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Battle Royale

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Battle Royale

Battle Royale
Battle Royale
First edition cover, as published by Ohta Shuppan. Author(s) Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Koushun Takami Yuji Oniki Japan Japanese Dystopian Thriller Horror Alternative history Ohta Shuppan


Publication date April 1999 Published in English Media type Pages ISBN February 26, 2003

Print (Paperback) 666 4-87233-452-3

Battle Royale ( Batoru Rowaiaru) is a Japanese novel written by Koushun Takami, completed in 1996 and published in 1999. The story tells of school-children who are forced to fight each other to the death. The novel was ranked as the number four by Kono Mystery ga Sugoi! 2000, an annual mystery and thriller guide book published in Japan. The novel has been adapted into a 2000 film and a manga series. The novel itself has also been translated into Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Norwegian, and Hungarian.

Battle Royale takes place in an alternate timelineJapan is a member region of a totalitarian state known as the Republic of Greater East Asia ( Dai Ta Kywakoku). Under the guise of a "study trip", a group of students from Shiroiwa Junior High School ( Shiroiwa Chgakk) in the fictional town of Shiroiwa, in Kagawa Prefecture, are gassed on a bus. They awaken in the Okishima Island School on Okishima, an isolated, evacuated island southwest of Shodoshima (modeled after the island of Ogijima). They learn that they have been placed in an event called the Program. Officially a military research project, it is a means of terrorizing the population, of creating such paranoia as to make organized insurgency impossible. The first Program was held in 1947. According to the rules, fifty third-year high school classes are selected (prior to 1950, forty-seven classes were selected) annually to participate in the Program for research purposes. The students from a single class are isolated and are required to fight the other members of their class to the death. The Program ends when only one student remains, with that student being declared the winner. Their movements are tracked by metal collars, which contain tracking and listening devices; if any student should attempt to escape the Program, or enter declared forbidden zones (which are randomly selected at the hours of 12 and 6, both a.m. and p.m.), a bomb

Battle Royale will be detonated in the collar, killing the wearer. If no one dies within 24 hours, there will be no winner and all collars will be detonated simultaneously. After being briefed about the Program, the students are issued survival packs that include a map, compass, food and water, and a random weapon or other item, which may be anything from a gun to a paper fan. During the briefing, two students (Fumiyo Fujiyoshi and Yoshitoki Kuninobu) anger the supervisor, Kinpatsu Sakamochi, who kills both. As the students are released onto the island, they each react differently to their predicament; beautiful delinquent Mitsuko Souma murders those who stand in her way using deception, Hiroki Sugimura attempts to find his best friend and his secret love, Kazuo Kiriyama attempts to win the game by any means necessary (stemming from his lack of ability to feel human emotion due to a brain injury sustained in a car crash while in utero) and Shinji Mimura makes an attempt to escape with his best friend Yutaka Seto. In the end, four students remain: protagonist Shuya Nanahara, Noriko Nakagawa, Shogo Kawadaa survivor of a previous instance of the Programand antagonist Kazuo Kiriyama. Following a car chase and shoot-out between Kazuo and the main characters, Noriko kills Kazuo by shooting him, but to absolve the quiet and naturally good-natured Noriko of any guilt, Shogo then shoots Kazuo, claims he is in fact responsible for Kazuo's death, and then takes his two partners to a hill. After telling Shuya and Noriko that he will kill them, Shogo shoots in the air twice, faking their deaths for the microphones planted on the collars. He then dismantles the collars using information he had previously hacked into the government servers to obtain. Shogo boards the winner's ship, as do Shuya and Noriko, covertly, a short while later. On the ship, Shogo kills Sakamochi and a soldier, while Shuya kills the other soldiers on board. Shogo tells Shuya how to escape, succumbs to his wound from the battle with Kiriyama and dies. The two remaining students return to the mainland and attempt to travel to find a clinic belonging to a friend of Shogo's father. From there, they make plans to escape to the U.S., facing an uncertain future as they run from the authorities who have spotted them as they try to board a train.

Males Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Name Yoshio Akamatsu Keita Iijima Tatsumichi Oki Toshinori Oda Shogo Kawada Kazuo Kiriyama Yoshitoki Kuninobu Yoji Kuramoto Hiroshi Kuronaga Ryuhei Sasagawa Hiroki Sugimura Yutaka Seto Yuichiro Takiguchi Sho Tsukioka Shuya Nanahara Kazushi Niida Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Females Name Mizuho Inada Yukie Utsumi Megumi Eto Sakura Ogawa Izumi Kanai Yukiko Kitano Yumiko Kusaka Kayoko Kotohiki Yuko Sakaki Hirono Shimizu Mitsuko Souma Haruka Tanizawa Takako Chigusa Mayumi Tendo Noriko Nakagawa Yuka Nakagawa

Battle Royale

17 18 19 20 21 Mitsuru Numai Tadakatsu Hatagami Shinji Mimura Kyoichi Motobuchi Kazuhiko Yamamoto 17 18 19 20 21 Satomi Noda Fumiyo Fujiyoshi Chisato Matsui Kaori Minami Yoshimi Yahagi

Background and publication

Koushun Takami completed Battle Royale when he stopped working as a journalist in 1996. The story was rejected in the final round of the 1997 Japan Grand Prix Horror Novel competition, due to its controversial content. It was first published in April 1999 by Ohta Shuppan. In August 2002, it was released in a revised, two-part pocket edition by Gentosha. Takami describes the characters as possibly all being "kind of alike", being "all the same" despite differing appearances and hobbies, and being static characters. Takami used these descriptions in contrast to the manga adaptation he wrote, with Masayuki Taguchi illustrating, which he believes has a more diverse and developing cast.[1]

English adaptation
The novel was translated into English by Yuji Oniki and released in North America by Viz Media on February 26, 2003. An expanded edition with a revised English translation and an afterword by Takami was published on November 17, 2009 by Haika Soru, a division of Viz Media. This version also included an interview with the director of the book's film adaptation, Kinji Fukasaku.

Supporting materials
Kji numa ( numa Kji) wrote Battle Royale: Kyokugenshinri Kaisekisho ( Batoru Rowaiyaru Kyokugenshinri Kaisekisho, roughly "Battle Royale: Analysis of Extreme Psychology"), a dissertation which explores the themes of the book.[2]

Feature films
Battle Royale was adapted into a 2000 feature film of the same name, directed by Kinji Fukasaku and written by his son Kenta Fukasaku. It was followed in 2003 by Battle Royale II: Requiem.

A manga adaptation, written by Takami and illustrated by Masayuki Taguchi, was serialized in Akita Shoten's Young Champion Magazine from November 2002 to January 2006. A second manga, Battle Royale II: Blitz Royale, first appeared on Young Champion Magazine on July 2003. Written and illustrated by Hiroshi Tomizawa, the new series ties-in with Fukasaku's second Battle Royale film, having no continuity with the original novel nor the first manga adaptation. In 2011, a two chapter spin-off manga titled Battle Royale: Angels' Border was drawn by Mioko Ohnishi and Youhei Oguma (each drawing one chapter). They were published in Young Champion Magazine and later combined into one volume on January 20, 2012.[3]

Battle Royale

In 2012, the Sipat Lawin Ensemble, a theatre company in the Philippines, adapted the novel and some elements from the manga version into a live theatre presentation called Battalia Royale, having the debut performance at the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Performances were also held at an abandoned high school in Quezon City.[4]

Upon publication in 1999, Battle Royale became one of the best-selling novels in Japan.[5] The novel was earlier entered into the 1997 Japan Grand Prix Horror Novel competition, but was eventually rejected in the final round due to its controversial content. It was also critically acclaimed abroad. In Entertainment Weekly, the writer Stephen King included it as one of the seven books in his 2005 summer reading list, after it was recommended to him by novelist Kelly Braffet (writer of Josie and Jack). King described Battle Royale as "an insanely entertaining pulp riff that combines Survivor with World Wrestling Entertainment. Or maybe Royale is just insane." He also notes that it has some similarities to his own novel The Long Walk. He concludes the brief review with a "No prob," as "Takami's Springsteen-quoting teenagers are fond of saying."[6] The town from which the ill-fated students in Battle Royale hail is called Shiroiwa, which translates as "Castle Rock", a possible reference to Stephen King as well as Lord of the Flies. The writer David N. Alderman, writing for the Red Room site, gave Battle Royale a score of 4 out of 5 stars, stating that the "story itself is brilliant. Touted as being extremely controversial, especially for the time it was released, the book opens up all sorts of doors to conversations and thoughts about psychology, murder, survival, love, loyalty, and moral ground." While noting that those who "cringe at slash and hack" should "steer away from this" since "it is a bit gory," he states that it is "definitely worth the read" and concludes that it has "touches of romance, and definitely some great moral themes to spark off in-depth conversations with others."[7] Complete review gave the novel a B rating, describing it as "a perfectly fine thriller, with a fun premise, quite well drawn-out."[8] In The Journal of the Lincoln Heights Literary Society, Tom Good praises the novel, concluding that, as "a pulp-fiction horror tale, Battle Royale delivers plenty of thrills, action, suspense and fun."[9] On the Barnes & Noble site, the novel holds an average user rating of 5 out of 5 stars.[10]

Since its release, the novel and its film adaptation have had an influence on later works. These include filmmakers such as Quentin Tarantino,[11][12] most notably his Kill Bill films;[13] the character Gogo Yubari, played by Chiaki Kuriyama, is similar to the character she plays in the Battle Royale film, Takako Chigusa.[14] V.A. Musetto of the New York Post also compared it to The Condemned, which the critic called "a bad rip-off" of Battle Royale as well as The Most Dangerous Game.[15] Critics have also noted the influence of Battle Royale on other later works, such as the 2008 film Kill Theory,[16] the 2009 film The Tournament,[17] and the novel and film franchise The Hunger Games.[18][19] Battle Royale has also been compared to the manga, anime and film franchise Gantz,[20] and the 2007 video game The World Ends with You.[21] The 2008 American young adult novel The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins has been accused of being strikingly similar to Battle Royale in terms of the basic plot premise and the world within the book. While Collins maintains that she "had never heard of that book until her book was turned in", Susan Dominus of The New York Times reports that "the parallels are striking enough that Collins's work has been savaged on the blogosphere as a baldfaced ripoff," but argued that "there are enough possible sources for the plot line that the two authors might well have hit on the same basic setup independently."[22] The general consensus in the time since has been one of amicable controversy, especially since the release of the The Hunger Games film adaptation. Battle Royale author Takami said he appreciated fans "standing up" for his book, but stated that he thinks "every novel has something to offer," and that if "readers find value in either book, that's all an author can ask for."[23]

Battle Royale

[1] "Final Chapter Memorial Discussion: Koushun Takami and Masayuki Taguchi." Battle Royale. Volume 15. Tokyopop [2] " ( ) (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ exec/ obidos/ ASIN/ 4876893853)." Amazon Japan. Retrieved on May 8, 2009. [3] " (http:/ / natalie. mu/ comic/ news/ 63042)." Retrieved on March 12, 2012. [4] " Watch Filipino Teens Recreate BATTLE ROYALE In Live Theater Event (http:/ / twitchfilm. com/ news/ 2012/ 02/ watch-filipino-teens-recreate-battle-royale-in-live-theater-event. php). Retrieved on March 2, 2012. [5] "Battle Royale: The Novel" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Battle-Royale-Novel-Koushun-Takami/ dp/ 1421527723). . Retrieved 29 March 2012. [6] King, Stephen (August 4, 2005). "Kick-Back Books: Stephen King's summer reading list" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,1089990,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved March 23, 2012. [7] Alderman, David N. (Octtober 7, 2010). "Battle Royale - (Book Review)" (http:/ / redroom. com/ member/ david-alderman/ blog/ battle-royale-book-review). Red Room. . Retrieved 28 March 2012. [8] "Battle Royale by Takami Koushun" (http:/ / www. complete-review. com/ reviews/ japannew/ takamik. htm). complete review. . Retrieved 28 March 2012. [9] Good, Tom (10/07/2007). "Book review: Battle Royale (Novel)" (http:/ / liheliso. com/ buzz/ archive/ 00000758. htm). The Journal of the Lincoln Heights Literary Society. . Retrieved 28 March 2012. [10] "Battle Royale (Novel)" (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ w/ battle-royale-koushun-takami/ 1016541586). Barnes & Noble. . Retrieved 28 March 2012. [11] "DVD reviews: Battle Royale (Arrow)" (http:/ / www. scotsman. com/ news/ dvd-reviews-battle-royale-arrow-the-expendables-1-1520872). The Scotsman. 9 December 2010. . Retrieved 27 March 2012. [12] "Quentin Tarantinos Favorite 20 Films Since 1992" (http:/ / www. washingtoncitypaper. com/ blogs/ citydesk/ 2009/ 08/ 20/ quentin-tarantinos-favorite-20-films-since-1992/ ). . Retrieved 2009-09-20. [13] Mulligan, Jake (March 21, 2012). "Blu-ray Review: "Battle Royale - The Complete Collection"" (http:/ / www. thesuffolkvoice. net/ arts-entertainment/ blu-ray-review-battle-royale-the-complete-collection-1. 2823915#. T25aI9W9a1c). The Suffolk Voice. . Retrieved 24 March 2012. [14] Sandhu, Sukhdev (October 10, 2003). "Bloody, marvellous" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ education/ 3320118/ Bloody-marvellous. html). The Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved 27 March 2012. [15] V.A. Musetto (April 27, 2007). "Executioner's wrong: Fans condemned to bad cinema." (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ p/ entertainment/ movies/ executioner_wrong_CZrUJRpBxUnOjTOHrAnRDI). New York Post. . Retrieved 2009-10-31. [16] Solis, Jorge (June 6, 2010). "Fango Flashback: BATTLE ROYALE" (http:/ / www. fangoria. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=1083:fango-flashback-battle-royale& catid=59:fango-flashback& Itemid=189). Fangoria. . Retrieved 27 March 2012. [17] Shamon, Danny. "REVIEW: Tournament, The (2009)" (http:/ / www. kungfucinema. com/ reviews/ tournament-2009). Kung Fu Cinema. . Retrieved 31 March 2012. [18] Poland, David (March 20, 2012). "Review: The Hunger Games" (http:/ / moviecitynews. com/ 2012/ 03/ review-the-hunger-games/ ). Movie City News. . Retrieved 24 March 2012. [19] Yang, Jeff (March 23, 2012). "Hunger Games Vs. Battle Royale" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ speakeasy/ 2012/ 03/ 23/ the-hunger-games-vs-battle-royale/ ). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 24 March 2012. [20] McCarthy, Jonathan Clements, Helen (2007). The anime encyclopedia: a guide to Japanese animation since 1917 (Rev. & expanded ed. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge Press. p.220. ISBN1933330104. "Like Battle Royale crashed into Wings of Desire with courtesy breasts, Gantz throws everyday people into a life-or-death conflict, but focuses on their humdrum musings what to wear, how to impress girls, who gets the rocket launcher." [21] Patterson, Shane (March 20, 2008). "The World Ends With You - Hero bios" (http:/ / www. gamesradar. com/ the-world-ends-with-you-hero-bios/ ). GamesRadar. . Retrieved 29 March 2012. [22] Dominus, Susan (April 8, 2011). "Suzanne Collinss War Stories for Kids" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 04/ 10/ magazine/ mag-10collins-t. html?pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 27 March 2012. [23] Fujita, Akiko (March 22, 2012). "The Hunger Games, a Japanese Original?" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ blogs/ headlines/ 2012/ 03/ the-hunger-games-a-japanese-original/ ). ABC News. . Retrieved 29 March 2012.

Battle Royale (film)

Battle Royale (film)

Battle Royale
French release poster
Directed by Produced by Kinji Fukasaku Masao Sato Masumi Okada Teruo Kamaya Tetsu Kayama Kenta Fukasaku Battle Royaleby Koushun Takami Tatsuya Fujiwara Aki Maeda Taro Yamamoto Chiaki Kuriyama Kou Shibasaki Masanobu Ando Takeshi Kitano Masamichi Amano

Screenplay by Based on Starring

Music by

Cinematography Katsumi Yanagishima Editing by Studio Hirohide Abe Toei Company AM Associates Kobi Nippon Shuppan Hanbai MF Pictures WOWOW Gaga Communications Toei Company December 16, 2000 114 minutes (original) 122 minutes (extended) Japan Japanese US$4,500,000 JP3,110,000,000 (US$25,000,000) (Japan)

Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office

Battle Royale ( Batoru Rowaiaru) is a 2000 Japanese action-drama-thriller film based on the 1999 novel of the same name by Koushun Takami. It is the final film directed by Kinji Fukasaku, was adapted to screenplay by his son Kenta Fukasaku, and stars Tatsuya Fujiwara, Aki Maeda, Taro Yamamoto, Chiaki Kuriyama, Kou Shibasaki, Masanobu Ando, and Takeshi Kitano. The film tells the story of Shuya Nanahara, a high-school student struggling with the death of his father who is forced by the government to compete in a deadly game, where the students must kill each other in order to win. The film aroused both domestic and international controversy, and was either banned or excluded from distribution in several countries.[1][2]

Battle Royale (film) The film was a mainstream domestic blockbuster, becoming one of the ten highest grossing films in Japan,[3] and was released in 22 countries worldwide.[1] It received global audience and critical acclaim and is often regarded as one of Japan's most famous films, as well as one of Fukasaku's best films. Kinji Fukasaku started working on a sequel, Battle Royale II: Requiem, but he died of prostate cancer on January 12, 2003, after shooting only one scene with Takeshi Kitano. His son, Kenta Fukasaku, completed the film in 2003 and dedicated it to his father.

Shuya Nanahara, a Japanese middle school student, attempts to cope with life after his father's suicide by hanging. Meanwhile, schoolmate Noriko Nakagawa is the only student attending class -- 3-B. Their teacher, Kitano, quietly leaves upon her tardy, apologetic arrival, but is attacked by student Yoshitoki Kuninobu and resigns after recovering from his wound. One year later, class 3-B makes a field trip after completing their compulsory studies; however, the class is gassed and sent to a "briefing room" on a remote island, wearing electronic collars. Kitano explains that the class has been chosen to participate in this year's Battle Royale as a result of the BR Act, which was passed after 800,000 students walked out of school. The orientation video has the class forced to kill each other for three days until only one student remains. Students resistant to their rules or entering one of the randomly placed "death zones" for each day are killed by the collar's detonation. Kuninobu refuses to cooperate and Kitano slashes his back with a knife before detonating his collar while Shuya watches in horror, which quickly turns to rage and is held down by Shinji Mimura and several other students. Another student, Fumiyo Fujiyoshi, is also killed before the game begins. Each student is provided with a bag of food and water, plus one item containing either a weapon (a shotgun, a pistol, a knife) or an item (a saucepan lid, a fork, a paper fan, binoculars). The weapons are supposed to eliminate any natural advantage any one student might have over the others. The first night sees several deaths, four of which are suicides. Exchange student Kazuo Kiriyama and Mitsuko Souma become the most dangerous players in the game, while another exchange student, Shogo Kawada seems more merciful. Shuya promises to keep Noriko safe for Kuninobu because he was in love with her, but never told her. Other students have more legitimate goals in the game: Mimura and his friends plot to hack into the military's computer systems and destroy their base of operations; Hiroki Sugimura searches for his best friend Takako Chigusa and his love interest Kayako Kotohiki. Chigusa runs into Kazushi Niida, who is sexually obsessed with her; Chigusa kills him after forcing himself on her, but is herself killed by Mitsuko. Kawada teams with Shuya and Noriko, and reveals that he won a previous Battle Royale at the cost of his girlfriend; he is now seeking revenge. The trio are forced to separate when Kiriyama attacks, and Sugimura rescues Shuya. Shuya awakens in the island's lighthouse where Yukie Utsumi and the school's cheerleading squad are, and have been hiding out. Yuko Sakaki, thinking that Shuya murdered a friend of hers, attempts to poison Shuya's food, but it is inadvertently eaten by one of the girls, causing a gunfight resulting in all the girls' deaths -- except Yuko. She realises the enormity of her paranoia and jumps to her death. Shuya returns to Noriko and Kawada, and they set out to find Mimura's group. To a small warehouse, Sugimura tracks down Kotohiki, who panics and kills him shortly after; Sugimura professes his love before dying. Kotohiki cries in despair, and is found and killed by Mitsuko. Watching from the rafters, Kiriyama then guns down and kills Mitsuko. Mimura's group is shot by Kiriyama before the firebomb built by the group explodes. When Kawada, Noriko and Shuya arrive at the hackers' burning base, Kawada confronts and kills the shrapnel-blinded, Uzi-armed Kiriyama with his SPAS-12 shotgun. On the morning of the final day, Kawada takes Shuya and Noriko aside and fakes their deaths. Knowing that Kawada has won through manipulating the BR system, Kitano ends the game and dismisses the troops before establishing final protocol, intent on killing him. Kitano realizes that Kawada, and not Mimura, has hacked into the game's intranet system months beforehand, and has now disabled Shuya and Noriko's tracking devices. Kitano unveils a homemade painting of the dead students, with Noriko indicated as the winner. He confesses that he always

Battle Royale (film) thought of her as a daughter, having been rejected by his real daughter, Shiori. After being shot by Shuya, Kitano takes a final phone call from Shiori before dying. Shuya, Noriko and Kawada leave the island on a boat, but Kawada dies from injuries sustained in his gunfight with Kiriyama. Shuya and Noriko are declared fugitive criminals, and last seen on the run in the direction of Tokyo's Shibuya train station.

Tatsuya Fujiwara as Shuya Nanahara Aki Maeda as Noriko Nakagawa Taro Yamamoto as Shogo Kawada Takeshi Kitano as Kitano Masanobu Ando as Kazuo Kiriyama Kou Shibasaki as Mitsuko Souma Takashi Tsukamoto as Shinji Mimura Sosuke Takaoka as Hiroki Sugimura Yukihiro Kotani as Yoshitoki Kuninobu Chiaki Kuriyama as Takako Chigusa

Creative process
Kinji Fukasaku stated that he decided to direct the film because the novel it was adapted from reminded him of his time as a 15-year-old munitions factory worker during World War II. At that time, his class was made to work in a munitions factory. In July 1945, the factory came under artillery fire. The children could not escape so they dived under each other for cover. The surviving members of the class had to dispose of the corpses. At that point, Fukasaku realized that the Japanese government was lying about World War II, and he developed a burning hatred of adults in general that he maintained for a long time afterwards.[4] Beat Takeshi told a documentary crew during filming that he believes "an actor's job is to satisfy the director... I move the way I'm told to. I try to look the way I'm told to. I don't know much about the emotional side," before adding "Mr. Fukasaku told me to play myself. I did not really understand, but he told me to play myself, as I ordinarily would be! I'm just trying to do what he tells me."[5] When asked in an interview with The Midnight Eye if the film is "a warning or advice to the young," Kinji Fukasaku responded by describing the words "warning" and "advice" as "sounding very strong to me" as if they were actions which one tries to accomplish; therefore the film would not be "particularly a warning or advice." Fukasaku explained that the film, which he describes as "a fable," includes themes, such as crime by young people, which in Japan "are very much real modern issues." Fukasaku said that he did not have a lack of concern or a lack of interest; he used the themes as part of his fable. When the interviewer told Fukasaku that he asked the question specifically because of the word "run" in the concluding text, which the interviewer described as "very positive." Fukasaku explained that he developed the concept throughout the film. Fukasaku interpreted the interviewer's question as having "a stronger meaning" than "a simple message." Fukasaku explained that the film has his "words to the next generation" so the viewer should decide whether to take the words as advice or as a warning.[4][6]

Battle Royale (film)

The music soundtracks for both movies were composed, arranged and conducted by Masamichi Amano, performed by the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and features pieces of classical music with some original composition. The choral Western classical music used as the film's overture theme music is the "Dies Irae" from Giuseppe Verdis Requiem.

Theatrical release
Kinji Fukasaku originally opposed the R15 rating given by the Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai (Eirin) because of Fukasaku's experiences as a teenager, the novel's use of 15-year-olds, and the fact that many of the actors were around fifteen years of age. After he submitted an appeal and before Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai could rule on the appeal, members of the Diet of Japan said that the film harmed teenagers; the Diet members also criticized the film industry ratings, which were a part of self-regulation by the Japanese film industry. Fukasaku dropped the appeal to appease the Japanese Diet in hopes they would not pursue increasing film regulation further.[4][6] The film was labeled "crude and tasteless" by members of Japanese parliament and other government officials after the film was screened for them before its general release.[7] The film created a debate over government action on media violence. At one point, director Kinji Fukasaku allegedly gave a press statement directed at the age group of the film's characters, saying "you can sneak in, and I encourage you to do so."[8] Many conservative politicians used the film to blame popular culture for a youth crime wave. Ilya Garger of TIME magazine said that Battle Royale received "free publicity" and received "box-office success usually reserved for cartoons and TV-drama spin-offs."[1] The Japanese reaction to the film in the early 2000s has been compared to the British outrage over A Clockwork Orange in the early 1970s.[9] Critics note the relation of Battle Royale to the increasingly extreme trend in Asian cinema and its similarity to reality television.[10] For eleven years, the film was never officially released in the United States or Canada, except for screenings at various film festivals.[11] The film was screened to a test audience in the U.S. during the early 2000s, not long after the Columbine High School massacre, resulting in a negative reaction to the film's content.[12] According to the book Japanese Horror Cinema, "Conscious of the Columbine syndrome, which also influenced the reception of The Matrix (1999)," much of the test audience for Battle Royale "condemned the film for its mindless and gratuitous violence in terms very reminiscent of the British attitude towards Sam Peckinpah's Straw Dogs (1971) on its initial release."[13] It was speculated that the film had been banned in the U.S. and Canada. However, it was never banned in any capacity anywhere on the continent; rather, no North American distribution agreement for the film had ever been reached due to myriad corporate and legal concerns on the parts of both the Japanese Toei Company and prospective North American studios, despite mutual interest.[14] It was said in 2005 by a representative of a prospective American distributor that Japanese executives from the Toei Company were advised by American lawyers who attended test screenings in the early 2000s that "they'd go to jail" had the film been mass-released in the USA.[15][12] In the company's best interests, Toei attached prohibitive rules, costs, and legal criteria to any possible North American distribution deal. Toei representative Hideyuki Baba stated that the reason for "withholding distribution" in North America was "due to the picture's contents and theme." A representative for a prospective US distributor criticized Toei for expecting a wide release like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon rather than a limited art house run, noting that "in the US it will never get past the MPAA ratings board, and the major theater chains will never play it un-rated. If you cut it enough to get an R rating there'd be nothing left."[16]

Battle Royale (film)


Battle Royale was released on December 16, 2000 in Japan. It grossed 3.11 billion domestically (around $25 million US).[1][17] Over the next two years, the movie was distributed to cinemas throughout Asia, the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, and South America.[18] The Japanese theatrical version of the film began its first North American theatrical run at the Cinefamily Theater in Los Angeles on December 24, 2011 11 years after its original Japanese release.[19] The planned 9-day run was extended another 6 days due to popular demand.[20] Beginning in early 2012, the film has been publicly exhibited at screenings in many American universities, including those in Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Texas and Massachusetts, with a New York City premiere at the IFC Center planned for dates yet to be determined. As of March 2012, it has been showing at The Projection Booth Theater, site of the former Gerrard Cinema in Toronto, Canada.[21][22][23] The Cleveland Cinematheque also announced that it will hold a screening of the film on April 3, 2012.[24]

Special version
A special version of the film was released after the original which has eight extra minutes of running time. Unusually, the extra material includes scenes newly filmed after the release of the original. Inserted scenes include (but are not limited to): Flashbacks to a basketball game which is used as a framework for the entire story. A flashback that explains Mitsuko's personality. Three epilogues (referred to as "requiems"). The first is an extension of the basketball scene spotlighting Mitsuko's alienation from her classmates. The second is a vision of Nobu telling Shuya to take care of Noriko (a replay of a dream sequence seen earlier in the film). The third is a scene between Kitano and Noriko, who talk casually by a riverbank; this scene also appears earlier in the film, but with the dialogue muted whereas in the requiem it is audible and reveals a friendship or other relationship existed between Noriko and Kitano. Added shots of the lighthouse after the shoot-out Added reaction shots in the classroom, and extensions to existing shots. Extra CGI throughout the film.

3D re-release
The film was released to theaters in 3D in Japan on November 20, 2010. Director Kinji Fukasaku's son and screenwriter of Battle Royale, Kenta Fukasaku, oversaw the conversion.[25] Anchor Bay Entertainment planned to release the 3D version in the United States sometime in 2011,[26] but that did not happen.[19] This 3D version was screened at the Glasgow Film Festival on 24 February 2011.[27]

Home media
Sasebo slashing controversy
The creators of the sequel postponed the release of the DVD (originally scheduled for June 9, 2004) to later that year because of the recent Sasebo slashing. The killer had read Battle Royale.[28]

Limited edition release

Arrow Video released the film on Blu-ray and DVD in a Limited Edition version in the United Kingdom on December 13, 2010 as a three-disc collector's edition set, featuring both cuts of the film. The DVD version was limited to 5,000 copies. The Blu-ray version was initially being released as limited to 5,000 copies but due to the large volume of pre-orders was increased to 10,000 copies. The Limited Edition Blu-ray is region-free, meaning it can play on Blu-ray players worldwide.[29] The DVD is also region-free.[30]

Battle Royale (film)


United States release

Bootleg copies of the film imported from China and South Korea have widespread availability in North America. A Special Edition DVD of the film was carried to a limited extent by retailers such as HMV and Starstruck Entertainment in Canada and Tower Records in the United States; the legal status of this edition is not clear. Also, the film's UK distributor, Tartan Films, released an all-region NTSC DVD version of the film that is available in North America from specialty outlets. One widely available Hong Kong import is a special edition without English subtitles that contains Both Films. Battle Royale and its sequel are available on Netflix, a major home-entertainment distributor in the United States. An official DVD and Blu-ray edition of the film (and its sequel) was released on 20 March 2012 by North American distributor Anchor Bay, coinciding with the release of The Hunger Games.[31] The film is available in a standard edition featuring the two films and a 4-disc Complete Collection that features both the Special Edition (labelled the Director's Cut) and the theatrical version of the first film, the sequel, and a disc of behind-the-scenes material.

Critical reception
The film was highly acclaimed, with an 86% "fresh" critical rating and 90% "fresh" audience rating at Rotten Tomatoes.[32] Robert Koehler of Variety commented, "Given the most basic characters to work with, the mostly teen cast attacks the material with frightening gusto, and Fujiwara dutifully invokes the voice of inner moral conflict. Production is exceedingly handsome and vigorous, offering no sign that Fukasaku is slowing down." He stated that, "returning to his roots as Japan's maestro of mayhem, Kinji Fukasaku has delivered" one of "his most outrageous and timely films," comparing it to "the outrage over youth violence" that Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange "generated in early-'70s Britain."[9] Jason Korsner of BBC News gave Battle Royale four out of five stars, stating that it is "a heart-stopping action film, teaching us the worthy lessons of discipline, teamwork, and determination, but wrapping them up in a deliberately provocative, shockingly violent package." BBC users also gave the film five out of five stars.[33] Almar Haflidason of BBC gave the film five out of five stars.[34] In a review for Empire, critic Kim Newman gave the film four stars out of five. He compared it to Lord of the Flies in how it makes audiences "wonder what they would do in the same situation," but notes that Battle Royale gives "even harder choices for its school-uniformed characters." He concluded that, "Some will be uncomfortable or appalled, and the mix of humour and horror is uneasy, but this isn't a film you'll forget easily. And, seriously, what would you do?" [35] The Guardian critic Peter Bradshaw gave the film four stars in September 2001, choosing it as the best film of the week. He praised Takeshi Kitano's performance as the teacher and some of the scenes as "a stunningly proficient piece of action film-making, plunging us into a world of delirium and fear." He notes that, among "the hail of bullets and the queasy gouts of blood, troubling narratives of yearning and sadness are played out. It is as if the violence of Battle Royale is not a satire of society at all, but simply a metaphor for the anguish of adolescent existence." He concluded that, while some "will find the explicit violence of this movie repulsive," it "is a film put together with remarkable confidence and flair. Its steely candour, and weird, passionate urgency make it compelling."[36] Bryant Frazer of Deep Focus gave it a B+ rating and called it "a vicious take-off on reality TV that turns a high-school milieu dominated by cliques and childish relationships into a war zone."[37] British critic Jonathon Ross stated that "if you want to catch a wildly original and super-cool slice of entertainment before it gets remade and ruined by the Americans, then I suggest you try hard not to miss it" and concluded that "it's a wildly imaginative example of just what can be achieved in a teen movie."[38] In 2009, filmmaker Quentin Tarantino praised Battle Royale as the best film he had seen in the past two decades, stating that, "If theres any movie thats been made since Ive been making movies that I wish I had made, its that one."[39] There has been renewed interest in the film following its 2012 Blu-Ray release in the United States. Chris Nashawaty of Entertainment Weekly rates the film as "A" grade, positing that examination of the students' different

Battle Royale (film) motives for survival or subversion of the Program is a "sick blast".[40] Entertainment critic for the Miami Herald Cary Darling describes Battle Royale as "tense, tragic and timely... a modern-day horror story imbued with an electric sense of drama and dread."[41] Alexandra Cavallo of the Boston Phoenix writes, "Battle Royale is The Hunger Games not diluted for young audiences" while giving the film three stars out of four.[42] Jeffrey M. Anderson of Combustible Celluloid gave the film 4 out of 4 stars, calling it a "gloriously sick and twisted story," and that that it is "endlessly entertaining, by turns gory and hilarious, disturbing and exciting."[43] In the Chicago Sun-Times, Roger Ebert's Australia correspondent Michael Mirasol praised Battle Royale for its "thoughtful characterization" that is "lavished upon all the students" and concluded that it is an "intensely violent fable aimed at a young audience, but with true feeling, intelligence, and respect."[44] Jake Mulligan of The Suffolk Voice gave it five out of five stars, stating that "the influence of Royale on works as disparate as Kill Bill and The Hunger Games cannot be measured" and describing Battle Royale as "Provocative, funny, violent, and aided by a script that somehow gives equal attention to most of the students while also displaying the well-thought out minutia behind the narrative."[45] R.L. Shaffer of IGN gave the film a score of 8 out of 10, taking "a moment to thank The Hunger Games for reminding us how awesome Battle Royale really is" and concluding that Battle Royale is "a masterpiece of mayhem, violence and unfettered teen melodrama."[46] J. Hurtado of Twitch Film noted that many "reviews of Battle Royale focus on the violence, which is extreme to be sure, and not so much on the humanity of the film." He stated that "cranking up that already elevated hormonal level of emotional hysteria by throwing these students into a real life-or-death situation is incredibly effective" and that "the story of Battle Royale is the story of those teenage years and just how wrong we all were about the extent of our emotional turmoil."[47] DVD Talk gave the original theatrical cut of the film 4.5 out of 5 stars and 4 out of 5 for the Director's Cut, concluding that it gives "a glimpse into what might very well happen should the rules of society, such as they are, ever do crumble to the point where it's everyone for themselves. There's enough black humor here and enough tense action that the film never quite feels bleak or depressing (though it does come close) - but most importantly it makes you think."[48] Devon Ashby of CraveOnline gave the film a score of 8.5 out of 10, referring to it as "Japanese legend Kinji Fukasakus adolescent shooting spree opus" and "a compassionate and technically accomplished masterpiece."[49] Brent McKnight of PopMatters gave the film a score of 9 out of 10, describing it as "savage, sharp, satirical, and brutally funny," and "a bleak commentary on humanity and society."[50]


At the 2001 Japanese Academy Awards, the film was nominated for nine awards, including Picture of the Year and won three of them. [51]
Ceremony Japanese Academy Awards Picture of the Year Japanese Academy Awards Director of the Year Japanese Academy Awards Screenplay of the Year Kinji Fukasaku Kenta Fukasaku Category Nominee Result Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Won Won Tatsuya Fujiwara and Aki Maeda Won

Japanese Academy Awards Outstanding Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role Tatsuya Fujiwara Japanese Academy Awards Outstanding Achievement in Music Japanese Academy Awards Outstanding Achievement in Sound Recording Japanese Academy Awards Outstanding Achievement in Film Editing Japanese Academy Awards Popularity Award Japanese Academy Awards Newcomer of the Year Masamichi Amano Kunio Ando Hirohide Abe

It also received the following awards from international film festivals:[52]

Battle Royale (film) Blue Ribbon Awards Best Film - Kinji Fukasaku Best New Actor - Tatsuya Fujiwara Sitges Film Festival Best Film - Kinji Fukasaku Yokohama Film Festival Best Supporting Actress - Kou Shibasaki San Sebastin Horror & Fantasy Film Festival Audience Award for the Best Feature Film[53]


In 2009, Quentin Tarantino listed Battle Royale as his favorite film released since he began directing in 1992.[54] That same year, Moviefone included it in the top five of its "50 Best Movies of the Decade" list.[55] Jon Condit of Dread Central called it "one of the best movies" he's "ever seen."[56] Bloody Disgusting ranked the film fifteenth in its list of the Top-20 Horror Film of the Decade, with the article calling the film "a go-for-broke extravaganza: fun, provocative, ultra-violent, and bound to arouse controversy (which it did)...the film [is] more than just an empty provocationit builds character through action, a method all good filmmakers should seek to emulate."[57] In 2010, Empire ranked Battle Royale #235 and #82 on their lists of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time" and "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema" respectively.[58][59] Time magazine included the film in its list of Top 10 Ridiculously Violent Movies.[60] In 2012, The Independent included it in its "10 best sports movies ever made" list.[61] Complex magazine ranked it #47 in its list of The 50 Best Action Movies Of All Time.[62]

Kinji Fukasaku, who directed the first film, began work on a sequel, Battle Royale II: Requiem, but died of prostate cancer on January 12, 2003, after shooting only one scene with Takeshi Kitano. His son Kenta Fukasaku, who wrote the screenplay for both films, directed the rest of the film, which was released on May 18, 2003. Unlike the first film, the sequel is not adapted from a novel, but was based on an original screenplay written by Kenta Fukasaku. The plot revolves around the survivor Shuya Nanahara leading a terrorist rebellion, but was controversial for its provocative anti-American sentiments and criticized for being inferior to the original.[63]

Popular culture
Since its release, the film has had an influence on filmmakers such as Quentin Tarantino,[64] most notably his Kill Bill films;[45] the character Gogo Yubari, played by Chiaki Kuriyama, is modelled after the character she plays in Battle Royale, Takako Chigusa.[65] Battle Royale has also been referenced in the 2004 zombie comedy film Shaun of the Dead, where Edgar Wright and Simon Pegg made sure a big Battle Royale poster is prominently displayed in Shauns living room.[66] Despite never being officially released in the United States for a long time, Battle Royale has often been referenced in American pop culture, ranging from Tarantino's films to the rock band The Flaming Lips' use of footage from the film as a backdrop for its Yoshimi Battles The Pink Robots tour,[67] along with references in Hollywood films such as Jason Reitman's Thank You for Smoking (2005) and Juno (2007) and American television shows such as Lost and Community.[66] Maggie Lee of Reuters describes Battle Royale as the "film that pioneered the concept of the teen death game," citing its influence on films such as Kaiji (2009) and Hideo Nakata's The Incite Mill (2010), both of which starred Tatsuya Fujiwara (who played Battle Royale's protagonist Shuya Nanahara) in the leading roles.[68] V.A. Musetto of the New York Post compared it to The Condemned (2007), which the critic called "a bad rip-off" of Battle Royale as well as

Battle Royale (film) The Most Dangerous Game.[69] Critics have also noted the influence of Battle Royale on other films, such as the 2008 release Kill Theory,[70] the 2009 film The Tournament,[71] and the 2012 blockbuster The Hunger Games.[72][73] Battle Royale has also drawn comparisons to works such as the Gantz franchise of manga (2000), anime (2004) and films (2011),[74] the 2007 video game The World Ends with You,[75] the 2009 film Gamer,[76] and the 2010 film Kick-Ass.[77]


Remake plans
In June 2006, Variety reported that New Line Cinema, with producers Neil Moritz and Roy Lee, intended to produce a new adaptation of Battle Royale.[78] Several Web sites echoed the news, including Ain't It Cool News, which claimed the remake would be a "an extremely Hard Rserious-minded Americanization of BATTLE ROYALE."[79] New Line tentatively set a release date of 2008. The next month, The New York Times reported on an Internet backlash against the remake. Through the article, Lee assured fans of his respect for the original work, claiming, "This is the one I'm going to be the most careful with." He stated that, despite earlier concerns, the movie would not be toned down to PG or PG-13, the characters would remain young teenagers, and that it would draw elements equally from the novel and the original movie and the manga. The reporter noted "the hubbub...was at least slightly premature [as] New Line hasn't yet purchased the remake rights."[80] Following the Virginia Tech massacre in April 2007, Roy Lee claimed that prospects for the remake had been "seriously shaken." While he remained willing to proceed, he stated, "we might be a little more sensitive to some of the issues." The reporting article noted that New Line still had not secured remake rightsits spokeswoman claimed "no news" when asked about progress on any deal.[81] The 2008 novel The Hunger Games, and its subsequent 2012 film adaptation, has been criticized for its similarities to the 1999 novel Battle Royale.[82] Although its author Suzanne Collins maintains that she "had never heard of that book until [her] book was turned in," The New York Times reports that "the parallels are striking enough that Collinss work has been savaged on the blogosphere as a baldfaced ripoff," but argues that "there are enough possible sources for the plot line that the two authors might well have hit on the same basic setup independently."[83] The 2012 film adaptation has also faced similar criticisms for similarities to Battle Royale.[72][73] In March 2012, Roy Lee reported that a remake of Battle Royale would no longer be possible due to the release of The Hunger Games, stating that Audiences would see it as just a copy of Games most of them wouldnt know that Battle Royale came first. Its unfair, but thats reality.[73]

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External links
Battle Royale ( at the Internet Movie Database Battle Royale ( at Rotten Tomatoes Battle Royale ( at AllRovi Official English-language Battle Royale website ( Battle Royale fansite ( Review and analysis of the Battle Royale film ( Battle Royale American Remake Set Up ( Comparison of DVD releases ( (Japanese) Battle Royale ( at the Japanese Movie Database (Japanese) Battle Royale (Director's Cut) ( at the Japanese Movie Database (Japanese) Battle Royale 3D ( Official Website ( Xem Phim Online

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Battle Royale Source: Contributors: *drew, 23skidoo,, 7, Aestheticreasons, Ajshm, Akamad, Alai, Alex anaya, Ams80, Ana M Rivera, Andrzejbanas, Andy M. 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XxCuBeZxX, Yelyos, Yutayama, Zeldamaster3, Zoe, Zotdragon, Zsinj, , , 690 anonymous edits Battle Royale (film) Source: Contributors: 5 albert square, 777sms, ACSE, Aegis High, Ahpook, AlexOvShaolin, Alexander Iwaschkin, Ambiesushi, Andrzejbanas, Arab333, Areaseven, Areoharewhy, Arman88, Asenine, Asmaybe, Azucar, Bacardimayne, Bandy, Bardego, Bigdottawa, Bishusui, Blow of Light, Blu3d, Bluerules, Bobet, Bosco13, Bovineboy2008, Brettmullga, BrokenSphere, Bwhack, CJGlowacki, Caffineehacker, Caissa's DeathAngel, CambridgeBayWeather, CardinalFangZERO, Cattus, Cheeesemonger, Chensiyuan, Chmod007, Chris Capoccia, Ckatz, Cobaltcigs, Concretedreams, Craitman17, Creativitychk, Cybercobra, DaichiS4815162342, Dancter, Darkness2005, Darrenhusted, Dave-ros, Deamon138, Dekimasu, Die bermenschen, Doctor Sunshine, Dogah, Dominic, Donmac, Douglas2k4, Dovestones, Download, DreamGuy, Drewcifer3000, Eatcacti, EclecticEnnui, Eik Corell, Ellipi, Emperor, Energystar2008, Erik-the-red, Esp rus2, Ettrig, 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