11 views

Uploaded by Arslan Chohan

- ELEC 310-07-8 DT Convolution and LTI Systems
- Chap6-Digital Filter Structures
- MCQ for DSP
- fifr
- VSP-lec02-unfolding (1)
- Digital signal processing
- df-45_e
- DSP Lecture 24
- (7) Introduction to Filters
- Designing of Low Complexity Fir Filters Using Genetic Algorithms (8 Files Merged)(2)
- Final Question bank_DSP.docx
- SyllabusEE_413
- Stalin Matlab 2017
- lecture03_lti
- m.tech Advanced Digital Signal Processing
- Luc ChecTYIOIklist
- Undergrad Course Schedulev2
- Paulus
- Dsp Cm6713 Manual
- Canonical Signed Digit Representation for FIR Digital Filters

You are on page 1of 33

Objective

Stuctures

Direct form Transposed direct form Lattice-ladder form Parallel realization Cascade realization Bi-quad coupled realization State space realization

Implementation

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

The causal IIR digital filters we are concerned with in this course are characterized by a real rational transfer function of z 1 or, equivalently by a constant coefficient difference equation From the difference equation representation, it can be seen that the realization of the causal IIR digital filters requires some form of feedback

3

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

An N-th order IIR digital transfer function is characterized by 2N+1 unique coefficients, and in general, requires 2N+1 multipliers and 2N two-input adders for implementation Direct form IIR filters: Filter structures in which the multiplier coefficients are precisely the coefficients of the transfer function

4

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Consider for simplicity a 3rd-order IIR filter with a transfer function

1 2 3

P( z ) p0 + p1z + p2 z + p3 z = H ( z) = D( z ) 1 + d1z 1 + d 2 z 2 + d3 z 3

We can implement H(z) as a cascade of two filter sections as shown on the next slide

5

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

X (z )

H1 (z )

W (z )

H 2 (z )

Y (z )

where

W ( z) 1 2 3 H1( z ) = = P( z ) = p0 + p1z + p2 z + p3 z X ( z) Y ( z) 1 1 H 2 ( z) = = = W ( z ) D( z ) 1 + d1z 1 + d 2 z 2 + d3 z 3

6

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

The filter section H1(z ) can be seen to be an FIR filter and can be realized as shown below w[n] = p0 x[n] + p1x[ n 1] + p2 x[n 2] + p3 x[n 3]

The time-domain representation of H 2 (z ) is given by y[n] = w[n] d1 y[n 1] d 2 y[n 2] d3 y[n 3] Realization of H 2 (z ) follows from the above equation and is shown on the right

8

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

A cascade of the two structures realizing H1(z ) and H 2 (z ) leads to the realization of H (z ) shown below and is known as the direct form I structure

Note: The direct form I structure is noncanonic as it employs 6 delays to realize a 3rd-order transfer function A transpose of the direct form I structure is shown on the right and is called the direct form It structure

10

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Various other noncanonic direct form structures can be derived by simple block diagram manipulations as shown below

11

Observe in the direct form structure shown below, the signal variable at nodes 1 and 1' are the same, and hence the two top delays can be shared

12

Likewise, the signal variables at nodes 2 and 2' are the same, permitting the sharing of the middle two delays Following the same argument, the bottom two delays can be shared Sharing of all delays reduces the total number of delays to 3 resulting in a canonic realization shown on the next slide along with its transpose structure

13

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Direct Form II

Direct Form II t

Direct form realizations of an N-th order IIR transfer function should be evident

14

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

By expressing the numerator and the denominator polynomials of the transfer function as a product of polynomials of lower degree, a digital filter can be realized as a cascade of low-order filter sections Consider, for example, H(z) = P(z)/D(z) expressed as P ( z ) P ( z ) P2 ( z ) P3 ( z ) H ( z) = = 1 D ( z ) D1 ( z ) D2 ( z ) D3 ( z )

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

15

Examples of cascade realizations obtained by different pole-zero pairings are shown below

16

Examples of cascade realizations obtained by different ordering of sections are shown below

17

There are altogether a total of 36 different cascade realizations of P ( z ) P2 ( z ) P2 ( z ) H ( z) = 1

D1 ( z ) D2 ( z ) D3 ( z )

based on pole-zero-pairings and ordering Due to finite wordlength effects, each such cascade realization behaves differently from others

18

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Usually, the polynomials are factored into a product of 1st-order and 2nd-order polynomials: 1 + 1k z 1 + 2 k z 2 H ( z ) = p0 1 + z 1 + z 2 k 1k 2k In the above, for a first-order factor 2k = 2k = 0

19

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Consider the 3rd-order transfer function 1+ 11z 1 1+ 12 z 1 + 22 z 2 H ( z ) = p0 1 1 2 1+11z 1 + 12 z + 22 z One possible realization is shown below

20

Example - Direct form II and cascade form realizations of

H ( z) =

1 10.4 z

z 1

21

Direct form II 22

Cascade form

A partial-fraction expansion of the transfer function in z 1 leads to the parallel form I structure Assuming simple poles, the transfer function H(z) can be expressed as 0 k + 1k z 1 H ( z) = 0 + 1 2 k 1+1k z + 2 k z In the above for a real pole 2 k = 1k = 0

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

23

A direct partial-fraction expansion of the transfer function in z leads to the parallel form II structure Assuming simple poles, the transfer function H(z) can be expressed as 1k z 1 + 2 k z 2 H ( z ) = 0 + 1 2 k 1+ 1k z + 2 k z In the above for a real pole 2 k = 2 k = 0

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

24

The two basic parallel realizations of a 3rdorder IIR transfer function are shown below

Parallel form I 25

Parallel form II

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

Example - A partial-fraction expansion of H ( z) = in z 1 yields H ( z ) = 0.1 +

0.6 1 0.4 z

1

0.44 z 1 + 0.362 z 2 + 0.02 z 3 1+ 0.4 z 1 + 0.18 z 2 0.2 z 3 0.5 0.2 z 1 1+ 0.8 z 1 + 0.5 z 2

26

The corresponding parallel form I realization is shown below

27

Likewise, a partial-fraction expansion of H(z) in z yields H ( z) =

0.24 z 1 1 0.4 z

1

28

Copyright 2005, S. K. Mitra

29

30

31

32

Predicting pipelining improvement using timing metrics. Predicting retiming improvement

33

- ELEC 310-07-8 DT Convolution and LTI SystemsUploaded bygrandfleet
- Chap6-Digital Filter StructuresUploaded byboulainine houria
- MCQ for DSPUploaded byAnonymous JnvCyu85
- fifrUploaded byvinodvlsi
- VSP-lec02-unfolding (1)Uploaded byS RAVI
- Digital signal processingUploaded byrozan haqi
- df-45_eUploaded byRichard Baker
- DSP Lecture 24Uploaded bym_usama
- (7) Introduction to FiltersUploaded byVrashankJain
- Designing of Low Complexity Fir Filters Using Genetic Algorithms (8 Files Merged)(2)Uploaded byManwinder Singh Gill
- Final Question bank_DSP.docxUploaded bysachin
- SyllabusEE_413Uploaded byengrowaiskhan
- Stalin Matlab 2017Uploaded byAnonymous A4r48uVM
- lecture03_ltiUploaded bymohammedamraja94
- m.tech Advanced Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded bysrinivas
- Luc ChecTYIOIklistUploaded byBenedict Lumabi
- Undergrad Course Schedulev2Uploaded bySteven Zhan
- PaulusUploaded byRodrigue AK FortySeven
- Dsp Cm6713 ManualUploaded byPrasada Rao
- Canonical Signed Digit Representation for FIR Digital FiltersUploaded byPhuc Hoang
- Syllabus Dsp n Sig n Sys - 6thsem Be (Etc n Pei) JistUploaded byAkashDeep Singh
- Matlab Practice Dsp LabUploaded byPrudhvi Munagala
- rohan dspUploaded byRohan Mhatre
- Filtering in FRFTUploaded byankit bansal
- Matlab FileUploaded byrahulsporty
- PCIC-2005-32CUploaded byAns Mehmood
- 1-s2.0-S0169260715003314-main (1).pdfUploaded byGabriel Schultz
- 08.M.E. COMM & NWUploaded byVasu
- 01041031Uploaded byApoorva Jagadeesh
- NotesUploaded byReza Arraffi

- Final Report BRMUploaded byArslan Chohan
- 50-555Circuits_2.pdfUploaded byAlfonso Ramos
- AutoIjarahFatwaUploaded byArslan Chohan
- 41211d_Uploaded byenhbaatar
- NI Released License Agreement - GermanUploaded byArslan Chohan
- Intel_8086Uploaded byHemraj Verma
- 16.07102702Uploaded byArslan Chohan
- MWS TutorialsUploaded byhhnhm

- BDA Exercises 2016Uploaded byLucía Rodríguez Vázquez
- Deconvolution and Interpretation of Well Test Data ‘Masked’ By Wellbore Storage in A Build Up TestUploaded byIOSRjournal
- AHS2011_HECC_Design_Final[1].pdfUploaded byKarl Glorstad
- ENG 165-265.8.2015Uploaded byKaustubh Joshi
- SweetFX_Settings_Far Cry 4_Oiram's Color BoostUploaded byNishant Shade
- Measuring the Elastic Properties of Anisotropic Materials by Indentation ExperimentsUploaded byArun Kumar
- Heat Load CalculationUploaded byGourang Paul
- Earthquake resistant architectureUploaded byniki niks
- 07 Rr410209 High Voltage EngineeringUploaded byandhracolleges
- 2PumpLettUploaded byLuis Francisco Pereira
- Nuclear Fission - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- Non-Bilocal Measurement via Entangled StateUploaded byYash Nora
- Rossby and Kelvin WaveUploaded byayu_28488
- Thomas Townsend BrownUploaded byMagelican
- Technical Specification-ZTT Subsea CableUploaded byabhi1648665
- Identification of Parameters of Concrete Damage Plasticity Constitutive ModelUploaded byMAZIGHI
- PyromeryUploaded byzamuka2007
- Meet the Finite ElementUploaded byradi_ashraf
- Scanner Air FanUploaded bySam
- Press Release Oerlikon Graziano CTI China 2012 English VersionUploaded bygfdsal878
- Applications for Light Weight DeflectometerUploaded byFrank Georg Schulz
- inclined-roof-system-trimoterm-snv_16755.pdfUploaded byРостислав Василев
- Science Olympiad TipsUploaded bycp~2008
- Aldehydes and Ketones I NucleophIlic Addition to the Carbonyl GroupUploaded byDenisse Badiola
- Microwave ExperimentUploaded bysufiyan ali
- Diluent Injection Optimization for a Heavy Oil Field, Amaud Hoffmann, 2016, SPE-184119-MSUploaded byjoreli
- Qit Hs13 ScriptUploaded bySyedZain1993
- a (1)Uploaded byihpeter
- Luis Bettencourt - Origin of Scaling in CitiesUploaded bymatt_willian
- Proof of IndependenceUploaded bySimba Makenzi