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A STUDY ON HANDLOOM SECTOR OF INDIA

SEEMA RAWAT

BATCH 2009-2011

POST GRADUATE PROGRAM IN FASHION MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF FASHION MANAGEMENT STUDIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NEW DELHI

DECLARATION
I, Seema Rawat , a student of Master of Fashion Management at National Institute of Fashion Technology, Delhi here by declare that the research work was carried out on the topic titled A Study on the handloom sector of India It is a research work carried out by me under the supervision of Mr.Rajiv Malik. This dissertation report has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for successful completion of the first semester of PG Management Course. SEEMA RAWAT ROLL - 29 Masters of Fashion Management.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my profound gratitude towards National Institute of Fashion Technology, Delhi for giving me the opportunity to do a project on A Study on Handloom Sector of India

Sincere and heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Malik , my project mentor without whose expert guidance and help it would not have been possible to accomplish the project. I also want to thanks Mr Chandra Shekhar Sharma for his immense help.His timely advice and suggestions at various stages helped me in bringing out the project in its present form.

Last but not the least; we would like to put in a word of thanks to all the faculty members for their constant help and guidance.

Contents
Preface Summary Chapter 1. Introduction 2. History of Handloom 3. Present situation of Handloom Sector 4. The Indian heritage 5.Major Handloom Producing States 6.State wise data on Handloom 7.Comparision of powerloom and handloom 8.Reason for high cost in Handloom 9.Reason for poor efficiency 10.Why still revival of handloom sector 11.Growth Potential-SWOT Analysis 13Factors requiring immediate actions 14.Policies for growth of Handloom Sector 15.Conclusion 16.Limitations 17.References

Introduction Textile is one of the sectors in which a lot of economic reform measures are taking place in India. The last few years have seen tremendous changes in the textile scenario. The regime of liberalization and free trade has initiated a process of integration of world textile market The National Textile Policy 2000 announced by the Government on 2.11. 2000 is said to be aimed at preparing the industry for successfully meeting the challenges of the barriers free and taking advantage of the opportunities it holds. The Handloom Sector occupies an important place in the Indian Economy as it contributes significantly to employment generation. Its economic importance also lies in its low capital investment and high value addition. Increasing contribution to sustainable employment and economic growth of the country and competing with confidence for an increased share of global market. In order to put the handloom industry on a fast track the government has introduced several measures for up-gradation in terms of technology and skill of the weavers and so on. The reform measures initiated in India record mixed developments in textile industry - especially the in the handloom sector. Similarly, the weaving sector, considered as one of the weakest links in the textile value chain, is witnessing a technology revolution. In this context, understanding the implications of globalization for the livelihood security of the handloom weaving community through the mediated policies and programmes of the government becomes necessary.

Objective of the study This study attempts to find Reasons behind dispossession of handloom sector and various remedies to revive the handloom sector. To identify the potential for growth in the handloom sector. To compare differentiating factors and strengths of handloom over powerloom sector.

Scope of study Concentrated on domestic market. Further scope in Potential of sector in international market. Contribution in export.

Research Methodology Data type: Secondary Collected data on handloom sector and powerloom sector Comparative study of both sectors Determining strengths of handloom sector Determining weaknesses of handloom sector Determining growth potential in handloom sector

SUMMARY Handloom weaving provides livelihood to millions of weavers and crafts persons in India. The sector has not only survived but also grown over the decades due to its inherent strengths like flexibility of production in small quantities, non-intimidating nature of technology, and low level of capital investment and so on. . Story of every weaver is struggle against age, ill health, low income and loneliness. Everyday, they have been putting in almost 12 hours of work and earning in the range of Rs 250-350 per month -- major portion of which goes to pay for mounting debts and failing health. Despite lifelong labour, their worldly possessions are limited to a tumbler, a steel plate, a wooden bed and a torn cloth bag. This epitomises the problems of handloom weavers and their livelihoods in India. Weavers toil for most of their waking hours to weave the rich tapestry of clothes and fabric that delight consumers across the world. Yet, their earnings per month do not exceed Rs 1,000. This is also the family income, as all family members chip in. Children do not have any scope for educating themselves, especially the girl child, who has to help in house chores and livelihood also. The study has found that the number of handloom weavers (including the master weavers), number of looms, and number of handloom weavers cooperative societies have come down over the years, while at the same time the number of power looms, and shift of handloom weavers to powerlooms have increased. The reasons attributed are declining wage rates and discontinuous nature of employment opportunity in handloom weaving and the increasing encroachment of power looms to weave items conventionally designated for handlooms. Owing to productivity differences the prices of power loom products are naturally lower and so consumer preference for power loom cloths are higher. Therefore, handloom weavers leaving handlooms for employment in power loom sector and other occupations is widely noticed. However, there are certain protective measures and schemes specially introduced in order to enable the handloom weavers face the challenges and become competitive. Need of an hour is to pay equal attention and need to be sorted out immediately while making efforts to enable the sector compete in the global market. To enable handloom development it is important to derive an appropriate mix of sales and marketing efforts. Also the good understanding of the need, to be market responsive. Use of new technologies, training and education is must for increasing the production. It is time handloom-weaving firms (both cooperative and private) reorganize themselves from capturing quotas to capturing markets.

HISTORY OF INDIAN HANDLOOM SECTOR


Indian hand woven fabrics have been known since time immemorial. Poets of the Mughal durbar likened our muslins to baft hawa (woven air), abe rawan (running water) and shabnam (morning dew).

When did weaving begin in INDIA?

The origin of the art of weaving in India is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. Fragments of woven cotton and bone needles have been discovered at Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa, the ancient seats of the Indus Valley Civilization. Even the Rigveda and the epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana dwell upon the craft of weaving at length. These weavers of the past were true masters of their craft. Such was their capability that legend even refers to the fabulous semitransparent saree (a great technical feat) worn by Amrapali, the famous courtesan. Indian cottons and silks were exported in huge quantities

Fragments of cotton fabric were also found in the Egyptian tombs at Fostat, China too was another big importer of Indian fabrics in ancient times. Moving ahead, silks were exported to Indonesia in the 13th century. India also exported a lot of cotton and chintz to Europe and the Far East before the advent of the British East India Company.

What were the weaving traditions existing in the country then?


There were basically three types of weaving traditions in India :-

a) The Rural Representing the familiar, unchanging images of rural life. These are abundantly full of joy and life, with figures of plants, animals and humans.

b) The Classical Revolving around royalty and court life. Here the forms and symbols varied according to the patronage of the ruler. Symbols and myths were rendered graphically, with elegance and style.

c) The Tribal These were usually bold geometric patterns and weaves in strong primary colours usually woven on simple bamboo looms.

Though India was famous even in ancient times as an exporter of textiles to most parts of the civilized world, few actual fabrics of the early dyed or printed cottons have survived. This, it is explained is due to a hot, moist climate and the existence of the monsoons in India. Later, fragments of finely woven and madder-dyed cotton fabrics and shuttles were found at some of the excavated sites of Mohenjodaro (Indus valley civilization). Indian floral prints, dating back to the 18th century A.D were discovered by Sir Aurel Stein in the icy waters of Central Asia. The evidence shows that of all the arts and crafts of India, traditional handloom textiles are probably the oldest.

Present situation of HANDLOOM SECTOR


ANALYSIS OF HANDLOOM SECTOR

Introduction Handloom textiles constitute a timeless facet of the rich cultural heritage of India. Handloom sectors have been acknowledged by everyone as the biggest source of employment and is a traditional profession being practiced in India for centuries together. This sector occupies a place second only to agriculture in providing livelihood to the people. It is estimated that handloom industry provides employment to 65 lakh workforces directly or indirectly and there are about 35 lakh handlooms spread all over India. The production of handloom fabrics is estimated to be approximately 6536 million square meters during 2006-07 (Annual Report 10 2007-08, Ministry of Textile) and contributes 16% of total textile production in %1 India.
0%

% % % 19 %ex total of cloth po produced rt


38,00,000 handlooms in

India 65 lakh people find direct employment 60.6% women 12.5 million people dependent on Handloom sector 38 million people employed in textile sector

DATA FOR HANDLOOM SECTOR

60 % exp ort 62 % of total cloth produced 2155000 powerloom units in India 54 lakh people employed in powerloom sector 38 million people employed in textile sector

Data for Powerloom sector

The element of art and craft present in Indian handlooms makes it a potential sector for the domestic niche and cheap markets, as well as value-added exports in the international markets. It is expected that with increasing population and prosperity, the domestic and international market size will expand and per capita consumption will increase. The sector has an edge over the powerloom and mill sectors in its ability to commercially produce the goods in small volumes, openness to innovations, switch over to new designs, adoptability to suit suppliers requirement and creation of exquisite design. However, in the present context of globalization, the sector is beset with manifold problems and challenges. With the technological developments, the handloom products are being increasingly replicated on powerlooms at much lower cost. Hence product diversification through weaving and innovative printing is very much essential for the survival of handloom sector. Weaving on handlooms is predominantly cotton; the future yarn consumption pattern is expected to be equality shared between cotton and other fibres.

Handlooms The Largest Cottage Industry Handlooms are an important craft product and comprise the largest cottage industry of the country. Millions of looms across the country are engaged in weaving cotton, silk and other natural fibers. There is hardly a village where weavers do not exist, each weaving out the traditional beauty of India's own precious heritage.

The Indian Heritage Some of the exclusive product ranges include: Silk Saree from Varanasi, scarf from Barabanki, home furnishing from Bijnore, shawls from Kullu, ikat sari from Sonepur and Bargarh, cotton saree from Chanderi . In the world of handlooms, there are Madras checks from Tamil Nadu, ikats from Andhra and Orissa, tie and dye from Gujarat and Rajasthan, brocades from Banaras, jacquards form Uttar Pradesh. Daccai from West Bengal, and phulkari from Punjab. Yet, despite this regional distinction there has been a great deal of technical and stylistic exchange. The famed Coimbatore saris have developed while imitating the Chanderi pattern of Madhya Pradesh. Daccai saris are now woven in Bengal, no Dhaka. The Surat tanchoi based on a technique of satin weaving with the extra weft floats that are absorbed in the fabric itself has been reproduced in Varanasi. Besides its own traditional weaves, there is hardly any style of weaving that Varanasi cannot reproduce. The Baluchar technique of plain woven fabric brocaded with untwisted silk thread, which began in Murshidabad district of West Bengal, has taken root in Varanasi. Their craftsmen have also borrowed the jamdani technique. Woolen weaves are no less subtle. The Kashmiri weaver is known the world over for his Pashmina and Shahtoosh shawls. The shawls are unbelievably light and warm. Assamese weavers produce beautiful designs on the borders of their mekhla, chaddar, riha (traditional garments used by the women) and gamosa (towel). From Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Gujarat come the ikats. The ikat technique in India is commonly known as patola in Gujarat, bandha in Orissa, pagdu bandhu, buddavasi and chitki in Andhra Pradesh. In the ikat tie and dye process, the designs in various colors are formed on the fabric either by the warp threads or the weft threads or by both. The threads forming the design are tied and dyed separately to bring in the desired color and the simple interlacement of the threads produces, the most intricate designs, that appear only in the finished weaving. The Orissa ikat is a much older tradition that Andhra Pradesh or Gujarat, and their more popular motifs as such are a stylized fish and the rudraksh bead. Here the color is built up thread by thread. In fact, Orissa ikat is known now as yarn tie and dye. In Andhra Pradesh, they bunch some threads together and tie and dye and they also have total freedom of design. Some say that ikat was an innovative technique, first created in India, which was later carried to Indonesia, the only other place in the world with a strong ikat tradition.

MAJOR HANDLOOM PRODUCING STATES


(75% of total handloom production)

Manipur U.P Assam

West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu

State wise working of weavers-

STATE-WISE LABOUR ENGAGED IN HANDLOOM WEAVING(Thousand

States/union Territory STATES Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Delhi Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu

WEAVING Full-time Part-time 219.10 0.50 384.30 76.30 7.70 23.00 17.40 6.10 20.50 83.40 46.20 29.90 66.20 107.20 0.50 2.10 26.90 88.40 10.10 31.90 398.60 33.00 44.60 1332.20 27.30 -----5.50 0.90 34.90 11.90 7.60 1.20 7.10 0.90 177.10 8.80 97.70 75.20 28.40 1.60 6.40 22.40

PREPARATORY WORK Full-time Part-time 148.40 0.20 62.60 43.00 3.40 25.50 5.20 1.00 8.70 76.30 13.30 20.40 36.50 13.60 0.10 0.10 13.80 76.50 3.50 24.60 169.70 52.40 1.80 217.70 92.90 0.60 13.70 1.40 12.10 12.10 13.60 4.50 19.30 30.70 36.80 4.40 28.90 31.70 50.40 7.50 14.70 72.60

TOTAL

452.90 47.10 1996.80 239.50 11.70 67.70 24.90 54.10 53.20 180.90 65.20 76.70 134.30 334.70 13.80 128.80 147.60 243.70 22.70 77.60 663.30

Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal UNION TERRITORY Pondicherry Grand Total

17.20 270.20 304.80

98.00 48.40 61.70

5.40 148.40 194.60

16.60 173.60 150.50

137.20 640.60 711.60

4 .40 2242.90

0.10 2132.90

0.70 1095.50

1.40 1061.90

6.60 6533.20

Source :- Census of Handlooms (2000)

State wise working of weaver Percentage of full time worker

States Andra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Independently 41 4.7 87 58.8

Upon master weaver 28.3 35.2 6.1 22.9

Under cooperatives 21.9 46.1 2 8

Ubder others 8.8 15 4.9 10.3

Source :- Census of Handlooms (2000)

STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF HANDLOOMS PER LOOM PRODUCTIVITY States/union Territory STATES Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Number of Looms (In Number of Looms (in Productivity per thousand) thousand) Loom per day Urban Rural Total Working Idle Total (in mtr.) 57 Neg. 65 12 7 Neg. 5 14 1 5 163 46 1344 71 2 Neg. 18 6 30 20 220 46 1409 83 9 Neg. 23 20 31 25 213 46 1299 73 8 Neg. 21 17 31 25 7 220 Neg. 46 110 1409 10 83 1 9 Neg. Neg. 2 23 3 20 Neg. 31 Neg. 25 4.91 1.26 0.63 11.79 14.20 6.97 11.95 11.72 2.36 5.60

Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal UNION TERRITORY Pondicherry Grand Total %

37 5 16 51 42 Neg. 21 11 6 4 8 122 Neg. 100 37

45 47 31 17 228 8 83 67 113 8 25 307 119 161 301

82 52 47 68 270 8 104 78 119 12 33 429 119 261 338

77 42 31 66 267 8 94 72 92 11 32 402 117 244 319

5 10 16 2 3 Neg. 10 6 27 1 1 27 2 17 19

82 52 47 68 270 8 104 78 119 12 33 429 119 261 338

5.93 6.04 12.06 8.33 1.86 1.50 0.22 1.21 7.56 12.58 8.14 4.77 2.30 11.31 10.17

4 1 5 630 3261 3891 16.19 83.81 100.00

5 3612 92.83

Neg. 5 279 3891 7.17 100.00

3.78 5.12

Source :- Census of Handlooms (2000)

Comparison of powerloom and handloom sector-

PRODUCTION
During 2007-08 the total production of cloth was 56025 mn.sq.mtrs. However it shows a decline of 2% in 2008-09.The Cloth production in 2008-09 is 54966 mn.sq. mtrs. Cloth production by mill sector showed an increase of 1% during 2008-09.During 2008-09 cloth production by handloom, power loom decreased by about 4% and 3%.

Performance of handloom sector

Product Cloth production (million sq.metre)

2004-05 5722

2005-06 6108

2006-07 6541

2007-08 6913

2008-09 6677

Employment (lakh person)

65

65

65

65

65

Assumption Income per year for worker=Rs36000(approx) Calculation of production cost of cloth/metre For Handloom Total Labour wages=No of weavers * income 65lakh*Rs36000=Rs2340000lakh Labour Cost/metre= money spent/cloth produced Rs2340000lakh/66770lakh metre=Rs35.04/metre

Performance of powerloom sector Product Cloth production (million sq.mtr) 2004-05 28325 2005-06 30626 2006-07 33159 2007-08 34725 2008-09 33648

Employment (lakh person)

47.57

48.60

49.76

51.9

54

Assumption Income per year for worker=Rs36000(approx) Calculation of production cost of cloth/metre For Powerloom Total labour wages=No of weavers * income 54lakh*Rs36000=Rs1944000lakh Cost of cloth/metre=money spent/cloth produced Rs1944000lakh/336480lakh metre=Rs5.77/metre

Reasons for high cost in handloom sector Processes where cost difference occurs Yarn procurement Weaving

1.Difference at yarn procurement stage HandloomPresent as small individual unit Production on small scale Yarn purchase on small scale by self PowerloomPresent as clusters and integrated units

Production on large scale Yarn purchase on large scale together

2.Difference at weaving stage

Handloom Cloth production per day 5metre per weaver Income of weaver /day Labour Cost Power cost Weaving cost Rs100 Rs100/5=Rs20/m Rs20/m

Powerloom 200metre Rs100 Rs100/200=Rs.5/m Rs3/m Rs(5+3)=Rs 8/m

Reasons for poor efficiency in handloom sector


Poor working conditions Obsolete technologies and low productivity No fixed working hours Overall stagnation of production and sales The rise in yarn prices Highly dependable on the skill level of a weaver

Why still revival of handloom sector?


1.More employment generationIf production per day=5000m Efficiency on powerloom sector=200m/weaver

5000/200=25 weaver employed Efficiency on handloom sector=5m/weaver 5000/5=1000 weaver employed 2.Quantum of wagesWeaver working on handloom sector is more skilled Work on handloom requires more devotion and is difficult Work of powerloom employee is simple Thus wages for handloom weaver should be high 3.Part time employment to farmers Handlooms have an umbilical linkage with cotton farmers and the rural farm economy. Agricultural labour gets employment in handloom sector during the non-agricultural season. The sector has self-sustaining mechanism, including training for young weavers, irrespective of gender. The inheritance of skills, resources and capacities has remained beyond the realm and reach of any modern training and educational institution. The sustaining of the weaving skill itself has not been dependent on the government or any modern formal institution. There is also inherent flexibility for all types of communities to take up handloom production as a profession. 4.Environment pollution and Carbon emissionPowerloomCO2 emission is very large due to electric motors Use of chemicals HandloomHandlooms are environment-friendly. A handloom is an independent and autonomous technology. Energy impacts are almost zero. The sector thus lends itself to sustainable development policies aimed at reduction of negative impacts on environment and ecology. Less CO2 emission as no electricity used Use of ecofriendly colors and dyes 5..Exclusivity of certain designs Handloom set sarees which are designed creatively. These handloom set sarees are 6 meter long with blouse in length and are designed and made as per the aesthetic tastes of customers from diverse regions and backgrounds. The sarees produced are the blend of tradition, style, skill and fashion distinguishing them from the rest in the market.

Traditional Indian textiles provide a rich repertoire of motifs and colours which when suitably modified in a new material such as bamboo with new contemporary colours and textures lead to products for the high-end niche market. It is hoped that bamboo will increase the earning of the weavers as any organic fibre with natural dyeing fetches a higher price without increasing the price of the raw material. 6.Benefits to other sectors By some estimates, there are 32 other sectors that are benefiting from the handloom sector, including transportation, financial services, marketing services, service and maintenance services and hotels. Many handloom centres are well known tourist spots, drawing visitors from far places of India and foreign countries as well. Thus, the tourism industry's fortunes are in part influenced by the handloom sector and its fame.

GROWTH POTENTIAL

Increase producton

Increase efficiency

Generate employment

Increased Income

Improved health and technology

Strengths of Handloom sector

Heritage of excellent craftsmenship. Provides livelihood to millions of weaver and craftsperson. Flexibility of catering to very narrowly segmented market is advantageous. Low level of capital investment. Immense possibility of designing fabric. Suited for clothes interwoven with gold or silver thread. Unique designs produced to meet individual tastes. Great deal of innovative capacity, creativity, quality and fashion capabilities. khadi generates the most employment per metre of cloth. Consciousness for energy-conservation Important for social and economic growth of people Promoting inter- and intra-relationship between different communities

Weakness of handloom sector

Unorganized Production System, Low Productivity, Inadequate Working Capital Conventional product range Competition from power looms and mill sector. Lack of education, poor exposure to new technologies Weak Marketing Links and absence of market intelligence

Opportunities of handloom sector

Good design and colour combination in the products are done in accordance with the customers satisfaction. The products made by the handloom weaving are durable for lone life. Diversification of products like sarees, dhothi, bedsheet, billow cover, sudithar material and window cover will have wide scope for marketing within the country as well as foreign countries. It gives employment opportunities to the livelihood of lowly skilled and semi skilled workers in rural areas. Export oriented items made by the handloom weaving will fetch foreign money.

Threats of Handloom sector

In a free market economy, the handloom products will have to compete with foreig made goods even in the domestic market. In spite of having excellent skills, the handloom weavers are languishing in poverty and they are not able to exploit the market in their favour. In general, the handloom products are not superior to the powerloom products and mill products on price, quality and design. Marketing of the handloom products is much more difficulty when government cuts the subsidy and rebate for the handloom products.

Factors requiring immediate action


Raw Material supply and prices Access to raw material such as yarn, dyes and dye stuffs has become a problem. Weaving is a rural and semi-rural production activity and weavers have to go far to get these raw materials.The availability of hank yarn - the basic material from which weaving is done - is a serious issue because it is controlled by modern spinning mills, who see more profit in large-volume cone yarn. Secondly, since hank yarn is tax-free and has subsidies, enormous amounts are diverted to the powerloom and mill sectors. As a result, there is a perennial shortage of yarn for the weavers. Colours are expensive, and presently there is no system or mechanism to increase their availability. Infrastructure and Investment Investment in handloom sector has thus far been limited to input supply costs. There is no investment on sectoral growth. While there have been some piece-meal projects such as workshed-cum-housing and project package schemes, they merely perpetuate the existing conditions. There has been no thinking on basic requirements of the producer. On the other hand, powerlooms are getting more usable support from the government in procuring land, water and electricity. Design improvements There are suggestions that handloom sector should increase its design in response to changes in the market, the bottlenecks are many. The lack of change is not due to the weaver not being amenable to change, as is bandied. Rather, it is due to unwillingness of the investor to take risks and provide incentive to weavers for effecting the change. Patenting designs Handloom designs are not protected. As a result, investors are not interested lest they end up with the risk and those who copy the benefits. Protection options include development of handloom/silk/jute marks and registration under Geographical Indications Act. Market for products Handloom products require more visibility. This means better and wider market network. One-off exhibitions organised with the support of government do not suffice. Presently, handloom products are available only in few places. An umbrella market organisation -- autonomous and

financed by the government initially -- should be formed to undertake this task, financed by the sales of the handloom products. Cooperative system While cooperatives do help in maximising the benefits for weavers in the entire chain of production, their present condition a cause of concern. The handloom cooperative system is riddled with corruption and political interference. Many handloom weavers are not members of these cooperatives. Budget allocation Allocations for handloom in national and state budgets are being reduced. This has to be reversed. Budget has to increase with new schemes which address the problems of the sector, in view of the linkage and the need to protect rural employment. Enhancement of value There is a need for enhancing the value of handloom products through utilisation of organic cotton and organic yarn, application of natural dyes and by increasing the productivity of the looms through research and innovation for example, changes in the width of the looms and some appropriate technical changes. Wages, employment and livelihood issues Wages have not increased in the last 15 years. Some sections of handloom weavers are living in hand-to-mouth conditions, with no house or assets.. These issues need to be addressed by the government; at least effectively implement the Minimum Wages Act. Skills, training and lifelong learning. Intermediaries (individuals/institutions) Government has created a few research, training and input institutions to help the handloom sector. These institutions include weaver service centres, institutions of handloom technology, etc. But their performance has been below par and their presence has not helped in obviating the problems of handloom weavers. Competition and unfair competition from mills and powerlooms Competition is now uneven, with mill and powerloom sector getting subsidies in various forms. Secondly, powerlooms have been undermining handloom markets by selling their products as handloom.

Government policies for the HANDLOOM SECTOR1. Handloom Reservation Order. It would help to ensure that there is a well defined and delineated area for handlooms, which is not unduly encroached by the powerlooms and mills. 2. IHDS scheme-take care of needs of weavers in cluster in integrated and coordinated manner. 3. The Government of India has been initiating effective measures to bring down yarn prices and to ensure steady supply. To ensure steady availability of yarn, a statutory obligation has been imposed on the spinning mills to pack not less than 40% of their total marketable yarn in the form of hanks. There are further stipulations that atleast 80% of such yarn packed should be in the counts of 40s and below. 4. MILL GATE PRICE SCHEME -providing all types of yarn to the handloom weavers. 5. HANK YARN OBLIGATION SCHEME The Hank Yarn Obligation (HYO) is a statutory obligation which enjoins upon spinning mills to pack yarn in hank form. This Scheme is meant for protection of the handloom industry by way of ensuring that the yarn in hank form is available in adequate quantity at reasonable prices to the handloom industry. 6. To cater to the needs of training and extension, research and development, Government of India has set up 25 Weavers' Service Centres and 5 Indian Institutes of Handloom Technology. These Centres are involved in the areas of product/design development, modernization of looms and accessories, improvement in techniques of weaving and associated activities, training and upgradation of skills besides providing consultancy services to the State Handloom agencies. 7. Wage Structure for handloom weavers: Falling wage rates, high costs, shrinking market and duplication by power looms have pushed the traditional

handloom weavers into crisis. It is well known that the wage structure in the handloom industry is very disparate, and depends on factors such as the product and the production channel (cooperative or master weaver). A coherent wage policy is essential if successful marketing practices are to translate into stable livelihoods for the primary producers. Wage revisions should take place periodically to match in proportion to the price-rise. There are weavers whose wages have not been raised for more than four years.

8. Financing the working capital requirements of Weavers Cooperative Societies and State Handloom Development Corporations for production, procurement, marketing, purchase and sale of yarn National Bank for Agriculture 9.The Government of India is implementingWeavers Welfare Schemes, Health Package, Thrift Fund and New Insurancefor handloom weavers.

Using Dyes The process of resist dyeing, tie-dyeing and yarns tie-dyed to a pattern before weaving were the basic techniques of indigenous dyeing of village cloth. Shellac was used for reds, iron shavings and vinegar for blacks, turmeric for yellow and pomegranate rinds for green. Before the artificial synthesis of indigo and alizarin as dye stuffs, blues and reds were traditionally extracted from the plants indigofera, anil and rubia tintorum (madder-root). These were the main sources for traditional Indian dyes. Even today, the Kalmkari cloth of Andhra Pradesh is printed with local vegetable dyes. The colors being shades of ochre, deep blue and a soft rose derived from local earths, indigo and madder roots. Printing Andhra Pradesh has made a significant contribution to the history of handprinted textiles in India. Printing is native to the land, its pigments being obtained from the flowers, leaves and barks of local trees and it chemicals obtained from clay, dung and river sands. A new technique has been developed in the northern sectors where warp threads are lined, measured and tied to the loom and then printed. The warpprinted material is a specialty of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The ideal seasons for block printing are the dry months. Excellence is achieved only if the block is freshly and perfectly chiseled. The designs are produced by artists and the designing is kept within the discipline imposed, the type of yarn, the dyes used and the weaving techniques, by the nakshabandhas (graph-paper designers). India also produces a range of home furnishings, household linen, curtain tapestry and yardage of interesting textures and varying thickness, which have been devised by using blended yarn.

Muslims were forbidden the use of pure silk, and the half cotton half silk, fabrics known, as mashru and himru were a response to this taboo. Given the wide and exciting range of handloom it is not surprising that the rich and beautiful products of the weavers of India have been called "exquisite poetry in colorful fabrics.

Conclusion There is a future for handloom sector in India beyond 2015 Reasons Environmental change and emphasis on conservation of natural resources Health- and environment-friendly hand woven fabrics Handloom has to come up with designs that suit the market preferences Markets, would demand handloom products given the exclusivity and niche factors.

Limitation Data available is not latest Data is based on 5 years span Data available is very limited and scattered
Available statistics do not reflect the real crisis

References Secondary data: Internet, Journals, Ministry of textiles, Office of Development Commissioner (Handlooms) Plannining commission of India http://texmin.nic.in http://planningcommission.gov.in http://www.indiatogether.org http://db.nedfi.com http://www.indianhandloomscluster-dchl.net
http://www.equitymaster.com/buget0506/sectors/textile.asp