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# Volume calculation

1-Volume from contour lines: To estimate the capacity of natural reservoir or the
volume of cut of hilly area

Example:
The area within contour lines at the site of reservoir are as follows
108
106
104
102
Calculate the capacity of the reservoir 100
V=
A
1
+A
2
2
h+
A
2
+A
3
2
h+
A
3
+A
4
2
h+
A
4
+A
5
2
h +... h is the contour interval
V=h(
A
1
2
+A
2
+A
3
+A
4
+A
5
+
A
n
2
) =2*(1000/2 +5000+8000+10000+12000/2)=59 000 m
3

contour area within the contour m
2

100 1000
102 5000
104 8 000
106 10 000
108 12 000
Grid method (borrow bit method)
Divide the area into regular shapes
Measure the elevation at the corner of each shape
Calculate the volume
Ground elevation

10x10m squares

Final required elevation =90m prism
V=(A/4) [ 1 h
1+
2h
2
+ 3h
3
+ 4 h
4
+ 5 h
5
+ ]
A= horizontal area of one shape
h
1
= sum of elevation used once
h
2
= sum of elevations used twice
h
3
= sum of elevations used three times
V=(10*10/4) [( 1+9+4+7)+2(3+10+6+5) +4(8)] =..m
3

example: calculate the volume of
earthwork excavation to a depth of
105m

91 93 99
95

97
98 100

96 94

Example:
It is required to level the piece of the ground shown below to a final elevation =
100m. Calculate the volume of cut and the volume of fill required to reach this
level.
Each squre= 10x10m

Ground elevation(m)

94 96 99 100
96 98 100 102
98

102
102

103
104 103

106 105
Volume from cross section

End area method
Volume= L -
(A
1
+A
2
)
2
units: m
3
b
cross section
1- One level section (a simple trapezoid)
2b+sf
Area =(b+ sf ) * f
b= formation width f= height of fill 1:s is the side slope
example : formation width=6m, depth of cut: c =5m side slope =1:2
find the cross section area

area= (6+2x5)x5= 80 m
2

f
Side slope 1:S
c
2- Two level section
The ground and project base has different slopes

d2 d
1
Ground slope 1:N
d
1=
(
h
2
+s. c)
N
N-x
c
d
2
=(
h
2
+s. c)
N
N+x
b
area =
1
2x
|(
h
2
+x. c)(d
1
+d
2
) -
h
2
2
]

example: formation width= 6m, project side slope= 1:1 height of cut at the centre=3m,
ground slope: 1:10 find the cross section area
d
1=
(

2
+1*3)
1
1-1
=6.67m
d
2
=(

2
+1*3)
1
1+1
=5.45m
area
=
1
2-1
|(

2
+1 - 3)(. 7 +5. 54) -

2
2
]= 27.63 m
2

10m 8m
5 4 3
6m 4m 7m
1 b=6m 2

Find the area of the cross section using the coordinates

left c.l right
coordinates C6/10 C4/0 C7/8
point x y
1 -3 0
2 3 0
3 8 7
4 0 4
5 -10 6
Side slope 1:S