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CHAPTER 1

NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Near Field Communication is a radio technology that supports transactions at distances of a few centimeters. NFC is designed to support existing RFID transactions including contactless payments and some ticketing systems. During a transaction, one party can be completely inactive, drawing power inductively from the active party. Even the active party draws little power and can be left on all the time with minimal effect on the phones overall power draw. Also, the nearness of NFC transactions creates the possibility of using proximity as context and triggering an appropriate action almost instantaneously. The primary driver for the adoption of NFC on cell phones is contactless payments and ticketing. NFC, in the form factor of a credit card, has been used widely in Japan and Hong Kong for many years: for public transportation, vending machines, and convenience stores. Standards have also been created for smart posters posters, signs, and magazine pages can possess cheap, embedded data tags that contain information such as details of museum exhibits, transportation schedules, discount coupons, movie clips, or links to e-commerce sites. A third important use of NFC is for making connections between electronic devices simply touching the devices together will configure them to connect over a longer-range protocol such as Bluetooth Wi-Fi.

Figure 1.1: Basic NFC Fundamentals

The NFC communication is based on a inductive RF link on 13.56 MHz .There are even active and passive NFC mode at different transfer speeds from 106 to 424 kbps. It has
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backward compatibility with RFID systems and allows communication, both between two powered devices and powered and non-self-powered devices. It has Standardization of the communication signal interface and Standardization of the general protocol flow. NFC operates in the standard, globally available 13.56MHz frequency band. Possible supported data transfer rate is 424 kbps and there is potential for higher data rates. The technology has been designed for communications up to a distance of 20 cm, but typically it is used within less than 10 cm. This short range is not a disadvantage, since it aggravates eavesdropping. There are different possibilities to attack the Near Field Communication technology. On the one hand the different used devices can be manipulated physically. This may be the removal of a tag from the tagged item or wrapping them in metal foil in order to shield the RF signal. Another aspect is the violation of privacy. If proprietary information is stored on a tag it is important to prevent from unauthorized read and writes access. In the case of rewritable tags we have to assume that attackers may have mobile readers and the appropriate software which enable unauthorized read and write access if the reader distance is normal. In this work we want to focus on attacks with regard to the communication between two devices. For detecting errors, NFC uses the cyclic redundancy check. This method allows devices to check whether the received data has been corrupted. In the following, we will consider different possible types of attacks on the NFC communication. For most of these attacks there are countermeasures in order to avoid or at least reduce the threats. NFC devices are able to receive and transmit data at the same time. That means, they can check the radio frequency field and will notice the collision. NFC has the potential to be a disruptive technology, changing the way that lives are lived, transforming everyday tasks, making things easier, more intuitive and more effective. NFC wireless communications can be applied in many different ways, some of which are outlined in this document. However, perhaps most exciting of all is the creation of an environment with all the key components for NFC to become a mass adoption technology. From here, any number of applications can be created to sit within the environment. Thus NFC provides almost perfect wireless data transfer technology and can be used for variety of applications and make its use worthful because of these day to day benefits, features and utilization of Near Field Communication.
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1.2 BASIC OVERVIEW NFC traces its roots back to Radio-frequency identification, or RFID. RFID allows a reader to send radio waves to a passive electronic tag for identification and tracking. In 1983 the first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID. Then in 2004 Nokia, Philips and Sony established the Near Field Communication (NFC) Forum. Further in 2006 Initial specifications for NFC Tags and Specification for "Smart Poster" records also come into account with Nokia 6131 was the first NFC phone in this year. In January 2009, NFC Forum released Peer-to-Peer standards to transfer contact. In 2011 Google I/O "How to NFC" demonstrates NFC to initiate a game and to share a contact. In 2012 March EAT, a well-known UK restaurant chain and Everything Everywhere (Orange Mobile Network Operator) partner on the UK's first nationwide NFC enabled smart poster campaign. (Lead by Rene' Batsford, Head of ICT for EAT, also known for deploying the UK's first nationwide contactless payment solution in 2008). A specially created mobile phone app is triggered when the NFC enabled mobile phone comes into contact with the smart poster.

CHAPTER 2
FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF NFC
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2.1 BENEFITS OF NFC There various benefits of this wireless technology that enables the user to perform various tasks. These benefits can be listed as follows:

Reach and Availability: NFC has the potential over time to be integrated into every mobile handset in the world. This would give the technology a potential reach as global as the mobile phone itself. By integrating NFC technology into a mobile handset, users could gain access to a number of new services via their phone.

Variety of Use: NFC can be used for a number of tasks, from payment for goods to ticketing and from pairing devices to sharing information or discovering new services. Examples of these applications are outlined in this document.

Ease of Use: Because NFC only requires that two devices touch in order to communicate; NFC can simplify many tasks, from opening a web browser on a mobile phone to pairing two Bluetooth devices automatically to accessing wireless hotspots simply and easily.

Security: NFC requires a user to actively wave or hold their mobile device against another device or NFC station to activate a service or to share information. In so doing, the technology requires the user to make a positive action to confirm the transaction or exchange. In addition it is possible to build multiple levels of security into an NFC enabled device.

Value Added Services: NFC enables users to access value added services that would otherwise be unavailable with a traditional ticket or payment card. Just as users of prepay mobile services are able to access their current credit balance through the phones menu system, so users of an NFC enabled phone will be able to access similar information through their device. Furthermore, NFC enabled devices could access the mobile network to add credit to the device when it runs out or is low, or alternatively on a set date each week or month.

Infrastructure: NFC is compatible with the current contactless infrastructure used as a platform for ticketing, transportation and increasingly payment across the world. NFC mobile devices could easily be made compatible with the major transport systems world-wide that use contactless access to services. The roll out of
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NFC to existing contactless environments is straight forward. Users know how the system works and much of the infrastructure is in place already. The roll out of NFC is an extension to services that already exist, but enhanced with the additional element of a mobile phones user interface and a connection to the internet. 2.2 FEATURES OF NFC

NFC is easy to use wireless communication interface for the last few centimeters and provides an easy to use target selection, by simply holding two devices close to each other.

It is based on RFID technology at 13.56 MHz and has Operating distance typical up to 20 cm. It is compatible with todays field proven contactless RFID technology and provide data exchange rate today up to 424 kilobits/s.

NFC is designed for short distance wireless communication. It allows intuitive initialization of wireless networks. NFC is complementary to Bluetooth and 802.11 with their long distance capabilities.

NFC also works in dirty environment. NFC does not require line of sight. It has an easy and simple connection method. It provides communication method to non-self-powered devices. Near-field coupling is the most straight forward approach for implementing a passive RFID system.

This wireless technology has both active and passive NFC mode at different transfer speeds from 106 to 424 kbps. It has backward compatibility with RFID systems.

It allows communication between two powered devices: powered and non-selfpowered devices. It is easy to control NFC communications whether the two devices communicate by simply placing them next to each other or keeping them apart. Near Field Communication (NFC) represents the second generation of the proximity contact-less technology, which supports peer-to-peer communication, and enables consumer access to aggregated services, anytime, anywhere, with any type of consumer stationary and mobile devices.
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Figure 2.1: NFC Network

CHAPTER 3
TECHNOLOGY FOCUS 3.1 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
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Near Field Communication is a standards-based, short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. The underlying layers of NFC technology are ISO, ECMA, and ETSI standards. NFC applications can be split into the following four basic categories: Touch and Go: Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user needs only to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster. Touch and Confirm: Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction. Touch and Connect: Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books. Touch and Explore: NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. The consumer will be able to explore a device's capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are offered. NFC Standards: NFC is a standard, and is ISO standards-based. The ISO 14443 is an international standard for contact-less smart cards operating at 13.56 MHz in close proximity with a reader antenna. 3.2 NFC STANDARDS The protocol is based on a wireless interface. There are always two parties to the communication; hence the protocol is also known as peer-to-peer communication protocol. The protocol establishes wireless network connections between network appliances and consumer electronics devices. The interfaces operate in the unregulated RF band of 13.56 MHz this means that no restrictions are applied and no licenses are required for the use of NFC devices in this RF band. Of course, each country imposes certain limitations on the electromagnetic emissions in this RF band. The limitations mean that in practice the distance at which the devices can connect to each other is restricted and this distance may vary from country to country. Generally speaking, we consider the operating distances of 0~20 cm. As is often the case with the devices sharing a single RF band, the communication is halfduplex. The devices implement the listen before talk policy any device must first listen on the carrier and start transmitting a signal only if no other device can be detected
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transmitting. NFC protocol distinguishes between the Initiator and the Target of the communication. Any device may be either an Initiator or a Target. The Initiator, as follows from the name, is the device that initiates and controls the exchange of data. The Target is the device that answers the request from the Initiator. Near Field Communication is an open platform technology, developed by Philips and Sony. NFC, described by Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol 1, is standardized in ISO 18092 , ECMA 340 as well as in ETSI TS 102 190 These standards specify the basic capabilities, such as the transfer speeds, the bit encoding schemes, modulation, the frame architecture, and the transport protocol. Furthermore, the active and passive NFC modes are described and the conditions that are required to prevent collisions during initialization. NFCIP-2 allows for selecting one of three operating modes: NFC data transfer (NFCIP-1), proximity coupling device (PCD), defined in ISO 14443, and vicinity coupling device (VCD), defined in ISO 15693 NFC devices have to provide these three functions in order to be compatible with the main international standards for smartcard interoperability, ISO 14443, ISO 15693 (vicinity cards) and to Sonys Felicia contactless smart card system. Hence, as a combination of smartcard and contactless interconnection technologies, NFC is compatible with todays field proven RFID-technology. That means, it is providing compatibility with the millions of contactless smartcards and scanners that already exist worldwide 3.3 FUNCTIONALITY OF NFC Near Field Communication (NFC) is a technology for contactless short-range communication. Based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), it uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between electronic devices. The technology works via magnetic field induction and operates on an unlicensed radio frequency band. Tags are embedded within devices (these could be mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs, or NFC stations such as ticket barriers or cash registers). NFC enables devices that are held together to share information either in one direction or both. NFC is based on Radio Frequency Identification technology, which is compatible with most of the contactless transportation and ticketing solutions that are commonly used around the world to enable quick and smooth flow of people within public transportation systems or ticketed
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environments. NFC is an open platform technology and was approved as an ISO/IEC global standard in December 2003.NFC is a short-range, standards-based wireless connectivity technology, based on RFID technology that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between electronic devices in close proximity. It provides a seamless medium for the identification protocols that validate secure data transfer. This enables users to perform intuitive, safe, contactless transactions, access digital content and connect electronic devices simply by touching or bringing devices into close proximity. NFC operates in the standard unlicensed 13.56MHz frequency band over a distance of up to around 20 centimeters. Currently it offers data transfer rates of 106kbit/s, 212kbit/s and 424kbit/s, and higher rates are expected in the future. For two devices to communicate using NFC one device must have an NFC reader/writer and one must have an NFC tag. The tag is essentially an integrated circuit containing data, connected to an antenna that can be read and written by the reader. There are two modes of operation covered by the NFC protocol: active and passive. In active mode, both devices generate their own radio field to transmit data. In passive mode, only one device generates a radio field, while the other uses load modulation to transfer data. The NFC protocol specified that the initiating device is responsible for generating the radio field in this case. The passive mode of communication is very important for battery-powered devices like mobile phones and PDAs that need to prioritize energy use. The NFC protocol enables such devices to be used in power-saving mode, so that energy can be conserved for other operations. NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 424 Kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require batteries. NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible, provided both devices are powered. A patent licensing program for NFC is currently under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories.NFC tags contain data and are typically read-only but may be rewriteable. They can be custom-encoded by their manufacturers or use the specifications provided by the NFC Forum, an industry association charged with promoting
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the technology and setting key standards. The tags can securely store personal data such as debit and credit card information, loyalty program data, PINs and networking contacts, among other information. The NFC Forum defines four types of tags which provide different communication speeds and capabilities in terms of configurability, memory, security, data retention and write endurance. Tags currently offer between 96 and 4,096 bytes of memory. As with proximity card technology, near-field communication uses magnetic induction between two loop antennas located within each other's near field, effectively forming an air-core transformer. It operates within the globally available and unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56 MHz Most of the RF energy is concentrated in the allowed 7 kHz bandwidth range, but the full spectral envelope may be as wide as 1.8 MHz when using ASK modulation. Theoretical working distance with compact standard antennas: up to 20 cm (practical working distance of about 4 centimeters) .Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 Kbit/s (the bit rate 848 Kbit/s is not compliant with the standard ISO/IEC 18092). NFC employs two different coding to transfer data. If an active device transfers data at 106 Kbit/s, a modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used. In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a modulation ratio of 10%. NFC devices are able to receive and transmit data at the same time. Thus, they can check for potential collisions if the received signal frequency does not match with the transmitted signals frequency. The general protocol flow can be divided into the initialization and transport protocol. The initialization comprises the collision avoidance and selection of targets, where the initiator determines the communication mode (active or passive) and chooses the transfer speed. The transport protocol is divided in three parts: Activation of the protocol, which includes the Request for Attributes and the Parameter Selection, the data exchange protocol, and he deactivation of the protocol including the deselection and the release. During one transaction, the mode (active and passive) and the role (initiator and target) does not change until the communication is finished. Though, the data transfer speed may be changed by a parameter change procedure. For further details the reader may refer to the standards.

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Figure 3.1: Functionality of NFC

3.4 MODES OF OPERATION The NFC interface can operate in two different modes: active and passive. An active device generates its own radio frequency (RF) field, whereas a device in passive mode has to use inductive coupling to transmit data. For battery-powered devices, like mobile phones, it is better to act in passive mode. In contrast to the active mode, no internal power source is required. In passive mode, a device can be powered by the RF field of an active NFC device and transfers data using load modulation. Hence, the protocol allows for card emulation, e.g., used for ticketing applications, even when the mobile phone is turned off. The communication between two active devices case is called active communication mode, whereas the communication between an active and a passive device is called passive communication mode. In active mode, both devices generate their own radio field to transmit data. In passive mode, only one device generates a radio field, while the other uses load modulation to transfer data. The NFC protocol specified that the initiating device is responsible for generating the radio field in this case. The passive mode of communication is very important for battery-powered devices like mobile phones and PDAs that need to prioritize energy use.
TABLE 3.1: Modes of NFC

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3.4.1 Active Mode: In this mode both the initiator and the target are using their own generated RF fields to enable communication.

Figure 3.2: Active Mode

3.4.2 Passive Mode: In this mode the target answers to the initiator command in a load modulation scheme. The initiator generates the RF field.

Figure 3.3: Passive Mode

3.5 INITIATOR AND TARGET The initiator is the one who wishes to communicate and starts the communication. The target receives the initiators communication request and sends back a reply. This
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concept prevents the target from sending any data without first receiving a message. Regarding the passive communication mode, the passive device acts always as NFC target. Here the active device is the initiator, responsible for generating the radio field. In the case of an active configuration in which the RF field is alternately generated, the roles of initiator and target are strictly assigned by the one who starts the communication. By default all devices are NFC targets, and only act as NFC initiator device if it is required by the application. Usually misunderstandings are rather rare, since the devices have to be placed in direct proximity. The protocol proceeds from the principle: listen before talk. If the initiator wants to communicate, first, it has to make sure that there is no external RF field, in order not to disturb any other NFC communication. It has to wait silently as long as another RF field is detected, before it can start the communication, after an accurately defined guard-time. If the case occurs that two or more targets answer at exactly the same time, a collision will be detected by the initiator.

Table 3.2: Possible Initiator/Target Combinations

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CHAPTER 4
NFC V/S EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES 4.1 NFC V/S RFID The technologies Radio Frequency Identification and Near Field Communication use the same working standards. However, the essential extension of RFID is the communication mode between two active devices. In addition to contactless smart cards (ISO 14443), which only support communication between powered devices and passive tags, NFC also provides peer-to-peer communication. Thus, NFC combines the feature to read out and emulate RFID tags, and furthermore, to share data between electronic devices that both have active power. 4.2 COMPARISON WITH BLUETOOTH Compared to other short-range communication technologies, which have been integrated into mobile phones, NFC simplifies the way consumer devices interact with one another and obtains faster connections. The problem with infrared, the oldest wireless technology introduced in 1993, is the fact that a direct line of sight is required, which reacts sensitively to external influences such as light and reflecting objects.

Figure 4.1: NFC v/s Bluetooth

The significant advantage over Bluetooth is the shorter set-up time. Instead of performing manual configurations to identify the others phone, the connection between two NFC
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devices is established at once (<0,1s). All these protocols are point-to-point protocols. Bluetooth also supports point-to multipoint communications. With less than 10 cm, NFC has the shortest range. This provides a degree of security and makes NFC suitable for crowded areas. The data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbps) is slower than Bluetooth (721 kbps), but faster than infrared (115 kbps). In contrast to Bluetooth and infrared NFC is compatible to RFID.NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication technologies which are integrated into mobile phones. As described in technical detail below, NFC operates at slower speeds than Bluetooth, but consumes far less power and doesnt require pairing. NFC sets up faster than standard Bluetooth, but is not faster than Bluetooth low energy. With NFC, instead of performing manual configurations to identify devices, the connection between two NFC devices is automatically established quickly: in less than a tenth of a second. The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 Kbit/s) is slower than that of Bluetooth V2.1 (2.1 Mbit/s). With a maximum working distance of less than 20 cm, NFC has a shorter range, which reduces the likelihood of unwanted interception. That makes NFC particularly suitable for crowded areas where correlating a signal with its transmitting physical device (and by extension, its user) becomes difficult. In contrast to Bluetooth, NFC is compatible with existing passive RFID (13.56 MHz ISO/IEC 18000-3) infrastructures. NFC requires comparatively low power, similar to the Bluetooth V4.0 low energy protocol. However, when NFC works with an unpowered device (e.g. on a phone that may be turned off, a contactless smart credit card, a smart poster, etc.), the NFC power consumption is greater than that of Bluetooth V4.0 Low Energy, this is because illuminating the passive tag needs extra power. 4.3 COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES IrDA is a short range (< 1 meter), line-of-sight communication standard for exchange of data over infrared light. IrDA interfaces are frequently used in computers and mobile phones. Wi-Fi technology was designed and optimized for Local Area Networks (LAN); it provides an extension or replacement of wired networks for dozens of computing devices within a +100-meter range. ZigBee wireless technology is a standard enabling control and

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monitoring capabilities for industrial and residential applications within a +100-meter range.
Table 4.1 Comparison of NFC with Existing technologies

4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NFC Complementary to existing wireless technologies Interoperable with compatible RFID systems at 13.56 MHz Allows communication, both between two powered devices and between Reduced cost of electronic issuance. Multi-issue ticketing operators like mass

powered and passive devices. transport operators or event ticketing operators see phenomenal cost reductions in electronic ticketing. Security-sensitive airlines have already moved to "e-ticketing" in order to reduce costs. Increased revenue from interactive services. Mobile network operators and content providers earn revenue when users choose to use value added services. NFC surrounds the user with advertisements and valuable information within easy reach. NFC-enabled devices drive consumption of rich media content. NFC will fuel the market for advanced personal devices that consumers use to purchase, play, store, and share rich media content.

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Consumer preference for NFC-enabled services. Users may have no choice about

which ticket they use for a service, but they typically can choose how they pay. Convenience is a strong differentiator and more convenient payment will drive adoption of contactless and NFC technology. Highest convenience for the user, due to intuitive usage by simply holding two devices close to each other.

4.5

DISADVANTAGES OF NFC The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices

under a short range i.e., around 10 cm. The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and

424kbps. Costly implementation on the electronic basis.

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CHAPTER 5
APPLICATIONS OF NFC 5.1 USEFULNESS OF NFC The NFC communication is based on RF link on 13.56 MHz .There are even active and passive NFC mode at different transfer speeds from 106 to 424 kbps. It has backward compatibility with RFID systems and allows communication, both between two powered devices and powered and non-self-powered devices.NFC is used for the variety of applications. 5.1.1 Contactless Payment: NFC has a short range of about 1.5 inches. This makes it a good choice for secure transactions, such as contactless credit card payments. MasterCard and Visa are both members of the NFC Forum, and both companies have been involved in pilot programs that use NFC-enabled phones as a flash payment option. 5.1.2 Public Transportation: NFC works with most contactless smart cards and readers, meaning it could easily be integrated into the public transit payment systems in cities that already use a smart card swipe. In 2008, German rail operator Deutsche Bahn launched an NFC-ticketing pilot program in which 200 travelers touched their phones to an NFC tag when they boarded the train and then to another when they got off. An NFC device can be used to access a public transportation system, be it train, bus, or subway. Again, scanning into the system can invoke applications 5.1.3 Health Care: NFC tags provide medical professionals with information about what treatments a patient should receive, but they can also keep track of when nurses and doctors have checked in with that patient and when. Each time the tag is scanned, the information about who scanned it and when can be transferred to a database. In addition to improving treatment, NFC tags also have potential in the research realm.

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5.1.4 Ease of Use: If NFC-enabled phones become prevalent, youll likely be able to initiate a two-player game by touching your phones together. Youll be able to link a headset to your phone or print a photo just by touching your device to a printer. A second-place winner in the 2009 NFC Forum competition developed a touch-dial system for people who have trouble making phone calls. The user is able to tap a photo of the person he wants to call. The embedded NFC tag in the photo transmits the proper number to the phone automatically. 5.1.5 Smart Touch: An NFC tag often contains information like a phone number or URL. One of the largest series of experiments that uses phones to pick up information from tagged locations is Smart Touch, a project funded under the European research program between 2006 and 2008. Most of the trials took place in Oulu, Finland, where the city installed about 1,500 info tags in buses, at bus stops, the theater, a restaurant, and a pub that could be read with a mobile phone. For instance, theater patrons could not only use their mobile phones as tickets, or to order refreshments, but they could also scan tagged posters for more information about plays.

Figure 5.1: Smart Touch

5.1.6 Payment and Ticketing: NFC enables users to make fast and secure purchases, go shopping with electronic money, and also to buy, store and use electronic tickets, such as concert/event tickets, plane tickets, travel cards, etc. Social networking: NFC can be used in social networking situations, such as sharing contacts, photos, videos or files, and entering multiplayer mobile games. NFC-enabled mobile

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devices can store a payment application that is compatible with the millions of installed contactless payment readers

Figure 5.2: Ticketing using NFC

5.1.7 Sporting Events: NFC-enabled smart phones can be used as a ticket for entry into sporting events. After scanning in, the phone launches an application associated with the event. It is loaded knowing the users seat, and can be used to order concessions for delivery. Payment can occur through the application as well for a smoother user experience. 5.1.8 Identification: By using the phone as an ATM card, money can be withdrawn which is credited or deducted on the phone bill. Electronic keys: For example, these can be car keys, house/office keys, etc. In addition, NFC makes it possible to use mobile phones instead of identity documents. In Japan, for example, student IDs can be stored on cell phones, which allow the students to electronically register for classes, to open locked campus doors, buy food at the school cafeteria, borrow books, and even get discounts at local movie theaters, restaurants, and shops. The data stored on any tagged object (e.g. a DVD box or a poster) can be accessed by mobile phones in order to download movie trailers, street-maps, travel timetables etc. Movie tickets can be purchased and collected by swiping the phone on the selfservice counter without waiting in line. Set-up Service: To avoid the complicated configuration process, NFC can be used for the set-up of other longer-range wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth or Wireless LAN. NFC can be used for a number of tasks, from payment for goods to ticketing and from pairing devices to sharing information or discovering new services. Examples of these applications are outlined in this document. Thus NFC can be used for variety of applications.

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Hence it can be used for many applications.NFC is a worldwide technology that can be used for many utilization.

Figure 5.3: Applications of NFC

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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 6.1 CONCLUSION NFC is an efficient technology for communications with short ranges. It offers an intuitive and simple way to transfer data between electronic devices. A significant advantage of this technique is the compatibility with existing RFID infrastructures. It would bring benefits to the setup of longer-range wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth. With regard to the security of NFC, different attacks should be taken into account and possible countermeasures to mitigate their impact. Despite the restriction of the range, eavesdropping or data modification attacks can be carried out. But, disregarding attacks, NFC provides security against Man-in-the-Middle-Attacks. In order to provide protection against these threats, the establishment of a secure channel is necessary. For this purpose simply the well-known DH key agreement can be used, because Man-in-the-MiddleAttacks represent no threat. With a secure channel NFC provides confidentiality, integrity and authenticity. Many products and devices will soon be NFC enabled, including credit cards as well as train tickets. But the mobile handset is the first target for NFC applications which are already implemented in a successful manner. Operators are the primary customers for handsets and, therefore, are the gatekeepers who will decide when NFC is to be integrated into the handsets they subsidize for their customers. When compared to the other short-range radio technologies, NFC is extremely short ranged and people-centric. Some of the other short-range communication technologies have similar characteristics, for example RFID, while others are completely different yet complimentary to NFC; for example Bluetooth and Infrared. A good scenario of such compliment is the combination of NFC and Bluetooth, where NFC is used for pairing (authenticating) a Bluetooth session used for the transfer of data. 6.2 FUTURE SCOPE NFC is based on existing contactless infrastructure around the world that is already in use by millions of people on a daily basis. NFC is not a fashionable nice-to-have technology,
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but actually a technology that makes peoples lives easier easier to pay for goods and services, easier to use public transport, and easier to share data between devices. At the heart of NFCs benefits is its simplicity of use holding two objects together is intuitive for everyone, young or old. NFC is building on existing systems and human actions, so it has a very good chance to be valued and used for many years to come. The NFC technology is expected to have a remarkable growth in the coming years. Almost every mobile handset will have NFC incorporated in it. The figure below shows the expected growth of NFC devices.

Figure 6.1: Expected Growth of NFC Devices

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REFERENCES [1] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http://www.nfc-forum.org http://www.gemalto.com/nfc.html www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/nfc/nfc_overview.php http://mashable.com/2010/05/06/near-field-communication/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication http://mashable.com/2010/05/06/near-field-communication/ http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/nfc/index.html http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/javame/nfc/ [2]

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