Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

I. BANCILAet al.

- - Remarks on the structural correspondence

Remarks on the structural correspondence between the Eastern Carpathians and the Northern Carpathians (Beskids)
By I. BANCILA,Btmarest, and I. MARINESCU,Bucarest (Romania) *) With 1 figure

Zusammenfassung
Vom morphologischcn und geologischen Standpunkt aus verl~tngem sich die Ostkarpaten Rum~iniens in die Ukrainische Republik und in die Volksrepublik Polen, und zwar in die Waldkarpaten und die Beskiden; zwischen diesen Gebirgsabschnitten k/Snnen folgende (3bereinstimmungen atffgestellt werden: Die zentrale Ein-heit der Ostkarpaten Rum~iniens geht unmittelbar fiber in die Ukraine durch die Maramure~-Pienine-Zone, und nach Polen dutch die Podhale-Pienid-Zone. Der westlich-interne Flysch (Rum~inien) verl/ingert sich in die Ukrainische Republik durch die Rahov-Zone s. stricto und die 5stlich-interne Einheit dutch den Burkut-Flysch (Pietrosu), der auch einen Tell der Stohu-Gruppe enth/ilt. I)er andere Teil der Stohu-Gruppe gehSrt zur Zone der Ujok-Dukla-Falten (Parautochthon der Magura-Decke, die wahrs&einlich aus Strukturen der benachbarten Einheiten: Burkut und Cemahora, gebildet wird). Die Magura-Decke der Nordkarpaten ist, als Struktur, in den Ostkarpaten nicht vertreten, sondern wird dutch eine progressive, nordw~irts gerichtete Abscherung des Zentralflysches, im Maramure~, gebildet. Der Parautochthon der Decke setzt sich aus den ~quivalenten des westlich- und 8stlich-internen Flysches zusammen. In westlicher Richtung verschwindet die Magura-Decke unter den terti/iren Vulkaniten der Ukrainischen Republik und der Slowakei. Die Cernahora-Decke stellt die Verl~ingerung der Audia-Einheit Rum~niens dar. Sic verschwindet nordw/irts unter die (3berschiebungen der Dukla-Zone und der Magura-Decke. Die zentrale Mulde (Krosno-Zone) in Polen und der Ukrainischen Republik verl~ingert sich nach Rum~inien durch die mittlere Subeinheit Tarc~u. Die sich vor der zentralen Senkung erstreckenden schlesischen Decken stellen die Verl~ingerung des Cirnu-Largu-Antiklinofiums (Rum/inien) dar, welches zwischen der~ mittleren Subeinheit Tarc~u und der intermedi~iren Subeinheit Tazl~u gelegen ist. Die intermedigre Subeinheit, zusammen mit der randlichen Subeinheit, verl~ingem sich nordw~irts vermittels der Skiben-Zone. Die ~ul3ere Einheit (Rum~inien) verlangert sich in die Ukrainische Republik und nach Polen und bildet die Pokutzia-Falten, d.h. den Parautochthon der Skiben-Zone, wahrend sich die perikarpatische Einheit in die ~iuBere Zone der pr~ikarpafischen Senkung - - Stebnik-Einheit, die mioz/ine Zone Polens - - verl~tngert. Das Vorland der Ostkarpaten ist vertreten dutch die Moldauische Plattform ( = Podolische Plattform) und durch die Vordobrudscha-Btrlad-Senkung, die in *) Authors' address: Prof. Dr. I. BANCILA, Institut des Etudes et Recherches Hydro6nerg6tiques, Bucarest, Gala~i 5; Dr. Ing I. MAalNESCU, Institut de Recherches et Projets G6ologiques Industriels pour Hydrocarbures, Bucarest, Toamnei 108. 705

Aufsatze die Lwow-Senkung (Ukrainische Republik) und das randliche Synklinorium (Polen) iibergehen. Die Verl~ingerung unterhalb der Karpaten des Massivs der Nord-Dobrudscha (Rum~inien) und der Zentral-Dobrudseha finder sich im Svietokrzyskie-Antiklinorium und im zentralen Lodz-Mehow-Synklinorium wieder.
Abstract

The Eastern Carpathians of Romania are morphologically and geologically continued by the Wooded Carpathians and the Beskids of the Ukraine and Poland. Between the segments of this mountain chain the following points of correspondence can be established: The central unit of the Eastern Car~Jathians of tloman/a is linked directly to the Maramttre~-Pienine zone of the Ukraine, which in turn connects with the Podhale-Pienide zone of Poland. The west-internal Flysch of Romania is continued in the Ukraine by the Rahov zone s. s t r i e t o, as is the eastern-internal unit by the Burkut Plysch (Pietrosu), which partly includes the Stohu group. The other part of the Stohu group belongs to the complex of the Ujok-Dukla folds (the parautochthone of the Magura Sheet) which is probabIy made up of structural elements of the neighbouring units: Burkut and Cernahora. The Magura Sheet of the Northern Carpathians does not exist, as a structural unit, in the Eastern Carpathians. Its development in Maramure~ is based on a progressive disrnpture and sliding to the north of the central Flysch. The parautochthone of the Flysch Sheet consists of the equivalents of the westand east-internal Flysch. Westward, the Magura Sheet disappears below the Tertiary volcauites of Ukraine and Slovakia. The Cernahora Sheet represents the continuation of the Romanian Audia Unit. It disappears northward under the overthrust of the Dukla Zone and the Magura Sheet. The central Depression (Krosno Zone) of Poland and Ukraine is continued in Romania by the median Tarc~u subunit. The Silesian sheets in front of the Central Depression represent the continuation of the Cirnu-Largu synclinorium (Romania) which is located between the median Taxc~u subunit and the intermediate TazI~u subunit. The intermediate subunit, as well as the marginal subunit, are continued northward by the Skibe Zone. The external unit (Romania) extends to Ukraine and Poland, forming the Pokutia folds, i.e., the parautochthone of the Skibe Zone. The Periearpathian Unit is continued by the external zone of the Pericarpathian Depression (the Stebnik unit), and by the Miocene Zone of Poland. In the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians the Moldavian Platform links with the Podolian Platform, and the Pre-Dobrudja-Birlad Depression with the Lwow Depression (Ukraine) and the Marginal Synclinorium (Poland). The North and Central Dobrudja Mountain massiv of Romania continues below the Carpathians and crops out again in the Svietokrzyskie antielinorinm and the central Lodz-Miechow synclinorium.
R6sum4

Au point de vue morphologique et g6ologique, les Carpates Orientales de Roumanie se continuent en RSS Ukraine et en R.P. Pologne dans les Carpates
706

I. BANCILAet al. - - Remarks on the structural correspondence Bois~es et les Beskides; entre ces segments montagneux on peut ~tablir les correspondances suivantes: L'Unit6 centrale des Carpates Orientales - - Roumanie, passe directement en Ukraine par la zone Maramure~-Pienine et en Pologne par la zone PodhalePi6nides. Le Flysch ouest-interne (Roumanie) se continue en RSS Ukraine par la zone Rahov s. s t r i c t o, et l'unit~ est-inteme par le flyseh de Burkut (Pietrosu), qui inclut aussi une partie du groupe Stohu. L'autre partie du groupe Stohu appartient ~tla zone des plissements Ujok-Dukla (le parautochtone de la nappe de Magura), fonn6e probablement de structures des unit6s voisines: Burkut et Cernahora. La Nappe de Magura des Carpates Septentrionales n'existe pas, en tant que structure, dans les Carpates Orientales, mais pr~nd naissance pax un d6eollement progressif vers le nord du Flyseh central, du Maramure~. Le parautochtone de la nappe est constitu4 par les 4quivalents du flysch ouest- et est-interne. Vers l'ouest, la Nappe de Magura disparait sous les vulcanites tertiaires de la RSS Ukraine et de la Slovaquie. La Nappe de Cernahora repr6sente la continuation de l'unit6 Audia de Roumanie. Elle disparalt vers le N. sous le ehevauehement de la Zone Dukla et de la Nappe de Magura. La D6pression centrale (zone Krosno) de Pologne et de la tlSS Ukraine se continue en Iloumanie par la sous-unit6 m6diane Taxc'~u. Les nappes sil6siennes d'en face de la D6pression Centrale repr6sentent la continuation du synelinorium Cirnu-Largu (Roumanie), lequel se situe entre la sous-unit6 m6diane Tarc~u et la sous-unit~ interm6diaire Tazl~u. La sous-unit6 interm6diaire, en m4me temps clue la sousunit6 marginale, se continue vers le nord par la zone des Skibes. L'Unit6 externe (t/oumanie) passe en RSS Ukraine et en Pologne, formant les plissements de Pokutia, c'est-g-dire le parautoehtone de la zone des Skibes, tandis que l'unit6 p6ricarpatique se continue dans la zone externe de la d6pression p6ricarpatique - - l'unit6 Stebnik - - la zone mioe6ne de Pologne. L'avant-pays des Carpates Orientales est repr6sent6 par la Plate-forme Moldave ( = Plate-forme Podolique) et par la d6pression de la Pr6dobroudja-Birlad, qui se continuent dans la d6pression de Lwow (tlSS Ukraine) et le Synelinorium Marginal (Pologne). La continuation en-dessous des Carpates du massif de la Dobroudja Nordique (Roumanie) et de la Dobroudja Centrale se retrouve dans l'anticlinorium Svietokrzyskie et le synclinorium central Lodz-Miechow.

I~paT~oe co~epa~aHHe
BOCTOHHbIC I~apnaTbi PyMbIttI4g npo~oama~oTcg, c reoY[org~eeHo~ ]~ Mop~ o ~ o r ~ e c ~ o ~ To~rr apelike, ]3 VKp. CCP H H . H . P . , zlecIICThlMrIKapnawaMti t3eRcH~aMg rt Meh~y DTHMI/I 30HaMIeI top MO~HO ycTaItOBl~Wb caenym~r~e COOWHOmerlHn: I~eHwpa~bHag eJ~riHri~a ]3 PyMbIHH~ nepexo~uT nenocpeJ~cw]3er~Ho ]3 VEpa~Hy uepea cony MapaMypem - - IILeH~ItH H ]3 IIo~,tuy uepe~ 30ny HoJ~xaae - rIl~eHI, IHbI. 3a~a~HO-]3HyTpennrI~ cba~m (PyMbInrI~) npo~o~saaeTcu n V~p. CCP PaxoBer~oJ] ~oHo~ s. stricto, a ]3OCTOqHO-BHyTpeHHfI~ e~HH~a-I3ypr~yTC~nM d ~ m e M (Hewpocy), r~owopa~ ]3~ouaeT O~Hy UaCTL rpyHn~[ CTOXy. ~ p y r a ~ uaeT~, OTO~ rpynnL~ ~puHa~emr~T uOHe cIf~2aJ~or~ V ~ o ~ - ~ y n a a (~apaBTOXTOH Marypc~oro no~posa), ]3epo~wHo coeTae~eH~o~r cwpyr~wypaM~ coeeJ~HlaX eJ~I~n~I~ Byp~yTa H LIepHoxopa.

46 Geologische Rundschau, Bd. 60

~0~

Aufs~itze MarypcHn~ no~poB r KapnaT He cyu~eCTByeT HaK cTpyRTypa B BOCTOqm, HapnaTax, HO /pOpM~pyeTcs Hocpe~cTBOM nporpeccn~Horo OTIX pbIBan~I}t H CHO~bmeHHff Lieuwpa:IbHOrO ( ~ H m a MapaMypema Ha ceBep. HapaBTOXTOtt n o ~ p o B a eoeTaBz[e~i a~cni4Ba:~enTaMg 3ana~noro ~ nOCTOqHoro BHyTpeHnero ~anma. MarypcnH~ noI~p0B CeBepHI~IX Haprmw ~aqcsaeT Ha 3aHa~e TpeTI4tIHIbIMH ByJi~ai~nTaM~ e Y~p. CCP n C~oBa]~nn, a qepH0xopcHn~ ~0~p0e, n0w0p~ HB~UeTC~ npo~o~g~eHHeM e~nnHHm~ Ay~H~ (Py~,mHn), ~4cqeaaew Ha ceBepe ~io~ Ha~BnrOM 30~H ~y~aa ~ no;~ Marypc~m~ nonpoBo~. Henwpa~I~a~ ~enpeccH~ (30Ha t~pOCI-IO) B He,brae H V~cp. CCP npo~oaucaeTc~ cpe~Hm~or~ 30HOI~- - Tap~ay B PyM~IHHH.C ~ e 3 ~ c ~ go~poB~L pac~oJIome~tH~mgepe~ IIenwpaabHo~ ~egpecc~e~, gB~mOTC~ npo~o~egHeM aHTI4H~HHOpI/I~tH~IpHyJIapry (PyMsmHg), Htaxoam~ec~ M e ~ y cpe~ef~ ~o~of~ Tapnay n npoMe~yT0qHOfI IIO~ ,, - - e~Hmti~e~ - - Taaz~ay, ~OT0pa~ BMeCTe C Kpaeno~ no~" e;~nHm~e~ npo~0~maewcu Ha Cenep C~H6c~o~ 30HO!~. BHemn~g e~ni.in~a (PyM~m~g) ~epexo;x~w ~ Y~p. CCP ~ Hoa~my, o6paayn IIO~yTCHHe cI~aa~I~H, w. e. HapaBTOXTOH CtcpHScHOfI 30HhI, a nepHnapnaTenag e ~ n ~ a - - o6paay~ BHemmom~oHyHpe~apnawcI~o~ ~enpeccHH (Cwe6ng~c~ag e~HH~aa - - MrIOI~eHOBaH 3ella YIO~IbIIIH). (I)opaa~ Boc~onHuX Hap~a~ npe;~c~aB~eH Moaaaecno~ n~a~/~op~o~ (= IIo~o~IbcI~annaaw/pop~a) ~ IIpeao6py~ucc~r aeHpece~ei~ Bapaa~, ~0Topa~ Hipo~oamaeTc~ 5I~BOBCHOi~~eupeccHe~ (Y~p. CCP) ~ HpaeB~ CnHi~a~nop~eM (IIoa~ma). Hpo~oa~eH~eM ~o~ Hap~aTH Ce~epHo-~oSpy~c~oro Macc~Ba (PyMbm~U) ~enTpaabHO~ ~ o 6 p y ~ , ~Ba~eTC~ anT~n~HHop~ CBHeT0~mHc~ ~ ~eHTpa~si.i~I~ eHIH~HOp~ JIo~u - - MexoB. The problem of structural correspondences between the Romanian Eastern Carpathians and the Northern Carpathians (Beskids) in the U.S:S.R., in Poland, and Czechoslovakia appears to be largely solved through the effort made by research carried out in these countries during more than half a century. But in Romania and even in the S.S.R. Ukraine different opinions still persist with regard to the age of some formations and the delimitation of the Carpathian structural units. The difficulty field confrontations of such large and hardly accessible areas made us consider that by utilizing new geological surface and drilling information it will become possible to suggest a more realistic structural correspondence between the Carpathian units. Geological investigation of the Eastern and Northern Carpathians was started as early as in the XIXth century by Austrian geologists (ALTn,
HAUER, HERBICH~ HOttENEGGER, OPPENHEIM~ PAUL, STAGHE, SZAINOCHA~

TIETZE, ZAPALOWICZ,ZUBER) who mainly dealt with stratigraphy. At the beginning of the XXth century, UHLm approached structural problems, proposing the idea of a structure based on overthrust sheets. This idea was adopted by MRAZECand POPEScu-VoITESTI(1914). In the Eastern and Northern Carpathians, the separation of facies zones as originally defined by UHLm (1908), NOWAK(1922), MACOV~I& ATANASlU (199.7) is not compatible with present knowledge. Modem research workers, specializing in the structural development of overthrust nappes, distinguish within the Carpathians several structural units (Romania, Poland) of structural-facial zones (S.S.R. Ukraine).
"/08

I. BANCILAet al. - - Remarks on the structural correspondence In the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, geological investigations revealed structural units that are upthrown from east to west with successive rootings from the exterior (foreland -- Moldavian Platform, Moesian Platform) to the interior (back-land -~ Transylvanian Depression, Apuseni Mountains) (BANCILA, 1955, 1958, 1963, 1965). This division, checked by drillings in recent years, emphasizes the differences between the stratigraphic columns of the various units and the structural correspondences which were set up between them. The development of the western Maramure~ Flysch, of about 4000 m in thickness, on the western slope of the Crystalline-Mesozoic zone, as well as the checking by drilling of the structural relations with the Cretaceous western Flysch warrant the character of the central unit of this area. A system of deep fractures separates to the west the Transylvanian Depression, in the subsided basement of which drillings nevertheless confirm the occurrence of the same Crystalline-Mesozoic body. To the east the Crystalline deposits are strongly uplifted in the form of the "isle" of the Eastern Carpathians. Together with the Mesozoic sedimentary roof and the Maramure~ Flysch, they are displaced and thrust onto the Sinaia Beds of the west-internal unit (BANcILA, 1958, 1963, 1965). Thus, the Crystalline of the lqomanian Eastern Carpathians, studied by ZAt'ALOWlGZ (1886), REINHABDT ~ ATANASIU (1930), KlqXUTNEI~ (1929, 1938), is overthrust on the Neocomian Flysch that occurs in the tectonic windows of Maramure~ (BLEAHU, 1962) and of the Ostra-Sueeava valley

(BANCILA,TANASESCU,PITULEA).
The Crystalline and Pre-Crystalline deposits have not been reached to the depth of 8200 m in a well drilled in the Rece-Trotu~ valley, which was located directly on the Sinaia Beds near the Crystalline border of H~ghima~. This fact suggests that a greater upthrust than expected occurs on the Sinaia Beds, which are thus rooted much to the west below the Crystalline of the central unit (HRIsTI~SCU, MARINESCC, AGHEORGHESEI, CRISTODULO, 1968). In our opinion, the direct continuation to the north of the t~omanian central unit is affected by Mount Fop Ivan-Menein, in the Rahov and Civcin (Czywczyn) Mountains studied by POZEVICZ (1880), TOKARSKI (1981), PAZDRO (1984), and recently by SLAVIN, TRUSOVA,TCACIUC, GURJIA, and VOSlNOVlCI. Triassic and Jurassic deposits of the central unit of the Rarhu and Lucina synclines (Bukowina) are found again in the mountain masses of the S.S.R. Ukraine mentioned which were separated by PAZDRO (1984) and SLAVlN (1960). After the subsidence of the Maramure~ Crystalline north-eastwards of Rahov (Tisa Valley) these formations are continued by the Pieuine klippes (ANDRUSOV, 1936; TOLWlNSKI,1956) which represent the front of a large Crystalline-Mesozoic unit covered with the Paleogene Flysch of Maramure~-Podhale (BANcILA, 1958, 1963; WI~OWlAI~SZ, 1959, 1968).
'709

Aufs~itze The Pienids were studied by RABOWSKI, HORWITZ, MALKOWKI,and BmKENMAYEm They are developed as an unbroken range between the Maramure~-Tisa mountain mass to the east, and the Morava Valley to tile west for a distance of 500 kin, in the S.S.R. Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. The Cretaceous of the central unit in Bukowina (Lueina Flysch) and ill Maramure~ (BardSu Flysch, BLEAHU, 1962) is continued in the S.S.R. Ukraine by the Soimul and Tisalsk sequences which are grading nordwestward into a sandstone-like, argillaceous black Flysch of Albian age (JILoVSKI, 1965) similar to the Maramure~ black Flysch. Thus the upper Cretaceous with red marls in Bukowina and Maramure~ represents the Puchov formation of the Northern Carpathians, containing a CenomanianDanian microfauna (DABAGHIAN,JILOVSKI,1968) found below the Paleogene in well 5 Svaleava. Just as the central unit in Romania, the Maramure~-Pienine area is overthrust to the NE on the Rachov Flysch (Sinaia Beds) along a line of nappes having amplitudes of 5 to 10 km (BElt, BIZOWA,1967). The Maramnre~-Podhale Flysch coats the Rahov massif slope and stretches westwards on a large area, to the south of the Pienids below the Neogene of the Muncacz-Uzhorod-Wranow depression and under the Vihor]at eruptive rocks, partly covering the Tatrids (ANDI/USOV,1936, 1959). The Tatrids are very probably extending south-eastward into the Apuseni Mountains. Another narrow zone coats the Pienids to the north and is continued through the Borjava Valley to the Cerninsk zone (BEll, BIZOVA, 1967) where the Magura nappe begins; t h i s n a p p e is a l a r g e unit which slid northward. The autochthon is made up of the small remainder of the Rachov zone, the Ujok-Dukla zone, which occurs in the tectonic windows of Mszana Grybov, and, in the northernmost part, the Silesian nappe (WDOWlAllSZ, 1959). The autochthon of the Maramure~-Pienina nappe in the Ukraine is the Raehov zone sensu lato (BEll, BIZOVA, 1967; DABAGHIAN,KULCITKI, LozINEAK, 1967) where the Suhovsk beds and the Burkut beds (Pietrosu) have been separated. The Rachov beds (MATEJKA, ANDRUSOV, 1931) occur in a carbonate-terrigenous Flysch facies and were zoned on the White Tisa (DABAGHIAN, KULCITKI, LOZINEAK, 1967); they contain a fauna of Valanginian-Hauterivian ammonites in the Borjava, Ugoliok, valleys and at the outfalls of the White Tisa Valley (KuLCITKI, MAXIMOV, 1962), thus representing the extension through the Cirlibaba sources of the Sinaia beds in Romania. The Rachov beds are followed by the greyish Flysch of the Belotieensk sequence which contains a rich ammonite fauna of BarremianAptian and Albian age in the basin of the White Tisa Valley (DABACHIAN, KULCITKI, LOZINEAK, 1967). In this area, KULCITKIdistinguished the Bogdansk sequence with coarse sandstone and conglomeratic episods that appear in the Ceremu~ basin (Bronea conglomerate). From a stratigraphic viewpoint, these two sequences are equivalent to the Bistra beds and to the Ceahl~u conglomerates, and are forming with the Rachov beds the
710

I. BANCILAet al. - - Remarks on the structural correspondence Rachov unit, i.e., the north-eastern continuation of the west-internal unit of Romania. The Rachow unit disappears to the SW below the upthrow of the Maramures-Pienina zone in the Svaleava region, while northeastward it is overlapping the Upper Cretaceous Suchova beds with variegated marls and a microfanna composed of Rotaliporae and Globotruncana (DABAHCIAN,KULCITKI, LOZINEAr 1967) corresponding to the Lutu Ro~u beds in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). From a stratigraphic viewpoint, these beds are located between the Ceahl~u beds to the west and the east-internal curbicortical Flysch, comparable to the Suchov sequence situated between the Rachow unit to the south-east and the Burkut-Pietrosu Flysch to the northeast. The curbicortical and gritty Burkut-Pietrosu Flysch of Albian-Cenomanian age (SwIDZ~NSKI, 1948) occurs in the upper courses of the White Czeremu~ Valley, of the Black Czeremu~ (SuJKOWSKI, 1988) and towards the NW of the Borjawa valley, and underlies the variegated Suchova marls. It thus corresponds to the curbicortical Palanca series of Romania. The olistoliths sandstones (Czorsztyn limestones, TOLWINSKI, 1956) correspond to the Cotumba sandstones of the Moldavian Carpathians ( = Sita-T~taru at the Carpathian bend), to the Le[e~ti conglomerates (Bistri~a Valley) with Jurassic and Neocomian olistoliths of the Buz~u Valley (MARINESCU, 1962). Thus, the Burkut Flysch unit represents the northward continuation, in the area of the Moldova and Suceava River sources, of the east-internal unit of Romania. It is overthrust to the SW by the Rachov unit, along the Suhova line, corresponding to the Lutu Ro~u line (BANcILA, 1952--1955, 1958, 1965). North-eastward, the Burkut unit is overthrown upon the Cernahora and Ujok-Dukla units, along the Burkut line ( = internal line). The width of the overthrust reaches up to 15 km on the Pietrosu mountain and between the Rika and Uj valleys (BER, BlzovA, 1967), whereas in the Uj Valley the Burkut nappe disappears below the upthrows of the Pienids and of the Magura nappe. In Romania, the overthrust of the western and east-internal units has been checked by wells drilled at Pietro~ita - - Ialomi}a valley, Teliu, in the area of the bend, at Ghime~-Ald~ma~, and at Valea Rece in the Trotu~ valley. All of these wells are located at the surface on Sinaia beds or on Bistra Comarnic beds, and have penetrated into the Albian-Cenomanian deposits of the east-internal Flysch, at depths of 1000 to 8000 m. The Parautochthon of the Burkut nappe is made up of the Cernahora unit (Sipote) which is continued south-eastward in Romania by the Audia unit (I. BANCILA, 1952) near the sources of the Suceava River, through the valleys of the Black Tisa, Vv'hite Ceremu~, and Black Ceremu~, and north-westward to the basin of the Terersva River, where it disappears below the overlap of the Ujok-Dukla unit. In the stratigraphic column of the Cernahora unit occur the Sipote beds (PAUL, 1876; PAZDRO, 1936) which according to SUJKOWSKI (1988) are of Barremian-Aptian age. These beds contain the two horizons
"/11

Aufs~itze (I and II) that represent the direct continuation of the Romanian Audia beds (S. ATHANASIU,1911) which belong to the Barremian-Albian according to the ammonite fauna found by AGHEOaGHESEI(Frocheloniceras sp.), Da~,GmNDX, and ILIESCU (Pseudothurmania angulicostata d'Oam), GEaMAN (Ancycloceras cf. matheronianum d'ORB), MARINESCU (Anahoplites mantelli SPATH), MONTZ and BECSEI (Phyllopachyceras infundibulum d'OR~.). These beds are overlain by Vraco-Cenomanian variegated clays which continue into the S.S.R. Ukraine as the Ialov~ beds (horizons III and IV) from which a Vraconian fauna (VEALOV, DABAGmAN, KULCITKI, 1962) has been reported. The stratigraphic column is ending by the Cernahora-Sknpowa sandstone (horizon V, according to SUJKOWSKI, 1988), where SwmzmsKi (1948) quotes WEmNE~'S Inoceramus remains, and which represents the direct extension of the Tomnatec-Prisaca sandstone ( = Siriu sandstone) with Inoceramus remains (MARINESCtr,AGHEORGHESEI,1964). North-eastward, the Cernahora unit is overthrust on the Central Depression (Krosno zone) along the Cernahora line (SwIDERSKI, 1986; SWIDZINSKI, 1986, 1948). This zone is extending into Romania as the Audia unit which is more than 2000 m thick in the Stulpicani wells, and which is overthrust upon the middle Tarc~u zone (BANcILA, 1952). In the stratigraphic column of the Ujok-Dukla unit the Upper Cretaceous is known; it consists of the beds with Inocerames to the NW, and the Cisna beds with Pachydiscus colligatus BINKn. found by ST. WDOWIARSZ (SwIDINSKI, 1948). To these beds corresponds the Berezniansk sequence of the S.S.R. Ukraine, where in the Uz-Borjava region aturian Inocerames has been reported (VEALOV,PASTERNAK,1956; JILOWSKI,1968). It is followed by the Paleocene Dusinsk sequence which, as far as facies is concerned, is similar to the Istebna beds in the Silesian nappe (VEALOV,DABAGHIAN, KULCITKI, 1962). The Ujok-Dukla unit has no direct structural equivalent in Romania, because it probably is made up of structural elements of the neighbouring units. This unit includes one part of the Stogu (Stoh, Stoj) group which has been distinguished by ANDRUSOV (1933) and studied by TOLWINSKI (1927), OPOLSKI(1936), SWIDZINSKI(1934); the other part is enclosed in the Burkut unit. The parautochthon of the Ujok-Dukla zone is made up of the Cernahora unit to the SE, and of the Central Depression (Krosno) to the NE; the latter lies on the Silesian nappe in Poland and is extending in the S.S.R. Ukraine to the Suceava Valley. It is connected with the middleTarc~u zone in Romania which in the east rests on the Cirnu-Largu anticlinorium. It follows therefrom that the Cernahora nappe is thinning out northward below the "internal" nappes. The character of the Krosno zone in Poland was determined the development of the Paleogene filling made up of Ciezkowice sandstones and of Oligocene Krosno beds. These are lying on Cretaceous formations in Silesian facies, which were studied by HOHENEGGER(1861), ANDRUSOV (1986), KZIAZKIEWICZ(1937, 1960), MATEJKAand ROTH (1949, 1955), etc.
712

I. BANCILAet al. -- Remarks on the structural correspondence By comparison, the Cretaceous of the middle-Tarc~u subunit appears in the form of button-holes, and it is also found in wells in the Oituz-Bisca region (Ojdula, Ghelin~a, Mu~a), being represented by Barremian-Albian black schists, the Sicl~u-Cirnu beds, and the Upper Cretaceous Inocerarni beds. This sequence is maintained in the C~rnu-Largu anticlinorinm which in the Bistri~a valley occurs on the eastern slope of the middle-Tarc~u zone. In our opinion, it is from this anticlinorium that, by an axial structural uplift and by an overflow to the north, the two Silesian nappes in the Beskids were formed. In the middle zone of the Bukowina, the stratigraphie column of the Ro~o~a-Zeletin anticline includes the Tarc~u sandstone, the Plopu beds, the basal Fusaru sandstone, rare menilites, and Krosno beds with calcareous schists with fish (BEM, KULaAY, 1942). These are followed by sandstones of the Fusaru type, to which corresponds the Vigoda sequence with thick sandstones in the upper part, and by a Flysch with hieroglyphs, the Se~orsk horizon, menilites, dysodilic schists, and Krosno beds, locally overlain by sandstones with gypsum (Suha-Moldova valley). In the Skibes zone, the lower Cretaceous begins with Spass beds containing a Barremian-Apfian fauna (KoKoSZINSKA,1949), and the upper Cretaceous with siliceous marls with Neohibolites minimus LIST. (Holovinsk sequence, KULCITKI,MAXIMOV,1962) on which lie beds with Inocerami and Globotruncana (Str?i beds, VIALOV, GLUSKO, Kr:LCITKI, SLAV[N, 1960). In the intermediate and marginal subunits (= Skibes) in Romania, their correspondent is the Cretaceous with black shales, the C~rnu beds, which contain Inocerami, found also in the Gura Humor well in Moldavia. These are overlain by the Eocene including the Straja beds, the rhythmic Flysch with hieroglyphs, the Scorbura sandstone, the Doamna limestones, and the Plopu-Bisericani beds with variegated clays. To this sequence correspond in the Skibes zones the Iaremcia horizon, the Iamna sandstone with the Maniaeva sequence (= beds with hieroglyphs of the Polish geologists), the Vigoda sandstone, the Pasziecna limestones, and the Bistri~a sequence (Popiele beds) with variegated clays. The Oligocene begins with the Se~orsk horizon, followed by menilites and bituminous marls, dysodilic schists, Kliwa sandstones, and by the Lopiane~k sequence (= lower Polani~a beds), dysodilic schists and menilites, which are overlain by the Cosmaci sequence (= upper Polani~a beds). Their equivalents in Romania are the Luc~ce~ti sandstone, menilites and bituminous marls, dysodilic schists, Kliwa sandstones, Podu Morii beds, dysodilic schists and menilites, and the Gura Soimului beds (transition). In Romania, the intermediate and marginal subunits are overthrust on the external unit. According to all data, this is continued to the north o{ the Suceava Valley into the S.S.R. Ukraine and into Poland, by the folded Pocu~ia zone which to the west is overthrust by the Skibas zone. The stratigraphic column of the Pocu~ia foldings is made up of Senonian beds with Inocerami, and of the Eocene sequence consisting of the Iamna
713

Aufsfitze sandstone, the beds with hieroglyphs including the Maniaeva sandstone, and the Vigoda sandstone with the Paszieczna limestones. To this column correspond in the external unit the Senonian Lepta-Cabin beds with Cernegura conglomerates, and the Eocene including the marly-gritty Flysch with hieroglyphs, the Jghiabu Mare sandstone, the Doamna limestones and the Bisericani beds. Comparable stratigraphic equivalences are also found in the Oligocene: the Boryslaw sandstone corresponds to the Luc~ce~ti sandstone; the menilites, the dysodilic schists, and the Kliwa sandstone have the same stratigraphie positions in the areas compared. The Periearpathian unit of Romania is extending into the Stebnik nappe (ToLWlNSKI, 1986) and has a similar stratigraphie column. The Stebnik beds are equivalent to the Teseani beds, and the Sloboda-tlungurska conglomerates to the Pietricica-Ple~u conglomerates (VIALOVet al., 1960). The ideas exposed herein show the structural correspondence which exists between the northern segment and the eastern segment of the Carpathian orogene. The same close correspondence is observable in the foreland structure. The Carpathian foreland is made up of the Moesian Platform in the south and of the Moldavian Platform in the east, which represents the continuation of the Podolian Platform. The latter is bounded on the west by the Lublin marginal syneline (PozARYSKI, 1966), which is the northern extension of the Lwow Depression of the S.S.R. Ukraine, with Jurassic deposits of about 1000 m in thickness in the Stdi well (VIALOVet al., 1960). Similar deposits have been penetrated by wells in what was called by tlomanian geologists the Pre-Dobrudjan Depression. This is undoubtedly continued into a zone located south of the Lwow Depression in the part trapped under the Eastern Carpathians' overthrust. The North-Dobrudjan orogene of Romania and the Central Dobrudja zone with green schists are plunging north-westward under the Eastern Carpathians, but reappear farther north in the Swietokrzyskie anticlinorium and the central Lodz-Mieehow synclinorinm (PozARYSKI, 1966). In general, a tendency of reduction and subsidence of the Eastern Carpathians toward the SW under the Miocene and Plioeene transgressions is observed. The Northern Carpathians show a similar trend, but on a much smaller scale, toward the north, where they are loaded with Paleogene deposits. The very briefly drawn parallels between the eastern and northern segments of the Carpathians lead to the recognition of a precisely defined continuity of style. This consists of the presence of several rock bodies tilted from the inside to the outside up to the foreland which represents the last autochthon. Each tilted body exhibits the features of a nappe, the scales of which vary in extent. In some eases, the front of the nappescales advances tens of kilometres, and the overthrust body is relatively thin. It is but rarely accompanied by tectonic windows and klippes. In other cases, the advance is small, and the respective discontinuity resembles a slightly tilted fault. Followed up all along, the fronts of the
714

;eologischc Bundscha% Band 60

6~.~cts.A& I. [~[AtlI#4ESCUlextrMel 1

I,LESI~H IlPP!

km

(/ \ r

tgg:/#,

> ,<

/#:

Jem,k

iz
~g d~!.~,~}!~.c:,Hr,t)yegl,;," ,~'a..~*,-dea,"e$,*~~ @

l ~ae:e,'Ce;~ $ ~arageZe#

a'#I" d,f~;e~ ~

,~

~. 5a,ee~t [~ae

L'L

l1 Jta~:,~;~:

#~:gg/': ~ 4:e :h:


.y,.~lt &yfee,@~e
I~ Pe/e*ee~e ~2s

[Z]~]~i ~i,'elyp:*
qe~ce,,e('e~e,.,r,ee~e;

DEPRESIICH

~athiaus andthe Ea,,tern Carpathians.

I. BANCILAet al. - - Remarks on the structural correspondence overthrust plane show advances and retreats. In front of them usually zones of subsidence loaded with significant quantites of younger sediments, and zones of rise pierced in the middle by slices of older formations (but not older than the lower Cretaceous) occur. In some cases, fractures of lesser importance are making up the transition towards the actual planes of overthrust, and this explains some of the unconformities that occur in the development of the structural units. These do not change the essence of the tectonic style of the Carpathian Flysch as whole which we tried to explain in the enclosed sketches

(Fig. 1).
The above remarks are completed by the observation that from the bend zone (Buz~u) northward the style of nappes-scales is becoming more marked, whereas toward the Sueeava Valley there appear some merging trends which could suggest the idea of a unique nappe of the Flysch

(D. PREDA,1961).
Finally, the mechanism of the structural development is also uniform
insofar as along both of the main segments of the Carpathians the separation of orogene and foreland is clearly exposed. The orogene is strongly compressed. The foreland, on the other hand, has been submitted to a slow process of frontal subsidence, with fractures and assimilation developing in the deeper zones.
Bibliographie

AGHEORGHESEI,V., CRISTODULO,D., MICSA, L., MAR]NESCU, I.: Remarques g6ologiques sur le Flysch d'Audia (Cernahora) de Bueovine. - - Com. Geol. Romfinia, Inst. Geol., D. S. ale Sed., LI/1 (1968--1964), 185--200, 2 pl., Bucure~ti, 1965. AnDavSOV, D.: Deux coupes g6ologiques fi travers les Carpathes Oeeidentales. - - Bull. Soc. G6ol. de France, S6r. 5, VII, 434--438, 1 pl., Paris 1986. --: Geol6gia Ceskoslovensk2~ca Karp~tt. - - Vidavateltsvo Slovensky Akademie vie&, II, 875 pag., 84 fig., 80 pI., Bratislava 1959. ATANASIV,I.: Les faci6s du Flysch marginal dans la pattie moyenne des Carpates Moldaves. - - Ann. Inst. G6ol. de Roumanie, XXII, 149~170, 5 fig., 2 pl., Bucarest 1948. BANCILA, I.: Geologia regiunii Gura Humorulu/-Vorone~-Suha. - - D. S. Com. Geol. Rom., XXXVI (1948--1949), 4--12, Bueure~ti 1952. ~ : Le Pal6og6ne de la zone m6diane du Flysch. - - Bull. Aead. R. P. Romania, section Se. Biol. Agr. G6ol. G6ogr., VII, 4, 1201--1238, Bueure~ti 195.5. --: Geologia Carpa~ilor Orientali. - - 868 pag., 121 fig., Editura Tehnic~, Bueure~ti 1958. --: Sur la teetonique des Carpates Orientales. - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk., VII-e Cong6s, Rapports, I-re partie, Sofia 1965. BANGILA,1., HB.ISTESCU,E.: La ligne ext6rieure et la ligne p6ricarpatique entre la vall6e de la Sueeava et la vall6e du Trotu~ (Carpates Orientales). - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk., V-e Congr6s (1961), Comm. Scient., III-e section: Tectonique, IV, 15--23, Bucarest 1963. BEE, A., BlZOVA, S.L.: Nouvelles donn6es sur les rapports entre les zones strueturales faciales de la pattie interne des Car-pates Sovidtiques. - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp..-Balk., VIII-e Congr6s, I. p. 41----49, 2 fig., Belgrad 1967.
46 * 715

Aufs~itze

BIEDA, F., GEROCH,E., KOSZARSKI,L., KSIANSKIEWlCZ, ZYTKO,K.: La stratigraM.,


phie des Carpates Externes Polonaises. - - Rech. G6ol. dans les Carpates, 10, Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk., VI-e Congr~s, Inst. G6ol., Biul. 181, 5--174, Varsovie-Cracovie 1963. DABAGHIAN,N.V., KRUGLOV,C.C., SMIRNOV,C.E.: La position stratigraphique de quelques horizons bariol6s du Cr6tac6 et du Pal6ogbne dans ]es Carpates Sovi6tiques. - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk., VII-e Congrbs, II-e partie, I, 157 --160, Sofia 1965. DABIGHIAN, N.V., KULCITKI,I.O., LOZINEAK,P.I.: La constitution g~ologique et stratigraphique du Cr6tac6 de la Zone Rachov (en russe). - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk., VIII-e Congr~s, I, 288--288, Belgrad 1967. DZULYNSKI, S., KSIAZKIEWlCZ,M., KUENEN,PH. : Turbidites in Flysch of the Polish Carpathian Mountains. - - Bull. Geol. Soc. of America, 70, 1089--1118, New York 1959. FILn'EsCU, M.G.: Geologia Carpa~ilor O r i e n t a l i . - Acad. R. S. Romania, St. ~i cerc. geol. geogr, geol., 12, 1, Bucure~ti 1967. JILOWSKI,N. L.; La stratigraphie du Cr6tac6 et du Pal~og~ne sur le versant sud des Carpates. - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk, VII-e Congr~s, I, II-e partie, 16~-169, Sofia 1965. JccnA, ST., KOTLARCZYI<,]'.: Tentative determination of new correlation horizons in Krosno beds - - Polish Carpathians. - - Acta Geologica Polonica, IX, 55 --112, Warszawa 1959. KOKOSZlNSKA,BR.: Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous in the no,bern Flysch Carpathian. I Prace Panst. Inst. Geol., 6, Warszawa-Krakow 1949. KsIAzKmwmz, M.: The Cretaceous of the Polish C a r p a t h i a n s . - Congr. Geol. Internacional, XX ses., Symposium del Cretacico, 171---198, 4 fig., Mexico, D. F. 1959. - - : Geology of the Northern Carpathians. - - Geol. Rdsch., 45, Bull. Acad. Pol. des Sciences, s6rie de 2, Stuttgart 1956. - - : Sur quelques analogies lithostratigraphiques entre les Carpathes roumaines et polonaises. - - Bull. Acad. Sci. Pol., s6r. g6eol, g6ogr., X, 1, WarszawaCracowie 1962. KrJLOITKI, I.O., MAxIr~ov, A.V.: Le sch6ma stratigrapbique du Cr6tac6 des Carpates de l'Ukra~ne. - - Dokladi Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 146, 1, 175--178, Moskva 1962. MAcovEI, G., ATANASIU,I.: Apergu g6ologique sur les Carpates Orientales. - Assoc. l'avanc. G6ol. des Carpates, II-e r6union, Guide des excursions, Bucarest 1927. MAaINESCU, I.: Aptychus-Schichten im Kreideflysch der Ostkarpathen (Rumiinien). - - Neues ]b. Geol. u. Pal~iontol., Abh., 107, 1, 137--160, Stuttgart 1958. MAT~JKX, A, ZELENXA, L.: Contributions ~t la connaissance de la g~ologie des environs de Iasina en Russie souscarpatique. - - Vestnik Star. Geol. Ustavu Ceskoslovenska Republiky, VIII, Praha 1932. MaAZEK, L., VO~TESTI, P.I.: Contributions h la connaissanee des nappes du Flysch carpathique. - - An. Inst. Geol. Rom., V (1911), Bueure~ti 1914. PAZDRO, Z.: Les couches de Sipote ~t Hryniawa sur Czeremusz. - - Kosmos, 60, Lwow 1936. POZAaYSKI, WL.: Budowa geologiezna polski - - Przekroye Geol. Przez Polske, Widawn Geol., 16 p., 3 pl., Warszawa 1966. PREDA, D. M.: L'avant-pays de l'orog6ne carpatique et sa position tectonique dans le cadre g~ologique structural de l'Europe. - - Assoc. G6ol. Carp.-Balk..
716

I. BANCILAet al. - - Remarks on the structural correspondence V-e Congr~s, Comm. seient., III-e section: Teetonique, IV, 803---807, Bucarest 1963. RErNHAaD, M., ATANASlU, I.: Geologische Beobachtungen fiber die kristallinen Schiefer der Ostkarpathen. - - Ann. Inst. G~ol. de Roumanie, XII, 891--418, 21 fig., Bucarest 1927. ROTH, Z.: L'~tat actuel de nos cormaissanees de l'6difice de la zone du Flysch des Carpathes Tch6coslovaques.- Congr. Geol. Intern., XX sec.,sec. V, Bel. entre ]a Tect. y la Sedim., 1, 258---268, Mexico, D.F. 1957. SUJKOWSKI,Zz.: Les s6ries de Szipot dans les Carpates Polonaises Orientales. - Travaux du Serv. G~ol. de Pologne, III, 2, Varsovie 1988. SWlDEI~SKI, B.: Sur la composition stratigraphique et le caract~re tectonique de la nappe de Czarnohora. - - C. R. des S~ances du Serv. G6ol. de Pologne, 44, Varsovie 1986 - - : Les probl~mes de tectonique dans les Carpates Septentrionales. - - T. G. Praee, VIII, 115---146, Warszawa 1952. SWlDZlNSKI,H.: Remarques sur ]a structure des Karpates flyscheuses. - - Bull. du Serv. G6ol. de Pologne, VIII, 1, Varsovie 1984. - - : Stratigraphical index of the northern Flysch Carpathians. - - Serv. C~ol. de Pol.., Inst. G6ol. de Pologne, Bull. 87, ~d. angl., 128 pag., 2 pl., Warszawa 1948. TEISSE~RE, H.: Sur la structure g6ologique des environs de Zabie. - - Serv. G6ol. des Karpates, Bull., 28, 25 29, 1 pl., Varsovie-Boryslaw-Lwow 1986. TOLWlNS~I, K.: Les principaux 616ments teetoniques des Carpathes avec remarque sp6ciale sur l'orogenSse des Salides. - - Acta Geologica Polonica, VI, 2, 157, Warszawa 1956. VEALOV, O.S., DASACHIAN, N.V., KU~ClTKI, I.O.: On the boundary between Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits in East Carpathians (Summary). - Mejdunarovii Gheol. Congr., XXI, ses. 1960, Dokl. Soy. Gheol., 121--122, Moskva 1960. - - : Nouvelles donn*es sur l'~ge des s6ries de Sipote et de Dusinsk dans les Carpates Orientales. - - Dokl. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.B., 142, 4, 896---899, Mosk-ca 1962. VEALOV, O.S., GLUSKO, V.V., K~LClTra, I.O., SLAVIN, V.I.: La stratigraphie des Carpates ofientales sovi6tiques (en russe). - - Mejdunarovii, Gheol. Karp.Balk., IV. Congr. Akad. Nauk. R.S.S. Ukraina, 5--25, Kiew 1960. WDOWIARSZ, ST.: Karpaty. - - Przekroje Geol. Przez Polske, Wdwn. Geol., 15 p., 2 pl., Warszawa 1959. - - : Principales unit~s teetoniques de la zone du Flysch des Carpatcs Septentrionales et Orientales. - - Assoc. G~ol. Carp.-Balk., V-e Congr~s, Comm. Sci., III-e sect.: Teetonique, IV, 808--807, Bucarest 1963.

717