtra will continue to move away from our fit the child into the system approach and towards fitting education to the childs abilities and needs. It is a significant shift away from an education system that was originally designed to progressively exclude the many, and include only the privileged few. It is progress on the path of making schooling more of an aid to the development of the child, and not the insurmountable hurdle that it is designed to be for most. It is a sign of progress towards introducing childcentred education into India, and as such it is very welcome. Let us hope these guidelines are adopted across the country. Abha Adams
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5. The good news is that this ruling is another small step towards making schools provide education and facilities for children that meets the childs needs regardless of their abilities. It opens the door for other challenges to our schooling system.

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4. At present a large number of children are being labelled by untrained educators as dyslexic when they have problems with reading and writing that are not connected with cognitive disabilities. A child is bored and does not pay attention, or has not been taught to sequence properly, or has not been taught how to concentrate, or has a low IQ, and teachers (and many parents) are quick to label him dyslexic. This ruling should stop that situation occurring since these cognitive conditions will now be subject to specialized professional expertise and diagnostics.

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3. The bad news is that schools who have been resisting exams for young children will now have to hold exams for all children in class three, and there will also be pressure on them to send all children who do not do well in exams to a qualified psychologist to be tested for these cognitive learning disorders.

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1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) What directive is given by Mumbai High Court to schools?

[1 4 = 4 marks]

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (b) What kind of pressure is being faced by the schools? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (c) Which kind of children are labelled dyslexic by many parents and teachers? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (d) What is child-centred education? How is it beneficial?

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The table given below reveals some learning disabilities. Match Column A with Column B to complete the information and write it in the answer-sheet. [1/2 4 = 2 marks]

3. Pick out words from the text, which mean the same as the following.

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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Dyslexia Dysgraphia Dyscalcula Cognitive abilities

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Type of learning disability

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Related to Mathematics Awareness Reading Writing [1/2 4 = 2 marks]

(b) in proper order (para 4) (c) science for identification of a disease (para 4) (d) which cannot be crossed (para 7) 4. Fill in the blanks with one word only.

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(a) decrease (para 2)

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(a) ____________________________ (b) ____________________________ (c) ____________________________ (d) ____________________________ [1/2 4 = 2 marks]

At present, a large number of children are being labelled by untrained educators as dyslexic. If a child (a) (b) is ____________ and does not pay ____________ or has not been taught how to ___________, or (c) (d) has a low IQ, the teachers (and many parents) are quick to label ____________. Ans. (a)________________ (b) ________________ (c) ________________ (d) ________________

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GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

ASSIGNMENT-2
(FACTUAL)
Read carefully the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Although Louis Braille died when he was only forty-three years old, he succeeded in devising a system of reading and writing for the blind which is now taught all over the world. Braille lost his sight accidentally as a child. Nevertheless, he was able to complete his education at a school for the blind in Paris and became a teacher. In his days, the few books that were available for blind people were printed in big raised type; the letters used were those of the ordinary alphabet. The reading of such books required immense effort. Not only that, writing was almost impossible for a blind person was still restricted to an alphabet which was extraordinary difficult to reproduce on paper. Brailles idea was to use raised dots instead of raised letters. He evolved a system which made use of only six dots in all. By various combinations of these dots, it not only proved possible to represent each letter in the alphabet, but punctuation marks, numbers, and musical notation as well. Reading and writing have thus been enormously simplified. The sensitive fingers of a blind person can travel rapidly over the dots; and there is a small machine, something like a typewriter, which enables the blind to write quickly and clearly. Improvements are continually being made on the system, though basically it is the same as that contrived by Braille. Large raised dots, printed on one side of a page only, make many books for the blind cumbersome. A single book in ordinary print often runs several volumes when it is transcribed into the dot system. Furthermore, the books that are used in lending libraries for the blind eventually become unreadable. The dots are subjected to a great deal of wear and tear, and finally disappear, so that the books become useless. A machine has now been invented which fixes plastic dots on to paper, instead of just making depressions in the pages. These dots do not wear out at all, and there is no danger of their becoming unstruck. Since it is possible, by this means, to make use of both sides of a page, books for the blind are now less bulky. This new way of dotting pages can also be used for such things as the production of atlases with the outlines of countries clearly imprinted. Though many modern inventions like the radio have brought great benefits to the blind, Brailles system remains the greatest landmark of all. It has provided a simple means for producing books, magazines, and even newspapers, and ensured that no blind person need spend his life in ignorance as well as darkness.
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2. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) What did Louis Braille do before he died at the age of forty three?

[1 4 = 4 marks]

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (b) What system did he evolve that enabled the blind people to read and write? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (c) How do the blind people read and write Braille?

_______________________________________________________________________________ (d) How did the invention of books and newspapers help the blind people?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write words that mean the same as the following. (a) to compose (b) that cannot be measured, vast (c) to invent to plan (d) Write over from one book to another Ans. (a)________________

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_______________________________________________________________________________

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(b) ________________

(c) ________________

(d) ________________ [1 4 = 4 marks]

3. Complete the following sentences taking help from the passage.

(a) Although Louis Braille lost his eyesight in his childhood, he was able to _________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (b) In earlier days the few books available for blind people were ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (c) Braille evolved a system which ____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (d) Despite many modern inventions Brailles system remains ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

[1/2 4 = 2 marks]

ASSIGNMENT-3
(FACTUAL)
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. 1. HANDWRITING REVEALS THE INNER YOU Remember when neat, legible writing was a prized skill? Before the digital age, when employees were valued for flowering script? Now employees can go weeks without scribbling anything more than a telephone number on a post-it note. But that does not mean your scrawl does not matter anymore writing analysis is an increasingly popular way to screen job applicants. A swell in the popularity of handwriting analysis, or graphology, in overseas European recruitment could see the trend catch on. When used correctly, graphology can give a good indication of a persons personality structure, their abilities, ability to grow and develop, and perhaps most importantly, their integrity, says graphologist Margaret White, who uses her skills to assess job applicants for recruiters. But while recruitment-graphology is growing, employers are reluctant to admit they use the technique. Why? Handwriting analysis is often viewed with scepticism and companies appear to be afraid that this sentiment will discredit the professionalism of their company. But not all employers are so coy : London banking group Butterfields publicly states that it uses graphology for recruitment. As managing director Paul Turtle explains : It is not used as the defining factor in the decision-making process. However, it has been shown to add an extra dimension to the jigsaw, which has frequently been validated once an employee is in situ. The British Graphology Institute would certainly agree that the optimum use of graphology in recruitment is in conjunction with other method. Psychometric tests are fine, but they can be manipulated, as people can change their answers depending on what they think the company wants to hear, says a spokesperson. But used in conjunction with graphology you can double check that one validates the other. Cynics may suggest that the reason companies are reticent about revealing their use of graphology is because they use it without an applicants knowledge although this would be strictly against the ethics of any professional graphologist. Graphology is always undertaken with the permission of the candidate, says the Graphology Institute. Where problems may arise, of course, is in employers conducting their own impromptu analysis of an applicants handwriting, based on little besides their own prejudices. For those of us with less than perfect script, this may certainly raise concerns when applying for jobs that call for a letter in own handwriting. In fact, professional graphologists agree that bad handwriting is by no means a sign of sloppy work or a lazy attitude to employment it can frequently mean a high degree of intelligence and enthusiasm. In any case, it seems writing is getting better. There was a significant drop in standards around 20 years ago, says Mr. White, But then school reintroduced copy books into schools, so in my opinion the writing submitted by people who are aged 20 or 30 have better handwriting than previous generations. From a graphologists point of view, the legibility isnt necessarily an issue but handwriting is impossible to fake, as opposed to CVs, which tend to be increasingly embroidered, shall we say. A person might be able to fool me for a few lines, but their true style will show pretty quicklyparticularly if theyre writing about something theyre interested in. All this probably sounds quite tempting to time-pressed recruiters, particularly if theyve been burned in the past with an exaggerated CV, or simply a candidate who doesnt fit in with the team. Graphology works very well as an assessment of whether a person will fit in with a company, or stick out like a sore thumb, says Ms. White. For small companies in particular, this is cutting out a lot of risk.

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11. As companies become ever more aware of the costs of recruiting, it looks likely they will be open to a number of new screening processes. And graphology certainly looks set to remain one of the ways in which job applicants are taken on, or written off. Catherine Quinn 1. Complete the following sentences. [1 3 = 3 marks] (a) When used correctly graphology can give _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (b) Professional graphologists agree that bad handwriting is _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) Mention any two uses of graphology. [1 3 = 3 marks]

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (b) Why are companies reticent about revealing their use of graphology? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ (c) What problems can arise, due to the use of graphology in recruitment of new employees? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Match the information given in Column A with Column B, by completing the sentences, according to the passage. [1 2 = 2 marks]

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Column A (a) (b) (c) (d)

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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Ans.

Psychometric tests Company experts feel that the tests Bad handwriting can also mean Companies are also looking for (ii) _____________

will discredit their company. high degree of intelligence or enthusiasm. can be manipulated. new screening processes. (iv) ________________

(i) ______________

(iii) ______________

3. Pick out that mean the same as the following : (a) People who are unwilling to believe (para 4) (b) measurement (para 5) (c) on the spot (para 8) (d) judgement (para 10)
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[1/2 4 = 2 marks] (a) ____________________________ (b) ____________________________ (c) ____________________________ (d) ____________________________
GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

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Column B

(c) Graphology works very well to assess whether a person _________________________________

ASSIGNMENT-4
(FACTUAL)
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. 1. Children should be great bundles of energy tearing about and getting into mischief and driving their parents to distraction. But instead, they are becoming couch potatoes, a lazy group venturing outdoors only go get chips and sweets and spare batteries for their computer toy. 2. Studies show the younger generation is a lazy one. They get virtually no exercise, have poor diets and spend leisure time in front of computer games or television. The old age it wasnt like that in my day is certainly true. Their grandparents would think nothing of walking several miles to school and would consider a piece of fruit an after-school luxury. 3. But only a few decades later children are wooed with bags of chips, sweets and other junk food. And they dont walk to the shop for these things, they get a gift. 4. Recent research of Suffolk School, children aged nine to thirteen revealed almost half of the girls and one-third of the boys were incapable of sustaining anything more taxing than walking for more than a few minutes. Only a small fraction did any exercise that was either strenuous enough or lasted long enough to benefit their bodies. 5. The shocking figures have promoted the first ever conference on childrens fitness in Britain. Exercise experts met last month at the Internal Convention for Childrens Health Related Fitness in London to find ways to coax kids off the couch and into a more healthier lifestyle. 6. The aim is to find practical solutions to the real problem of inactivity in children, says Andy Jackson, director of international organisation Fitkid, which runs exercise clubs for youngsters. Scottish survey showed 80-85 per cent of school kids do less than five minutes vigorous activity a week. 7. An ongoing study in Devon by Exeter University Professor, Neil Armstrong, confirms this gloomy picture. He feels parents are partly to blame as his research suggested kids were more likely to keep fit if parents did. And a recent National Fitness Survey showed, 95 per cent of adults did not take regular physical exercise. 8. Two prime causes of this are the television and car. Latest figures show the average child spends up to 28 hours a week watching TV, not to mention the time spent on computer games. And many children for their safety and convenience are ferried to and from school and friends house, where previous generations would have walked or cycled. 9. But if childrens lack of physical fitness is frightening, then their diets give equal cause for concern. Once again modern day conveniences have a lot to answer for. 10. Shopping research shows that instead of eating nourishing foods, kids nag their parents into buying them junk food. These habits have led to one or more risk factors associated with heart disease.

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1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, complete the summary by filling in gaps with one word. [1/2 4 = 2 marks] The children of the present generation are called couch potatoes because they (a) __________ enough exercise and eat junk food. Extensive (b) work in the field of juvenile fitness has proved that todys children are less healthy than the previous generation. Long hours of T.V. watching and (c) __________ way of life are to be blamed for their deplorable condition. Fortunately people have become (d) _________ of this mounting problem. Ans. (a)________________ (b) ________________ (c) ________________ (d) ________________

2. On the basis of your reading of the passage, match the cause and effect and write it in the margin. One example is done for you. [6 marks] Cause (1) Children dont get any exercise (2) Older generation led a hard and strenuous life (3) Children dont have time to exercise their muscles since they commute by car (4) Parents are bad models for children (5) They are used to eating junk food (6) Children dont get enough exercise and nourishing food, so they have poor physical health Effect (a) The present generation cannot do anything

(c) Children dont have an ideal to flow

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(b) So that it could provide recreation (ii) ___________________ and exercise for ___________________ (iii) ___________________ ___________________

(e) They have become couch potatoes

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(d) A conference on child fitness was (iv) ___________________ launched in Britain ___________________ (v) ___________________ ___________________

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(f) They led a healthier and fuller life (vi) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ (vii) ___________________ ___________________ [1/2 4 = 2 marks]

(7) An international organisation (g) One in four are prone to called Fitkid was established heart problems 3. Give opposites of the following words. (a) relaxing (para 4) (b) lazy (para 6) (c) theoretical (para 6) (d) safety (para 10) Ans. (a)________________ (b) ________________

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(c) ________________

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Result (i) Children have turned into couch potatoes.

(d) ________________

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

ASSIGNMENT-5
(FACTUAL)
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. You are on a diet and have to stay off sugar. You dont want the usual sugar-free sweetener either. Go honey. Not only will it cut the calories and make your face just as sweet, it will also keep you going on the energy circuit. Nutritionists across the world have traditionally favoured honey as a source of energy vis-a-vis sugar for the innumerable benefits it offers. Honey has carbohydrate compounds that are singularly acceptable and practical and is considered most effective to generate heat, create and replace energy and, furthermore, form certain tissues. The chief rooting factor is that honey is a pure food, no chemicals are used in its production, and so, it is entirely utilised by the digestive tract. Refined sugar (that we eat), on the other hand, is whats left of raw sugar after it is washed, filtered and bleached. Compared to sugar, honey has a healthier Glycemic Index (GI) which measures the negative impact of a given food on the blood glucose level. The lower the GI rating, the slower the absorption and infusion of sugars into the blood stream and hence a more gradual and healthier digestion process. Besides that, honey has several antioxidants and has been shown to improve cholesterol and other blood lipid levels. According to chief dietician and consultant at Fortis La Femme, Dr. Kanupriya Khanna, honey, like spinach, apples or oranges contains antioxidants which combat the free radicals which can damage cells. It has a mild protective effect. Honeys therapeutic properties are also well known. When mixed in carrot juice it helps improves ones eyesight. It also protects against colds, cough, and helps cure a throat and a runny nose if added in ginger juice. Research is on to establish the relation between antioxidants in honey and its intake and prevention of cancer, says Dr. Khanna. The more honey you have during a day, it adds to antioxidants in the body which combat cells causing cancer. Some alternative medical practitioners use large doses of honey to relieve allergy symptoms. According to the American Journal of Nutrition, honey is a quicker source of energy than sugar, a richer source of minerals and definitely less fattening as honey contains water. Besides, honey also contains iron and calcium. New findings that show supplies of fructose, a sugar that helps the body metabolise alcohol, and is rich in vitamin B6; it can therefore reduce hangover symptoms. Honey also helps the treatment of some wounds better than most modern antibiotics. The treatment now known as medi-honey can work wonders even for chronic wounds infected with multi-resistant bacteria which can often be healed within a few weeks. Dieticians say with hospitals being faced with more and more germs today, which are resistant to antibiotics, the medical use of honey is gaining ground. Primarily composed of sugars like glucose and fructose and minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphur, iron phosphate, honey also contains vitamins B1, B2, C, B6, B5 and B3. Copper, iodine and zinc are also present in small quantities. 1 tablespoon of sugar has 64 calories, while a tablespoon of honey has 46 calories. Honey and ginger juice is a good expectorant. It helps in colds, cough, sore throat and runny nose. To improve eyesight, mix honey with carrot juice. Drink an hour before meals in the morning. Natural honey causes a lower rise in blood sugar than refined sugar for Type 2 diabetic patients. A little unprocessed honey may be added in their drinks when they crave some sweetness in their diet. (Courtesy : The Sunday Express)

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1. Complete the following sentences .

[1 5 = 5 marks]

(a) By saying, Go honey writer means to say that _________________________________________

(b) The nutritionists across the world preferred honey to sugar because _________________________

(c) Honey help in lowering cholesterol and blood lipid levels by ______________________________

(d) Medi-honey can work wonders ______________________________________________________

2. (a) Words from the passage are given below. Give the meaning of each word as used in the passage. One-word answers or short phrases will be accepted. [1/2 4 = 2 marks] (a) calories ___________________________________________________________________________

(c) resistant __________________________________________________________________________ (d) intake ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Complete the following table. One is solved for you. Cause (i) Corbohydrate compounds (ii) Adequate intake of honey during a day (iii) Honey mixed in carrot juice (iv) Honey mixed in ginger juice Effect generate heat, create and replace energy ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ [1 3 = 3 marks]

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(b) combat ___________________________________________________________________________

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(e) Natural honey can help Type-2 diabetic patients by _______________________________________

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