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Hydraulic engine

Abstract.
Hydraulic engine is a self-propelled engine which runs without combustion. It runs due to reaction Torque i.e., caused by the high speed jets of vegetable oil. It can run up to 150000 miles without change in fuel. This seems to violate the KELVIN-PLANK statement, but it perfectly obeys it.

Diagram and Explanations.

Key Words.
Check valve, Hallow shaft, Heat exchanger, Nozzle, Reaction torque, Truncated conical drag pump, ZPFzero point field theory.

Introduction.
In hydraulic engine the only apparent outside source of power is a 12V battery which is used to start the pump which run engine. In this, vegetable oil is used as the hydraulic oil because at which water turns into steam and engine oil breaks down. The basic ideology for hydraulic engine is derived from Asphalt Sprayer Equipment. The important feature of the Asphalt Sprayer in that it can run up to 30min. even when the power is turned off. Modifications of thin instrument are lead to design of a 350HP output power from 200 pound motor. In thin the motor had only one moving part that means a conical rotor on a hallow shaft which is mounted vertically spiral channels cut into cone wound around its length and feed into peripheral nozzles at its large end fluid flowed through the spiral channels it was ejected out the nozzles and caused the cone to spin at a certain velocity the rotating cone became independent of starter pump and began to operate by itself at an operating speed of 1800-2300rpm the fluid is heated up to 3000F requiring a heat exchanger.

These are sectional views of Truncated Conical Pump Parts:

and having a cup-like boss 23 extending outwardly there from. Support feet 19. The end cap 20 also has a pair of bracket arms The above fig. Integrally formed bracket 44. I have shown in fig. The boundary layer is the thin layer of fluid adhering to the channel surface. Bearing 47.1. Nut 60. . Washer 59. illustrates that proportional decrease in channel depth as rotor diameter increases. Conical interior wall12.Housing 11. Because the fluid rotates slower than the rotor. Bearing boss 43. Outlet chamber 16. Snap ring 57. Adjustable gland nut 25. The housing 11 is supported on feet 19. Packing 24. Bearing boss 29. Snap ring 31. Channel base 63. This means fluid has to travel twice as far in same time to maintain a constant slip velocity. The fluid is also in contact with the housing wall. Inlet pipe 15. The fluid is induced to rotate with the channel by boundary layer drag. Nut 51. suitably sealed thereto and removable to afford access to the frusto-conical wall 12. The above fig. closing the outlet end of housing. it is forced through the channels towards the large end of the rotor. Inlet chamber 14. Delivered pressure is limited by back flow across the radial clearance and is inversely proportional to square of clearance so. Bearing sleeve 46. Retainer 40. Rotor shaft 21. Outlet pipe 17. Conical rotor 13. The channel depth decreases as the rotor diameter increases. a small increase in radial clearance would rapidly reduce pressure hence the rotor in cone shaped so that clearance can be controlled by axial adjustment of rotor relative to housing wall. Lock nut 55. Description of a Preferred Embodiment of invention. spaced 180° apart for balance. The outlet chamber 16 is closed by a detachable end cap 20. By reducing channel depth in half the fluid velocity is doubled three by keeping slip constant. which may be bolted or otherwise secured to a conventional foundation or base (not shown). Shoulder 34. a conical drag pump 10 including a housing 11 having frusto-conical interior wall portion 12 forming a pumping chamber and cooperating with a frusto-conical rotor 13 to produce a high pressure of the fluid as discharged through the outlet of the pump. Gland nut 41. The end cap 20 has a wall portion 22. End cap wall 22. contained to say cup-like boss as by an adjustable gland nut 25 threaded in said boss. Reduced diameter outer end 36.Detachable end cap 20. Snap ring 48. The conical rotor has two helical channels (criteria 3). The cup-like boss 23contains packing 24.Shaft reduced diameter 53. shows a high pressure low volume drag pump it has a conical rotor that has a close clearance with stationary housing wall. Fluid enters the channels at the small end of the rotor. The boundary layer drag against this stationary wall slows the rotation of the fluid in the channels. In addition the fluid is forced towards the large end by centrifugal force. Bracket arms 27. Channel sidewalls 64. In the embodiment of invention illustrated in the drawings. in the form of square threads. Inner race 32. to accommodate machining thereof and assembly of the rotor 13 and a rotor shaft 21 within said housing with the wall of said rotor in close clearance with the internal frusto-conical wall 12. Flat faces 56. Molecular cohesion tends to drag the adjacent fluid with the boundary layer. Shaft reduced diameter 45. Helical channel 61. Coupling 37. Inner flanged 49. Packing 39. Sleeve 33. Bearing 30. Retainer nut 35. Inner race 50. An inlet chamber 14 is provided at the small diameter end of the frustoconical portion 12 and is shown as having an outlet pipe 17 leading there from. Boss 23.

for a bearing 47 mounted in the bearing boss 43. that would self-propel it. and by a washer 59 abutting the large diameter end of said rotor. Because fluid drag is primary force. it is well suited viscous . each of which threads or channels a root or base 63 and parallel side walls 64 have. to take up on the packing 24. afford access to the gland nut 41. as by a snap ring 48. one of which is indicated by reference numeral 56. however. It should be understood that the coupling 37 may be at either end of the shaft. need not necessarily be formed like square threads but may have rounded bases or may be of various other forms. and is threaded on a reduced diameter outer end portion 53 of the shaft 21. The sleeve 33 may be feather keyed on the reduced diameter end of the shaft 36 and sufficient clearance may be provided between the shaft and the sleeve 33 to accommodate axial movement of said shaft relative to said sleeve when taking up on clearance between the frusto-conical wall 12 and frusto-conical face of the rotor 13.27 extending axially outwardly therefrom. of a type which will permit some axial movement of the shaft 21 relative to the motor shaft upon adjustment of clearance between the rotor and the frusto-conical wall 12. The packing 39 may be taken up by a gland nut 41 threaded within the interior wall portion of said cup-like retainer 40. The rotor 13 has at least one helical channel 61 cut or otherwise formed therein and leading from the inlet to the outlet end of said rotor. This thrust would be directed tangent to the circumference and would increase spin torque on rotor. The spaced bracket arms 44. to accommodate adjustment of the packing 39. The bearing 30 is shown as retained against a shouldered position of said bearing boss as by a snap ring 31. The outer end portion of the sleeve 46 is internally threaded. The bearing 47 may be a suitable form of anti-friction bearing. to achieve the desired radial clearance between the face of the rotor 13 and the interior cylindrical wall 12. The shaft 21 has a reduced diameter outer end portion 36 extending through the sleeve 33. As shown in Figures 1 and 3. A lock nut 55 locks said sleeve to said shaft to effect rotation of said sleeve upon rotation f said shaft. The coupling 37 may be of a conventional form. extending axially outwardly of the inlet end of the housing 11 and shown as being formed integrally with said housing. The threaded end portion 53 of the shaft 21 may have opposite flat faces. The end of the shaft 21 extending outwardly of the gland nut 41 has a reduced diameter portion 45 having sliding fit with a bearing sleeve 46. coupling said shaft to a suitable motor (not shown) for driving said shaft and the rotor 13. although the present location of said coupling is preferred to facilitate axial adjustment of said shaft and the rotor 13 relative to the frustoconical wall 12. The increase in fluid velocity is in opposite direction of rotor spin and hence a reaction force is developed from acceleration of fluid. The rotor 13 may be keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft 21 and is held on said shaft by a split or snap ring 57 snapped on said shaft and engaging the small diameter end of the rotor 13. A nut 51 threaded on said sleeve is provided to lock said inner race to said sleeve and against the shoulder formed by the flange 49. The bracket members 27 form a support at their outer edges for a bearing boss 29 for an anti-friction bearing 30. like the bracket arms 27. The bracket arms 27 may be formed integrally with the end cap 20 and are spaced apart to afford access to the gland nut 25. The reduced diameter end portion 36 of the shaft 21 is shown as having a coupling 37 mounted thereon. and held thereto as by a nut 60 threaded on said shaft and suitably locked thereto. Even without peripheral nozzles. The channels. The sleeve 46 has an inner flanged portion 49 forming a shoulder abutted by an inner race 50 of the bearing 47. and which will also compensate for temperature changes. The bearing 30 may be a conventional form of ball bearing and has an inner race 32 mounted on a sleeve 33 and retained against a shouldered portion 34 of said sleeve as by a retainer nut 35 threaded on the outer end of said sleeve and suitable locked thereto. two diametrically opposed channels are shown as being in the form of double square threads. A bearing boss 43 is spaced outwardly of the packing nut 41 and is supported by integrally formed bracket arms 44. and then turning the sleeve 46 along said shaft. with a close sliding fit extending outwardly therefrom. to accommodate axial adjustment of said shaft relative to the sleeve 46 by loosening the lock nut 55 and holding the shaft from rotation by a wrench engaging the flat portions 56 thereof. such as a ball bearing and is shown as retained against an inner shouldered position of the bearing boss 43. The opposite end of the shaft 21 from the coupling 37 extends through the inlet chamber 14 and is sealed by packing 39 contained within a cup-like retainer 40 extending outwardly of the inlet end wall portion of the housing 11.

Adjusting the valve to create hydraulic backpressure regulates the motor RPM. The oil flows through the return line. It continues to pump until the rotor spins up to its operating speed. The combinations of a start pump and check valve would be a simple way to both prime the motor and spin up the rotor. The oil flows into the spiral channels and out the peripheral nozzles. A plate is attached to the large end of the rotor and fits with a close clearance with the housing wall.fluids like asphalt. Oil is drawn up into the hollow shaft (shown . filter. Nozzles attached to the outer edge receive high-pressure oil from the spiral channels. Clem motor in run mode. through the valve. in blue) to the inlet chamber at the small end of the Clem motor in start mode. The jet reaction thrust from the nozzles delivers shaft horsepower to the power takeoff at the shaft top. The motor is mounted vertically so that the check valve on the hollow shaft is submerged down in the oil tank. and heat exchanger and back into the tank. The start pump is most likely a standard hydraulic gear pump. The long channels also represent a large sliding surface area with frictional losses that would transfer heat to pumped fluid. The reaction thrust of the nozzles spins the rotor. Once the start pump is shut off the check valve is free to open. The hollow shaft (shown in blue) extends from the oil tank through the rotor into the inlet chamber. This fills the hollow shaft and forces the check valve closed. The start pump draws oil from the tank and forces it up the external feed line connected to the inlet chamber at the small end of the rotor. The spiral channels pump the oil down towards the large end of the rotor. Closing the valve stops the motor. rotor. The above drawing shows a hypothetical Clem motor based on the Conical Drag Pump.

V1=initial velocity before entering in to the conical rotor V2=final velocity after oil from the nozzle From figure of conical rotor The radius increase from apex to the base of cone. Let V=velocity of jet of vegetable oil F=force produced but jet of vegetable oil d=diameter of the cone l=length of spiral channels. the main torque is produced by the Let us consider an element of radius dr in cone and Torque at that pointi s Torque dT=F. dr=element radius of the cone..dr According to invention at operating speed the engine tends to run by itself this is possible for following reasons Numerical modeling.e.e.. vegetable oil at apex has high potential energy and that potential energy is used to turn conical rotor which adds with centrifugal force to increase the reaction torque and how it automatically operates • As vegetable oil starts to travel from the apex to base radius increase as result centrifugal force increases. dT=torque at that elemental radius T=reaction torque produced by the jets of vegetable oil on the rotor P1=initial pressure of the oil • The operating condition is 1800-2300rpm. at this speed the centrifugal force is very high due to this the pressure head and velocity head changes and then the remaining pressure energy is also converted in to kinetic energy and hence reaction torque is enough for pummping of vegetable oil through hollow shaft to apex of cone Another important reason is the cone is vertical i. radius r we know that centrifugal force F=mrω 2 from that Fαr The above fig shows the actual working of the hydraulic engine. . “dr” changes continuously until it reach the base i.dr Jets of the vegetable oil at the nozzle and that energy is converted in to rotary energy the top view shows clear representation of the jets the heat exchanger is used because the temp raises up to 300 0c and if oil raises from that temp the oil break downs which causes the decrease in efficiency Total reaction torque is T=∫dT =∫F.

Initially the torque is used to overcome the frictional power and then when speed pickups the true is used to increase the speed of the rotor.4 Cone angle and thread angle should maintain constant change of rate to maintain constant slip if there is change in thread angle takes place change in cone angle also takes place by same amount that’s the basic principle Conclusion. it has zero emissions and great fuel efficiency and economy of maintenance and replacement of fuel for every 150000 miles so it has several advantages over normal engine and another important feature even though it has mileage it can run at max speed of 103 miles per hour which is a plus point to run on the roads the engine is controlled by rotary gear pump .As centrifugal force increase torque from the vegetable oil to conical rotor increases . At most operating conditions of 2300 rpm during operational period a hallow shaft itself sucks oil and it continuous and during operation temperature rise up to 3000c . Another important thing is that clem said that it run with constant slip referring to fig. Clem noted that It can travel that 103 mph. It doesn’t has any combustion so.