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Book review: ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE by Mohamad Zulfadli Bin Mohd Ariffin. 1012011 Section 6 -- Assoc. Prof. Dr.

Spahic Omer Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design nternational Islamic University Malaysia.

THE GENESIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION This chapter will tell us detail what is the relation between the civilization and architecture. Actually this two thing are depend each other. Other than that, the author also explain how the flow of Islamic civilization that help people develop their architecture.

In this chapter, the author try to explain it is true that early Arabia, at rise of islam does not have any architecture value. This statement are made because of the design of kabah is just simple as it is just a basic form. Originally the design of the kabah is not simple rectangular shape as we see nowadays. But during that time the people of Makkah was lacking of expertise, technology and building material. According to K.A.C Creswell ( the writer of A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture), the man called Baqum, who was one of the passenger on the wrecked ship was hired by Quraysh to rebuild kabah due to the damage caused to it. Baqum was an Abyssinian, so the building style will be Abyssinian too. But it need a lot of wood and stone to build kabah with this style and in Arabia, there are lacking of timber. Other than that the technique of the builder is alien to the Arabia. At first, the foundation of kabah is stood where prophet Ibrahim first built but need to reduce of the size when the Quraysh found their funds exhausted. As it is today, thus a part of the original foundation was left out and that the portion known as hijir Ismail. This clearly explains the architectural limitations of Arabs as a community and Arabia as a region. The architectural profound knowledge and building technology have shown a little improvement When the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) migrated to Madinah. During this time, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) start to development the city of Madinah, the first Islamic citystate. Because of busy to spreading the message of Islam to newly lands and task to cultivating the more urgent and desire aspect of civilization, those people had no time and interest to develop the building style. Base on some principles of growth of civilizations, it was natural far Islam that a certain amount of time was required in order for the purest forms its art and architecture to manifest themselves. In other hand, during that time, Islamic architecture have been considerably delayed.

The next development of Islamic architecture is during of the time of the third rightly guided Caliph, Uthman b. Affan as many people starting on building house in different parts of the vast state with newest unthinkable design and size. This is because during that time, muslim civilization is start to stabilize in term of economic. In addition, muslim had expanding their land to the Egypt. So, people can benefit other cultural and technology to imply in their building style such as the decorative art. Other than that, people have time to explore more in architecture as they do not have to work hard to stabilize the civilization. This Chapter also mentions that grown of economic and building style is not fully civilized until people are proper behavior. Prophet had mention that human can achieve high civilization if there no poverty and criminal problems where the no one to robbed and no one should be given zakat as many of they had produce more than them consume. For Ibn Khaldun, base on his view that architecture is both the foundation and expression of a civilization. According to him, cities could not become possible until large and well- organized groups of humans start producing more than they can consume. For beduin, urbanization such refined civilization with refined environment should be the goal of us to achieve higher civilization. When comes to the Umayyads, its can say that it is the greatest strides to the Islamic architecture. During the caliph Al- walid, many greater building were built such as the Great Mosque in Damascus, enlarge and rebuilt Al- Masjid Al- Aqsa in Jerusalem, Great Mosque in Sana, yamen, the prophets Mosque in Madinah and The Mosque of amr b. al-as in Cairo. Cailph al-Walid is the first in Islam who introduce mosque decoration on large scale. The reason for caliph al- Walid embarked on erecting a number of mosques of magnificent proportions is because he wish that place of worship be property looked after, be enabled to mirror Gods abundant boons and blessing bestowed on the Islamic Community. AlWalid also concerned about maximizing the function of mosque as community development centers. Other than that he also focus on social wellness programs to improve the condition of the state. He wish to stopped the community from begging. Caliph al- Walid liked to give servant to every blind man to lead him, tutors for orphan, donate to the people coming to Makkah and Madinah and etc. Most of the Umayyad rules have caliph al-walid character and the culture of building. but extravagant building lead to finances problem. The last caliph of Umayyad is Yazid and the verge of breakdown and another Muslim dynasty, Abbasids, was set to rule Muslim community much longer than Umayyads. Those is the development in Islamic architecture that develop by Umayyad.

-Muawiyah is the first caliph of Umayyad and he is the first stated erecting massive and solid building( tashyid). -Caliph Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, al Walids father, is the one who built Dome of the Rock that located in the center of al Aqsa mosque. At the first, Islamic architecture clearly displayed the dominant influence of Christian architecture of syiria. Then all of these influence were duly adjusted and Islamized before being integrated into the body of Islamic architectural. Later, the Umayyad develop the technique of joints thinner than the brick that come from Iraq. Then more discovery were made by Umayyad such as the semicircular arch, the round horse- shoe arch, the pointed arch, flat arches, joggled voussoirs, cross- vaults, roofing system, wood dome and etc. What I can conclude in this chapter is, firstly to develop architecture, there are three major components needed such as expertise, technology and building materials. To gain all this thing, people need to establish their cities in term of economic and skill. From the article, we can see how the effect of civilization to the building style starting from the rebuilding of kabah, than the migrated of prophet to Madinah and the rule of Caliph Uthman, How they establish the urbanization first then art and design come later as they need time to develop. Most of Islamic architecture developing by absorbing the building style from state that they conquer.As Islamic civilization, it is not looked by the advance of the city and the building, but also in term human behavior.