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Homework 3 Solution

Section 1.5 - Methods of Proof


2. What rule of inference is used in each of these arguments?
a. Simplication
p = Kangaroos live in Australia
q = Kangaroos are marsupials
p q
therefore q
b. Disjunctive Syllogism
p = It is hotter than 100 degrees today
q = the pollution is dangerous
p q
p
therefore q
c. Modus ponens
p = Linda is an excellent simmer
q = Linda can work as a lifeguard
p
p q
therefore q
d. Addition
p = Steve will work at a computer company this summer
q = Steve will be a beach bum
p
therefore p q
e. Hypothetical Syllogism
p = I work all night on homework
q = I can answer all the questions
r = I can understand the material
p q
q r
therefore p r
8. For each of these sets of premises, what relevant conclusion or conclusions can be drawn?
a. I did not play hockey today
p = I play hockey
q = I am sore
r = I use the whirlpool
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1. p q From 1st statement
2. q r From 2nd statement
3. p r Hypothetical syllogism
4. r Given in 3rd statement
5. p Modus Tollens
b. If I worked on Friday then it was sunny, If I worked on Tuesday then it was partly sunny.
c. Dragonies have six legs, Spiders are not insects.
d. Homer is not a student, Maggie is a student.
e. Tofu doesnt taste good, You dont eat healthy foods.
f. I am hallucinating, therefore I see elephants running down the road.
10. For each of these arguments explain which rules of inference are used for each step.
a.
C(x) = x is a student in this class
R(x) = x owns a red convertible
T(x) = x got a speeding ticket
1. C(Linda) R(Linda) From 1st statement
2. x(R(x) T(x)) From 2nd statement
3. T(Linda) Universal Instantiation from (1) & (2)
4. x(C(x) T(x)) Existential generalization from (3)
b.
R(x) = x is a roommate
D(x) = x has taken a course in discrete mathematics
A(x) = x can take a course in algorithms
1. x(R(x) D(x)) From 1st statement
2. x(D(x) A(x)) From 2nd statement
3. x(R(x) A(x)) Universal Generalization from (1) & (2) Using Hypothetical Syllogism
c.
M(x) = x is a movie made by John Sayles
C(x) = x is a movie about coal mining
W(x) = x is a wonderful movie
1. x(M(x) W(x)) From 1st statement
2. x(M(x) C(x)) From 2nd statement
3. x(W(x) C(x)) Existential Instantiation from (1) & (2)
d.
C(x) = x is in this class
F(x) = x has been to France
L(x) = x has visited the Louvre
1. x(C(x) F(x)) From 1st statement
2. x(F(x) L(x)) From 2nd statement
3. x(L(x)) Existential Generalization from (1) & (2
14. Determine whether these are valid arguments.
a. It does not follow. Irrational numbers are any real number than cannot be expressed as a fraction.
This problem is stating that if one thing implies another, the reverse is true, but this may not be
the case. If, for example, x =

2 it does not follow that x
2
is irrational, because it isnt. Think
of this as the dierence between the implication p q and the biconditional p q.
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b. It follows.
16. The problem with this argument is that given the premise s(S(x, Max)) it does not follow that
S(Max, Max). The reason is that the premise is simply stating there is some number that makes S()
true, but this doesnt mean that s can be all numbers.
17. The proposition is vacuously true since 0 is not a positive integer. Vacuous Proof.
22. Prove that if n is an integer and n
3
+ 5 is odd, then n is even, using:
a. an indirect proof
1. Assume the implication that n is even is false and that n is in fact odd
2. If we then raise n to 3 we know that the result will be some odd value k = 2m+ 1 where m
is some odd integer
3. We can then say that n
3
+ 5 = 2m+ 1 + 5 = 2m+ 6 which we know must be even (because
it is a multiple of 2) and as this is a negation of the conclusion of the implication it implies
that the hypothesis is false, and thus the original implication is true.
b. a proof by contradiction
1. Assume n is odd
2. If we then raise n to 3 we know that the result will be some odd value k = 2m+ 1 where m
is some odd integer
3. We can then say that n
3
+ 5 = 2m+ 1 + 5 = 2m+ 6 which we know must be even (because
it is a multiple of 2) which contradicts the proof.
30. Prove that if x is rational and x ,= 0, then 1/x is rational.
1. Assume that x Q and as such we can express it as x = a/b : a, b Z(a ,= 0, b ,= 0)
2. If we then invert x such that x
1
= b/a we can see that x
1
Q as it can still be expressed as a
fraction.
34. Use a proof by cases to show that min(a, min(b, c)) = min(min(a, b), c) whenever a, b and c are real
numbers.
Cases min(a, min(b, c)) min(min(a, b), c)
a < b < c min(a, b) = a min(a, c) = a
a < c < b min(a, c) = a min(a, c) = a
b < a < c min(a, b) = b min(b, c) = b
b < c < a min(a, b) = b min(b, c) = b
c < a < b min(a, c) = c min(a, c) = c
c < b < a min(a, c) = c min(b, c) = c
35. Prove the Triangle Inequality, which states that if x and y are real numbers, then [x[ +[y[ [x +y[
(where [x[ represents the absolute value of x, which equals x if x 0 and equals x if x < 0).
There are four cases:
Case 1: x 0 and y 0. Then [x[ +[y[ = x +y = [x +y[.
Case 2: x < 0 and y < 0. Then [x[ +[y[ = x y = (x +y) = [x +y[ since x +y < 0.
Case 3: x 0 and y < 0. Then [x[ + [y[ = x y. If x y, then [x + y[ = x + y. But since y < 0,
y > y so that [x[ +[y[ = x y > x +y = [x +y[. If x < y, then [x +y[ = (x +y) = x +y. But
since x 0, x x, so that [x[ +[y[ = x y x y = [x +y[.
Case 4: x < 0 and y 0. Identical to Case 3 with the roles of x and y reversed.
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41. Prove or disprove that if m and n are integers such that mn = 1 then either m = 1 and n = 1, or else
m = 1 and n = 1.
This proposition is true. Suppose that m is neither 1 nor -1. Then mn has a factor m larger than 1.
On the other hand, mn = 1, and 1 has no such factor. Hence m = 1 or m = 1 In the rst case n = 1,
and in the second case n = 1, since n = 1/m.
48. Prove that there is a positive integer that equals the sum of the positive integers not exceeding it. Is
your proof constructive or nonconstructive?
For this proof we are trying to show: x Z
+

x =
x1

i=1
i

If we attempt a constructive proof we can see:


x
x1

i=1
i ?
x = 2
1

i=1
i = 1 2 ,= 1
x = 3
2

i=1
i = 3 3 = 3
Therefore some value of x does exist that satises the statement.
49. Prove that there are 100 consecutive positive integers that are not perfect squares. Is your proof con-
structive or nonconstructive?
10,001, 10,002,... 10,100 are all nonsquares, since 100
2
= 10, 000 and 101
2
= 10, 201. This is construc-
tive.
53. Show that each of these statements can be used to express the fact that there is a unique element x
such that P(x) is true.
a. xy(P(y) x = y)
This statement asserts the existence of x with a certain property. If we let y = x, then we see that
P(x) is true. If y is anything other than x, then P(x) is not true. Thus x is the unique element
that makes P true.
b. xP(x) xy(P(x) P(y) x = y)
The rst clause here says that there is an element that makes P true. The second clause says
that whenever two elements both make P true, they are in fact the same element. Together this
says that P is satised by exactly one element.
c. x(P(x) y(P(y) x = y))
This statement asserts the existence of an x that makes P true and has the further property that
whenever we nd an element that makes P true, that element is x. In other words, x is the unique
element that makes P true.
59. Prove that given a real number x there exists unique numbers n and such that x = n + , n is an
integer, and 0 < 1.
If x is itself an integer, then we can take n = x and = 0. No other solution is possible in this case,
since if the integer n is greater than x, then n is at least x + 1, which would make 1. If x is not
an integer, then round it up to the next integer, and call that integer n. We let = n x. Clearly
o < 1, this is the only that will work with this n, and n cannot be any larger, since is constrained
to be less than 1.
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62. Show that the equivalence p p F can be derived using resolution together with the fact that an
implication with a false hypothesis is true.
We can re-write the statement as (p p) which is equal to (p p) and we know that for both
p = 1 and p = 0 p p is true and therefore the statement (p p) is false.
63. Use resolution to show that the compound proposition (p q) (p q) (p q) (p q) is not
satisable.
Assume that this proposition is satisable. Using resolution on the rst two clauses enables us to
conclude q q; in other words we know that q has to be true. Using resolution on the last two clauses
enables us to conclude q q; in other words, we know that q has to be true. This is a contradiction.
So this proposition is not satisable.
65. Prove or disprove that there is a rational number x and an irrational number y such that x
y
is irrational.
Let x = 2 and y =

2. If x
y
= 2

2
is irrational, we are done. If not, then let x = 2

2
and y =

2/4.
Then x
y
= (2

2
)

2/4
= 2
1/2
=

2.
66. Show that the propositions p
1
, p
2
, p
3
and p
4
can be shown to be equivalent by showing that p
1

p
4
, p
2
p
3
and p
1
p
3
.
1. p
1
p
4
p
1
p
3
p
3
p
4
2. p
2
p
3
p
1
p
3
p
1
p
2
3. p
2
p
3
p
3
p
4
p
2
p
4
Section 1.8 - Functions
1. Why is f not a function from R to R if:
a. f(0) is not dened
b. f(x) is not dened for x < 0
c. f(x) is not well-dened since there are two distinct values assigned to each x
2. Determine whether f is a function from Z to R if:
a. No, f(n) maps an input to more than one output.
b. Yes
c. Yes
4. Find the domain and range of these functions.
a. Domain: Z
+
, Range: f(n) Z
+
(0 f(n) 9)
b. Domain: Z
+
, Range: f(n) Z
+
(f(n) 1)
c. Z
+
d. Z
+
8. Find these values
a. 1
b. 2
c. -1
5
d. 0
e. 3
f. -2
g. 1
h. 2
9. Find these values
a. 1
b. 0
c. 0
d. -1
e. 3
f. -1
g. 2
h. 1
10. Determine whether each of these functions from a, b, c, d to itself is one-to-one
a. Yes
b. No, f(a) = f(b)
c. No, f(a) = f(d)
11. Which functions in Exercise 10 are onto?
Only part a
12. Determine whether each of these functions from Z to Z is one-to-one
a. Yes
b. No, f(n) = f(n)
c. Yes
d. No, f(2n) = f(2n 1)
13. Which functions in Exercise 12 are onto?
Only parts a and d
17. Five an explicit formula for a function from the set of integers to the set of positive integers
a. The function f(x) with f(x) = 3x + 1 when x 0 and f(x) = 3x + 2 when x < 0
b. f(x) = [x[ + 1
c. The function f(x) with f(x) = 2x + 1 when x 0 and f(x) = 2x when x < 0
d. f(x) = x
2
+ 1
19. Determine whether each of these functions is a bijection from R to R
a. Yes
b. No
c. Yes
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d. No
24. Let f(x) = 2x
a. a(a = 2m, m Z)
b. a(a = 2m, m N)
c. a R
31. Show that the function f(x) = ax+b from R to R is invertible, where a and b are constants, with a ,= 0,
and nd the inverse of f.
f is one-to-one since f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) ax
1
+ b = ax
2
+ b ax
1
= ax
2
x
1
= x
2
. f is onto since
f((y b)/a) = y. f
1
(y) = (y b)/a.
32. Let f be a function from the set A to the set B. Let S and T be subsets of A.
a. Because we know that S and T are subsets of A we know that f maps them to B. Given that, we
can say that what f(S) f(T) maps to will be the same subset of B that f(S T) maps to.
b. The subset of A which falls within S T will be the intersection of these two subsets. If we then
take the intersection of the corresponding subsets when mapped to B we will nd the values from
f(S T) are encompassed.
38. Show that x + 1/2| is the closest integer to the number x except when x is midway between two
integers, when it is the smaller of these two integers.
Let x = x| + , where is a real number with 0 < 1. If < 1/2, then x| 1 < x 1/2 < x|,
so x + 1/2| = x| and this is the integer closest to x. If > 1/2, then x| < x 1/2 < x| + 1, so
x + 1/2| = x| + 1 and this is the integer closest to x. If = 1/2 then x + 1/2| = x|, which is the
smaller of the two integers that surround x and are the same distance from x.
39. Show that x 1/2| is the closest integer to the number x, except when it is the smaller of these two
integers.
Let x = x| + , where is a real number with 0 < 1. If < 1/2, then x| 1 < x 1/2 < x|,
so x 1/2| = x| and this is the integer closest to x. If > 1/2, then x| < x 1/2 < x| + 1, so
x 1/2| = x| + 1 and this is the integer closest to x. If = 1/2 then x 1/2| = x|, which is the
smaller of the two integers that surround x and are the same distance from x.
40. Show that if x is a real number then x| x| = 1 if x is not an integer and x| x| = 0 if x is an
integer.
Let us dene x = x|+, where is a real number with 0 < 1. If x is not an integer then > 0 and
we can then say that x| = x+1 and that x| = x and therefore x|x| = (x+1)x = 1. If, however,
x is an integer we know that = 0 so x| = x and that x| = x and therefore x| x| = x x = 0
41. Show that if x is a real number, then x 1 < x| x x| < x + 1
Write the real number x as x| + , where is a real number with 0 < 1. Since = x x|, it
follows that 0 x| < 1. The rst two inequalities, x 1 < x| and x| x follow directly. For
the other two inequalities, write x| + / where 0 / < 1. Then 0 x| x < 1 and the desired
inequality follows.
Section 2.4 - The Integers and Division
2. Show that if a is an integer other than 0, then
a. 1[a a = 1(c) where c is an integer. Therefore a = c and is thus 1 divides a
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b. a[0 0 = a(c) where c = 0. Therefore a divides 0.
9. What are the quotient and remainder when
a. 2,5
b. -11,10
c. 34,7
d. 77,0
e. 0,0
f. 0,3
g. -1,2
h. 4,0
13. Find the prime factorization of 10!
2
8
3
4
5
2
7
14. How many zeros are there at the end of 100!
100! = 100 99 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1
Therefore there are 11 zeros at the end of 100!
16. Which positive integers less than 12 are relatively prime to 12?
1, 5, 7, 11
19. Determine whether the integers in each of these sets are pairwise relatively prime
a. Yes
b. No
c. Yes
d. Yes
21. Let m be a positive integer. Show that a b(modm) if a mod m = b mod m.
If amodm = bmodm then a and b have the same remainder when divided by m. Hence a = q
1
m + r
and b = q
2
m+r, where 0 < m. It follows that a b = (q
1
q
2
)m so that m[(a b). It follows that
a b(modm).
29. What are the greatest common divisors of these pairs of integers?
a. 3
5
5
3
b. 1
c. 23
17
d. 41 43 53
e. 1
f. 1111
36. Evaluate these quantities
a. 1
b. 4
c. 10
8
d. 9
37. Evaluate these quantities
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 9
42. Show that if a b(modm) and c d(modm), where a, b, c, d and m are integers with m 2, then
a c b d(modm).
We can express a, b, c and d as:
a = q
1
m+r
1
b = q
2
m+r
1
c = q
3
m+r
2
d = q
4
m+r
2
And to show a c b d(modm) we say:
(a c) (b d)
m
=
(q
1
m+r
1
) (q
3
m+r
2
) (q
2
m+r
1
) + (q
4
m+r
2
)
m
=
q
1
m+r
1
q
3
mr
2
q
2
mr
1
+q
4
m+r
2
m
=
m(q
1
q
3
q
2
+q
4
)
m
Which results in an integer value and is thus valid.
44. Show that if a, b, c and m are integers such that m 2, c > 0 and a b(modm), then ac bc(modmc)
Using the same values for a and b above we state:
ac bc
mc
=
c(q
1
m+r) c(q
2
m+r)
mc
=
cq
1
m+cr cq
2
mcr
mc
=
mc(q
1
q
2
)
mc
Which results in an integer and is thus valid.
59. Can you nd a formula or rule for the nth term of a sequence related to the prime numbers or prime
factorizations so that the initial terms of the sequence have these values?
a. a
n
= 1 if n is prime and a
n
= 0 otherwise.
b. a
n
is the smallest prime factor of n with a
1
= 1.
c. a
n
is the number of positive divisors of n.
d. a
n
= 1 if n has no divisors that are perfect squares greater than 1 and a
n
= 0 otherwise
e. a
n
is the largest prime less than or equal to n
f. a
n
is the product of the rst n 1 primes
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