Sie sind auf Seite 1von 71

Translated into English from the Hindi original with the generous support of the TATA GROUP

AMRUT KRUSHI SCIENCE


Lifestyle based on NATUECO science

Compiled by Deepak Suchde

Publisher Malpani Trust Village - Bajwada, Post - Nemavar Taluka - Khategaon, District - Devas (M.P) 455339

Inspiration Shri S. A. Dabholkar

First edition 2011 10,000 copies

Contact Deepak Suchde Malpani Trust, Village - Bajwada, Post - Nemavar Taluka - Khategaon, District - Devas (M.P) 455339 Phone no. - 9329570960, 9826054388

Email : Website:

deepaksuchde@gmail.com www.natuecofarmingscience.com www.beyondorganicfarming.in

Message

Despite rapid developments in the area of research, agriculture in our country, especially for 80% o f a l l t h e small and marginal farmers of t h e agricultural community, has scarcely been a business to live on. Apart from the environmental concerns, rising prices of essential productive materials such as fertilizers and pesticides has been making agriculture less cost effective and also less sustainable. This is why it is time to focus on alternative agricultural processes that demand less investment, remain sustainable even on small-scale farming, and are environmentally/ecologically friendly. The "Amrut Agricultural Science" i.e. Natueco farming developed by Prof. Dabholkar and practiced by t h e Malpani Trust is a sustainable agricultural process. This type of farming recommends the utilization of locally available resources by using less external investment, and it works on benefitting from sunlight with canopy management. This, in turn, converts the biomass into enriched soil, thus ensuring a high quality produce at less production costs. Keeping in mind the need to promote such technology, NABARD has decided to ensure accessibility to the people, especially small and marginal farmers with limited access to resources. Publications about Natueco farming are translated into different languages with the aim of popularizing it amongst the agricultural community. NABARD, with the help of the Malpani Trust, has decided to further the ski l l s et s of farmers by running training programmes and organizing visits to areas where Natueco farming is being carried out. We hope that a large number of farmers are able to reap the benefits of Natueco farming and make farming a sustainable and profitable business. We s i n c e r e l y wish that this j o i n t endeavour of NABARD and the Malpani Trust inspires a large number of farmers to start Natueco farming.

Dr. Rajendra Singh Chief General Manager Development Policy Department National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Mumbai

MESSAGE FOR THE READER In our country, farming was considered a matter of joy and celebration. All festivities revolved around farming, and it was among the primary occupations in the country. However, today, farming is considered as simply a means of sustenance for a family a n d a r o u t i n e business. Farming is becoming a very critical and serious question full of ironies. Farming has turned into a means of livelihood as a compulsion and also a matter of suicide. Can you imagine why this has happened? Do you feel that you should be concerned about these changing situations? If yes, then read further. According to Indian philosophy, farming r e f e r s t o the worshipping of elements (earth, water, fire, air, and sky). You can attain a higher state of elements (ultimate consciousness) by worshipping them. We all have an goal acquiring ultimate consciousness, understanding the self, or merging ultimate energy. the five the five ultimate with the

We all know that happiness and sorrow are the two aspects of life. There is sorrow attached to every kind of material happiness. There cannot be realization of joy in such happiness. This is because happiness is a state of 'being', which is beyond the five elements. Farming could be an easy, simple, and accessible way of realizing this happiness. Farming is the creative phenomenon of transforming a single seed into multiple seeds and t h e e v o l u t i o n f r o m a small form t o a larger one. Agriculture and creation is the only ultimate consciousness, which our Upanishads have shown to the world by 'Oum purnamidam'. By providing a scientific basis to this truth, even modern science has proved that energy cannot be destroyed; it simply changes form. Today's science has been making farming completely market based or dependent on other external means, due to which farming has become a problem for both the producer and the consumer. Traders and processors have been getting rich by grossly exploiting natural resources and human beings. If we have to avoid all this, then we will have to embrace nature-based remedies and science. Let us understand this kind of agriculture. The name of this agriculture is Amrut Krushi. The basis of this is a process that is in harmony with nature and the environment, in which we consider nature/plants as indispensable and do yajna-work for its comprehensive healthy development, which we refer to as the worshipping of t h e five elements. Worship means service. Worship means yajna. Worship means interaction with mute plants, which is called a thoughtfree state. When we attain such a thought-free state, we become one with nature. This is how Ayurveda w as cr ea t e d ; the plants themselves made the sages aware about their virtues. This is why Ayurveda is eternal; no changes have been made to it. Nature understands us and fulfils our dream of prosperity in abundance. Every natural dimension wants to develop i t s e l f in plenty and this is the law of nature, this is the theory, the goal. Farming embodies the message of living in coexistence. From micro-organisms to macro-organisms, our life becomes complete in the existence of all life forms. Completeness is consciousness. Thus, ultimate happiness cannot be gained by killing any life, hurting it, or misleading it in any form or through any means. H urting, misleading, or killing somebody, is an act of going far away from the consciousness.

Since all this is His creation, i t is our duty to create beneficial conditions and fertile soil. This helps in developing complete immunity among plants, and even the eater (consumer), will benefit from such immunity. Modern agricultural science diagnoses plants on the basis of symptoms and compels the farmer to incur heavy expenses. However, no one cares about the mother of all plants (the soil). Our mother is given medicine if the baby in her womb falls ill and with the right medication, the baby becomes healthy. In the same way, by making fertile soil with immunity power, we, the farmers, could extend proper service to both the consumer and the environment. A plant understands your emotions deeply and manifests its emotions accordingly. The relationship of man with plants is closer than the relationship with his mother. A mother keeps her child attached to her umbilical cord for 9 months, but our relation with plants is life-long. Both require each other even for the simple act of breathing (exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen). In order to maintain such a close relationship, it becomes our ultimate duty to cultivate disease-free, healthy plants. How can we fulfil this duty? Read further about the Amrut Krushi science, which is a lifestyle influenced by Natueco-based spirituality. May you all get enriched and become one with the ultimate consciousness by adopting such a lifestyle. With heartfelt wishes

Deepak Suchde

PREFACE

Natueco farming science has been continuously used in farming for about 20 years with the inspiration of Sri. Dabholkarji. The people's demand was to make this accessible to all, so an effort has been made to write it down. We welcome any suggestions that you may have after reading this.

Deepak Suchde

INTRODUCTION

Modern agricultural techniques are on an unsustainable path today and are taking us towards an abyss: Chemical fertilizers and pesticides consume a lot of natural resources in their production and pollute ground water through runoff. They tend to cause harmful diseases like cancer and leukemia in rural communities. They destroy biodiversity in rural areas by killing of birds, bees, small animals, and microbial life in the soil. By adding salts to the soil, they also reduce the fertility of soil over time. Tilling of soil and burning of fields tend to release organic carbon from the soil and plants into the atmosphere causing more global warming. They also result in the loss of productive top soil. Hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides all increase the costs and risks associated with farming. Farmers need to invest a lot more in their fields to prepare for a harvest and a failure of rains frequently results in the bankrupting of small farmers.

We need to seriously rethink how we can make agriculture much more sustainable. I believe that AMRUT KRUSHI needs to be considered as a potential technique for agriculture of the future. Dr. N. Malpani Founder Trustee, Malpani Trust.

GREETINGS Enrichment of farming is very necessary for the enrichment of human society and adequate water is imperative for the enrichment of farming. People willing to increase output without harming the environment will get help from this book based on the experiments and experiences of the Malpani Trust. Due to their efforts, the process of this method of farming has progressed in hundreds of villages and keeps on growing. Using excess water in farming is not only a waste of water but also a gross waste of fertile soil. This turns an otherwise fertile land into a salty, swamp, and barren one. So it is necessary to develop methods of farming that stop the wastage of water and fertile soil and make the land fertile and enriched through better utilization of resources. It is heartening that students and teachers of t h e Malpani Trust have found such methods and have already started working on it. People willing to gain prosperity along with the environment will get help from this book based on their experiments and experiences. With these good wishes, I congratulate all the students and teachers of t h e Malpani Trust who have resolved to learn, teach, and adapt the methods of eternal life and employment by practicing it themselves.

Dinesh Kothari C. A., Indore

BACKGROUND OF THE EXPERIMENTS

Till date, m an y government officials, vice chancellors of agricultural universities, and several youths associated with agricultural service have visited this pilgrimage of agriculture (Krushi Teerth). They have practiced this method and moved ahead in the direction of experiments. The only demand they had is to put this science in writing so that it could be beneficial for reference. This book is appearing before you as a fulfilment of the same. Looking at the increasing inequality in society and steady growth of poverty and disease, the Malpani Trust started this experiment of farming based on natural and scientific methods, inspired by Sri.Dabholkarji in Krushi Teerth in March 2006. Several farmers have got the inspiration of farming in a new way from this.

10

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The former Sarsangh chalak (chief) of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha Sri. Kup.C. Sudarshan has obliged us by helping to make the language of this book more comprehensible. The advisor of 'Micro Farming and Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture' project of Watershed Organization Trust, Ahmednagar Mr. Himanshu Khale has given valuable contributions in the writing, editing and designing of this book. This book is based on the e-booklet 'Khud Karke Seekhe' available on the website of Watershed Organization, Ahmednagar. Mr. Rajneesh Kahar has provided valuable cooperation in the editing of this book. Mrs. Malti Johri has contributed as well.

Mrs. Preeti Patil (9819197071) of Mumbai has given valuable contribution in increasing the quality of Amrut Mitti. Along with this, contribution from the following farmers, farming in the method based on natural science resources is received as well Mr. Jeetubhai, Malegaon, Nasik (9420692645) Mr. Sushil Vajpayee, (9423790527) Mr. Rajinder Raina, Charoli Pune (9822068382) Mr. Vasant and Mrs. Karuna Phutane, Ravala Amravati (957229-238171) Subhash Sharma, Yavtamal (9422869620) Vasudev Kathe, KasbeSukene Nasik (02550-79265)

We are grateful to these people from the core of our heart.

Deepak Suchde Malpani Trust, Bajvada, Dewas Madhya Pradesh

11

CONTENTS

Introduction to Amrut Krushi .........................................................................................17

Amrut Mitti: Creation and Care .....................................................................................22

Plant Management .......................................................................................................44

More agriculture related information............................................................................58

Appendix ......................................................................................................................83

12

INTRODUCTION TO AMRUT KRUSHI


A common criticism of organic farming techniques is that their yields just cant compare with inorganic methods and there is no way that they can feed the rapidly growing world population. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to Amrut Krushi, a way of doing organic farming with yields that are higher than those that chemical farming produces, and at lower costs. What is Amrut Krushi? Amrut Krushi is a way to do intensive agriculture in an organic, sustainable and inexpensive way. It attempts to replicate the behaviour of nature, but in a humanassisted way to increase yields. Amrut Krushi uses scientific methods (Natueco Farming Science) to figure out the maximum possible yield in a particular area (based on the sunlight available). It also reduces the water requirements for farming by increasing the organic carbon in the soil, which allows the soil to absorb water vapour from the air. It helps reduce the cost of farming by not requiring any external inputs in the farm by recycling farming by-products.

Problems with Chemical Farming There is a lot of literature available today about the downsides of chemical farming. In this section, we will highlight a few of those issues. Cost of farming Conventional Farming is based on the use of chemicals. Farmers depend on others for everything from manpower, fertilizer, pesticides, manure, seeds, culture, hormones, plant growth promoting bacteria, enzymes etc. When selling produce in the market, farmers depend on the government or middlemen; they have no right to determine their own price. This has been a political issue ever since Indias first 5-year plan was initiated under its first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The scheme was implemented in order to deprive farmers of justice. Water pollution Rainwater passes through all farms and fields before entering the river. Unfortunately, the vast majority of farms are chemical and thus the river is polluted. Health effects A farm is a living entity and all plants have consciousness. Unconscious farming killing insects and weeds using herbicides and pesticides creates negative energy in the plants. Plants receive 98% of their dry weight from the atmosphere and thus their health is severely affected. Man or beast consuming these plants will in turn be negatively affected.

Topsoil loss 10 80 tons / hectare of top activated fertile soil is washed away every year in India depending on slope, altitude, temperature, rainfall, flooding etc. Nature takes 100 500 years to make one inch of fertile soil. It is a crime to destroy it, and it is our primary responsibility to protect it as the soils life is our life. Water requirement for farming 80 90 times more water is required for chemical farming compared to NATUECO farming, which utilizes even less than conventional organic farming. Water is going to be the greatest issue in the planets near future, a fact we are only beginning to wake up to. It is said that the next world war will be fought not over politics or oil, but water. Bio-diversity The planet is a complex balance of many life forms living in complementary symbiosis. Man-made climate change causes the destruction of natural ecosystems, leading to the extinction of 30,000 - 130,000 species a year, an average of 8,000 times the normal rate. Considering the chaotic and unpredictable nature of the climate in recent times, monocultures are especially doomed to death as a monsoon may arrive a few months early, wiping out all of a cash crop. Humanity is equally doomed unless something is done to preserve the bio-diversity of the planet, ensuring that even if some crops fail, others will survive. Sustainability An unsustainable system will eventually run out of resources and thus collapse. Sustainability is the natural way of all life on the planet. Mankinds greed has pushed us into a precarious situation that threatens not only our species but the very life of the planet. Simply observing and re-integrating with nature guarantees us a comfortable and prosperous life with minimum effort and maximum grace.

13

Benefits of Amrut Krushi This method of farming enriches the environment along with the human society and provides an individual with financial and social equality, prosperity and independence. Following are its benefits Air, water and land remain free from chemical pollution. Reduce the loss of organic carbon in the soil to the atmosphere as CO 2. Increase the ability of the soil to absorb and retain moisture from the air. Recycling of 'waste' materials (leaves, shells, wasted food, dead animals, cow dung etc.) to ease the problem of waste disposal Reduce the costs of labour needed for farming. Reduce unhealthy artificial chemicals in and on food. Reduce the amount of water required in fields.

Increase beauty and vitality of farms by encouraging both plant and animal biodiverssity.

Who can practice Amrut Krushi? Anyone who has a small piece of land can start using Amrut Krushi. All you need is at th least 1 Guntha (1/40 acre) and access to a reliable and assured source of 100 lit. of water.

Where to start Amrut Krushi? The easiest way to experience the benefits of Amrut Krushi is to start practicing it. Start with a small piece of your farm we recommend -1 acre. Follow the techniques described in the next few chapters. Get some experience. Then decide if Amrut Krushi works for you.

Amrut Mitti: Creation and Care


Why is it called Amrut Mitti? Where in nature is the most fertile soil found? How is it prepared? Nature prepares the most fertile soil in the rain forests. In these forests, stones and rocks transform into fine soil through water and wind. This soil gathers over the leaves shed by trees. The animals in the forest discharge their stool and urine on this mixture of soil and leaves. Rain water and the shade provided by trees keep this mixture moist. This process continues over a period of 100 to 500 years, post which a one-inch layer of fertile soil called humus is prepared. We can, by mimicking nature, replicate this process within 5 months by human intellect and labour. Since this soil is replete with micro organisms which are perpetual in nature and which provide all the qualities necessary for development of plants, it is called Amrut Mitti. This technique of preparing Amrut Mitti in 5 months is developed in several places on the basis of experiments and practice. Looking at the qualities of this man-made soil, Dr. O. P. Rupela (Ex senior microbiologist - ICRISAT) has named this as Amrut Mitti. The components that are found in this are the following: Hundreds of micro-organisms (fungi and bacteria) and insects (earthworms, ants etc.) keep the soil loose. Minerals that naturally increase the quality of produce. Humus or manure that develops the plants. Various chemicals made up of humus, minerals and micro-organisms such as culture, humic acid, amino acid, hormones protect the produce from malefic worms.

16

Process of preparing Amrut Mitti The four steps of preparing Amrut Mitti are: Preparing Amrut Jal. Preparing of heap. Greening of heap - making the soil more fertile by planting t h e seeds of various plants in it, along with the energy of sunlight, air, atmosphere etc. Looking after the heap.

Amrut Jal This is a solution in which the number and diversity of anaerobic micro-organisms is very high. The chemical elements present in it make the soil fertile and the microorganisms increase the chemical and physical qualities of the soil. Micro-organisms present in it perform the following actions: Convert the nutritious elements in the soil to a form that can be taken in by the feeder roots Prepare humus (manure) from organic materials (leaves, bark etc.). Make the soil fertile

Items needed to make Amrut Jal Following items are needed to prepare about 111 liters of Amrut Jal: One litre of cow urine (preferably of a native/local breed) One kilo fresh cow dung. Hundred (100) litres of water. 50 gms of black jaggary or country molasses of 12 overripe bananas or 6 apples or 500g grape or 6 guavas or 12 fruits of jackfruit or 500 ml of sugarcane juice or 12 cashew fruits, whichever is available amongst these.

17

Points to note: Quality of urine and cow dung of local breed cows is better. The older the cow urine, the better the quality. The cow dung should be fresh, since a large number of micro-organisms are present in fresh cow dung. Preference should be given to the use of country/black molasses because chemicals are not used in it. In order to prepare Amrut Jal according to the need, quantity can be changed while keeping the ratio of the items constant.

10 litres of water

1 kg fresh cow dung

50 gm jaggary or country molasses

1 litre cow urine

18

Process of making Amrut Jal Mix one litre of cow urine into ten litres of water. Mix one kg of fresh cow dung into it by stirring it well. After this, melt 50 grams of jaggary molasses into this solution until it is properly mixed. In lieu of molasses, use 12 over- ripe bananas or 6 guavas or 12 jackfruits or 500 ml of sugarcane juice or pulp of 12 cashew fruits or any of these, whichever is available. Now leave this mixture covered. Rotate this mixture clockwise and anticlockwise 12 times each, 3 times a day which will help aerate the solution. Mix 100 litres of water in this after 72 hours of making the solution. About 111 litres of this solution is called Amrut Jal. Important Don't let any plastic, stone or metal mix in the solution. Always keep it covered.

What is a heap? By duplicating nature's process of making fertile soil in the rain forests, the process of preparing a heap by mounting thin layers of organic waste and fine soil is called heaping. Standard size of the heap is set at 10 ft. long, 3 ft. wide and 1 ft. high. Though the length for convenience has been set at 10 ft., it could vary. However, the width and the height should be as per standards as this helps in ensuring the entire heap is aerated. On an average, 400 to 600 litres of Amrut Mitti is prepared from a single dump. This huge difference in average occurs due to the fluctuation of moisture levels in the heap and rate of change of different types of organic wastes into humus (manure).

Organic waste Organic materials necessary to prepare Amrut soil such as leaves, straw of crops, grass, fodder etc. are called biomass or organic waste. This material is made up of an organic (micro bacterias) process which has its own weight. That is why this name is given to them. Fruit and vegetable peel, cow dung and wasted food can also be used as organic waste. Dead animals and their stools are also a kind of organic waste.

19

Items needed to prepare a heap The items needed for a heap depends upon its size, structure and kind of organic waste available as ready resources. Necessary items to prepare a standard heap (10 ft. long, 3 ft. wide and 1 ft. high) are as follows -

Bio weight Item Amrut Jal Dry organic waste Fine soil Various seeds Source of fine soil Fine dust found in household wastes is the best fine soil. It is also found in the half inch of t h e upper layers of soil in villages and fields. It could be collected by sweeping. This fine soil is stored in huge amounts by the banks of rivers or streams. If the soil is smooth, then mix about 10% of fine sand into it. How is the heap prepared? There are four steps to prepare the heap: Preparing about 100 litres of Amrut Jal.
20

Quantity about 500 litres. about 80 kg. about 60 litres (and 10% fine sand) 300 gm.

Cutting organic waste into pieces of 3-4 inches or making fodder and soaking it into Amrut Jal for 24 hours. Mounting layers of organic wastes and soil. Planting seeds on the heap and covering it with grass.

Important About 500 litres of Amrut Jal remains in the tank (tub or large tank) after removing the organic waste soaked for the heap at the beginning. Add another 500 litres of Amrut Jal to the existing solution and use it to prepare the second heap.

First step: Preparing about 1000 litres of Amrut Jal Mix 10 kilos of fresh cow dung into 100 litres of water. Now pour 10 litres of cow urine into it. The older the cow urine, the better. The level of chemicals is comparatively higher in the urine of a local breed cow, hence more beneficial. In the end, mix 500 grams of molasses properly in this mixture and leave it covered. Now stir it well 12 times clockwise and anticlockwise respectively, thrice a day and mix this solution into 900 litres of water after three days. About 1000 litres of Amrut Jal will be prepared. Use this on the same day.

Second step :Making fodder or small pieces of the organic wastes and soaking it into Amrut Jal:

Make 3-4 inch fine pieces of about 80 kilos properly dried organic waste. Put these pieces into an empty tank, not in the garbage made on the floor because it would soak the water fast. Now pour the Amrut Jal on this. Put a heavy stone or log on the organic waste to ensure they are completely submerged in Amrut Jal. The organic waste should be allowed to soak in Amrut Jal for 24 hours. Third step :Layering of the organic wastes and soil 10 ft long, 3 ft wide and 1 ft high heap is considered as the standard. Mark a patch on the field as per the standard dimensions. This patch should be cleared of any green growth as that would increase the acid levels in the heap. Sprinkle the patch with Amrut Jal. Remove the organic waste from the Amrut Jal and spread a thin layer of organic waste on the patch. Then add a thin layer of soil on top. This keeps the entire surface area of the organic waste in contact with the soil. This ensures that when the acids
21

released from the decomposing organic waste come in contact with the soil, the minerals in soil are converted into compounds which can be taken in by the roots. About 5 kilos of wet organic waste is needed for a single layer. Note that the weight of organic wastes increases after soaking in the Amrut Jal. About two to three litres of fine soil is spread at a time. (The amount of soil should be one-fourth of the volume of organic wastes as organic waste reduces more than soil). Continue the process of layering organic wastes and spreading fine soil on it until the height of the heap becomes 1 foot. After every 5 layers of organic waste, it should be pressed properly by walking over it. Generally, after spreading 25 layers of organic waste and soil one after another and pressing it well, the total height of it becomes about 1 foot. Often, the total number of these layers reaches up to 70.

Fourth step :Transforming of heap into manure and covering (mulching) Turn the heap over every 7 days for a month (4 times a month). Sprinkle the heap regularly with Amrut Jal to keep it moist. After the first month, add 2 inches of fertile soil (preferably dry cow dung) to the heap.

Fifth step :Greening of the heap 300 grams of various kinds of seeds are planted on the heap. These seeds should be kept in the Amrut Jal for 4 hours before seeding. This speeds up the sprouting process. Please note that at least 6 varieties of seeds should be planted to ensure biodiversity and provision of all essential nutrients to the soil.

Following seeds should be planted for live cover Grains: Maize, oat, millet, wheat, rice etc. Pulses : Green gram, Urad, bengal gram,toor, moth etc. Oilseeds: groundnuts, sesame, kardi, mustard etc. Spices: Chillies, fenugreek, cumin, black mustard etc. Vegetables: Spinach, tomatoes, brinjal, gwarphali, beans etc. Creepers: Cucumber, pumpkin, bottle gourd, bitter gourd etc. Tubers: Potato, sweet potato, turmeric, ginger etc. Fibrous : Okra, cotton, ambadietc. Flowering: Marigold, mogra, baramasi etc. Medicinal: Tulsi, Shatavari, Adulsaw, etc.
22

Long life: Babool, neem, munga, karanj, glyricidea etc.

Following types of seeds should be planted on the heap according to the six rasas (shatras) of Ayurveda: The six rasas of shatras are as follows: Sweet Pungent Bitter Tangy Acerbic Salty Fennel seeds Chillies Fenugreek, bitter gourd Ambadi, tomatoes Gwarphali Spinach

23

Trim 25% of the plants on the 21st day after the seeds sprout. Keep the stem as it is. Leave the trimmed portion on the heap. The elements found in these soft leaves such as zinc, phosphate, boron, molybdenum are transferred into the heap in edible form. Twenty-one days after the first trim (42 days after seeding), another 25% should be trimmed and left on the heap. Due to this, the heap is enriched by the elements found in mature leaves such as nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium. On the 63rd day (after seeding) when there will be flowers in some plants, cut all the plants from half a n inch above the ground, chop it into 3-4 inch pieces and lay it over the heap. These chopped plants will turn yellow in 3-4 days. Then soak this biomass into Amrut Jal for 4-6 hours. Mix this soaked biomass into the heap and turn it over. Sprinkle Amrut Jal and leave it for 30 days. During this period, keep on turning over the heap every seven days and keep it moist. In this way, a good fertile soil will be prepared in your field in 140 days, which is called the Amrut Mitti. Apply this method only once. The whole soil of the field will turn into Amrut Mitti. After harvesting the produce, keep applying the left over biomass on the field as a cover. This will increase Amrut Mitti.

Refer to Appendix 1 for chronology of steps to prepare the heap. Refer to Appendix 2 for annual calendar for preparation of the heap

24

Benefit of planting seeds on the heap The plants growing out of these seeds cover the heap and maintain moisture in the heap. This process of covering the heap by live plants is called live cover (live mulching).

By planting different types and flavours of seeds, plants store various nutritional elements and various types of culture from the ground. Different kinds of nutritional elements are found in the leaves of plants of different ages. The fertility of the heap increases from putting these leaves into it.

Roots of these plants make the soil soft and smooth. Leaves of these plants store energy from sunlight and carbon from the air. Various types of micro-organisms develop around the roots which is called culture.

Dheeg of the 21st day after sprouting of seeds Why is heat felt while putting hands inside the heap? Millions of micro-organisms are actively turning the organic waste into Amrut Mitti inside the heap. The body temperature of these micro-organisms creates this heat. This heat is felt when micro-organisms work actively in the heap. Its temperature could gradually increase from 30 to 50 degrees Celsius at the most.

What are the steps to take care of the heap? Following points should be remembered while taking care of the heap

In order to maintain moisture in the heap, water should be supplied according to the need. In case the seeds do not germinate, the cover of dry grass should be removed. In order to expedite the process of preparing Amrut Mitti, the heap should be irrigated with Amrut Jal at a suitable rate every 7 days. After 21 days of plants coming out of the seeds, the upper 25% portion should be cut and kept over the heap. By doing this, the elements present in it such as zinc, phosphate, boron, and molybdenum mixes up in the heap.

As the plants become 42 days old, the upper 25% portion of it should be cut and placed over the heap. Due to this, the heap receives nitrogen, magnesium and potassium elements. As the plants become 63 days old, leave inch plant above soil and cut the rest and place on the heap. T h i s e n s u r e s t h a t t h e heap also receives the elements present in it such as calcium, silica, iron and manganese. Its roots have useful organic chemicals in it, which is called culture. On completing 140 days of preparing the heap, turn the heap over once and start using it.

Dheeg of the 42nd day after sprouting of seeds

Dheeg of the 63rd day after sprouting of seeds

27

Chopped green biomass

Why do sugarcane leaves and wheat stalks take more time to turn into Amrut Mitti? Organic waste such as sugarcane leaves and wheat stalks take more time to decompose, since they are covered with a layer of wax. This layer obstructs Amrut Jal from permeating. Due to a lack of moisture, micro-organisms cannot decompose it faster. If Amrut Mitti has to be made quickly from such leaves/stalks, they need to be cut into small pieces and kept in Amrut Jal until it turns black. After this it should be used as an organic waste to prepare Amrut Mitti. Also in case of organic waste with strong fibres, the same would take more time to turn into Amrut Mitti. High carbonnitrogen ratio is also a reason for slow decomposition. How is the moisture in the heap examined? Take out a handful of organic waste from about 6-inches deep inside the heap. Now press it hard inside your grip. If a few drops of water drip from it, that means the level of moisture in the heap is alright. If it doesn't drip, it shows that there is a lack of moisture in the organic waste. If your hand gets sticky or wet as soon as you hold it in your hands then it means there is more moisture in the heap than needed. Due to excess moisture, micro-organisms do not get enough air and the decomposing of organic waste slows down. Repeat this process in different parts of the heap. What is the process of maintaining moisture in the heap? When organic waste like sugarcane leaves are used, often what happens is that the water poured for the heap flows over it, due to which there isn't enough moisture inside the heap. In order to get rid of this problem, 6-inch deep and 1-inch wide pits should be made at every 1 ft interval on the heap. By pouring water on these pits, it is possible to maintain moisture inside the heap. What should be done if the heap hardens: If the heap becomes hard, it should be mixed properly by turning it over with a spade. Once sufficient Amrut Jal is mixed in, it should be gathered again into a heap and kept covered with dry grass. What could be the reasons behind heap converting into Amrut Mitti in 140 days? There could be several reasons for this. Following are a few amongst them: If the organic waste is not chopped properly into fine pieces of 3-4 inches. Enough moisture is not maintained in the heap. Excess or less layers of organic waste are laid on the heap. Micro-organisms also die due to lack of mulching (cover) on the heap.

Micro-organisms living in the presence of oxygen die due to obstacles in the flow of air in the heap. Pouring excess water makes the heap sticky which is not conducive to the survival of micro-organisms. Lack of nitrogen could also be the reason for slowing down of the decomposition process. Amrut Jal helps in providing the necessary nitrogen levels.

Excess amount of fibre in the biomass/organic waste can also slow down the decomposition process.
29

What should be done to keep the Amrut Mitti fertile: After taking out the yield produced in this soil, all the left over biomass should be used to cover it. After every three months, ashes of the organic waste should be mixed in it at the rate of 30 grams per square foot. It should always be kept covered with the live cover. If there is a lack of water, a heap of Amrut Mitti should be made in the shade and kept covered with dry grass, polythene, paper or stones, so that less water evaporates. Amrut Jal should be given to Amrut Mitti as follows: once in 7 days once in 15 days Third once in a month once in three months once in six months.

First year Second year year Fourth year Fifth year

There is no need to give Amrut Jal after this. How much Amrut Mitti is required per square foot for the development of plants? A minimum of 4 litres of Amrut Mitti per square foot is required for this.

30

What is carbon-nitrogen ratio? Carbon and nitrogen elements are present in every organic matter. The ratio of their quantity is called carbon-nitrogen ratio. The time taken by any organic matter to prepare Amrut Mitti also depends on its carbon-nitrogen ratio. Micro-organisms gather energy from carbonic compounds and obtain protein from the compounds made up of nitrogen. It is found that micro-organisms turn the 30:1 (one part nitrogen in proportion to 30 parts carbon) organic waste into Amrut Mitti faster. In organic waste, if this ratio is higher than the standard ratio mentioned, the heap would remain cold from t h e inside and take a longer time to change into Amrut Mitti. If it is less, then the heap smells like ammonia gas (urine). In order to bring this ratio closer to the determined one, the mixture of half green and half dried organic waste is used after drying it. The process of preparing Amrut Mitti becomes faster because of this.

How many nutritional elements are needed for the development of plants? Where do the plants collect this from? The plants require more than 30 nutritional elements. It takes 4 elements among these from the air. Collects nitrogen from both soil and air. Collects hydrogen and oxygen from water. Collects carbon from carbon dioxide. Modern science elements. is advocating for 110 nutritional

What is the ratio of chemical minerals and organic manure in Amrut Mitti? A volume of Amrut Mitti made in a systematic method should comprise of half portion of the upper soil of the field and half portion of black humus (manure) made up of organic matter completely changed into manure.

31

What is humus? The light, black, moist and aromatic substance with fine fibres, prepared from the decomposition of organic waste or organic materials by live micro-organisms (also dead micro-organisms, leaves, shells etc) is called humus. Amrut Mitti of the same biomass, which takes a longer time to change into humus, also remains fertile for a longer time. A one-litre bottle of humus weighs around 400 grams. How do we identify Amrut Mitti? Amrut Mitti is light, soft, granular, and black. The scent is the same as that which comes from soil after the first rain of the season. It leaves no mark of soil in your hand. The shape of the heap decreases about three times after Amrut Mitti is prepared. It is known from experiments that the weight of Amrut Mitti decreases on t h e formation of more humus and increases on forming of less humus. How is the level of humus and minerals present in the soil determined? Put one handful of soil into a glass full of water and leave it for 5 minutes. After five minutes, the substance resting at the bottom of water will be the chemical minerals and the one floating above will be humus. How do the ashes of organic materials and humus affect Amrut Mitti? PH standard is used to examine if the soil is acidic, alkaline or neutral. Amrut Mitti is generally neutral. Its PH ranges between 6.5 a n d 7.5. If the PH of Amrut Mitti exceeds beyond this limit, it is brought down to the neutral limit by using alkali and humus. PH of Amrut Mitti increases if ashes of organic matters are given and humus lowers the PH of Amrut Mitti.

32

PLANT MANAGEMENT What are plants? Plants have life, take birth, physically develop and die, they also have consciousness, emotions, they breathe, they prepare their own food, and they purify air, water and the atmosphere. Similar to animals, plants too have special organs to perform special duties. So production can be increased by knowing their important organs. A notable point is that plants cannot move, but they prepare their own food, without moving, with the help of sunlight, air, soil and water. Not only that, even human beings, birds, animals and micro-organisms (bacteria, fungus) utilize the food prepared by them. What are the main organs of plants? Main organs of plants are: Roots Stem Branches Leaves Flowers Seeds Fruits

What is a seed? It is a magical thing. A small seed has the capacity and genetic information in it to develop into a big tree and million other seeds like it. If it is provided with proper conditions to germinate and flourish, then it becomes a wonderful plant or tree. It is necessary for seeds to receive moisture and temperature as per their specific needs in order to germinate. Tender leaves coming out from such seeds need sunlight to grow. Their delicate roots need soft moist soil. A seed contains a small storage of food. This storage is used in the development of roots in the initial stage and buds of the plants. And then th e buds growing out of it start cooking their own food with the help of sunlight, air, and water. Roots help to draw necessary elements from the soil. As these initial leaves and roots start working, the plant becomes self-sufficient. Seeds are of two types 1. Monocodile - wheat, corn, rice. 2. Dicodile - green gram, urad, bengal gram.
33

What is special about indigenous seeds? The experiences of users say that indigenous seeds are adapted to the local weather. They germinate even in adverse conditions. They provide food security by yielding enough produce even in hostile conditions. They have high resistance to diseases and pests. They understand the need of the local ecosystem and provide vital energy to its users both microbes and human beings. The taste of vegetables and grains from indigenous seeds is better, w i t h g r e a t e r n u t r i e n t v a l u e as well. These seeds do not require any chemicals or fertilizers or pesticides for their growth. T h e y develop quite well even in the normal fertile soil. Farmers need not buy their seeds from the market as these seeds can be stored in local conditions and can be planted repeatedly for a longer life, thereby maintaining bio-diversity. But in a competition and greed to receive faster and more yields, the existence and use of these indigenous seeds has almost withered away. In a place where indigenous seeds are available, there is a need to use them in order to conserve them; otherwise, this genetic treasure acquired d u r i n g thousands of years will be extinct. In order to protect the seeds from damage, they are kept with ash or neem leaves. The chance of damage by pests also reduces if different types of particular seeds are mixed and kept together. How many types of roots are there? What are their functions? There are mainly two types of roots in the plants. One is the 'feeder root' and the second one is the 'anchor root'. Feeder roots draw water and nutritious elements from the soil. Anchor roots go deep into the soil and provide a strong foundation to the trees. If required, they supply water and nutritional elements to leaves through stems and branches by drawing them from the bottom of the ground. Anchor roots are strong and thick, while feeder roots are comparatively soft and thin. Feeder roots prefer to spread around up to 9 inches in the fertile soil instead of going deep into the ground. What are the stages of leaves and their functions? There are mainly three stages of leaves. Bud - new tender leaves Mature - fully developed leaves Yellow leaves

Their main function is to prepare food for the plants/trees. A green coloured substance called chlorophyll i s present in these leaves. The leaves appear green due to it. This substance prepares food by utilizing sunlight, air (carbon dioxide) and water. Food prepared in the plants is stored in the stem and branches. After germination, two leaves appear in several seeds at the beginning. These two leaves soon decompose. A few tender leaves keep coming out after this. These leaves become mature later. Leaves can completely turn the sunlight into food only after they are matured.
34

In the leaves of the initial stage of plants, each new leaf comes bigger in size than the previous one. This is the sign of proper growth of the plants. Leaves of every plant have a certain life period. On finishing this life period, they die by turning yellow and later on decompose after drying. Buds and yellow leaves cannot grasp sunlight properly. That is why mature leaves are necessary to harvest sunlight. There is zinc, phosphate, molybdenum and boron elements present in tender leaves. T hese elements help to build the cells of the leaves. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium sulphur, zinc, copper, iron and manganese elements are found in mature and aged leaves. These elements help to increase the size of leaves and produce chlorophyll. The leaves return the non-constitutional elements nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, potassium, sulphur and copper - to the mother plant or to mother earth before falling down. That is why only calcium, silica, boron, iron and manganese elements are found in the dried leaves. By preparing manure from this, we do not get the full nutrition required for the balanced growth of the plant.

How many stages of physical development of plants/trees are there? How are these stages identified? There are 5 stages of physical development of short-lived and medium-lived plants/trees. The equal 5 stages obtained by dividing the average age by 5 represent an approximate period of each stage. For example, the crop of green gram is ready in 100 days, so each period would be of 20 days. In order to identify each stage, the changes supposed to occur during that period are as follows: Infant stage - During this stage, plants grow tender leaves from their seeds and a few buds. At this stage, each new leaf becomes bigger than the previous one. Growth of feeder roots takes place at this stage. Adolescent stage - Rapid development of branches occurs in this period. Number of mature leaves increases faster. Size of the stem also keeps on increasing. Youth stage Canopy develops faster than the feeder roots of the plants during this stage. Along with this, some special types of chemicals i.e. hormone prepares in its body. Mature stage - The main sign of this is the appearing of flowers in plants and then growing of fruits.

35

Old stage - The whole fruit would have come out at this stage. The branches and leaves of plants die and dry out in spite of favourable conditions, since their life period ends.

What is canopy? Canopy is made of all the leaves and branches of the plants. According to a simple rule, the growth of canopy is directly proportionate to the growth of its feeder roots. A plant harvests more sunlight since its canopy spreads and stores more nutritional elements. How can the balanced development of canopy and the network of feeder roots be achieved? Plants are trimmed for the development of canopy. Root treatments are done for the development of feeder roots. The balanced development of roots and canopy of plants can be done by trimming and treating the roots. What is leaf index? The canopy required to harvest optimum sunlight of the area of the plant occupied is called the index of the plant. For example, the leaf index of a banana tree is 5. Th i s m ean s th at th e area covering it should have 5 times more canopy than the area occupied by the plant. A full grown banana tree spreads across 25 square feet of space. In order to collect the total sunlight falling in this area, it would require 5 times of that area i.e., 125 square feet of leaves according to the leaf index. That is, if the total area of all the mature leaves of a banana tree is 125 square feet, then it would be able to harvest the whole day's sunlight. If the space (square foot) required by a completely developed plant is multiplied by the leaf index, it is known that how much the total area should be of all its leaves in order to collect the whole day's sunlight. Generally, the leaf index of plants ranges between 3 and 10.

What are the functions of stem? Its function is to store the food made by leaves. It also works as a medium to supply the nutritious elements collected by roots from the soil, to the leaves and to the fruits. It also provides a basis to the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. Each year, a new circle is made in this which indicates the age of that plant. There are different impressions of the barks of stem for different species of trees. A tree could be identified and correct scientific information about the environment during the life span of the tree can be obtained. We can say it is a black box of that area.
36

What are the main functions of flowers? It is the reproductive organ of a plant. It is of two types - male and female. In most of the species, male and female flowers both appear in the same plant, such as green gourd. In some species, male and female flowers blossom in different trees, such as Date Palm. Butterflies, birds, bees and other animals and wind help the male pollen particles reach the pollen particles of female flowers. This act is called cross pollination. If human a s s i s t a n c e i s i n v o l v e d , it is called artificial pollination. The process of preparing fruit starts after the male pollen particle enters into the female flowers.

What are the functions of fruit? It stores the seeds in order to keep its own species alive. Animals (cattle, bird, human) eat its pulp and throw away the seeds. The seeds that get favourable conditions grow after germinating and become trees.

What is a node? The branch between the two closest leaves in the plants and creepers, in which leaves grow one after another, is called a node, such as bottle gourd and cucumber. The branch between the two close bunch of leaves in the plants in which a bunch of leaves grows is called a node, such as mango.

37

What is pruning? What are its benefits? The act of systematic cutting of tree parts is called pruning. Every tree has a special shape that works as an antenna to harvest the full cosmic energy, so a proper shape of the tree is essential to harvest the same, and this only happens by pruning. New branches and leaves reappear after they are cut. This quality is used to make the plant look beautiful, give it a suitable shape, and to receive greater yields. The canopy grows by pruning and it helps the plants to harvest more sunlight. Remember that the possibility of increase in the number of fruits depends on the development of newer branches. It also helps in removing unproductive and deceased branches. We can control the harvesting of fruits according to our requirement.

What are the precautions related to pruning? Pruning should be done after the harvest fruits. Usage of proper sickle, saw, etc. are essential to prevent harm due to pruning. Immediately after cutting the branches, a plaster of cow dung and ash should be applied on the trimmed part. This helps to retain the moisture and avoid infections/diseases due to insects and pests.

The place from where 5 to 7 branches have come out together should be trimmed and the number of branches should be brought down to 3 to 4. The strong branches should be spared and weak branches should be trimmed. The branches whose length exceeds 3 feet but have no new branches coming in should be cut short to 2 feet, so that new branches could grow from it. Generally, in the trees which produce fruits like Guava, Custard Apple, etc., the branch longer than 10 nodes is cut at the tenth node. A simple rule of this is also that it should be cut from the node from which the colour of the long branch is turning its shade from green to brown. Most importantly, it should be done in a calm and concerned manner. After pruning, the branches and leaves should be laid away from the stem but under canopy to recycle all the nutrition taken by the plant.

38

How is the pruning of bushy vegetables done? The method of pruning for bushy vegetables: Trimming of new leaves above the bunch of flowers in tomato, chilli and brinjal increases the size and number of fruits growing from below.

How is the pruning of creepers done? The method of pruning for creepers class vegetables After the germination of the seeds of creeper class vegetables such as pumpkin, cucumber, gourds, a bunch of leaves grow in the first 21 days of its infant stage and 7 leaves come in after this. Its adolescent stage then begins. A new leaf appears every day in this stage. After coming out of 13 leaves on 13 nodes, the thickness of the stem is grown so much by its 8 node that new branches could come around it. But it has to be cut by counting 5 nodes from the top end of the creeper to grow secondary branches. On the secondary branch, once y o u reach the 13 nodes from there, cut it th by counting 5 nodes from its top. New branches will appear on the 8 node, which is known as tertiary branch (third). New branches develop earlier by doing this. From the tertiary branch, all leaves will have female flowers which will b e converted into fruits. The mature stage of the creeper begins after 63 days. If the pruning is done continuously, several new branches would have come. The chances of growing fruits and flowers are in abundance. How is pinching done? Scratching the top of the new flesh which comes before the flowering of the trees, particularly in Mango trees, new flesh should be pinched before flowering flesh to harvest the assured fruits of Mangoes. By pinching, we are converting vegetative growth into t h e storage of fruit branches. The science says that energy cannot be destroyed, but can be converted into any form. What is root treatment? Why and how is it done? Root treatment is a treatment which enhances the growth of stagnant big trees. When a trees fruits fall down before maturing, when the growth of branches are stopped, a n d when new flesh stops developing, root treatments are carried out. Often, the development of feeder roots stops from lack of nutritional elements in the soil, or due to obstacles from wall, stones or other reasons. New feeder roots could grow if Amrut Mitti is spread around the feeder roots of these trees and ailing feeder roots are cut. The tree could provide better yield from doing this.
th

39

Divide the ground under the circle of canopy of the tree into 4 equal parts. Select one part among it. Dig the ground one foot deep under the branch ends of the tree in this part. If feeder roots are not found here then dig one foot deep towards the direction of the stem until the network of feeder roots are found. Slowly and very carefully bring out the thin bunches of feeder roots from that place once they are found. Cut the top end of these roots with siketior or a particular gardening scissor. Pour Amrut Jal on their trimmed ends. Now put ash on these. Ash would protect them from diseases by fighting germs and help them grow as well. Fill Amrut Mitti in the place from where soil is dug. From doing this, the roots would get its required nutritional elements in available condition. Now make a cover of 3 to 4 inches properly. Moisture will be maintained from doing this and the development of new feeder roots will be faster. It curtails weeds growth. In the rainy season, repeat this process every 15 days and in summer and winter season in every two months repeat this process in all the remaining three parts.

40

Out of pruning and treating the roots, which one should be done first? It should be decided by considering the condition of the plants. If the canopy of the tree has developed, but it is not producing any fruit, then treatment of its roots should be done first and pruning should be done along with this. On the other hand, if the canopy of the tree has not developed then pruning should be tried first. If new branches are not appearing then treatment of the roots should be done. Remember that pruning should be done regularly after a certain interval (as told earlier).

How do you measure the energy/nutrition taken from sunlight, air, water and weight from soil by plants? Weigh a green plant by plucking it from its roots. This weight is called 'fresh weight' of the plant. All the elements present in it is the sum of nutrition taken from the soil. Now, dry this plant. It would approximately lose the portion which it has obtained from water. Now, weight it once again. It is called the 'dry mass' of this plant. The amount of water it absorbed could be known from the difference between the wet and dry mass. Now burn it properly. The energy and heat emitting from it is the portion which it has obtained as energy from the sunlight. The smoke emitted while burning is the portion which it has obtained from the air. And the remaining ash is the part which it has obtained from the soil. By weighing this ash, the weight obtained by the plant from the soil could be measured.

What are the portions of each element in the dry biomass for plants? The 98% of dry biomass for plants consists mainly of four elements. Details of their portion are as follows - Carbon - 44%, Oxygen - 44%, Hydrogen - 6% and Nitrogen 24%. Plant obtains these four elements from air and water. The rest of about 2% weight consists of more than 30 elements. Plants obtain these elements from the soil.

41

MORE AGRICULTURE RELATED INFORMATION


What is mulching? Covering the upper layer of soil is called mulching.

How many types of mulching are there? It is mainly of four types live mulching dry mulching stone mulching plastic mulching

What are the benefits of mulching? Following are the benefits of mulching: It maintains the moisture of Amrut Mitti. It stops Amrut Mitti from draining out. It reduces the quantity of wild grass weeds. Humus prepared in-situ from the decomposition of live and dry mulching. Protects micro-organisms from the damages occured due to sunlight. Makes it useful for the worms to work around the clock.

What are the precautions one should follow while mulching? Precautions to be taken while mulching Dry or green organic waste used in mulching should not touch the stem of the plants. Stems could be damaged from the moisture stored in it. Dry mulching should be protected from the fire. The mulching thickness should be kept between 3 to 4 inches in tropics. From 6 to 9 inches, mulches are advisable in cold countries to maintain heat for the microbes to survive. Semi-decomposed materials mulching is preferable as it helps in harvesting the dew from the atmosphere.
42

Green biomass should not be used in direct mulching. What seeds should be planted for live mulching? Leguminous seeds that are shorter in height than the main plant can be planted for live mulching.

Which seeds should be planted on the heap as per Ayurveda? According to Ayurveda, following are the Shadras (extracts) which could be obtained from plants Sweet Pungent Bitter Sour Acerbic Salty Fennel Chilies, Black pepper Fenugreek, Bitter gourd Ambadi, Tomato Gwarphali Spinach, Urine

What is visual productivity?

productivity,

primary

productivity

and

secondary

The dry biomass produced per hector in the soil is called visual productivity of that soil. This dry bio mass is measured in / (per) hector. Primary productivity of the soil is that which is obtained without using any external resources. This dry bio mass is measured in hector/kilo liter water. The productivity obtained by supplying water from external sources, putting fertilizers and using pesticides in the soil is called secondary productivity. Visual productivity is the summation of primary productivity and secondary productivity. i.e., it is prepared by combining these two. It is known from researches that visual productivity and secondary productivity of the soil increases for a while if irrigation resources, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are applied but primary productivity ends for a long time.

43

Honorable Sri. Sudarshanji thinks that visual and secondary productivity has increased due to green revolution, whereas primary productivity is highly reduced. The reason behind this is that more than 30 elements are required for the development of plants, whereas the chemical fertilizer consists of just 7 to 8 elements. So the requirement of those elements is satisfied while obtaining the remaining elements from soil. The production of crops increases till these elements are present in the soil of the farm, and when these elements are exhausted the production of crops starts falling. Farmers put more chemical fertilizers believing that there would be more yields by the next time and thus they would return the bank loan but the production of crops keep reducing while the burden of loan becomes heavy. In the end, the farmers opt for suicide to save their dignity. This is the reason behind the suicide of over 2 lakhs farmers in our country, till date.

What is the mathematical relationship between sunlight and productivity of plants? According to estimation, each day 1250 kilo calories of energy per square foot comes as light and heat from the sun, in Tropics. According to the leaf index, the mature leaves of plants could only use just 1 to 1.5% (12 to 16 kcal) of this energy. It prepares about 3 to 4 grams of dry food-glucose from this energy. One gram out of this is spent regularly in the physical activities of the plant, which is for metabolism. One gram is spent on developing the different parts of the plant, like stem, leaves, branches, roots, etc. And the remaining 1-2 gram is stored for the food, which converts into fruits, seeds, root crops, gum, fiber, medicine, etc. How to water the plants? How much to water the plants? When to water? Plants do not require water, it only needs moist conditions in order to obtain nutritious elements from Amrut Mitti. The notion that roots absorb more nutritional elements if more water is supplied is incorrect. Due to t h e supply of more water in the absence of air, the effect of Amrut Mitti reduces and damages the roots as well. That is why the plants grown in Amrut Mitti should be watered through the garden pipe. It should always be kept covered (mulching) in order to save water and stop the draining of Amrut Mitti. Water should not be poured around the stem. Water should be given under the canopy where the network of active feeder roots is present. Water requirement is one liter/sq. ft. for ten days on Amrut Mitti and having proper micro climate preparing through live fencing done with the principle of Natueco Science. Water should preferably be given at sunset or early in the morning to avoid vaporization of the water due to the heat generated by the Sun during the Day.

44

Water from garden hose

Bamboo structure for the Humidity Chamber

45

Ready structure for the Humidity Chamber

Mint in the Humidity Chamber

46

Nutritious roots developed in the stem in 30 days What is Humidity Chamber? Humidity Chamber is a place where nurseries can be made with very little water and develops maximum feeder roots during the sprouting time (10 feet long, 4 feet wide, 3 feet height). We can accelerate the growth of Roots and Canopy of the saplings in it due to recycling of carbon-dioxide in chamber itself. Aromatic plants and the plants which favor shade such as coriander, mint grows faster in it and can be produced around the year. Saplings (plants fit to sow) could be made from the seeds in it faster. What are the materials required to build Humidity Chamber? The materials required to build a Humidity Chamber are as follows 10 feet long and 4 feet wide black polythene of 200 gauge. 80 bricks. About 500 liters of Amrut Mitti (approximately one Heap). 5 pieces of 7 feet long bamboo sticks. 3 pieces of 10 feet long bamboo split to use in the middle and side support. 14 feet long and 8 feet wide transparent polythene of 150 gauge.

47

How to build a Humidity Chamber?

Method of building First, 10 feet long and 4 feet wide black polythene of 200 gauge is laid on the leveled ground. The black polythene sheet will prevent leaching the water in the soil. 6 inches (two bricks) height brick wall is built on the polythene borders. It stops the Amrut Mitti to drain out. About 80 bricks are required for this. Now about 500 liters of Amrut Mitti is spread over the polythene. In order to build the Humidity Chamber on it, five 10 feet long bamboo sticks are bent in a bow shape and both the ends are stuck in the soil in the horizontal direction, around the bricks. The gap between these sticks is of 2 feet. In order to bind these sticks strongly, 10 feet long bamboo, split in the middle is placed and they are tied to each other in three places. 12 feet long and 8 feet wide transparent polythene of 150 gauge is laid on this structure of bamboo sticks. The pavilion is sealed by placing bricks along its border. As the polythene is transparent, sunlight keeps on entering into it. Along with this, internal moisture turns into vapor due to day-time heat and gathers on it, also falling back in the same dew once the external temperature dips. That is why very less water is needed to be poured in it. Plants can be sowed in this pavilion covered by polythene from all the sides and roots of the saplings could also be grown faster. Aroma and freshness of aromatic plants remains longer in it. It can be used as a small nursery.

48

What precautions should be taken while building the Humidity Chamber? These precautions should be taken while building the Humidity Chamber It should be built in a place where its transparent polythene won't be torn due to strong wind. Build it in a place with less exposure to sunlight. Polythene melts faster in bright sun and plant dies due to increase in internal heat inside the pavilion. A chamber should be covered with shed net in areas where the temperature goes over 35 degrees Celsius. It should be kept open from the two vertical ends for an hour every day for air ventilation in tropics.

What is 'Ganga Maa Mandal'? This structure is made in order to obtain all the nutritional elements necessary for a family of 5 members from vegetables and fruits. It does not need a space more than 750 square feet. Herbs to maintain health can also be grown in it. Its aim is to provide complete nutrition to a family without depending on market. This also provides opportunity for female members of the family to live with dignity as it provides marginal income sufficient vegetable and fruits of the family. It provides raw food for children when the parents are away from home for work, which provides enough nutrition to growing children. With this we avoid child mortality rates due to malnutrition.

What are the materials needed to build the 'Ganga Ma Mandal'? The materials needed to build it are as follows
1. Land of 30 ft diameter i.e. 706 sq. ft. 2. Seeds / seedlings 3. Amrut Mittis heaps 8 4. 5 kilo Ash or lime 5. Biomass for mulching 200 kg 6. Amrut Jal @ 1 L / sq.ft. i.e. 706 L 7. A stone of about 4 sq. ft. 8. About 8 feet high 50 nos. poles or bamboos 9. Spades 10. Crow bars 49

11. Labour at the time of requirement 12. Coir ropes and measuring tape 13. Water.

What is the process to build 'Ganga Ma Mandal'? The process to build it is as follows Plant a peg just in the center of the 1000 square feet area and tie a rope fit enough to measure 15 feet in length to it. Now draw a circle 15 feet away from the peg, with the help of the rope. Put ash on its border so that it can be noticed. Now draw successive circles, each respectively 10.5, 9, 6, 4.5, and 3 feet away from the peg, and put ash on its border. Hold tape on the perimeter of the outer most circle and divide it in 7 equal parts of 13.5 feet each. Keep on marking by putting ash. Draw a straight line up to the 4.5 feet circle, considering the place as the center point where such two parts meet. Measure 9 inch each from both the two ends of this line and draw two straight lines up to the 4.5 feet circle. In this way, a 1.5 feet road would be built in between these two lines. This road would extend up to the 4.5 feet circle from the outer most circle. Make 7 roads of 1.5 feet each like this between all the 7 parts built on the outer circle. Now dig 2 feet deep in the shape of a funnel in the inner most circle of 3 feet. Put such dry organic materials in this pit which would take more than 6 months of time to decompose. Such as coconut choirs, branches of toor plant and cotton, sugarcane waste etc. Put the materials which would take time to decompose at the bottom and mount the materials which would decompose faster on top of it. Such as dry leaves of plants. After filling the pit in the inner most circle, a stone is kept on it which is big enough to sit and take bath or to wash clothes and utensils. A platform is made by erecting poles and bamboos on both the sides of all the roads. A network of rope is made over this platform. The heap can be made straight away on the remaining spaces, except the roads or Amrut Mitti prepared in some other places can also be brought and heaped here. The first process is more beneficial. Amrut Mitti never falls short in this process and the roots of plants keep getting all the organic chemicals produced by micro-organisms as well.

50

What are the precautions to be taken while building 'Ganga Maa Mandal'? Precautions are as follows 'Ganga Maa Mandal' should be made in a place where creeper class plants would not be broken due to strong winds. Where sunlight is available for a longer duration. Where it can be protected from the animals. Where most of the water used in house hold works (bathing, washing clothes, cleaning utensils etc.) could enter it. Creeper class plants should only be allowed to spread on the platform by stopping it to spread over the heap or the roads. Rope should be tied in order to reach it up to 6 to 8 feet. Ganga Maa Mandal should be made near the kitchen. It would be easy and convenient for the organic waste and water from kitchen to reach the 'Ganga Maa Mandal'. Moreover it is easily accessible from the kitchen to bring the vegetables and fruits.

How do you plant plants and trees in the 'Ganga Maa Mandal'? It does not have any definite method but suggestions regarding it are as follows Creeper plants are planted on the heap, on both sides of all the roads approaching towards the center of the Ganga Maa Mandal. These creeper plants should be mounted over the platform by tying it with a rope. Tuber vegetables such as onion, garlic, radish, sweet potato and potato, fruited vegetables such as tomato, brinjal and ladies finger, medicinal plants such as tulsi, mint, and curry leaf should be planted on the external 7 large heaps. Spices such as fenugreek, tea leaves, chilli, coriander, protenious plants such as barbarti, gwarphali, toor, green gram, urad and beans should be planted on the 7 small inner heaps situated inside. Banana, papaya plants could be planted in the inner most circle as enough moisture is present in it.

What is quarter acre Ten Guntha Farming? This is a concept of farming which manages the food, housing and fuel for a small family 5 members on a quarter of an acre i.e. 10000 square feet area. It is also called the ten guntha(dusguntha) farming. 'Guntha' is a unit to measure land. One guntha consists of about 1000 square feet.

53

Its important points are as follows Vegetables, grains, pulses, spices, fruits, oil seeds, herbs, fire woods, fodder, cotton, etc. useful to a family are produced by 'Self'. There is no need to plough the field because all the crops are planted in Amrut Mitti. Own seeds are used for year after year which reduces the expenses on seeds. This farming is done with less water. Its yield is comparatively much more beneficial and nutritious. It provides 5 L to the family: Living, Livelihood, Learning, Laughter and Love. It reduces the food miles of the family.

What are the divisions of Ten Gunthas Farming(10000 square foot)? The divisions are as follows 1000 square feet of area is kept for housing in this method of farming. 500 square feet of area is kept for open yard. One thousand square feet of area is kept to build a reservoir or a well in order to collect rain water. 500 square feet area is kept for the store room. Farming on Amrut Mitti is done in the remaining seven thousand square feet area. As under 2000 sq. ft. Cereals 1000 sq. ft. - Pulses 1000 sq. ft Vegetables 1000 sq. ft Horticulture 500 sq. ft Cotton 500 sq. ft. Spices 500 sq. ft. Herbs 500 sq. ft. Fodder and Fire Wood

What is food mile? Whatever we eat is something produced elsewhere. The distance between us and that place is called food mile. Suppose you are having a mango in a village of Madhya Pradesh. This mango is supplied to you by collecting it from a tree in Andhra Pradesh. Now the distance between you and that tree will be called food mile for you. Generally it is measured in mile. The longer the food mile, the more the energy spent to supply the food to you. This energy is acquired by using fossil fuel. The increasing use of this is getting harmful for the environment. The food supplied from far away places is generally more expensive. So, the lesser the food mile, the better it is for you and the environment as well. In simple words, the more you consume grains, fruits, vegetables, spices and other things produced in your farm and village, the more the benefits for you and the environment.
54

55

What is foot print? Some people live with very minimal means while some require a lot of things to live. The raw materials of these are grown in farms, forests, gardens, mines and water streams and they are prepared in huge buildings built on the earth. If people use these more, then more field and raw materials are required in order to grow and produce these. The amount of area needed to grow the required amount of things for an ordinary human being of any certain village or area to live, is called the ecological foot print of that person. It is measured in hector. Now, if a person is living in the city, then he would require more. Therefore, he would also require more fields to grow or produce those things. The people of some region in the world survive with very little. That is why their ecological foot print is generally very less. Whereas, ecological foot prints for the people living a lavish life in huge expensive cities in the world is very high. If the food mile of the people of a certain area is less, more population could be accommodated there. If their ecological footprint would be high, only a tiny population could live there. What is multitier farming? Generally it is considered that, any other plants should not be planted under the big trees as they cannot develop. But in the natural dense forests, several creepers are found on the big trees. There are various kinds of bushes, plants, grass and creepers under the trees as well. The most important fact is that even their growth is also substantial. Some scientists studying forests believe that, all kind of plants, bushes-trees and different types of grasses live together as a family. They live in harmony by sharing, providing Sun light, shading, giving nutrition and water to each other without exploiting the other. Short-term plants provide the nutrition to mid-term plants and mid-term to long- term plants. And long-term provide shelter, nutrition, protection to ALL. For example, under Coconut trees canopy if we plant Banana, under that Pineapple along with Ginger and Turmeric and Black Pepper with the support of Coconut Stem and some herbs like Mint, Lindy Pepper, we call this 7 tier farming, where every plant is helping each other in many folds. All plants do not require all the sunlight to harvest, they need filtered sunlight and only with this principle in Natural Dense Forest do we see such a multi-tier growth. What is called live productive fencing? The fencing which is made in order to protect the field from animals is generally made up from dry thorny bushes. But, this can be replaced with eco friendly plants, which is consumable and provides income to the farmer like Drum stick, Castor, Glyricidia, Shetu, Hatga, Turmeric, Ginger, Lemon Grass, Vettiver Grass, Awla, Soapnut, Zhendu, Karonde, Chironjee, Curry Leaves, shatawari, Tulsi, Hadjod, Ketki, Aloevera, Ardusa, etc. Bougainvillea and green thorny bushes.

What are the benefits of live productive fencing?

It has several benefits. Such as Soil becomes fertile from the shredded leaves of Drum Sticks, Glyricidia, Shevri, etc. We get market value produce from Drum Stick, turmeric, lemongrass, ginger, Curry Leaves, etc. Aesthetics in agriculture is maintained from colorful flowers. Birds nesting on these trees control insects. It acts as a Wind Breaker by reducing the velocity of wind leading to increasing photosynthesis. Fire wood for fuel from the trees. Bamboos can be used to build house with aesthetic sense. Dissolved Toxins in water coming from outside the fencing during rain can be purified by Vetiver roots, cuscus, etc. Medicinal plants can also be planted. We get nutritious fodder for cattle. Reduces temperature of the field by 3 degree Celsius during summer and thus provide coolness. And most importantly it extracts nutrition from as deep as 100 to 150 feet depth and brings it to its leaves and the leaves falling on earth becomes biomass and in turn enriching the top soil. How to plant seasonal crops? There are two types of seeds Leguminous (pulses) and non-leguminous (Cereals). If you plant alternately leguminous and non-leguminous in farms, there will be no deficiency of nitrogen and other micro nutrients. By this system we provide throughout the season shade in the farm and with minimum water farming can be done in-situ nutrition management. Example: planting the following in sequence Cotton, Moong, Juwar, Chowli, Bajra, Guwar, Maize, Toor.

What are supporting plants? The plants protecting each other from pests or helping in availability of nutritional elements are called supporting plants. Following are some among them Brinjal Tomato Okra marigold, sabza, sesame cabbage, marigold, arandi, shevanti, carrot marigold

Cauliflower black mustard, potato, garlic, onion Cucumber Peas Potato Ginger Turmeric Oat Wheat Turnip Pumpkin Radish Carrot Sesame Cotton maize carrot, turnip, radish, maize maize, cauliflower, marigold toor dal castor, chillies green gram, barbati bengal gram onion maize peas onion, radish, tomato maize, oat barbati, ambadi, marigold, toor, maize, okra

58

Which are the plants that keep pests at bay? There are some plants whose smell is not favorable to insects. Insects prefer to stay away from it. Crops can be protected from insects by applying the benefit of this behavior of them. Such plants are - castor, dicamali, sabza and ashta. Which are the plants that attract pests? The smell of some plants attract pests. The damage occuring from pests can be reduced by planting these trees in between the crops. Such plants are - barbati, rye or mustard, marigold, castor, etc. Mava pests gather on barbati and rye. Thus the main crop is saved. How does the plant that creates illusion for the pests work? Some plants create an illusion for the pests. Due to this, their numbers do not increase or most of them die. For example, from planting some corn plants along with cotton, the caterpillar grown on the bond becomes illusioned and lay eggs on the plumes of corn instead of cotton flowers. There, ultimately the babies of caterpillars die due to lack of food of cotton flowers. Which are the birds that eat the insects harmful to crops? A few such birds found in our country are - Neelkanth, Bhardwaj, Sewing bird, Bulbul, Woodpecker, Robin, Kotwal, Owl, Falcon, Ghoobad. What is seed treatment? In Ayurveda, dosage is mentioned along with the medicine so that the effect of medicine increases. Similarly sprouted from such treated seeds, the life span of plants is longer and remains healthy throughout. A farmer could plant better potential plants with higher immunity power by applying this science. First select the seed, soak it in Amrut Jal, and take out the seeds which are floating. Seeds with more germination capacity will be found from this. Decide the quantity of seeds. Choose 4 to 6 such seeds which must include leguminous plant seeds. For example, if you have to take a crop of oats, then take the seeds of fenugreek, green gram, coriander, mustard etc. In proportion of these two take ash, fresh cow dung, soil gathered from different parts of the field in which it is to be sown, and termite soil. Mix all these properly and make small balls after making dough with cow urine. Dry it in the shade and place it just on the ground at proper interval where it is to be sown, cover it and provide water. Life enters along with the germination of seed from this method. Life figures out the pH of the soil around its seed and the lack of elements in the soil and informs the micro- organisms of cow dung around it. Then bacteria informs the worms and it gathers the lacking elements by going 6 to 8 feet deep under the soil, turn it into a dissolved state and delivers it around the roots. Potash and other essential micro nutritious elements which become helpful for the growth of roots are provided by the ash spread around the roots. Cow urine provides essential alkali and acid and termite soil binds all of them.
59

Around such germinated plants, green gram provides nitrogen, coriander provides micro nutritious elements; fenugreek provides iron elements while mustard provides nutritional immunity power. In this way, provision of preparing nutritious elements around the main crops can be made. The farmers succeed in reaping better quality crops from this. The total benefit of this method is achieved only when the farming is done without ploughing and without using chemicals and pesticides. But with full awareness. How the calendar of vegetables and crops is prepared? See appendix-three.

Appendix - 1

This calendar is prepared in order to remember the daily work schedule for preparing a heap. Remember that, the day mentioned earlier about the trimming and over turning of plants is calculated from the day of germination of the plants, whereas here it is started from the day of preparing Amrut Jal. There is a difference of few days in two descriptions due to this. Calendar is as follows Day 1 day 2
nd th th st

Work Preparing of Amrut Jal. Chopping of organic wastes into fine pieces of 3 to 4 inches. Soaking of organic wastes into Amrut Jal. Preparing the heap. Overturning the heap and irrigating it with Amrut Jal. Overturning the heap and irrigating it with Amrut Jal. Overturning the heap and irrigating it with Amrut Jal. Soaking 300 grams of seeds in Amrut Jal for 4 hours. Planting of various seeds on the heap. Irrigating the heap with Amrut Jal. Removing of cover from the germinated seeds. Pouring Amrut Jal to maintain moisture. Trimming of 25% from the top of all the plants, 21 days after the germination of seed. Chopping the green portion of the trimmed plants into small pieces and putting it on the heap. Trimming of 25% from the top of the mature plants. Putting the green portion of the trimmed plants on the heap after chopping it into small pieces. Flower will appear in some plants. Cut all the plants from one inch above the ground at that time. Chop its green portion into pieces of 3-4 inches and put it on the heap for drying. Soak the pieces of the plants that turned yellow in Amrut Jal for 6 hours and mix it completely in the heap. Sprinkle Amrut Jal. In
63

day

4 day 5 day 12 day 19 day 26 day 33 day 34 day 40 day 47 day 61 day
st th th th rd th th th

82

nd

day

103 day

rd

107 day

th

next 30 days overturn the heap and irrigate with Amrut Jal for every 7 days. 137
th

day

Now the heap of Amrut Mitti is ready.

65

Appendix - 2 Considering the farming work done in our country throughout the year, following works are furnished below in the form of a calendar in order to make the process of preparing the heap more convenient. Month January Work Surveying of organic waste, soil, cow dung, cow urine, black molasses, local seed, instrument to cut organic waste and the availability of laborers. If you have your own dairy, start collecting cow urine by building a concrete tub. Selecting the site. Building of tanks to store water and soak organic waste as per the need. Cutting and collecting organic waste of crops. It will decompose faster from rain water if kept dispersed. Collecting of fine fertile soil from ponds and checkdams. Store it in such a way so that it does not get wet from rain and drain out as well. Mark the spot. Store the fine soil to prepare the heap. Start preparing the heap with the rain water. If it does not rain for several days then arrange to irrigate the heap. Remember to prune the plants. Pour Amrut Jal to each heap in every 7 days. Continue preparing the heap. If there is no moisture inside and above the heap then arrange for the irrigation. Take care of the pruning of plants. Pour Amrut Jal on each heap in every 7 days. Build a new heap. Overturn the heaps of 70 days old. Cover the heaps after overturning. Take care of the moisture in the heaps. Do the pruning of plants in time. Pour Amrut Jal on each heap in every 7 days. Start overturning the heaps of 70 days old. Cover the heaps after overturning. Take care of the moisture in the heaps. Do the pruning of plants in time. Pour Amrut Jal on each heap in every 7 days. Plant vegetables and crops in the already prepared Amrut Mitti. Spread 30gms of ash in the soil. Pour Amrut Jal on each heap in every 7 days.
66

February March April

May June

July

August

September

October

November

Collecting organic waste of crops and cutting. Continue preparing heaps, pruning of plants, pouring water and Amrut Jal and the process of overturning the heaps. Continue preparing heaps, pruning of plants, pouring water and Amrut Jal and the process of overturning the heap. Cutting of grass, storing it and using it for the cover.

December

67

Appendix - 3 You can also prepare this calendar according to the sample shown below by asking your elders and knowledgeable persons. It is possible to change the time of sowing due to the availability of water and temperature. Month January February March April May June Sowing of crops Groundnut, sunflower, soya bean, tomato, brinjal, okra, fenugreek, bitter gourd, kakdi, cucumber, gourd, watermelon. Groundnut, sunflower, brinjal, okra, bitter gourd, kakdi, cucumber, gourd, watermelon. Brinjal, ladies finger, bitter gourd, kakdi, cucumber, gourd, water melon. Cauliflower Chili, brinjal, cauliflower, ginger, turmeric. Rice, oat, millet, toor dal, green gram, barbati, cotton, ground nut, sesame, chilli, tomato, brinjal, okra, cauliflower, cabbage, fenugreek, spinach, onion, ginger, turmeric, potato, bitter gourd, cucumber, gourd. Oat, maize, toor dal, green gram, urad, barbati, ground nut, sunflower, soya bean, sesame, tomato, brinjal, ladies finger, cauliflower, cabbage, fenugreek, spinach, onion, potato, bitter gourd, cucumber, gourd. Chili, tomato, onion. Kardai, tomato, brinjal, okra, cauliflower, cabbage, fenugreek, spinach, garlic, radish. Wheat, bengal gram, sun flower, brinjal, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, fenugreek, spinach, onion, garlic, rye, carrot, radish. Bengal gram, wheat, groundnut, chilli, fenugreek, spinach, onion, rye, carrot, radish, potato. Chili, tomato, brinjal, fenugreek, spinach, radish.

July

August September October November December

69

Reference books

Vipulachi Srushti S.A. Dabholkar Aple Haath Jagannath S.A.Dabholkar Sendriy sheti kashi karavi Vasant Phutane, Karuna Phutane Kisaan diary - 2009, published by Ecological society, Pune Happy beginning ... and your success fulfills the duty to take this campaign to several other people. .... All well wishers

70

Analysis of the sample of soil collected From Krushi Teerth, Bajwada is posing a challenge to the agricultural scientists.

Background This farm is situated in the Bajwada village of Devas district of Madhya Pradesh, which is under the proprietorship of Malpani Trust and Management of Mr. Deepak Suchde (deepaksuchde@gmail.com), the chief executive officer (CEO) of the trust. Mr. Suchde is also a vital member of the 'Prayog Parivaar'. 'Prayog Parivaar', a non organizational network of knowledge-broadcasting was started by Prof. Dabholkar. Several farmers are associated with this network. More information about the network is available on www.prayogpariwar.net. The book namely 'Plenty for All', written by Prof Dabholkar and published in 1998 (Mehta Publishing House, 1216 SadashivPeth, Pune; mehpubl@vsnl.net) presents a different view about farming. All the students of agriculture should read this book. I know this group since 2005, when I had participated in a work shop organized by this group on the first auspicious anniversary of Prof. Dabholkar. Several farmers associated with this group were awarded by some states/organizations for their better production of various crops including sugar cane and grapes. Their idea/views (mentioned in book and/or website) may sound unscientific, but the data of better production by the farmers has impelled me to devote more time/show interest in this direction. This group has developed several new types of protocols of crop production. The main attraction for a microbiologist like me was their 'method of preparing compost', which they call the process of preparing 'masala mitti' - Mr. Deepak Suchde now calls it Amrut Mitti. There were 10 crore plants' growth enhancing bacteria (Ciderofor generating)in every 1 gram of compost in some samples of this compost, which is the highest in numbers of bacteria found in any compost in our laboratory yet.

71

Table 1. Phosphorus, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, transferable potash (PPH) and organic carbon percent available in the samples of soil collected from KrishiTeerth, Bajwada, Devas (MP). Treatment Available phosphorus (PPM) Main soil 17.1 In between 20.5 the heaps Sown on th 33.1 heap Below the 247.7 heap Average 79.6 SE+17.7*** Total phosphorus (PPM) 392 362 410 500 416 58.4 NS Available nitrogen (PPM) 174 198 194 798 341 77.8** Transferabl Organic PH potash (PP carbon per cent (PPM) 284 0.66 7.75 315 0.74 7.59 424 770 448.25 87.0* 0.72 2.61 1.1825 0.264*** 7.91 7.89 7.79 0.036*** Om Rupela Chief scientist (micro biologist) ICRISAT Date: 12.05.08

72

73

74

75