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# THE 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND SIMPLE SYSTEMS

## CALCULATING INTERNAL ENERGY

Since the Internal Energy of a gas is the sum of the EK of its molecules

Kinetic theory

And the Average EK of a molecule is found by the equation EK Average = (3/2)kT The total internal energy must be sum of all the molecules energy

U = (3/2)NkT U = (3/2)nRT

## WHAT THE 1ST LAW REALLY IS

Since thermodynamics is the study on how thermal energy is transferred and transformed into other energies this first law must relate to energy. We have only one law for energy The Conservation of Energy So the 1st law of thermodynamics must be a restatement of the conservation of energy. Only with a specific focus.

## THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Because we are interested in the energy transformations within a gas the conservation of energy must be focuses on that. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics: The change in a gases internal energy must equal the Energy that flows into the gas (Heat) minus the Energy the gas uses to expand (Work) Change gass internal Energy = Heat Workby gas DU = Q WBY THE gas or DU = Q + WON THE gas

## GOING WITH THE FLOW

It is important to always remember that both Heat on work are energies that flow into and out of the gas. They are not properties of the gas itself Internal energy however is apart of the gas and is one of the gass properties. The change in internal energy then is a change in one of the gass properties (related to temperature)

## There are 4 simple systems for a heated gas:

Isobaric Isovolumetric/Isochoric Isothermal Adiabatic

ISOBARIC SYSTEMS

Is a system where a gas expands, or contracts, in a way that its pressure remains constant.
Pressure

Pressure

Expanding

Compressing

Volume

Volume

W = F//D
D

## F// = PA W = PAD DV = AD W = PDV

Pressure
W = Area Volume

DV

IS VOLUMETRIC
This is when a gas is placed in a container that will not change its size. Since the gas will not expand or contract there can be no work done by, or on, the gas W=0J

Pressure No Area

Volume

ISOTHERMAL
This is a very slow process which allows the gas to expand, or contract, so that its Temperature is constant. This means that the gass internal energy is a constant (U = [3/2]NRT) This also means that PV is a constant (PV = nRT)

## PV GRAPH FOR ISOTHERMAL

P1 Pressure

Graph function: xy = c

P2

Area = work

V1
P1V1 = P2V2 Volume

V2

T2

Pressure

T1

Volume

T2 > T 1

## There is no time for any heat to flow in or out of the gas.

Q = 0 Joules

In this case any work done must change the internal energy. (PV is not constant.)

## PV GRAPH FOR ADIABATIC

P1 Pressure P2 Area = work

V1

V2
Volume

P1V1 = P2V2

## TABLE OF SIMPLE SYSTEMS

Isobaric P = constant [Nothing is zero] Isovolumetric V = constant [Isochoric] [W = 0 J] Isothermal T = constant [DU = 0 J] Adiabatic Q=0J [Nothing is constant] DU = Q - PDV DU = Q Q=W DU = - W

## STATING THE DU IN TERMS OF PV

It is sometime easier to solve problems when we think of the change of internal energy in terms of PV rather than T.
Particular

## when working with a PV graph

U = (3/2)NRT PV = NRT

## VIEWING A SIMPLE ENGINE

Hot Reservoir QH Gas Output Chamber QC Cold Reservoir W Provides Heat (Energy) for the engine to work

W = QH - QC

## Receives all the wasted exhaust of engin

EFFICIENCY
Efficiency = Workout/Workin Efficiency = Workout/QH Efficiency = (QH QC)/QH Efficiency = 1 (QC/QH)

CARNOT EFFICIENCY

## On engine can be 100% Efficient (even if it is an ideal engine).

You need to use some energy to reset you engine for the next cycle.

So this leads to the question: If the maximum efficiency is not 100%, how can I tell how good is the efficiency of my engine? A French scientist name Sadi Carnot found a way of calculating the ideal (maximum) effeceny for a given engine.

## No engine can achieve its ideal efficiency

CARNOT EFFICIENCY
Carnot found that the ideal Efficiency depends to the two absolute temperatures (Temperature measured in Kelvin) of the two Reservoir EfficiencyCarnot = 1 (TC/TH)