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TT 4113

Cellular Communication Systems

Modul 11 GSM & GPRS Standard

Faculty of Electrical and Communication Institut Teknologi Telkom Bandung 2010

Development of GSM Standard

History of GSM
1st & 2nd Generations

2nd Generation Standards

GSM Derivatives

Spectrum for major mobile standards

GSM Phases

GSM Phase 2+ Features

GSM Coverage worldwide

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GSM Variants

U = Uplink D = Downlink

GSM900 at 900 MHz

125 carriers @ 2x25 MHz band 375 carriers @ 2x75 MHz band 300 carriers @ 2x60 MHz band

GSM1800 at 1800 MHz (DCS1800)

GSM1900 at 1900 MHz (PCS1900)

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GSM Frequency Band

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GSM System Specification

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Base Tx (MHz) Base Rx (MHz) Multiple Access Methode Modulation Radio Channel Spacing Users/Channel Number Channel CODEC Spectrum Allocation

Technical Specification
IS - 136 869 - 894 824 - 849 TDMA / FDMA Pi/4DPSK 30 kHz 3 832 ACELP/ VCELP 50 MHz IS - 136* 851 - 866 801 - 821 TDMA Pi/4DPSK 30 kHz 3 600 ACELP 30 MHz IS - 95 869 - 894 869 - 894 CDMA / FDMA QPSK 1,25 MHz 64 9 (A) 10 (B) CELP 50 MHz GSM 925 - 960 880 - 915 TDMA / FDMA 0,3 GMSK 200 kHz 8 124 RELP-LTP/ ACELP 50 MHz IDEN 851 - 866 8806 - 821 TDMA 16QAM 25 kHz 3/6 600 30 MHz

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Technical Specification
IS - 136 1930 - 1990 Base Tx (MHz) 1850 - 1910 Base Rx (MHz) TDMA / Multiple FDMA Aceess Methode Pi/4DPSK Modulation 30 kHz Radio Channel Spacing 3 Users/Channel 166/332/498 Number Channels ACELP / CODEC VCELP 10/20/ Spectrum 30 MHz Allocation IS -95 1930 - 1990 1850 - 1910 CDMA / FDMA QPSK 1,25 MHz 64 4 - 12 CELP 10/20/ 30 MHz DCS1800 ( GSM ) 1805 -1880 1710 - 1785 TDMA / FDMA 0,3 GMSK 200 kHz 8 325 RELP-LTP/ ACELP 150 MHz DCS1900 ( GSM ) 1930 - 1990 1850 - 1910 TDMA / FDMA 0,3 GMSK 200 kHz 8 25/50/75 RELP-LTP/ ACELP 10/20/ 30 MHz IS-661 1930 - 1990 1850 - 1910 TDD QPSK 5 MHz 64 2-6 CELP 10/20/ 30 MHz

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Basic GSM Network Structure

SS

AUC

PLMN ISDN PSTN


GWMSC GMSC
HLR SMSC

BGW

DTI
AUC: Authentication Center BGW: Billing GateWay BSC: Base Station Controller BSS: Base Station Subsystem BTS: Base Transceiver Station DTI: Data Transmission Interworking EIR: Equipment Identity Register GMSC: Gateway MSC HLR: Home Location Register ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network MS: Mobile Station MSC: Mobile services Switching Center PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network PSTN: Public Switched Telephony Network SMSC: Short Message Service Center SS: Switching Subsystem TRC: Transcoder Resources Controller VLR: Visitor Location Register

EIR MSC/VLR

BSS BSS
BSC/TRC Air I/f BTS

MS

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Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)

Administers its Base Station Controller(s) BSC(s). Call setup, routing & supervision for mobile subscribers. Contributes to the short messages transfer to/from mobile subscribers. Basic GSM Network Structure Records charging and accounting data.

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Basic GSM Network Structure

Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC)


Interface towards other networks for mobile terminated calls. Interrogation of the HLR to retrieve location information of the called subscriber.

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Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Basic GSM Network Structure Temporarily stores subscriber profiles for all registered mobile subscribers who are currently visiting the MSC/VLR service area. Performs the security functions: authentication, IMEI check and TMSI allocation.

Basic subscriber categories. Supplementary services. Current location. Database storing for each mobile subscriber: Allowed/barred services. Authentication triplets. Communication with other network elements like GMSC, VLR and SMSC for mobile terminated calls, short messages.

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Home Location Register (HLR)

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AUthentication Center (AUC)

Database connected to the HLR that stores authentication parameters (triplets) and ciphering keys for mobile subscribers.

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Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Database that validates Mobile Equipments usage. It contains White list for normal handsets, Gray list for faulty or non-type approved handsets & Black list for stolen handsets.

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Base Station Controller (BSC)

Manages the Radio Communication with the mobile stations over the air interface. Controls the locating algorithm and handovers between the BTSs Supervises the transport network resources and the operation & maintenance of each BTS

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Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Consists of the radio transmitters, receivers and the antenna system required to provide the coverage area for one cell. Converts the GSM radio signals into a format that can be recognized by the BSC. Records and passes to the BSC the periodic power measurement reports. Performs the network end function for the ciphering/encryption process.

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Basic GSM Network Structure

Mobile Station (MS)

The Mobile Equipment is said to be a Mobile Station if the Subscriber Identity Module ( SIM Card ) is added to it

The SIM Card contains: A processor and memory. that stores: - The international mobile subscriber Identity IMSI - The Authentication and ciphering keys.

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Mobile Equipment

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SIM

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SIM Card Function

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Radio Coverage

Spectrum Allocation (GSM 900)


Downlink 935 960 MHz

Uplink 890 915 MHz


200 KHz 890.2 890.6 1 2 3 4 890 890.4

Uplink

121 121 122 123 124

915 F (MHz)

935.2 935.6 1 935


2 3 4

Downlink

121 121 122 123 124

935.4

960 F (MHz)

GSM 900 Frequency Allocation

ARFCN

Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number

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Radio Coverage

Spectrum Allocation (GSM 1800)


Downlink 1805 1880 MHz

Uplink 1710 1785 MHz


200 KHz 1710.2 1710.6
1 2 3 4

Uplink

371 372 373 374

1710 1710.4 1805.2 1805.6


1 2 3 4

1785 F (MHz)

Downlink

371 372 373 374

1805 1805.4

1880 F (MHz)

GSM 1800 Frequency Allocation

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GSM Network Architecture


Which related to the security system

IMSI TMSI MSRN MSISDN LAI Ki Kc SRES RAND

: International Mobile Subscriber Identity : Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity : Mobile Station Roaming Number : Mobile Station ISDN : Local Area Identity : authentication key : ciphering key : Signed Response : random number

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Data Service in GSM

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GPRS
Efisien menggunakan radio resources A flexible service , with volume-based (or session duration-based) billing Fast set-up /access time Efficient transport of packets in the GSM network Simultaneous GSM and GPRS ,co-existence disturbance

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GPRS Componen
SGSN ( Serving GPRS Support Node ) GGSN ( Gateway GPRS Support Node )

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GSM vs GPRS

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Basic GPRS Network Structur


BSC Gb BTS BTS
P C U

SGSN Gn

GGSN Gi PDN

Gf Gs EIR&AUC

Gr

Gc

MS

D VLR

G R

MSC DATABASE

HLR

RAN NETWORK SGSN GGSN PDN Serving GPRS Suport Node GatewayGPRS Support Node Public Data Network

CORE NETWORK User Data and Signalling Signalling

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PCU

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GPRS Attach & Detach


MS Switch On MS Attach to Network MS
Exchange of information e.g. MS ID, User profile, QoS, etc.

Network

Network (i.e. SGSN)


Check MS ID, Author. & AuC, Assign P-TMSI, etc.

MS on Service Finish

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GPRS Attach & Detach

Type of attach:

Attach after switch on Re-attach in the same SGSN Re-attach in a new SGSN Attach when SGSN has deleted the context Active service request Check of MS ID Check of subscriber ID Copies of user profile from HLR Assign of P-TMSI

Content of GPRS attach:


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GPRS Attach

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MS

GPRS Attach Procedure


BSS New SGSN Old SGSN GGSN EIR New MSC/VLR HLR Old MSC/VLR 1. Attach Request 3. Identify Request 3. Identify Response 4. Authentication 5. IMEI Check 6a. Update Location 6b. Cancel Location 6c. Cancel Location Ack 6d. Insert Subscriber Data 6e. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 6f. Update Location Ack 7a. Location Updating Ack 7b. Update Location 7c. Cancel Location 7d. Cancel Location Ack 7e. Insert Subscriber Data 7f. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 8. Attach Accept 9. Attach Complete 7h. Location Updating Accept 10. TMSI Reallocation Complete 7g. Update Location Ack 2. Identification Request 2. Identification Response

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GPRS Routing Area Update

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Notion PDP Context

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PDP Context Activation

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Data Transfer

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Routing example: Incoming packet


Address conversion: IP-Dest TID + SGSN (from PDP context)

IP packet

?
Internet
SGSN GGSN

GTP (GGSN IP address, Tunneling ID, IP packet) Address conversioan: TID TLLI, NSAPI, QoS, and cell (from PDP context)

LA2

IP packet

SGSN SNDCP (SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol) (Temp Logical Link Id, NSAPI, IP packet))

MS

LA1

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Routing example: Outgoing packet


IP packet (Dest. 129.187.222.10, Source: 129.74.216.6)

Internet
SGSN
SGSN

GGSN

GTP (GGSN IP Address, Tunneling ID, IP packet) Address conversion: TLLI + NSAPI TID + GGSN (from PDP context)

GGSN
MS

SNDCP (TLLI, NSAPI, IP packet) Address conversion: IP-source TLLI, NSAPI

(from PDP context) IP packet (Dest: 129.74.216.6.Source: 129.187.222.10

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GPRS Channel

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Timeslot sharing

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52 Multiframe for GPRS

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GPRS Mobile Equipment

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Coding Scheme for GPRS

Skema coding untuk kanal-kanal trafik logik GPRS

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EDGE

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EDGE Network

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Dimensioning principle : Transmission

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Access of Mobile Applications through WLAN

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Evolution step GSM / GPRS / UMTS / HSDPA


Edge
Um Um BTS PCU BSC Edge TRX Node-B

PSTN Network

HSDPA

Abis

MSC
SS7 Network

HLR/AuC EIR

GSM INFRASTRUCTURE

HSDPA TRX

RNC Iu

IWU

UMTS (WCDMA) INFRASTRUCTURE


Border Gateway (BG)

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)

GPRS INFRASTRUCTURE

Internet
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) Inter-PLMN network

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