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Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research

Journal of Educational and Social Research Special Issue

Vol. 1, No. 4, November 2011

Rome, Italy 2011

Journal of Educational and Social Research

Editor in Chief Prof. Francesco Randazzo Guest Editors

Nkasiobi S. Oguzor Benedicta Egbo Austin N. Nosike Bassey Ubong Jacinta A. Opara Executive Director Mcser Prof. Antonello Biagini Editorial Assistant Dr. Dorina Orzac Editorial Managing Dr. Daniel Pommier Vincelli Scientific Coordinator Prof.ssa Giovanna Motta Graphic Design Dr. Roberto Scierrone Editing Dr. Dario Testi

Copyright 2011 Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research ISSN: 2239-978X (Print) ISSN: 2240-0524 (Online) Vol. 1, No. 4, November 2011 Publisher
MCSER Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano, 18/B Cap. 00183, Rome, Italy Tel/Fax: 039/0692913868 E-mail: Web:

This issue is printed with the technology print on demand by Gruppo Srl Via del Lavoro, 22, 36040, Grisignano VI, Italy Tel: 0039/0444613696 Web:

Journal of Educational and Social Research

Special Issue Vol. 1, No. 4, November 2011
Issn: 2239-978X (print) Issn: 2240-0524 (online)

About the Journal

The "Journal of Educational and Social Research", published by MCSER, is a professional, double-blind, peer-reviewed, open-access journal publishing highquality scientific articles. The journal has a distinguished editorial board with extensive academic qualifications, ensuring that the journal will maintain high scientific standards and have a broad international coverage. Articles related to all branches of education are published The editorial board intends to publish papers which cover applied and theoretical approaches to the study of education and its related disciplines. The purpose of the journal is to serve as a forum for researchers around the world to present and discuss common concerns in local, national, global, international and transnational issues in social studies education. The journal is an invaluable resource for teachers, counselors, supervisors, administrators, curriculum planners, and educational researchers as they consider the structure of tomorrow's curricula. Special issues examine major education issues in depth. Topics of recent themes include methodology, motivation, and literacy. The Journal of Educational and Social Research publishes original empirical and theoretical studies and analyses in education that constitute significant contributions to the understanding and/or improvement of educational processes and outcomes. The Journal focuses on significant political, cultural, social, economic, and organizational issues in education, and explores the processes and outcomes of teaching, learning, and human development at all educational levels and in both formal and informal setting. Although the JESR does not publish validation studies, the editors welcome many varieties of research--experiments, evaluations, ethnographies, narrative research, replications, and so forth. JESR publish research that representing a wide range of academic disciplines and using a wide range of research methods. Editor in Chief, Prof. Francesco Randazzo University of Perugia, Italy

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Journal of Educational and Social Research

Editor in chief Francesco Randazzo University of Perugia, Italy Guest Editors
Nkasiobi S. Oguzor Benedicta Egbo Austin N. Nosike Bassey Ubong Jacinta A. Opara

International Editorial Board

Timm Albers University of Education Karlsruhe, Germany Peter M. Miller University of Wisconsin-Madison, Usa Nerissa Albon Monash University, Australia Pigga Keskitalo Saami University College Kautokeino, Norway Paul Joseph Pace University of Malta, Msida, Malta / Centre for Environmental Education and Research Sandro Caruana University of Malta, Malta William J. Hunter University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Peter Mayo University of Malta, Malta Anthonia U. Ejifugha Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri-Nigeria Alba Dumi University of Vlore, Albania Nkasiobi S.Oguzor Federal College of Education(Technical), Omoku- Nigeria Waqar Un Nisa Faizi Jinnah Univerity for Women, Karachi, Pakistan Maria Nogues Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Rusul Alrubail Seneca College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Pilar Robles G. Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Merja Paksuniemi Saari School, Rovaniemi, Finland

Rajakumar Chelladurai V.S.B.Engineering College, Karur, Tamilnadu,India Shobana Nelasco Fatima College, Madurai-India Jacinta A. Opara Universidad Azteca, Mexico Fernando A. Ferreira Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, Portugal Alice Kagoda Makerere University, Kampala-Uganda B.V. Toshev University of Sofia, Bulgaria Sodienye A. Abere Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria Eddie Blass Swinburne University of Technology, Australia Hanna David Tel Aviv University, Jerusalem-Israel Oby Cordelia Okonkwor Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka-Nigeria Asoluka C. Njoku Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri-Nigeria Ali Simek Anadolu University, Turkey

Azubuike Cypril Nwokocha Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umuahia-Nigeria Kinikanwo A. Anele University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria Peter Ugochukwu Akanwa Imo State University, Owerri-Nigeria Addison Mark Wokocha Teachers Registration Council, Abuja-Nigeria Adriana Piga Sapienza University of Rome Benedicta Egbo University of Windsor, Ontario-Canada Hassan Danial Aslam Human Resource Management Research Society, Pakistan M.O.N. Obagah Rivers State University of Education, Nigeria Austin N. Nosike The Granada Management Institute, Spain Gerhard Berchtold Universidad Azteca, Mexico Samir Mohamed Alredaisy University of Khartoum, Sudan Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi University of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria John Agreen Idumange Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Nigeria


Editorial Jacinta A. Opara

Effects of International Exchange Programs on Subject Specific Competences: Investigation of the Exchange Program Between the Medical School of Jimma University (Ethiopia) and The Ludwig-Maximilians University (Munich) Jacobs Fabian, Stegmann Karsten, Fischer Frank, and Siebeck Matthias Interactive E-Learning System Using Pattern Recognition and Augmented Reality Chetan Kumar G. Shetty and Mahesh Kolur Aggregate Analysis of the Impacts of Telecommunication Infrastructural Development on Nigerian Economy Gold Kafilah Lola Relationship Between Self-concept and Mathematics Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Port Harcourt Metropolis Isaac Esezi Obilor Provision and Management of School Facilities for the Implementation of UBE Programme Lawanson, Olukemi Anike and Gede, Ngozi Tari Political Skills Moderates the Relationship Between Perception of Organizational Politics and Job Outcomes Farooq Ahmed Jam, Tariq Iqbal Khan, Bilal Hassan Zaidi, and Syed Mashhod Muzaffar Metacognitive Strategies: A Viable Tool for Self Directed Learning Cecilia O. Okoro and Eke Kingdom Chukwudi Financial Resource Management Capacity of Public Secondary School Administrators in Ondo State, Nigeria Ajileye Evelyn Omokorede and Ikegwuru Bridget Some Considerations in Achieving Effective Teaching and Learning in Science Education Jacinta A. Opara Gender Feminism and the Girl-Child Nwaji, Ojukwu John Evaluation of Mathematics Achievement Test: A Comparison Between Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) Eluwa, O. Idowu, Akubuike N. Eluwa and Bekom K. Abang

11 21


39 47

57 71

77 85 91


Using Information and Communication Technology in a Collaborative Classroom to Improve Student Achievement Adesola, S.A. The Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Library Operations Towards Effective Library Services Afolabi, A.F and Abidoye, J.A Utterance Technology for Shorthand A Reperception of the Consonant Strokes: For Copping with E-Activity and ICT Changing Environment in Business Education Ozuruoke, A. A and Ogolo, F. I Designing and Using Intelligence and Memory Activating Boxes (IMABs) as Instructional Materials for Effective Instructions in Science and Technology Classrooms and Laboratories Pollyn, Ibifiri Blessing, Igbigialabo, J. C. and Agbuke, E. I.






The making of a journal is a very challenging task. This Special Issue of the Journal of Educational and Social Research published by the Mediterranean Center for Educational and Social Research at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy is a collection of selected papers presented at the International Conference on Teaching and Learning (ICTL2011); International Conference on Technology, Education and Environment (TEEC2011) held in Omoku-Nigeria. Special thanks go to the Provost, Management, Staff and Students of Federal College of Education(Technical), Omoku-Nigeria for providing the venue for the conference that led to the selection of papers which made this publication possible.The LOC deserves special commendation.They have not only worked with great skills and efficiency, but have shown throughout the event their desire to contribute towards making a world that is resonating with academic excellence and scholarship. Professor Alice Kagoda, Professor Peter U. Akanwa, Professor Antonello Biagini, Professor Andrea Carteny, Professor Giovanna Motta, Professor Antonello Battaglia, Professor Gabriele Natalizia,Professor Igor Baglioni, Professor Giuseppe Motta, Professor Addison Wokocha, Professor Benedicta Egbo, Professor Shobana Nelasco, Professor Oby Okonkwor, Professor M.O.N.Obagah and Professor Hanna David were very resourceful and immense editorial support. Education is in crisis-state in the global south. This special issue of JESR examined some of the crucial issues in educational and social development.

Dr. Jacinta A. Opara

Visiting Associate Professor,Universidad Azteca,Chalco-Mexico and President, African Association for Teaching and Learning


Effects of International Exchange Programs on Subject Specific Competences:Investigation of the Exchange Program Between the Medical School of Jimma University (Ethiopia) and the Ludwig-Maximilians University (Munich)
Jacobs Fabian
LMU, Department of Surgery Downtown, Munich, Germany

Stegmann Karsten Fischer Frank

LMU, Department of Psychology, Munich, Germany Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Nubaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich, Germany

Siebeck Matthias
LMU, Department of Surgery Downtown, Munich, Germany
Abstract To meet the requirements of the increasing globalization in the field of health care, international exchange programs have to be more effective and their influences on the participants must be explored in a more detailed way. Based on the sociocultural learning theories of Vygotsky, the medical exchange program between Jimma University in Ethiopia and LudwigMaximilians University in Munich has been investigated. The list of competences of the Tuning Project for health professionals and the self-assessments of participants to influence their course of education formed the basis for this study. In five qualitative interviews, the participants estimated their competence high in the field of doctor-patient relationships and in the area of specialized communication. It could be shown that it is necessary to use open qualitative Questions to find out which gains participants of this exchange program have, in regard to subject specific competencies.In terms of the influence on educational careers, the research could show that rather single participants reported a change in their educational careers through the experience during the exchange program. Overall, this study could declare positive effects on international exchange programs on their participants. Keywords: education; socio-cultural learning; medicin; clinical competence; international cooperation; internationalisation; exchange programs

Introduction University exchange programs and networks have higher significance in the context of globalization as well as information society. Currently it is unclear, whether the objectives of exchange programs, like qualification and international university networking (DAAD, 2008) have an effect on professional competences, because the design of former studies has been focusing rather on methodical aspects than on theoretical principles (Palthe, 2004 as well as Thomas, Chang, & Abt, 2007, p. 283). The research concerning exchange programs, especially in the area of medical training, has recently become more important and there is a diverse discussion about the impact of exchange programs (Balandin, Lincoln, Sen.Wilkins & Trembath, 2007 p. 786; Mc Allister, Whiteford, Hill, Thomas & Fitzgerald, 2006, p. 367). This is a result of the increasing implementation of exchange programs in the curiculae of the universities. In this case Drain and colleagues (2009) advocate additional increases in international exchange programs as well as in their funding (Drain, Holmes, Skeff, Hall & Gradner, 2009, p. 320). The evaluation of exchange programs demonstrates different influences on their participants. In regard to competence training, softskills and job specific competence are promoted (McAllister, Whiteford, Hill, Thomas & Fitzgerald, 2006, p. 369). Professional careers are influenced especially through job specific



competence. Moreover, a specific training location (learning culture) influences and decides what will be learned (Wertsch, 1985, p. 67; Zurcher, 2007, p. 71). Based on this assumption the question rises up wich influences a specific training location in the field of medicine has on the participants of exchange programs. A closer examination of the existing research documents show that many of the studies and their results are based on a narrow research project. Most of the time, the influence of exchange programs on individuals who travel from an industrial country to a developing country, is examined without searching about the mechanism of this impact. There is a lack of research about the question why there should be an impact through different learning cultures on individuals. The present research wants to verify this topics. Theoretical Framework At the theoretical level this research has investigated the question, to what extent considerations on social and cultural learning can provide a useful approach to explain learning processes and if they can be extended to contexts of exchange programs. This requires not only the critical consideration of the educational content offered in these programs, but it must also analyze and evaluate the occurring learning processes. This analysis must be done on a scientifically-founded theoretical basis. So far there are only a limited number of studies that meet exactly this claim. The present work is trying to make a contribution to fill this gap. The learning theory view of Vygotsky, with his socio-cultural approach is providing a theoretical basis for this study. Vygotsky's approaches are especially suited for this because he turned at his time from an individualistic to a more sociocultural perspective of learning. Learning was placed into a different context, possibly similar to that of an exchange program Thus at first the central foundations of Vygotsky will be clarified. The concept of the "zone of proximal development will be discussed and the relationships between learning and culture will be explained. Socio-Cultural Learning Based on Vygotsky a theoretical framework of socio cultural learning was acquired. These construct represents a theoretical formation, correspond to the process of learning. The central construct of Lew Vygotskys work about how individuals learn, was the zpd (zone of proximal development). Essential was to comprehend interrelationshipsbetween social species in their development of mind (vgl. Vygodskaja & Lifanova, 2000, p. 78). The zpd is based on how Vygotsky understands learning. For him to learn means promoting subsequent higher levels of developmentIntroduction University exchange programs and networks have higher significance in the context of globalization as well as information society. Currently it is unclear, whether the objectives of exchange programs, like qualification and international university networking (DAAD, 2008) have an effect on professional competences, because the design of former studies has been focusing rather on methodical aspects than on theoretical principles (Palthe, 2004 as well as Thomas, Chang, & Abt, 2007, p. 283). The research concerning exchange programs, especially in the area of medical training, has recently become more important and there is a diverse discussion about the impact of exchange programs (Balandin, Lincoln, Sen.Wilkins & Trembath, 2007 p. 786; Mc Allister, Whiteford, Hill, Thomas & Fitzgerald, 2006, p. 367). This is a result of the increasing implementation of exchange programs in the curiculae of the universities. In this case Drain and colleagues (2009) advocate additional increases in international exchange programs as well as in their funding (Drain, Holmes, Skeff, Hall & Gradner, 2009, p. 320). The evaluation of exchange programs demonstrates different influences on their participants. In regard to competence training, softskills and job specific competence are promoted (McAllister, Whiteford, Hill, Thomas & Fitzgerald, 2006, p. 369). Professional careers are influenced especially through job specific



competence. Moreover, a specific training location (learning culture) influences and decides what will be learned (Wertsch, 1985, p. 67; Zurcher, 2007, p. 71). Based on this assumption the question rises up wich influences a specific training location in the field of medicine has on the participants of exchange programs. A closer examination of the existing research documents show that many of the studies and their results are based on a narrow research project. Most of the time, the influence of exchange programs on individuals who travel from an industrial country to a developing country, is examined without searching about the mechanism of this impact. There is a lack of research about the question why there should be an impact through different learning cultures on individuals. The present research wants to verify this topics. Theoretical Framework At the theoretical level this research has investigated the question, to what extent considerations on social and cultural learning can provide a useful approach to explain learning processes and if they can be extended to contexts of exchange programs. This requires not only the critical consideration of the educational content offered in these programs, but it must also analyze and evaluate the occurring learning processes. This analysis must be done on a scientifically-founded theoretical basis. So far there are only a limited number of studies that meet exactly this claim. The present work is trying to make a contribution to fill this gap. The learning theory view of Vygotsky, with his socio-cultural approach is providing a theoretical basis for this study. Vygotsky's approaches are especially suited for this because he turned at his time from an individualistic to a more sociocultural perspective of learning. Learning was placed into a different context, possibly similar to that of an exchange program Thus at first the central foundations of Vygotsky will be clarified. The concept of the "zone of proximal development will be discussed and the relationships between learning and culture will be explained. Socio-Cultural Learning Based on Vygotsky a theoretical framework of socio cultural learning was acquired. These construct represents a theoretical formation, correspond to the process of learning Methodology. The research project consists of several research steps with the objective to investigate the subject of research systematically from different perspectives. To analyze the exchange program, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Overall, the research literature of exchange programs often criticizes the methods which have been used (Edwards, Piachaud, Rowson & Miranda, 2004, S. 689). This refers to possible biases and confounding variables. The underlying examination attempted to minimize this interference. Therefore it was necessary to use qualitative interviews in first place to clarify processes within the present field of research. The examined subject-specific competences related to the competence catalog of the Tuning project for physicians (Cumming & Ross, 2007, p. 636). The tuning program understands itself as an "initiative [which was] funded by the European Commission to develop learning outcomes / competences for degree program in Europe and to promote harmonization in the Higher Education Sector" (Cumming & Ross, 2007, p. 636). Therefore the tuning project has formed competence catalogs for different occupational fields e.g. medicin. Due to the high relevance of the competence catalogs for practice, it is advisable to use them as recourse to detect competences. Since there are difficulties to define competences exactly it helps to use a competence catalog created with much effort. In the qualitative interviews this competence catalog was used to discover if participants of exchange programs have a gain in subject specific competence. Therefore Physicians who were involved as former participants in the exchange program between Jimma University, Ethiopia and Ludwig-Maximilians University, Germany were interviewed. There was a total



number of N = 5 people interviewed, one woman and four men. The age range was from 26 to 32 years. The time period of the interviews was from April to June 2009. Overall, the duration was 45 to 65 minutes. Two interviews were face-to-face interviews and three were conducted by telephone. The experiences of these participants belong to the longer past (around 8 years) and it was expected that they can relate with the necessary distance on their experiences. It was the assumption to find long term effects, because of the long time period between there stay in Ethiopia and the interviews. Problem-centered interviews were chosen to be the best for the survey. The interviews were theorybased manual-guided and the data-analysis was conducted with qualitative content-analysis (Mayring, 2008). In contrast to the narrative interview, in witch a scientific concept was created after the interview, the problem-centered interview was formed by the scientific concept which was conducted before (Lamnek, 2005, p. 361). Thus, a specific interview guide was written based on the theoretical considerations described so far. The guideline was tested with regard to the intelligibility of the questions of time and the reasonable sequence of questions. Overall, the manual consisted of 31 open questions, intervening short explanations, and a small quantitative survey. The content of the questionnaire was divided as follows: general conditions and previous experience: Expectations and goals: Experiences and impressions: Important experiences: Problems or challenges: Impressive Experiences: Contact with natives: Effects and changes: Tuning Level 1 competences: 12 Level 1 learning Outcomes: education courses The qualitative content analysis according to Mayring (2008) was used as a deportation proceeding. The content analysis of Mayring verifies and explains the text material methodologically strictly. The material was divided into units and has been processed in stages. Qualitative content analysis is essentially based on a predefined category system. This category system was conducted before analyzing the data. The entire analysis proceeds were conducted from an initial low level of abstraction to a higher of generalization. The aim was to get closer to a theory-based generalization. Therefore the analysis of the findings is visualized by a table. Result First it was important to examine whether the assumption is applicable, that the participants of the exchange with Ethiopia have learned socio-culturally. This is the requirement for the investigation of all further assumptions concerning this inquiry. In the next step the results of the qualitative interviews used to determine, if the socio-cultural learning in Ethiopia has an influence on subject-specific competencies of physicians. The tuning competency catalog was used for this purpose. Evidence to socio-cultural learning in exchange programs In the theoretical framework, the approach of Vygotsky has been used as a theoretical model to explain socio-cultural learning. Central core theses of this theoretical approach have been used to explain the learning process in exchange programs. Based on statements from the interview of the participants, it was possible to comprehend, that the social



interaction, the increased competences and the mentality of local people as teachers were crucial for the learning process. The perceived differences between the two cultures and the different kind of place of learning seem to be important intermediaries of learning. As an example, Intervieter C can be mentioned, who commented on this "by interacting with locals, I learned something that I would not have learned otherwise". Overall, the qualitative findings show, that most participants in the exchange program indicated, that they had learned socio- culturally within the exchange. It has been determined that the learning process is initiated by the perception of differences between the current attitudes and opinions in its private and professional groups and the foreign social environment. Influence of socio-cultural learning on subject-specific competencies The results, to what extent subject specific competences are achieved through exchange programs in sociocultural learning, is based primarily on the drafted catalog of competences of the "Tuning outcomes of medicine" (Cumming & Ross, 2007 p. 637). The analyzed and abstracted findings of the Level 1 learning outcomes of the qualitative interviews are illustrated in table 1. Table 1: Evaluation of the outstanding questions concerning the level 1 learning outcomes concerning reported gains
Tuning Level 1 person A Outcomes carry out a consultation with a patient Physicians are not speking with there patients person B person C person D person E overall

assess clinical presentation, order investigation, make differential diagnoses, and negotiate a management plan

no gain

Much contact with the patient, diagnoses I've never seen before. But no significant gain Differential diagnosis a little, but not yet benefited, In the other cases no gain

Difficulties, because patient contact has not played a role

Only partly, rarely questions to the patient

no gain

no gain

Provide immediate care of medical emergencies, including First

no gain

no gain

no gain

no gain

Not learned much because of language barriers. Altogether, this is not taken place in Ethiopia Germany: in training little personal responsibility Ethiopia: you get patient himself (you have to carry the entire sequence itself) negative: a lot of responsibility with little experience one can learn very much, also because in Germany you are not

If, then only minor increase - Language Barrier - Patient contact plays no role Up to E, no gains For E important point. The largest gains

Except E no gains


ISSN22400524JournalofEducationalandSocialResearchVol.1(4)November2011 Aid and resuscitation allowed to do it

Prescribe drugs no gain

no gain

no gain

no gain

carry out no gain practical procedures

no gain

no gain

no gain

communicate Gain effectively in a because one medical context has to speak English

apply ethical and legal principles in medical practice

no gain

much discussion on specific systems, syndromes at both sides. How it is in Ethiopia no gain

Communicatio little n in general, yes, medically a littel

Most likely, growth to speak at eye level and in dealing with patients In the villages, a little learned by seeing the living conditions and hygienic conditions

no gain

assess psychological and social aspects of a patient's illness

Just a little bit, patients from other culture

assess psychological and social aspects of a patient's illness

High gain, syndromes have different significance, and how to deal with it and how to declare the patient Just a little High gain, bit, patients syndromes from other have different culture significance, and how to deal with it and how to declare the

no gain

You have to make it on your own, for the German system only medium gain In contrast to German education more because it is really needed and not as in Germany, where it disturbs more. Little communication with patients; With colleagues yes, especially in emergencies In ethical principles they are just not interested, but one learns to appreciate it in reverse in Germany Is not taken seriously, Social environment only a little bit

Except E not gain

Except E not gain E In comparison to Germany much gain

the most gains

littel gains,

Three gains, E barely


In the villages, no gain a little learned by seeing the living conditions and hygienic conditions

Is not taken seriously, Social environment only a little bit

Three gains, E barely



ISSN22400524JournalofEducationalandSocialResearchVol.1(4)November2011 patient

apply the principles, skills and know-ledge of evidencebased medicine use information and information technology effecttively in a medical context apply scientific principles, method and knowledge to medical practice and research work effectively in a health care system and engage with population health issues

no gain

no gain

no gain

no gain

no gain

In the German Seen how No gain in assistance difficult it is to the Medical yes but rather get information Context not extremely no gain no gain no gain

Tried to carry out but is difficult, it is not possible there Little, because information is only sparsely

no gains

no gains

no gain

Research does no gain not exist, no gain

no gain

little gain

no gain

no gain

Working little gain independently, to explore disease areas that are not important for germany (areas such as tropical medicine)

Based on this results it may be noted, by asking about gains in regard of the specific tuning outcomes only minor implications can be found. But looking at the statements of the Interviewees regarding the open Questions, there are a variety of statements which can be attributed to gains in the field of the specific tuning outcomes. From the qualitative findings regarding the question to what extent the socio-cultural learning in exchange programs has an impact on the acquisition of specialized skills, following can be noted: The result of the five qualitative interviews indicates the difficulty in determining effects by using the level 1 outcomes. It turned out to be much easier when the participants were able to report freely from their experiences. Considering the statements of the interviewees, there were statements, which suggest a variety of influences on subject-specific competencies. Most respondents reported gains in the area of doctor patient consultations. Overall communication and interaction with locals is most important for the participants of the exchange with the Jimma University. Discussion In the following section, not only the question appears if the exchange program has an impact on the competences of the participants, but it is also interesting which learning process leads to these results. In this study it was demonstrated that the socio-cultural learning in exchange programs is characterized through the process of mirroring. By interacting with local people there is a raising awareness of the



difference between ones attitudes and opinions and those of the locals. Participants are confronted with challenges and situations of crisis, so that this leads to a learning process. Gutierrez and Stone (2000) and also Engestrm (1986) illustrate this point, as already shown in the theoretical part, thus it can be triggered by raising awareness of uncertainties and crises. Crisis means the questioning of its own position by reflecting on the foreigners, the deviants. There is a change in perspective, which plays an important role in successful learning, especially in socio-cultural contexts. These learning mechanisms could be identified in the exchange program between the Jimma University in Ethiopia and the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich. After having discussed the processual aspect of learning, now the results of learning, the so called outcomes, are discussed. It is primarily adjusting to the doctor - patient relationship, where gains were described by the respondents. Through the experience of another doctor- patient relationship in Ethiopian Hospitals, participants are receiving an insight into how much important this area is for the medical practice. At the same time they will be clear in mind of current practice in Germany. This shows the learning mechanism that is triggered by differences. It is remarkable that the interviewees reported mostly gains in the area of doctor patient interaction and on communication with colleagues. This specific communication competence has recently become much more important in medical education as well as it appears to be particularly important for clinical practice (Cumming & Ross, 2007). This is also the area which was increasingly focused through the introduction of a new Medical Licensure Act in Germany launched in 2003 (Gntert, Wanner, Brauer, and Stobrawa, 2003, p. 22). Looking at the different increases, it is possible to find similarities between them. The areas are characterized by interaction. It is both the interaction between doctor and patient and the professional interaction with other doctors which are covered by these gains. Therefore it can be considered that staying in Ethiopia is leading to a higher self-assessment, when it comes to the ability to interact with others. Remarkable is the close connection between the learning process itself and what is being learned. In other words, it means that the participants achieve a gain in interaction by interacting through socio-cultural learning. The requirement of Balandin, Lincoln, Sen, Wilkins and Trembath (2007) through medical exchange programs especially outcomes should be promoted, which have a high relevance especially for their own health care system, is fulfilled in the present results (Balandin, Lincoln, Sen, Trembath & Wilkins, 2007, p. 786). As the research could show, the participants had gains in communicative competences. This again is highly important for medical practice in Germany. The main contribution Vygotsky made for the explanation and understanding of learning was that he stressed out the importance of mediation, e.g. the mediation of tools. The effect of mirroring ones cultural background on the foreign culture and consciousness of diversity is also a subject of mediation process. The local people in an exchange program can be understood as mediator, as a "mediation tool". These considerations are an extension of Vygotskys ideas, because here in the exchange program two main approaches are linked together. On one hand there is the role of locals as an intermediary, on the other hand, there are the experienced differences between cultures, which set in motion a learning process. According to Vygotsky the place of learning or the learning environment is a very important factor for learning. When discussing learning locations it has to be distinguished between the place of learning, and where it is applied. For the organization of international exchange programs the question raises, where learning programs should take place in the most useful way. This current examination provides evidence that the learning process at such an extraordinary place like Ethiopia, causes processes which have particular importance to meet the requirements in a globalized world. In total the use of the Tuning outcomes, as an already elicited catalog of competences, turned out to be helpful only as evaluation tool of the free statements of the interviewees. For future studies it would be necessary to explore these results by using quantitative analysis.



Balandin, S., Lincoln, M., Sen, R., Wilkins, D. P. & Trembath, D. (2007). Twelve tips for effective international clinical placements. Med Teach, 29, (9), 872 - 877. Cumming A., Ross M. (2007). The Tuning Project for Medicine. Learning Outcomes for Undergraduate Medical Education in Europe. Medical Teacher, 29, 636-641. Damon, W. (1984). Peer education: The untapped potential. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 331-343. Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst. (2008). Wandel durch Austausch. available at: [07.07.2011]. Drain, P. K., Primack, A., Hunt, D. D., Fawzi, W. W., Holmes, K. K. & Gardner, P. (2007). Global Health in Medical Education: A Call for More Training and Opportunities. Acad Med, 82, (3), 226-230. Drain, P. K., Holmes, K. K., Skeff, K. M., Hall, T. L. & Gardner, P. (2009). Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities. Acad Med, 84, (3), 320-325. Edwards, R., Piachaud, J., Rowsan, M., Miranda, J. (2004). Understanding global health issues: are international medical electives the answer? Med Edu, 38, 688690. Engestrm, Y. (1986). Die Zone der nchsten Entwicklung als grundlegende Kategorie der Erziehungspsychologie. In Marxistische Studien. Jahrbuch des IMSF, 10, 151-171. Gutierrez, K. & Stone, L. (2000). Synchronic and Diachronic Dimensions of Social Practice: An Emerging Methodology for CulturalHistorical Perspectives on Literacy Learning. In C. Lee & P. Smagorinsky (Hrsg.), Vygotskian Perspective on Literacy Research (p. 150-164). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Lamnek, S. (2005). Qualitative Sozialforschung. Lehrbuch. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz. Palthe, J.(2004). The relative importance of antecedents to cross-cultural adjustment: implications for managing a global workforce. International Journal of International Relations, 28, (1), 37-59. Mayring, P. (2008). Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Weinheim: Julius Beltz. McAllister, L., Whiteford, G., Hill, B., Thomas, N. & Fitzgerald, M. (2006). Reflection in intercultural learning: examining the international experience through a critical incident approach. Reflective Practice, 7, 367381. Meacham, S. J. (2001). Vygotsky and the Blues: Re-Reading Cultural Connections and Conceptual Development. Theory Into Practice, 40, (3), 190197. Mietzel, G. (2003). Pdagogische Psychologie des Lernens und Lehrens. Gttingen: Hogrefe Verlag fr Psychologie. Thomas, A., Chang, C. & Abt, H. (2007). Erlebnisse, die verndern. Langzeitwirkungen der Teilnahme an internationalen Jugendbegegnungen. Gttingen Niedersachs: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Vasquez, O. A. (2006). Cross-National Explorations of Sociocultural Research on Learning. Review of research in education. 30, 33-64. Vygodskaja, G. L. & Lifanova, T. M. (2000). Lev Semjonovic Vygotskij. Leben Ttigkeit Persnlichkeit. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. In M. Cole, V. J. Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Hrsg.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. Zrcher, R. (2007). Informelles Lernen und der Erwerb von Kompetenzen. Theoretische, didaktische und politische Aspekte. Wien: Bundesministerium fr Unterricht Kunst und Kultur Abt. Erwachsenenbildung



Interactive E-Learning System Using Pattern Recognition and Augmented Reality

Chetan Kumar G. Shetty Mahesh Kolur
K.V.G.College of Engineering Sullia(D.K), Karnataka, India.
Abstract This paper proposes how digital world elements can be made use in e-learning system(using pattern recognition and augmented reality). The goal of proposed system is to increase Learners Level of Perception(LLP) by providing them with realistic audio-visual contents when they are leaning.The proposed e-learning system consists of image recognition, color and polka-dot pattern recognition, and augmented reality engine with audio-visual contents. When the web camera on a PC captures the current page of textbook, the e-learning system first identifies the images on the page, and augments some audio-visual contents on the monitor. For interactive learning,the proposed e-learning system exploits the color-band or polka-dot markers which are stuck to the end of a finger. The color-band and polka-dot marker act like the mouse cursor to indicate the position in the textbook image. Appropriate interactive audio-visual contents are augmented as the marker is located on the predefined image objects in the textbook. The proposed e-learning system was applied to the educational courses in the elementary school, and we obtained satisfactory results for real applications.Since the proposed e-leaning system gives practical knowledge with audio,visual contents while learning it is expected that it will increase learners interest in that concept and make learners to discover new things.

Introduction In this paper, we propose a new interactive e-learning system. The proposed system exploits pattern recognition techniques for object-based interactive learning. Our goal is to design a mentoring system for self-studying, which lets the students learn the audio-visual contents interactively. The proposed e-learning system augments the audio-visual contents as the students interact with the objects in the textbook. If there are educational programs such as textbook,auxiliary audio-visual contents, 3-dimensional (3-D) graphics and educational scenarios, our interactive e-learning system provides how to interact and augment the contents based on pattern recognition. When the images and objects on the text pages are recognized, the related contents are played or augmented on the display. The contents are also displayed according to the pattern marker which is a kind of computer mouse. We implement the recognition algorithms of images and objects using texture-based features. Thus, the proposed e-learning system is to combine education with various information technologies. It should be noted that the proposed e-learning system is exploited for the usual and public educational courses. We tested the proposed e-learning system with real elementary education courses, and obtained successful results as a mentoring system. Design of Interactive Markers For interesting interactive learning, we need a natural human-computer interface method. We design two markers using color-band. The markers are put on the fingers as bands, and act like the computer mouse. The markers indicate their locations in the video frame, which enables the students to interact according to the objects in the textbook. When the marker is located at a specific object or menu in the textbook, the corresponding audio-visual contents are augmented on the computer, or the predefined menu function is performed. And some interactive functions such as dragging and scrubbing object are defined to support various learning actions.



Color-band Recognition Some interactions in the educational scenarios require two or more markers simultaneously to manipulate multiple objects. Since the polka-dot patterns have little distinct difference between them, it is difficult to operate the multiple markers independently. We need new multiple markers to be individually discriminated. This paper designs two color-band markers which consist of three colors as shown in Fig. 4. The color-band markers are discriminated with each other and the polka-dot marker, thus, we use three markers simultaneously according to the educational scenarios and interaction.

Fig. 4. Color-band markers using three colors. The combination of three colors are optimally selected from various experiments. Each color-band marker is also discriminated with each other in a video frame. The colors of the markers are selected from various experiments. The blue color is usually best recognized and most stable in the lighting variation [18]. The blue band is located at the center of color-band marker, and is searched first. The other colors have been chosen since they are well discriminated with each other and the blue color. We design two color-band markers with different combinations of colors as shown in Fig. 4. The color-band markers are detected by finding blue color first.Then, we search for the other colors(Green and Red, or Yellow and Purple) around the blue region. We consider the color range and the area of color region to confirm the color-band pattern. The order of colors and ratios of color areas are compared with the predefined criterions. Fig. 5 shows that two color-band markers are independently detected in a video frame. The color ranges of color-band markers are optimized according to the lighting environment. Note that the color ranges should be changed with respect to the lighting conditions.Thus, we devise the method to adjust the color ranges of markers automatically when the proposed e-learning system is setup.

Fig. 5. Recognition results of color-band markers. Two markers are consistently detected when they are moving.



Recognition of Image and Object Image recognition is designed for identification of current text page or objects. When the text page or objects are identified, the related audio-visual contents are automatically played on the PC. Since we can obtain the pose information of objects in the captured image, we augment the visual 3-D contents according to the poses of objects.As a previously related work, augmented reality (AR) toolkits have used geometric markers to be recognized in the images [19]. The AR markers consist of black/white geometric shapes in the square. The AR markers are well recognized in the various image distortions, and they have been popular for interactivity of virtual systems. However, since the AR markers are directly printed on the textbook pages, they do not look good for text design. Our goal is to replace the AR geometric markers with image objects and to design a natural interface using the image objects. A. Feature Extraction Since the images are subject to be rotated, distorted by perspective viewpoints, and changed by scales, we have to extract robust features invariant to the image variations.The first step of feature extraction is to detect the distinct points which are also invariant to image variations. The distinct feature points are determined by Hessian matrix at image point x(x, y) and scale parameter ,

In (3),

is the second derivative of Gaussian filtered image in the x-direction,

Where, I (x)*G( ) means the convolution of image and Gaussian filter with standard deviation .The distinct points are detected by the determinant of Hessian matrix in (3),

In the scale space structure, the point at x and is the distinct feature point, if the determinant value is largest in the 26 neighbors. Fig. 6 shows the 26 neighbors to decide the distinct feature points. The neighboring scale images are considered to determine the distinct feature points.



Fig. 6. 26 neighbors to decide the feature points. The red pixel is the current point at x and . The neighboring scale images are considered to decide the feature points. The second step of feature extraction is to find a dominant orientation around the feature point.We define the dominant orientation of feature point as the most frequent angle. Fig. 7 shows how to find the orientations around the feature point. The grayscales in the left circle mean the Gaussian weights according to the distance from the central feature point. The arrows are the magnitudes of x and y responses of Haar filters.

Fig. 7 Orientation assignment.Grayscale values in left circle mean Gaussian weights for the histogram of orientations. The dominant orientation angle is decided from the 6-bin histogram. The last step of feature extraction is to describe the feature points as a vector structure. This descriptor discerns the feature points. The square region around a feature point is selected for the descriptor.The square region is divided into 16 subregions and we calculate 4-D vector for every subregion,

where x d is the difference between adjacent pixel samples in the x direction, and x d is the absolute value of x d . Based on 4-D vector for each subregion, the descriptor vector to describe the feature point becomes 64-



D (4x16) vector. This 64-D descriptor vector is an ID number of each feature point. B. Feature Matching The corresponding features are searched by the vector distance between descriptors. When features are extracted for image and object recognition, all pairs of features are examined by the vector distances. Then, the nearest and second nearest features ( 1 f and 2 f ) are selected. The nearest feature 1 f is matched.

where (0 < <1) adjusts how distinctively the features are matched. As is close to zero, f is matched to only 1 f . For robust and unique matches, we set less than 0.5 in the real system.


(b) Fig. 8. Feature matching results. (a) The nearest feature matching using (7), (b) Feature matching by homography. The features on the same object surface are correctly matched by homography. Fig. 8 shows feature matching results. Fig. 8 (a) is the result only using (7), but there are some mismatches. Therfore, we introduce the homography and RANSAC [12] optimization to reduce the errors. The only features that are on the same geometric relation are matched by the homography which is optimally estimated in the RANSAC process. Fig. 8 (b) shows that the mismatched features are eliminated by the homography relation. And we should note that the geometric markers on the top-left position in Fig. 8 are not matched by the features. The proposed recognition method is not confused with the AR toolkit markers. As you can see in Fig. 8, the geometric markers do not look good, so we replace the AR markers with the proposed feature matching.



C. Image and Object Recognition When we have all pairs of matched features, we can easily recognize the images or objects. Fig. 9 shows two example of image recognition. For real situations, we occlude the images or objects partially by the hand. As we can see in Fig. 9, the images are well recognized under various image distortions, such as perspective distortion, luminance difference, scale difference, and occlusion. In Fig. 9, the left images are the database images, and the right images are captured ones by the web camera. The images are well identified regardless of AR markers as shown in Fig. 8 (a). Fig. 10 shows another system of image recognition. We tested the image recognition module by image retrieval system. In Fig. 10(a) and (c), the left images are query images, and the right images show the database. The query images are captured by the web camera. The right images in Fig. 10 (b) and (d) show the recognition results from the database. For clarity, the features matched for recognition are shown in yellow dots.



(C) (d) Fig. 9. Image recognition results. (a) and (c) Original images recognized in the database regardless of AR markers, (b) and (d) Captured images by the web cam.





(c) (d) Fig. 10. Image retrieval results. The features matched for image recognition are indicated in yellow dots in (b) and (d).



Application to Public Education System The proposed e-learning system is applied to English and science courses in the public elementary school. The educational contents providers design some learning scenarios and audio-visual contents. We adapt the educational scenarios to the proposed e-learning system. Some interfaces such as object/menu selection and objects movement are defined for the educational scenarios. The polka-dot and color-band markers act like a computer mouse. The interface of markers is so natural that the students dont have to learn any kinds of poses in advance. And we construct database images and objects from textbooks for recognition.

(a) (b) Fig. 11. Example of augmented reality using marker. (a) a video frame captured by the web camera, (b) A visual content is augmented reality on the marker. The visual content is augmented on the marker, thus the marker is not seen on the monitor. Fig. 11 first shows that a moving graphic is augmented on the color-band marker. The left image (Fig. 11 (a)) is the captured image by the web camera, and the right image (Fig.11 (b)) shows the augmented reality with graphic contents. The page ID is recognized by the image and objects in the text page. Then, the related audio-visual contents are augmented as the scenarios and students interaction. The graphics are displayed above the marker so that the interactive augment reality is naturally performed. The augmented graphic objects also move as the marker moves. Fig. 12 shows the commercial system and an exemplary image of interactive augmented reality. The proposed interactive e-learning system using augmented reality was applied to the public elementary school in the courses of English and Science. This interactive augment reality made the students have more interest in learning. Therefore, the proposed e-leaning system not only provides with audio-visual contents, but also improves the learning efficiency and concentration of students. The application to public elementary school was satisfactory. It is expected that the proposed e-learning system is very useful in the various educational courses. If we have the authoring tools to develop the educational contents and scenarios easily, we expect that the proposed interactive e-leaning system using augmented reality is rapidly popular in the education system and industry. Further researches are focused on reducing recognition errors in the various camera environments.



(a) (b) Fig. 12. The proposed e-learning system is applied to the public elementary school. (a) Example of interactive augmented reality using image and marker recognition. Conclusion By using pattern recognition it is possible to avoid the use of AR Sheets in textbooks. The list of advantages,applications of proposed e learning system confirms that if it followed then,

1.It increases the Standard of Education in EXPONENTIAL RATE. 2.Surely LLP(learners level of perception) wil increase. 3.Students wil have interesting and innovative ideas in their mind. References
Interactive E-Learning System Using Pattern Recognition and Augmented Reality. Sang Hwa Lee, Junyeong Choi, and Jong- Il Park, Member, IEEE Sixth sense technology-Pranav Mistry



Aggregate Analysis of the Impacts of Telecommunication Infrastructural Development on Nigerian Economy

Gold Kafilah Lola
Department of Economics Kwara State College of Education Ilorin-Nigeria
Abstract The world has become a global village with communication being an indispensable tool in the entire globalization process. The roles of Telecommunications and Information Technology (IT) have become highly essential in this process. In Nigeria, development in this vital sector has been very phenomenal and the usage of Telecommunication (GSM) has become very prominent with noticeable effect on several economic aspects. It is however instructive to investigate the effects of this latest technology on communication on the Nigerian Economy. The study examined the effects of telecommunication infrastructural development on the Nigerian economy and examined the growth implication. Secondary data was used for the study. Data collected was analyzed with econometrics technique, in the econometrics technique used, model was specified and Ordinary Least Square method (OLS) was used in estimating it. However, the findings revealed that telecoms have influenced the economy by increasing their market access and reduced distribution cost, which invariably affected the service provider cost. Also, the study revealed how GSM has enabled Nigerians to transact their businesses easily resulting in higher productivity; reduction in poverty level and prevalence through increase in income generating capacity and business expansion; improved living standard; boosted economic capacity, and stimulate the economy to achieve the desired macroeconomic policy targets. Keywords: Tele-density, Telecommunication and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Introduction The world has become a global village with telecommunication being an indispensable tool in the entire process of globalization. However, it is not in dispute that Telecommunications and Information technology (IT) play essential roles in this process. This is obviously why development in this vital sector over the years has been phenomenal all over the world. In fact, this is why emerging trends in socio - economic growth shows high premium being placed on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), by nations, organizations and homes. Nigeria, fortunately, has not been left out of this race for rapid development in the telecom industry. Unlike in the past, governments consider telecommunications service to be so vital to national interest and economic development that it was placed directly under their control in most countries until fairly recently, when deregulation and competition were introduced (Lee, 2003). These recent advances in telecommunications technology have been an important vehicle in permitting information exchange to develop as a valuable commodity for moving the country into post industrial and information based economic growth. In this present world, a modern telecommunication infrastructural development is not only essential for domestic economic growth, but is a prerequisite for participation in increasingly competitive world markets and for attracting new investments. Given this development, the perspective on telecommunications development research today should concentrate on how best to increase and include telecommunication as an essential component of the economic development. Telecommunication infrastructural development should indeed be seen as an indispensable precedent in economic development. According to World Bank (1995), late starters in the telecommunications, will risk exclusion from the global economy and face severe comparative disadvantage on their goods and services. The development of telecoms in the world began in the 1830s. According to Ajayi, Salawu and Raji (2008), Sir Charles Wheatstone constructed the first commercial electrical telegraphy and Sir William Forthergill CookeSamuel Morse on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean independently developed another version of electrical telegraphy that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2nd September 1837. Soon, after Alfred Vail developed the register and was successfully demonstrated on 6th January,



1938. The first transatlantic telegraphy label allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time was successfully completed on 27th July, 1866. Alexander Bell invented the conventional telephone in 1876 and the first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 in both Haven and London (ITU, 1999). Further development of telecoms in the world was prompted by the need to provide seamless telecommunications throughout Europe. In the early 1980s, analogue mobile telephony grew rapidly and operators found it increasingly difficult to interconnect the various networks in Europe. On the basis of this, a study group called Group Special Mobile was formed and was tasked to provide a standardized system for mobile telephony, which was realized seven years later. However, Nigeria today has not been left out of this race for rapid development, after years of gross under-development; the nations telecom was liberated with the return of democracy in 1999 and the deregulation of the telecoms sector. This led to the granting of Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) licences by the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) to three providers like Econet, MTN, and M-tel. This was followed by the licensing of the Second National Operator (SNO), in 2003; that is, Globalcom and Universal Access Service licenses of 2006 which include fixed telephony, VSAT and internet service providers. Also, in March 2008, the NCC gave license to another GSM operator known as Etisalat (Aigbinode, 2008). The recognition that telecommunications development is an important input in a household or a nations production function has major implication for development policy. In Nigeria, given the long years of decadence, the factors responsible for the slow growth in telecoms sector in spite of the encouragement and enormous investment by the government before the deregulation in the 1990s were not looked into. In addition, the fact that the trend and the revolution of the development of telecommunication (GSM) growth on Nigerian Economy have not received a great deal of attention from researchers prompted this study and it is against this background that this study has been conceived and inspired. Literature Review Early work on economic growth and development highlighted the necessity of adequate infrastructure as a basis for development. Hirschman (1958) recognized the importance of social over-head capital, which he defined as those services without which primary, secondary and tertiary production activities cannot function. The social over-head capital includes all public services from law and order through education and public health to transportation, communications, power and water supply. According to Belaid (2002), fewer studies focus on specific telecommunications infrastructure and their role in economic performance. The main ones concentrate on a contribution of telecommunications in reducing transaction cost, increasing TFP (Total Factor Productivity) of the private sector and diffusion of new technologies, which will remedy the problem of the developing countries. To Star and Bowker (2002), infrastructure is embedded within other structures and technologies; it is transparent in use, not needing to be reinvented at each use and only becoming evident when it breaks down. Rickets (2002), viewed telecommunications as aiding the coordination of information flow, provides opportunities for increasing the efficiency of interaction and coordination, and in this manner influences the success of economic activities. Economic activities require significant levels of interaction and coordination in order for them to be conducted successfully and efficiently. Alleman, Rappoport and Taylor (2004), asserted that a modern telecommunication infrastructure is not only essential for domestic economic growth, but also a prerequisite for participating in increasingly competitive world markets and for attracting new investments. Governments and private agencies in both developed and less develop countries spend large sums of capital on infrastructure investment so as to positively influence economic activities in terms of employment, value added, productivity, capital formation and income. Furthermore, investing in telecommunication like other infrastructure investments will increase the demand for the goods and services used in their production and increase total national output. And most telecoms investment positively affects economy in three ways:



First, it reduces the cost of production ; Second, it increases revenue and Third, it increases employment through both direct and indirect effects. Vuong (2008), reported how mobile phones promotes economic growth through an example of Fishermen in the South of Indian by communicating through mobile phones, they were able to sell their fish in markets where the demand was high. This resulted in less waste of fish, higher benefits and lower cost of doing business, more access to information, which leads to more efficient operations which in the end affect the economic growth. Also, Roller and Waverman (2001) and Waverman, Meshi and Fuss (2005), in their studies on telecoms, opined that telecoms infrastructure can lead to economic growth through many different ways. Firstly, according to them, investing in the telecom sector itself leads to growth; Secondly, increased demand in telecom related goods and services e.g. producing cables, machines, extra workloads etc. contributes to growth. More importantly, as telephone technology improves, people communicated more regularly over bigger distances. According to Rodini, Ward, and Woroch (2003), Telecommunications has impact on Human and Social capital through history, theory and growth in the developing world in Development Economies. In recent years, there have been a large number of telephone demand studies that emphasized the substitution or complementary between fixed and mobile telephone services. While some of these studies find substitution between mobile phones and fixed phones systems using consumer phone data. Vagliasindi, Guney and Taubman (2006); Minges (1999); Madden and Coble-Neal (1999); and Okada and Hatta (1999), found out that mobile phones and fixed phones are moderate substitutes and that the lower the penetration rates of fixed phones, the stronger the substitutability between fixed and mobile phones. This may be similar to the African situation (including Nigeria) since telephone penetration rates are low in Africa compared to other parts of the world. It is therefore, interesting to note that telecoms infrastructure has strong positive effects on economic growth, especially for a developing country like Nigeria. Theoretical Framework This study examined the impacts of telecommunication development on Nigerian economy under the framework of the theory developed by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992). However, since the prevalent usage of GSM is likely to improve living standard of users. Theoretically, the aggregate improvement will translate into economic growth. Figure 1.1 illustrates how telecommunication improvement brings about growth through productivity gain. Figure 1: Input driven and GSM-productivity- driven income growth curve



GSM productivity driven

c b

Input driven productivity




When input (income, human capital and labour) is increased from 1 to 2 units, income increased from a to b. with additional inputs, the income is increased, but at a decline rate from b to c. This is because it is subject to decreasing returns. A movement along individual productivity function A reflects the income growth gained from additional inputs. Income growth through improvement in productivity can be derived from the application of improved technological innovations (such as usage of GSM). This can cause the productivity to rise upward from A to B, and without any additional inputs, the output will grow from b to d, which comes only from improvement in productivity (production driven income growth). Another source of productivity growth is savings in transaction cost that result from the usage of GSM. This is made possible through what can be termed mobilecommand which covers all financial and commercial transaction that take place through the use of GSM. In addition, GSM generates economic growth through generation of direct and indirect employment. The direct employment include those that work in service provider companies, those that deal in retail and whole sale trading of recharge cards, handsets, batteries, chargers, etc. it also include those that provide repairs and engineering services. Methodology Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to estimate the parameters of the model. The normality assumption on the error term in regression model suggests OLS as the best-unbiased estimator (Gujarati, 1995). This was because the OLS estimator of is /(n-k) where n and k are the total numbers of observations and estimated parameters takes into account the number of degree of freedom. The aim of the regression analysis was to obtain and test for significance of the parameters in the model. This aim can best be achieved using OLS method, which yields unbiased, consistent and efficient estimates. Such result lends itself to easy and clear interpretation. The Growth Model The growth model is specified mathematically as; GDP = F (TELED, LGSM) .(1) This can be expressed in a linear form as: GDP = 0 + 1 TELED +2 LGSM (2) If we include the error term, equation (2) can be rewritten as GDP = 0 + 0 + 1 TELED +2 LGSM + Ui .(3) Where GDP = Gross Domestic Product TELED = GSM Tele-density LGSM = GSM connected lines 0 = constant Factor 1,n = slopes of the variables for estimation. Ui= Error term On theoretical ground, (a priori) we expect the parameters to take positive signs i.e. 1, 2, >0. This mean there should be positive relationship between GDP growth rate, GSM Tele-density and GSM connected lines. Discussions of the Results The model postulate that the level of economy depends on the volume of GSM services rendered and telephone density. The data period is from 2001 to 2008 (Appendix, Table 2.1). This was the most appropriate period as GSM started effective in Nigeria in 2001, while data on 2009 is still unavailable. The result of the regression as reported in Table 1.1 showed that both the GSM connected lines (GSM) and Teledensity (TELED) have significant impacts on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For instance, GSM variable is



positive with 0.165 and 7.07 as coefficient and t-value respectively. It implies that an increase in number of GSM connected lines may translate to about 1.7% increase in GDP. As the GSM connected lines increases, it will result in greater employment and income generation. It would also result in lower cost of doing business as cost on travelling as well as transaction cost will reduce. These reductions in cost boost investment and promote more production of goods and services. It also resulted to increase in productivity and efficiency. With respect to the tele-density, as expected, the sign is negative but significant. Higher density implies that the higher number of people has no access to telephone. As the density reduces the telephone lines per 1000 person reduces and more people have access to telephone. Therefore, Nigerians are able to transact and promote their business easily, resulting in higher productivity and increase in standard of living. Table 1.1: Regression results on Effect of GSM on the Growth of Nigerian Economy
Variable C LGSM TELED R-squared Adjusted R-squared S.E. of regression Sum squared residual Log likelihood Durbin-Watson stat Coefficient 10.55028 0.165212 -0.004021 0.985432 0.979604 0.030247 0.004574 18.51531 1.536237 Std. Error 0.339110 0.023346 0.002822 Mean dependent variable S.D. dependent variable Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion F-statistic Probability (F-statistic) t-Statistic 31.11165 7.076657 -1.425070 Probability 0.0000 0.0009 0.2135 13.16703 0.211796 -3.878829 -3.849038 169.1061 0.000026

Source: Data analysis, 2010. The result of the regression as reported in the table above shows that both the GSM connected lines (GSM) and Tele-density (TELED) are significant and affect gross domestic product (GDP) positively. I The Coefficient of The Multiple Determination R2: The coefficient of the multiple determination stood at 0.979604 (i.e. 97%). This means that the explanatory variables: GSM Tele-density and GSM connected lines accounted for 97 percent of the total changes in the dependent variable (GDP). This shows that the regression result is a good fit. II The Standard Error: The value of the standard error for the entire variables in the model shows that the parameter estimate were statistically significant. These values were less than half of the values of the coefficient of the variables. III DurbinWatson Statistics: The test for the presence of autocorrelation was performed by making use of the Durbin Watson statistics. The Durbin Watson statistics is 1.5. This was found to be within the normal region which falls within the determined region (i.e. 1.5 <d<4) and imply that there is negative first order serial autocorrelation among the explanatory variables. IV The GSM lines variable was correctly and positively signed. It was also statistically significant. The expected outcome of this coefficient is a positive one. The implication of this result is that, if GSM lines increases in the long-run, all other things being equal, the economy will grow. It shows that a percent rise in GSM lines will cause as much as 17 percent growth in the gross domestic product. This result indicated that GSM lines have the greater influence on the growth of Nigerian economy. From economic point of view, if GSM lines increases, it would reduce the cost of business such as cost on mobility and travelling as well as transaction cost. This reduction in cost would boost investment and promote more production of goods and services. V With respect to the Tele-density, contrary to expectation, the sign is negative but significant. Higher density implies that; the higher the number of people who has access to telephone as the density



reduces, the telephone lines per 1000 person reduces and fewer people will have access to telephone. The implication of these results is that Tele-density is still very low to permit an overall increase in output growth in Nigeria. Summary of Findings (i) The Nigerian economy is predicted to have naturally gained from emerging into information technology age. Meanwhile, a licensing process universally adjudges to have been rare display of transparency, openness and non intervention, has turned the fortunes of the country around, and consequently raises investors confidence in the Nigerian market and economy. (ii) Thus, the outcome of the empirical and stochastic investigations shows that Telecommunication Infrastructural Development has a positive relationship with output growth in Nigeria. The impact is of a higher magnitude. The introduction of Global System for Mobile telecommunication (GSM) led to 17 percent rise in the output growth. (iii) In addition, it was discovered that if the Tele-density should increase to a considerable level in Nigeria, there would be industrial and technological transformation and the growth and development of Nigeria economy would be sustained. Conclusion The Nigerian economy is predicted to have naturally gained from emerging into information technology age, with a licensing process universally adjudges to have been rare display of transparency, openness and non intervention, has turned the fortunes of the country around, and consequently raises investors confidence in the Nigerian Telecoms market and economy. Likewise, Telecommunication has also increased employment generation, reduced transportation costs, increased business efficiency, attracts foreign funds, and a host of other benefits. Recommendations From the findings and conclusions presented above, recommendations were made to the management of the regulatory body of mobile Telecommunication in Nigeria; that is, the Nigerian Communication Commission, the GSM operators in Nigeria (both public and private) and the Federal Government of Nigeria. The government should expand tele-density and directly make telephone communications cheap and accessible. To achieve this goal, more licenses should be given to GSM operators in order to allow for healthy competition among the GSM operators. In addition, the NCC should ensure that the interests of the consumer of telecommunication services are protected by promoting competitive pricing of such services and combating the abuse of market power. Since the success of a very effective telecommunication requires a very efficient and honest administration on the part of the government and on the part of the GSM operators, the NCC should also ensure that consumers are given value for their money, and misleading adverts by the Nigerian GSM operators should be stop as this does not conform to international practices.



APPENDIX Table 2.1 Telecoms Subscriber Information (Year 2001 March, 2008)
2001 266,461 N/A 600,321 866,782 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.73 2002 1,569,050 N/A 702,000 2,271,05 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1.89 2003 3,149,472 N/A 872,473 4,021,945 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3.35 2004 9,174,209 N/A 1,027,519 10,201,728 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 8.50 2005 18,295,896 N/A 1,223, 58 19,519,154 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 16.27 2006 32,184,861 N/A 1,673,161 33,858,022 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 24. 18 2007 54,413,784 824,741 2,449,019 57, 87,544 40,011,296 384,315 1,579,664 41,975,275 76,545,308 1,540,000 6,578,303 84,663,611 29.98 Jan 08 56,492,255 621,604 2,454,443 59,568,302 41,049,103 413,198 1,453,566 42,915,867 77,545,308 1,520,000 5,633,251 84,698,559 30.65 Feb. 08 57,720,782 702,146 2,417,705 60,840,633 42,483,091 424,325, 1,430,616 44,338,032 77,545,308 3,720,000 5,576,481 86,841,789 31.67 Mar 08 57,622 ,901 780,938 2,537,504 60,941,348 43,786,542 567,185 1,545,984 45,899,711 79,625,308 3,170,000 5,676,481 88,471,789 32.79

Mobile (GSM) Mobile (CDMA) Fixed Wired/wireless Total Mobile (GSM) Mobile (CDMA) Fixed wired/wireless Total Mobile (GSM) Mobile (CDMA) Fixed wired/wireless Total 1Teledensity

Source: Tell, 2008.


was calculated based on population estimate of 126 million people up till December 2005: from December 2006, Teledensity was based on a population of 140 million. 2Teledensity from December 2007 was based on active subscriber References
Aigbinode, R. (2008, July 7). Seven years of telecoms revolution the breathtaking revolution in telecoms industry. Tell Magazine of Nigeria, pp. 25-28. Ajayi, G.O., R.I. Salawu, Raji, T.I. (2008). A century of telecommunications development in nigeriaWhat next?. Retrieved from http//file://F:\telecom\nigeria.htm. Alleman, J., C. Hunt, D. Michaels, P. Rapport, L. Taylor (2004). Telecommunications and economic development: Empirical evidence from southern Africa. International Telecommunications Society, Sydney. Retrieved from pdf. Belaid, Hend (2002). Telecommunication infrastructural and economic development, simultaneous approach: Case of developing countries. ERMES, Research Team on Markets, Employment and Simulation, Paris II University, Pantheon-Assas. Gujarati, D.N. (1995). Basic econometrics. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., pp. 838. International Telecommunications Union (1999). Trade in telecommunications: Second world telecommunications policy forum Report held in Geneva. Retrieved from Lee, K.W.M. (2003). Private partnership in telecommunications export development: The canada west telecom group. The British Columbia trade and Investment Office, Canada. Madden, G., G. Coble-Neal (2004). Economic determinants of global mobile telephony growth. Information Economics and Policy. No.16, pp. 519-534. Mankiw, N.G., D. Romer, D.N.W. (1992). A contribution to the empirics of growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics. Volume 107, No. 2, pp. 407-37. Mazango, Eric (1998). Telecommunications sector reform: Liberalisation and universal service policy in zimbabwe (Doctoral dissertation). Available from IMK University, Oslo theses database. Minges, M. (1999). Mobile cellular communications in the southern african region. Telecommunications Policy. Volume 23, pp. 585-593. Okada, Y., K. Hatta (1999). The interdependent telecommunications demand and efficient price structure. Journal of the Japanese and International Economics, No13, pp. 311-335. Ricketts, M. (2002). The economics of business enterprise. UK: Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Rodini, M., M. Ward, G. Woroch (2003). Going mobile: Substitutability between fixed and mobile access. Telecommunications Policy, No. 27, pp. 457-476. Roeller, L.H., Leonard Waverman (2001). Telecommunications infrastructure and economic development: A simultaneous approach.


The American Economic Review, vol. 91, no 4, September, pp.909-23. Star, S., G. Bowker (2001). How to develop infrastructure. In L.A. Lievrouw, & S. Livingstone (Eds.), The Handbook of New Media. London: Thousand Oaks, New Delhi. Vagliasindi, M., I. Guney, C. Taubman (2006). Fixed and mobile competition in transition economies. Telecommunications Policy, No. 30, pp.349-367. Vuong, Victor (2008). Mobile telecommunication impact on developing countries growth (Bachelor thesis in international economics and finance). Available at Tilburg University Theses database. Waverman, L., Meloria Meshi, Melvyn Fuss (2005). The impact of telecoms on economic growth in developing countries. Vodafone Policy paper series, No. 2, pp. 10-24. World Bank (1995). Harnessing information for development: World bank group vision and strategy. World Bank / International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington DC: Retrieved on September 12, 2008 from



Relationship Between Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Port Harcourt Metropolis
Isaac Esezi Obilor
Department of Banking and Finance Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Abstract This study explored the extent to which the self-concept of students in Port Harcourt relates to their Mathematics, and General Academic Achievement. The population consisted of 6,478 senior secondary 3 (SS3) students from 13 state financed senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt. Stratified random sampling was conducted to select 3 schools (one school each from 2 mixed schools, 5 boys schools and 6 girls schools). The sample for study was 300 SS3 students from the 3 randomly selected schools. The instrument used for data collection was the Self-Description Questionnaire 111 (SDQ 111) developed by Marsh (1992) which contains 13 self-concept facets out of which 2 facets (Mathematics, and General Academic) where adopted for this study. The subjects were tested in Mathematics and scores obtained. The general average scores of the students on their promotion examination from SS2 to SS3 were extracted from their school records. The Persons Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to answer the research questions, while the transformed t-test was used to test all the 3 hypotheses formulated for this study. The results of the tests indicated that Mathematics Self-concept is significantly related to Mathematics Achievement, General Academic Achievement and General Academic Self-concept. The main implication of the findings of this study is that self-concept and Mathematics, and General Academic achievement of students are so strongly related that a change in self-concept facilitates a change in achievement. It was therefore, recommended that educational programme designers and developers, teachers, parents and students should make self-concept development of students an educational aim as important as academic achievement. Keywords: Self-concept, Mathematics Achievement, General Academic Achievement.

Introduction Students performance in Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) administered by the West African Examination Council (WAEC), and the National Examination Council (NECO), continued to deteriorate from year to year, particularly in the areas of Science and Mathematics (Akubuiro and Joshua, 2004). For Nigeria, a developing country that needs Science and Technology for its development, the poor performance of students in Science and Mathematics and worse still, the very insignificant proportion of students who choose Mathematics as a course of study after secondary education have turned the concern of the government and people of Nigeria into anxiety. This situation does not favour Nigerians move towards developing a science and technology culture. However, this problem is not peculiar to Nigeria. Even the developed nations have similar worry and concern. A Gallup Survey commissioned by Bayer Corporation (2003) found nine in every ten Americans concerned about the lack of Mathematics skills of todays students to cope with a changing world that is progressively more difficult to understand, analyze, or explain. Futurists predict continual change emerging from the effects of increasing world population, advancing technologies, environmental degradation, migration and immigration, and challenges to world security (Marsh and Yeung, 1996). In coping with these emerging challenges, students have a competitive advantage when they are able to draw upon meaningful scientific knowledge and functional mathematical skills. According to Cech (2003), a progressively complex world calls for increasingly skilled people who understand Science and Mathematics. The unresolved riddles therefore are: Why the poor performance of students in Mathematics despite the lofty uses to which Mathematics has been put (Euclid in Principles of Geometry, Einstein in Quantum and Relativity Theories, Newton in Laws of Gravitation and Motion, etc) and is yet to be put? What can be done to check the deteriorating performance of students in Mathematics, and make way for the acquisition of the



requisite Mathematical skills for the understanding of todays complex world and the demands of tomorrow? Some investigations revealed that the questions above, and even many more others, owe their answers to the complexity of self-beliefs (e.g. self-concept) that act on the students (Purkey & Schmidt, 1987; Chapman & Turner, 1997; Yeung & Lee, 1999). The above researches have shown close relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. Statement of the Problem The Nigeria nation and other nations of the world have shown tremendous concern about the poor performance of students in Science and Mathematics (Akubiro & Joshua, 2004; Bayer Corporation, 2003). This poor performance of students in Mathematics in Nigeria a country that needs Mathematics for its development deserves the total attention of educational planners, teachers and researchers in Nigeria for a possible turnaround of the poor performance of students in Science and Mathematics. According to Marsh (1986), self-concept has been shown to be a very important educational achievement indicator as well as a desirable mediating variable leading to other positive outcomes, such that educational policy statements throughout the world list self-concept enhancement as a central goal of education. Whether or not educational policies in Nigeria list self-concept as a central goal of education is a topic for another study. Suffice it to say that in Nigeria, few researches have been carried out which confirm the significant relationship between self-concept and Mathematics Achievement (Bassey, 2002; Jamabo, 1996; Osang, 1990). A lot more studies need to be done to replicate the above findings in Rivers State and other parts of Nigeria to answer the question: Why poor students performance in Mathematics, and possibly suggest ways to check the negative trend. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not (and to what extent) significant relationships exist between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students Mathematics Achievement, Students General Academic Achievements and Students General Academic Self-concept. The following research questions directed the study: 1. To what extent does students Mathematics self-concept relate to students Mathematics Achievement? 2. What is the extent to which students Mathematics Self-concept relate to students General Academic Achievement? 3. To what extent does the Mathematics Self-concept of students relate to students General Academic Self-concept? Statement of Hypotheses The study was guided by the following three null hypotheses: 1. There is no significant relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students Mathematics Achievement. 2. There is no significant relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students General Academic Achievement. 3. There is no significant relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students General Academic Self-concept.



Significance of the Study Based on the results of this study, the poor performance of Nigerian students in Science and Mathematics could be hinged, totally or in part, on low Mathematics Self-concept. Thus educators, curriculum developers, teachers and parents would see the need to list self-concept enhancement as a central goal of education in Nigeria. Review of Related Literature The overriding theoretical orientation of this study is grounded in the perceptual psychology tradition. Perceptual psychologists postulate that all persons create their own reality through their perceptions of what they belief to be real. And that a persons behaviour is contingent on how an individual perceives and interprets his/her experiences (Combs and Gonzales, 1994). Thus from the perspective of the perceptual psychology, it is clear that to understand an individuals behaviour, we need to know how that individual perceives and interprets his/her experiences. In other words, to appreciate students academic performance, we need to understand how students perceive and interpret school and school subjects. The most influential and eloquent voice in self-concept theory was that of Carl Rogers who introduced an entire system built around the importance of the self (Hattie, 1992). In Rogers view, the self is the central ingredient in human personality and personal adjustment. Rogers described the self as a social product, developing out of interpersonal relationships and striving for consistency. He maintained that there is a basic human need for positive regard both from others and from oneself. He also believed that in every person there is a tendency towards self-actualization and development so long as this is permitted and encouraged by an inviting environment. Self generally means the conscious reflection of ones own being or identity, as an object separate from others or from the environment. There are a variety of ways to think about the self. Two of the most widely used terms are self-concept and self-esteem. Self-concept is the cognitive or thinking aspect of self (related to ones self-image) and generally means the totality of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes and opinions that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence (Purkey & Schmidt, 1987). Self-concept can also means the general idea we have of ourselves. The idea of self-concept includes attitudes, feelings and knowledge about ability, skills, and social acceptance capability of the self. Self-concept covers all aspects of our cognitive, perceptional, and affective evaluation. Therefore, self-concept is simply a collection of personal attitudes towards oneself (Gross, 1992). Psychologists have paid a lot of attention to factors related to the formation and development of selfconcept. This issue is very important to the field of mental health, as an individuals conception of his or her person, which is linked to the personality, to a certain extent determines the attitude of that person to his or her environment, and to a larger extent the persons academic performance. It may then be suggested that if self-concept is positive and normal, the individual will possess normal mental health. Adversely, if selfconcept is negative and abnormal, the individual may behave abnormally in his or her environment. The implication is that good mental health (resulting from positive self-concept) makes for positive academic achievement. The consensus appears to be that self-concept is largely acquired. This point is very pertinent for students and for those who are involved in their upbringing, particularly their parents and teachers. Other factors affecting self-concept are the behaviour of others around the individuals, and social stimulation. Marsh (1992) showed that the relationship of self-concept to school achievement was very specific. According to Marsh, general self-concept and non-academic aspects of self-concept are not related to academic work, but general academic achievement measures were found to relate positively to general academic self-concepts and are highly related to success in that content area. Many students are not confident about their mathematical ability to solve problems. A poor attitude



towards the discipline is thought to plague learners at every level of schooling. The fear of both answering mathematical questions in class and/or taking mathematical tests has been studied by Marsh, and Hocever (1985) and Stodolsky (1985), and both studies found consistence results that fears of Mathematics often escalates to a level termed mathematics anxiety with the effect of poor achievement in Mathematics. They concluded that individuals with poor attitudes towards mathematics are often reported to have a low selfconcept and feelings of incompetence. These attitudes are manifested as self depreciating remarks and a perpetual lack of success in Mathematics. According to Wong (1992), mathematics achievement is closely related to self-concept and attitude towards mathematics. As in the case of the general self-esteem, more mathematically confident students have significantly higher scores on a standardized measure of mathematics computations. Osang (1990), in his study, tested the relationship between students performance in mathematics and self-concept. He found that students performance in mathematics depended on their mathematics self-concept. That is, their achievement in mathematics depended on what they thought of or believed about themselves, with reference to mathematics as a subject. In a study conducted by Byrne (1984), he founded that relationship between students self-concept in Mathematics and their Mathematics Achievement is logically and inevitably connected. Byrne reported that achievement in Mathematics is highly related to what an individual thinks of Mathematics. That is, ones Mathematics self-concept will influence ones achievement in Mathematics. Also students self-perceptions of mathematics ability influence their mathematics achievement, and that their attitude towards mathematics during high school has positive effects on their choosing careers in science and mathematics. Methodology The study adopted the Correlational Research Design. The population of the study consisted of 6,478 SS3 students of the 13 state government financed post primary schools in Port Harcourt. Only the state schools were chosen (as against unity schools and private schools) to make for homogeneity: that is, to ensure the use of subjects that have similar characteristics. The sample for this study consisted of three hundred (300) SS3 students that were chosen from 3 randomly selected schools from 13 senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt. The study employed the stratified random sampling technique, each school type (single boys, single girls and mixed schools) was considered a stratum and a senior secondary school selected at random. All the research questions were answered using the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Statistic, with Mathematics Self-concept as independent variable and Mathematics Achievement, General Academic Achievement and General Academic Self-concept as dependent variables. To test the null hypotheses formulated for this study, the computed Persons Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) were transformed to t-test using the formula, t = r. [(n 2)/(1 r)]. Results In the tables that follow, SMS = Students Mathematics Self-concept, SMA = Students Mathematics Achievement, GAS = General Academic Self-concept, and GAA = General Academic Achievement. Hypothesis One: There is no significant relationship between students Mathematics Self-concept and students Mathematics Achievement.



Table 1: Transformed t-test on the Relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students Mathematics Achievement
Variables SMS (x) SMA (y) 300 N Mean 31.21 27.13 SD 10.65 13.81 298 0.05 0.767 0.139 20.55 1.960 df p Cal (r) Crit. (r) Cal. t-test trans. Crit. t-test trans

The result in the above table indicates that there is a significant positive relationship between Mathematics Self-concept of students and students Mathematics Achievement [calculated t = 20.55 > critical t = 1.960 at p < 0.05; df = 298]. This significant positive relationship implies that students with high Mathematics Selfconcept will generally achieve higher in Mathematics than those with low Mathematics Self-concept. Hypothesis Two: There is no significant relationship between students Mathematics Self-concept and students General Academic Achievement. Table 2: Transformed t-test on the Relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students General Academic Achievement
Variables SMS (x) GAA (z) 300 N Mean 31.21 49.63 SD 10.65 14.46 298 0.0 5 0.131 0.139 2.281 1.960 df p Cal (r) Crit. (r) Cal. t-test trans. Crit. t-test trans.

The data in Table 2 show that the calculated t, though low, is significant at the 5% confidence level [calculated t = 2.281 > critical t = 1.960 at p < 0.05; df = 298]. This implies that students with high Mathematics Self-concept can achieve highly in general school work. Hypothesis Three: There is no significant relationship between students, Mathematics Self-concept and students General Academic Self-concept. Table 3: Transformed t-test on the Relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students General Academic Self-concept
Variables SMS (x) GAS (m) N 300 Mean 31.21 37.89 SD 10.65 7.23 df 298 p 0.0 5 Cal (r) 0.147 Crit. (r) 0.139 Cal. t-test trans. 2.565 Crit. t-test trans. 1.960

This result shows a significant positive relationship between Students Mathematics Self-concept and Students General Academic Self-concept at the 5% confidence level [calculated t = 2.565 > critical t = 1.960 at p < 0.05; df = 298]. The interpretation is that students with high Mathematics Self-concept have the tendency of viewing school and academics positively.



Conclusion This study investigated the extent to which students mathematics self-concept relates to students mathematics achievement, general academic achievement and general academic self-concept. Significant positive relationships were found in all the three cases at the 0.05 level of significance. These results are supported by Marsh (1990) and Morriss and Smith (1978). This study further found that the strength of relationship between Mathematics Self-concept and Mathematics Achievement decreased as Mathematics Self-concept was compared with General Academic Achievement and General Academic Self-concept. It is clear that self-concept becomes more empirically sensitive to, and more predictive of, achievement outcomes the more specific that it is conceived and assessed. According to Bandura (1997), self-concept beliefs influence the choices people make and the courses of action they pursue. Individuals tend to engage in tasks about which they feel competent and confident and avoid those which they do not. Self-concept also helps determine how much effort people will expend on an activity, how long they will persevere when confronting obstacles, and how resilient they will be in the face of adverse situations. The higher the self-concept, the greater the effort, persistence, and resilience an individual puts on tasks. As a consequence, self-concept exercises a powerful influence on the level of accomplishment that individuals ultimately realize. Conversely, people who doubt their capabilities may believe that things are tougher than they really are: a belief that fosters stress, depression, and a narrow vision of how best to solve a problem. In other words, many students have difficulty in school not because they are incapable of performing successfully but because they have learned to see themselves as incapable of handling academic work. This study has shown that the more positive the self-concept of students, the higher their motivation, commitment and success in academics and other endeavours. Thus, given the significance of self-concept in academic achievement of students, the enhancement of self-concept outcomes should be of major concern to educators, program developers, teachers, parents and counselors. Recommendations The self-concept beliefs of teachers are themselves related to their instructional practices and to the achievement and psychological well-being of their students. Efficacious teachers create classroom climates in which academic rigor and intellectual challenge are accompanied by the emotional support and encouragement necessary to meet the attendant challenge and achieve academic excellence (TschannemMoran and Woolfolk Hoy, 1998). All teachers should, therefore, do well to take seriously the responsibility of nurturing the self-concept of their students, for it is clear that these self-beliefs can have beneficial or destructive influences. Teachers should pay as much attention to students perception of competence as to actual competence, for it is the perception that may more accurately predict students motivation and future academic choices. Assessing students self-concepts can provide schools with important insights about their students academic motivation, behaviours, and future choices. For example, unrealistically low self-concept leads to poor academic behaviours, avoidance of challenging courses and careers, and diminishing school interest and achievement. The ultimate aim of education should be to produce competent, caring, loving, and lovable people. One needs only cast glance at the American landscape to see that attending to the personal, social, and psychological concerns of students is both a noble and necessary enterprise. Teachers can aid their students by helping them to develop the habit of excellence in scholarship, while at the same time nurturing their self-beliefs necessary to maintain that excellence throughout their adult lives. Parents should develop positive self-concept in their children, at the early stages of their lives. This could be best done at home which is the most important social force in shaping and maintaining the childs



self-concept. The home environment is the strongest agent in shaping the childs self-concept, so the earlier he is exposed to positive self-concept formation the better. Positive attitudes of the parents towards their children will boost their ego, strengthen their feeling of self-worth and act as another form of motivation to work harder. Empathy should be applied in this kind of relationship and no sign of conflict of interest should be experienced in their childs choice of subjects and career. Counseling services should be provided in schools so that students having problems in academic subjects can be attended to through the combined efforts of the school and the home. Students, because of their sexes, should not be discouraged directly or indirectly from learning certain subjects when they are young. In other words, students should be discouraged from forming stereotyped attitudes towards certain subjects, because of their sexes. This will boost positive competition between males and females, and enhance academic achievement and excellence. The influence of students self-beliefs on their achievement does not end with their schooling. Consequently, the aim of education must transcend the development of academic competence. Schools have the added responsibility of preparing self-assured and fully-functioning individuals capable of pursuing their hopes and their ambitions. Self-concept theory is a relatively new area in the Nigerian educational scene. Thus, more researches on this field should be conducted to delve more into the self-concept patterns and how they affect vocational choices, physical appearance, problem-solving abilities and the up bringing of children by parents. These studies should be done to test the various facets of self-concept in different populations. Perhaps, it will then be hoped that educational policy statements in Nigeria would list and emphasize positive self-concept development as a central goal of education. References
Akubuiro, I. M. & Joshua, M. T. (2004). Self-concept, Attitude and Achievement of Secondary School Students in Science in Southern Cross Rivers State, Nigeria. The African Symposium, 4(1), 34-48. Bassey, B. A. (2002). Students Evaluation of Instruction, Attitude Towards Mathematics and Mathematics Achievement of SS3 Students in Southern Cross River State. Unpublished Masters Degree Thesis, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman. Bayer Corporation (2003). Bayer Facts of Science Education IX: Americans Views on the Role of Science and Technology in U.S. National Defense. Retrieved January 16, 2006 from html Byrne, B. M. (1984). The General Academic Self-concept Technological Network: A Review of Construct Validation Research. Review of Educational Research, 54, 427-456. Byrne, B. M. & Shavelson, R. J. (1986). On the Structure of Adolescent Self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 474-481. Cech, T. R. (2003). Rebalancing Teaching and Research. Science, 299, 165. Chapman, J. W. & Turner, W. E. (1997). A Longitudinal Study of Beginning Reading Achievement and Reading Self-concept. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 279-291. Combs, A., & Gonzales, D. (1994). Helping Relationships: Basic Concept for the Helping Professions (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 23. Gross, R. D. (1992). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 51 Hattie, J. (1986). Self-concept. Hillsdale, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum. Jamabo, T. (1996). Self-concept and Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt, Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 1(3), 56-61. Marsh, H. W. (1986). Verbal and Math Self-concepts: An Internal/External Frame of Reference Model. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 129-149. Marsh, H. W. (1990). A Multidimensional, Hierarchical Self-concept: Theoretical and Empirical Justification. Educational Psychology Review, 2, 77-172. Marsh, H. W. (1992). Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) III: A Theoretical and Empirical Basis for the Measurement of Multiple Dimensions of Late Adolescent Self-concept: An Interim Test Manual and a Test Monograph. Macarthur, New South Wales, Australia: Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney. Marsh, H. & Hocever, D. (1985). The Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis to the Study of Self-concept: First and Higher Order Structures and Their Invariance Across Age Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 562-167


Marsh, H.W. & Yeung, A. S. (1996). The Distinctiveness of Affects in Specific School Subjects: An Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis with the National Longitudinal Study of 1988. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 665-689. Morris, K. & Smith, J. (1978). Attribution to Success. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 26-38. Osang, A. O. (1990). Influence Self-concept and Motivation on Performance in Mathematics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ikom Local Government Area, CRS, Nigeria. Unpublished Bachelors Degree Project, University of Calabar. Purkey, W. W., & Schmidt, J. (1987). The Inviting Relationship: An Expanded Perspective for Professional Counseling. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, inc. p. 97-104. Stodolsky, S. (1985). Telling Math: Origins of Math Aversion and Anxiety. Educational Psychologist, 20(3), 125-33. Tschannen-Moram, M., Woolfolk-Hoy, A., & W. K. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248. Wong, N. (1992). The Relationship Among Mathematics Achievement, Affective Variables and Home Background. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 4, 32-42. Yeung, A. S., & Lee, F. L. (1999). Self-concept of High School Students in China: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Longitudinal Data. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59, 431-450.



Provision and Management of School Facilities for the Implementation of UBE Programme
Lawanson, Olukemi Anike Gede, Ngozi Tari
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt,Nigeria.
Abstract This paper focuses on the provision and management of school facilities for the management of UBE programme. School facilities are those things that enable the teacher to carry out his/her work well and also help the learners to learn effectively. School facilities are vital tools in the teaching and learning process, hence the justification for their adequate provision and management. The school facilities are divided into instructional, recreational, residential and general-purpose types. They can be maintained through regular, emergency or prevention and periodic maintenance. Eight stages are discussed for the management of these facilities. However, it has been observed that these facilities are not adequately provided for our secondary schools for the implementation of this programme. The indicators are dilapidated school buildings, ill- equipped libraries and laboratories, lack of games facilities, computers e.t.c. However, for the successful implementation for UBE programme, all these school facilities must be adequately provided for and managed. The government should provide all necessary facilities, the school head should ensure optimal utilization of these facilities and make sure that they are well maintained. Keywords: UBE, provision, management, implementation and facilities.

Introduction One major index for measuring the successful implementation of any educational programme is the provision and management of the facilities available for such programme. It is a very good means of measuring the standard and quality of the education to be provided. Hence, school facilities, educational facilities and school plants will be used inter changeably because they connote the same meaning. What are School Facilities? School facilities can be defined as those things that enable the teacher to do his/her work very well and helping the learners to learn effectively. The chalkboard for example, facilitates the imparting of information on the learner. School facilities also include school building e.g. classrooms, assembly halls, laboratories, workshops, libraries e.t.c. They also include teaching aids, chairs, tables, devices such as modern educational hardware and software in the form of magnetic tapes, films, and transparent stripes. School facilities are all the things that are needed for effective teaching learning process to take place. They are designed to enhance the process of teaching. The absence of school facilities implies the non-existence of any set up that may be referred to as school. Castaldi in Peretemode (2001:45) concludes that educational facilities are those things of education which enables a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided. The successful implementation of any educational programme depends mostly on the quality of available school facilities that are to be provided for such programme. This is supported by the view of Adaralegbe in Abraham (2003:105) who posits that the type of atmosphere required for effective learning is that consisting of better school buildings, more and better teaching facilities. Also, Adesina in Abraham (2003:160) posits that the quality of education that our children get bears direct relevance to the availability or the lack of physical facilities and overall atmosphere where the learning takes place. Also in the words of Castaldi (1984:4) are these wise saying Excellent school facilities and dedicated teachers are basic ingredients of good educational programme. The desire for education



attainment is on the high side, the consumers of education therefore expect the attainment of standard and quality education that will give them a sense of belonging, fulfillment and satisfaction. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) is a laudable educational programme that can only be successfully implemented with the availability of adequate and quality school facilities. The UBE programme is an all embracing programme that tends to articulate the formal system of education as well as the non-formal for the total development of human potentials. All along, education has been recognized as the only vital instrument for national development. Education is all round symbol for the nations development and transformation in the aspect of economic, social and the political activities of the nation. For the UBE programme to be implemented therefore, school facilities which serve as the tools of a workman in the hand of a teacher must be adequately provided. It is of utmost importance that the availability of school facilities will duly contribute to the successful implementation of the UBE programme. These facilities must not only be provided, they must also be in good condition to enhance learning. This implies sound maintenance culture. This is supported by the view of Castaldi (1987:183) who says that school building becomes important because of the extent that it helps in improving teaching learning effectiveness. There are strong indications that the school facilities needed for effective execution of the U.B.E. are inadequate, and in some places, they are totally absent. For example, in some communities, the school buildings are dilapidated, some de-roofed for years, and others in a state of total neglect. Some of the U.B.E. schools are yet to receive government attention. The absence of classrooms for effective teaching and learning presupposes the absence of other facilities such as libraries, instructional materials such as textbooks, audio-visual aids and so on. Majority of the U.B.E. schools have not been equipped with computer which will afford the learner the opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child to function effectively in the society within the limits of the childs capacity. Even where there are school buildings, majority of them have no libraries to inculcate in the young learners, the habit of reading. Those that have libraries have no books meant for this level of education. The basic facilities needed for the implementation of this programme are still not fully provided by the government. Few schools are being renovated while no new ones are being built where there are none. Most of the renovation works are in the hands of the politicians who are not interested in executing the jobs according to specification. Even in some areas where the Secretaries of Local Education Boards were given the money to ensure that the Head Teacher executed the projects, the Secretaries gave them money far below the cost of the jobs. The implication is that the jobs were not completed. Consequently, the existing state of school facilities leaves much to be desired. Most of the primary and secondary schools in Nigeria are ugly sights to behold. It is only recently that some governors, notably among who are Rivers State and Lagos State Governors Rotimi Amaechi and Babatunde Raji Fashola respectively started and have completed a number of re-construction of old schools tagged as Model Schools. In most of the other schools, there are de-roofed buildings, no office spaces, leaking roofs, cracked walls, broken-down: vehicles, typewriters, chairs and tables, doors and windows, walls, duplicating machines and photocopying machines without replacement. Some students still learn under mango-trees while many of the pupils and students sit on the floor to write even where classrooms are available. The teacher on his part has no writing materials,staffroom, tables, chairs and sometimes one-legged chalk board. It is saddening to note that in this 21st century our primary and secondary schools are still using blackboards in the classroom when we should be talking about chalkboard and markers. With inadequate provision of the school facilities and non-existence in some U.B.E. schools, it will be difficult for the government to fully implement the U.B.E. programme in the face of the scarce school facilities and consequently the desired objectives of the U.B.E. will however, be difficult to meet. This paper will focus on the various types of school facilities that are mandatory to be provided in our schools, the types of maintenance services available, the need for managing the school facilities and the stages involved in the maintenance of these facilities.



Types of School Facilities Instructional Facilities These are facilities that are specifically meant for direct teaching and learning. It includes classrooms, classroom seats, laboratories, libraries, experimental equipment, chalkboard, audio-visual learning equipment, zoological gardens and experimental agricultural farms. These facilities bear directly on the teaching learning process and are therefore considered of prime priority among other school facilities. Recreational Facilities These are spaces, lawns, fields, pitches and equipment for sports, games and general recreation. Games and Sports apart from developing specific skills also develop a good learning socio-psychological as well as mental environment through relaxation. The importance and level of resources committed to the development and provision of recreational facilities must not exceed their values in facilitating the overall goal of the educational institution. Residential Facilities These include hostels and hostel facilities, refectory and refectory facilities, staff quarters and other associated facilities meant to provide residential convenience for staff and students. General Purpose Facilities These are facilities that can easily be converted to uses other than those for which they are being used. Such facilities in most cases are made of space facilities. There are basically two types of open space facilities namely: The developed and the undeveloped spaces. Developed Open Space are spaces used as sporting pitches, fields, lawn ,school farms, access roads, parking lots and so on. Their uses can easily be modified as occasion demands. The Undeveloped Open Spaces are all the land area within the legal authority of the institution which are yet to be developed into specific uses. What UBE is all about? Universal Basic Education is the foundational education that is available to everyone within the stipulated age limits, and also not restricted to any particular gender, place and time and upon which all other educational strata rest. The UBE is a nine year schooling which comprises six year primary and three year junior secondary. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), UBE shall be free and compulsory. It shall include adult and non formal education programmes at primary and junior secondary and out of school youths. The objectives of UBE as enumerated in UBE Annual Report (2000) in Mbanefo (2000) include the following: Development in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion; The provision of free, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school age; Reducing drastically, the incidence of dropout from the formal school system (through improved relevance, quality and efficiency); Catering for young persons who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their school;



Ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical moral and civic values needed for laying a strong foundation for lifelong learning. These objectives are quite ideal and they require efforts and commitment on the part of all the stakeholders to ensure that U.B.E. succeeds. However, it has been observed that there are problems in the area of provision and management of school facilities which may pose some difficulties to the smooth implementation of the programme. Availability of School Facilities Our schools can only be what we want them to be if only proper steps are taken in the provision of all that will make teaching and learning effective. Learning cannot take place where facilities are not provided. Therefore the provision of facilities such as building, equipment e.t.c. is of utmost importance. It is important to note that students and indeed their teachers need a conducive environment to be able to teach and learn adequately and effectively. The school facilities therefore, must meet the needs of the school community. Each building in the school should be ceiled to reduce the intensity of heat. They must also be constructed with a design that makes for cross ventilation. Good sanitary facilities (W.C. System) must be provided. Classrooms must not be over crowded and must be spacious enough for free movement. Jacobson et al in Abraham (2003). The school farm is another important ground of the school, it is an integral part of the school facilities. It is a part of the school compound which many people tend to ignore. Other important facilities are standard and well-equipped library and laboratory, games facilities, equipment etc. Our school can only be what we want them to be only if proper steps are taken to plan the buildings, the grounds and in fact the general layout of schools. What are School Facilities Management? School facilities management is a systematic process of rationalizing the provision, use and maintenance of these facilities within an educational institution to ensure their optimal utilization and achievement of educational objectives both in the immediate and in the future given the available resources. In other words, it is a process that involves rationally: Determining which facilities are required to achieve school goals; Providing such facilities most advantageously in terms of resource use; Monitoring to ensure optimal use of educational facilities so provided; Maintaining the facilities regularly to ensure their longevity; Reviewing the provision of these facilities to ensure that it continues to meet both the changing educational needs in the advantageous manner.

Types of Maintenance Three types of maintenance services include the following: Regular Maintenance This type of maintenance is given to special equipment in the school on a periodic basis. For example,



servicing of machines like typewriters, vehicles, generators, computers etc. These routine services are aimed at keeping the equipment working and to minimize cases of total breakdown of the equipment. Emergency Maintenance This is the type of maintenance that is more common in the system. It simply means that service men are called in when the equipments are out of use or broken down e.g. the wall of a dormitory may crack, and this crack requires urgent repairs to avoid total breakdown of the building. Prevention and Periodic Maintenance This is a programme for servicing machines, systems and structures device to prevent a breakdown of the system or one of its components. This allows an equipment or building to remain in the original useful life. Maintenance is carried out before there is malfunction of the equipment. Manufacturers usually indicate parts of equipment to be replaced at intervals to avoid breakdown and give the equipment maximum useful life. Periodic maintenance on the other hand represents a deliberate effort to schedule maintenance of equipment on periodic basis .Some equipment require quarterly maintenance, while office equipment require periodic maintenance. School facilities are to be maintained regularly because the best plant that is not maintained soon becomes defaced and loses its aesthetic value and worth. Justification for Managing School Facilities Castaldi (1985) has established the fact that when a skillful teacher works in a well designed and highly functional school building with necessary instructional facilities, he is likely to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness than when those facilities are not provided.School facilities therefore became vital tools or resources in teaching learning effectiveness and there is need for their proper management. The basic justification for giving sufficient attention to the management of educational facilities as an administrative task of the educational system includes the following: The needs to ensure that the right type of facilities are made available at the right time and place for the right type of teaching learning activities. Since these have been known to have significant bearing on teaching learning effectiveness, the right educational specification must be brought to bear on the provision of these facilities to meet the desired objectives. The need to inject economy into educational facilities provision and use. Educational resources are scarce relative to the varied and competing educational needs and demands. Colossal Wastage (underutilization and over-utilization) is however, eliminated .Choices are made in favour of school facilities that are economical to operate and maintain. The need to guarantee the safety of facility users. School facilities must conform to some standard specifications or guidelines to make them safe for the students and teachers. It is only through monitoring, supervision, control and regular maintenance that the provision of these school facilities in an educational institution can be safely guaranteed. The need to improve physical facilities. Since education is dynamic both in content and methods, educational facilities need to be constantly evaluated and modified, not only to remove absolute and dilapidated structure but also to ensure that such facilities continue to meet the modern and ever changing educational needs, changing technology and the dynamic socio-political and economic environment.



The need to add aesthetic value to educational facilities not only to enhance their utilization value but also to make them more healthy, safe and convenient to use and maintain. Poorly organized facilities are not only clumsy to use but accident prone as well as difficult to maintain. Stages in Facilities Management The activities that come under the umbrella of educational facilities management or educational facilities planning and administration are sequentially linked. Consequently, these activities will be recognized as stages in a chain of activities. The following are stages in sequential order: Identification of Learning Needs Specific educational facilities requirement of community or institution in terms of type quantity and quality needs to be properly assessed to provide the operational guide for facilities provision. At the community level, peculiar learning needs are usually tied to peoples culture, religion, occupational life style and the environment. It must be recognized that the learning needs in terms of facilities are contingent on the fundamental educational objectives being pursued. Inventory Survey A comprehensive diagnostic inventory survey of the existing stock of educational facilities in the community or institution should be done. Inventory data has to be collected and analyzed to provide information on the location, condition, age, quantity and type of existing educational facilities. This will provide the educational map or the distributional network of the existing educational facilities needed in the development of the facilities master plan. Facilities Utilization Analysis Relevant utilization indicators are required to assess the legality of utilization of these educational facilities .Such analysis are meant to reveal areas of stress and weaknesses (i.e. under utilization and over utilization) in the existing arrangement with a view to developing facilities master plan. Establishment of Educational Facilities Master Plan This is a blue-print that indicates where specific educational facilities are to be provided and existing ones relocated or completely removed during an educational development phase to enhance the level of utilization of such facilities as well as meet the educational needs of the community or the educational institution. Site Selection and Acquisition This is the first step in the implementation of the master plan. Professional expertise is brought into selecting and acquiring the most appropriate sites for the specific educational facilities envisaged in the master plan. Site acquisition has to do with purchasing the land, paying of compensation, getting the necessary documents that entitle the institution to the land and fencing or demarcation. Preparation of Educational Specifications Each educational facility, project or programme requires specific patterns in design and implementation. The



educational manager or the facility planner is therefore expected at this juncture to prepare educational specifications (i.e. a written description of the curriculum and learning experiences of a project) required for implementing each of the various educational facilities such educational specifications must contain a statement of the philosophy behind the project, the grade levels to be served, enrolment capacity as well as the specification of materials and structural requirement for erecting different types of educational structures (classroom building, laboratories etc) and for purchase and installation of the equipment specified in the master plan. All specifications must however be in line with the ministry of education requirement and must make provision for flexibility to meet changing needs of the institutions. Educational Project Design Once the educational specifications have been drawn for each project to be executed or facilities to be purchased the educational facilities or plant planner must employ the assistance of other professionals to design the projects in line with the educational specifications. Such professionals may include architects and plant engineers. Implementation of Educational Project Specifications Implementation of project specification involves selecting bids, letting contracts for construction and furnishing of buildings or purchase and installation of facilities as well as monitoring and supervision of project execution to ensure they meet the specifications. To accomplish these tasks, the educational facilities planner requires the assistance of a whole lot of professionals, like lawyers to sign contracts, accountant to cost projects, businessmen to execute and architects /engineers to supervise and inspect. Maintenance of School Facilities for the Implementation of U. B. E. It has been observed that many school heads forget to realize that they have a duty to play towards the maintenance and upkeep of school plants. Deighton (1971) Nwagwu (1998) Ani (1997) and Nwogu (1997) in their separate studies have confirmed the roles of the school administrator towards the maintenance as: The identification of plants that needs repair, the establishment of a repair inventors , the establishment of a maintenance workshop, Renovation of dilapidated school plant. Repair and redecoration of school plant. Appointment of teachers to custodial duties. Instruction to students on the careful use of the school plants, preventing students from damage or defacements through writing or drawings on the walls. Ensuring that school plants are adequate for students population. Supervising school custodial staff Providing working materials for the custodial staff allocating un-accommodated buildings where applicable to staff as residential quarters since buildings deteriorate faster when they are not in use. Reporting all major parts to the government on time. Teaching students to treat plants as personal properties instead of government facilities.

The U.B.E. programme however, must ensure that all these measures are taken in the maintenance of school plants. Maintenance fund should be given to the school heads since the school heads cannot run to



the ministry every time for minor repairs. The principals and headmasters should also not divert these funds into their private pockets while treating these properties as Government Property. The children, teachers and heads should treat these plants as they treat their own personal properties. Since man loves beauty and becomes relaxed and comfortable within a beautiful environment. It is therefore imperative that managers of U.B.E should endeavour to put the existing structures into proper functioning by either renovating or do repairs to meet with the present expected standards. Ntukidem (1992) maintains that attractive school plants with superior lighting, attractive decoration, comfortable seating and useful service facilities such as libraries, multi-purpose room e.t.c stimulate learning. The students in the attractively decorated school will perform better with all the advantages derived from the school plants. A student sitting on a comfortable seat is prone to produce a better handwriting than a student writing while sitting on a broken chair and table, Nwogu (1997). Suggestions The following suggestions are considered necessary for the provision and management of school facilities for the UBE programme. The government should make sure that all the school facilities such as instructional, recreational, residential and general-purpose facilities should be provided. The school heads should also ensure proper utilization of the facilities to keep working to minimize a total breakdown. Choices of school facilities should be made in favor of school facilities that are economical to operate and maintain. There should be guideline for plant users (teachers, students, non-teaching staff) to ensure that educational facilities are maintained on a regular basis for every educational institution. A maintenance department must be established to carry out either major or minor maintenance services for furniture & other less technical & sophisticated educational equipment or facilities. There must be a maintenance unit with well trained and remunerated personnel in each of the task areas. Conclusion School facilities are the essential facilities necessary for the enhancement of teaching and learning process; these include: libraries, classrooms, chairs, tables, computers, shelves, equipment etc. Hence, excellent school facilities and dedicated teachers are basic ingredients of good educational programme like Universal Basic Education. However, these school facilities must be sufficiently provided in our educational institutions and well maintained to ensure that optimal use and achievement of educational objectives both in the immediate and in the future, given the available resources. It is however, no news that the school facilities needed for effective implementation of the U.B.E. programme are inadequate, and in some places, they are totally absent. For examples, there are dilapidated buildings, absence of libraries in most schools, shortage or total absence of laboratory equipment, shortage of tables, chairs, classrooms where available, lack of textbooks, computers and other audio-visual aids. References
Adaralegbe, (n.d) in Abraham, N. M. (2003 . Educational Administration in Nigeria, Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Publishing Company Ltd. Adesina, (n.d.) in Abraham, N. M. (2003). Educational Administration in Nigeria, Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Publishing Company Ltd.


Ani, C.I (1997). Procurement Management and Maintenance of School Plant in Maduagwu, S. N. (Ed.) (2006). Universal Basic Education: The Basic Facts. Owerri: Springfield Publisher. Castaldi, (n.d.). in Peretemode, V. F. (2001). Educational Administration: Applied Concepts and Theoretical Perspective. Lagos: Joja Educational Research and Publishers Ltd. Deighton, L. (ed.) (1971) Encyclopedia of Education. New York: Macmillan and Free Press Vol. 1. Jocobson, (n.d.) in Abraham, N. M. (2003). Educational Administration in Nigeria. Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Publishing Company Ltd. Maduagwu, S. N. (Ed.) (2006). Universal Basic Education: The Basic Facts. Owerri; Springfield Publisher Mbanefo, (2002). U.B.E. Annual Report in Maduagwu, S. N.(Ed) (2006). Universal Basic Education: The Basic Facts. Owerri: Springfield Publisher. National Policy on Education, (2004) 4th Edition Lagos: NERDC Press. Nnabuo, P. O. M; Okorie, N. C; Agabi, O. G; & Igwe, L. E. B. (eds.) (2004). Fundamentals of Educational Management . Owerri: Versatile Publisher. Nwagwu, N. A. (1978). Primary School Administration. Lagos: Macmillan Publisher. Nwogu, U. J. (1997). Administrative Role of the Principal in School Plant Management in Secondary Schools in Rivers State. An Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis ,University of Port Harcourt. Ntukidem, P. J. (1992). School Plant Management in Maduagwu, S. N. (Ed.) (2006). Universal Basic Education :The Basic Facts. Springfield Publisher.



Political Skills Moderates the Relationship between Perception of Organizational Politics and Job Outcomes
Farooq Ahmed Jam
Faculty of Management Studies, University of Central Punjab Lahore Pakistan

Tariq Iqbal Khan

Faculty of Management Sciences, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Bilal Hassan Zaidi Syed Mashhod Muzaffar

Faculty of Management Studies, University of Central Punjab Lahore Pakistan
Abstract This research investigates the moderating effect of political skills and relationship between perception of organizational politics with job stress, affective commitment, intension to quit and contextual performance. This study analyzes the effect of perception of organizational politics on four types of job outcomes. Sample size of 300 employees from public and private sector organizations of Pakistan were used to examine the hypothesis and the results will be helpful for us to examine our entire hypothesis. This finding demonstrates the need to consider in different situations. Several future researches were recommended for further inquiry into perception of organizational politics with different other job outcomes. Keywords: Perception of organizational politics, job stress, affective commitment, intention to quit, Contextual performance, public and Private sector organizations in Pakistan.

Introduction This background studies to analyze the concept and relationship of perception of organizational politics, political skills and job outcomes. This research study is based on the conceptual framework to analyze the relationship of perception of organizational politics, political skills and job outcomes. This study relates with the job outcomes of the employees in the organization. Employees are the back bone and assets for any organization. Organization will focus on the performance of the employees and the factors which will directly and indirectly affect the performance of the employees. The important factor which will affect the work outcome of any employee is perception of organizational politics. The organizational politics is the severe problem which is facing by the human resource management now a day in both public and private sectors. Perception of organizational politics will directly effect the work outcomes like increase in job stress. Decrease in affective commitment, increase in turnover intension and decrease in contextual performance but if any employee possess efficient political skills then it will overcome all these problems. This is why, research on perception of organizational politics with job outcomes and moderating effect of political skills is very critical. In this research study we took perception of organizational politics as independent variable, political skills as moderator and job stress, affective commitment, turnover intension and contextual performance as dependent variable. Literature Review High level of politics in the organization had not traditionally plagued the organization, employees in the organization aware of an increase in political behavior. Therefore our study not only helps line management



also directly address the rising tide of organizational politics, but we also assisted the human resources group to improved selection system (Witt, Kacmar, Carlson, and Zivnuska, 2002). Politics is an important variable in organizational research which takes the attention of organizational psychologists and studied with different perspective in the organization (Sowmya and Panchanatham, 2011). According to Pfeffer (1981), the managers use politics as a functional tool in the organization to get the work done through political environment. But the others said, individuals involved in politics to achieving their self interest (Cropanzano, Howes, Grandey, and Toth, 1997). Some individuals who know that their organizational environment is highly political but do not leave organization because they play a role as a mechanism of control through which their situation is made under control. On the other hand, individuals who engage in political behaviors like to stay with organization and mostly safe their position in highly political environment (Harrell-Cook, Ferris, and Dulebohn, 1999). In earliest Mintzberg (1983, p. 172) defined organizational politics as individual or group behavior that is informal, ostensibly parochial, typically divisive, and above all in a technical sense, illegitimate-sanctioned neither by formal authority, accepted ideology, nor certified expertise (Danaeefard, Balutbazeh, and Kashi, 2010). Another definition of organizational politics is organizational politics involves actions by individuals, which are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests without regard for the well-being of other or their organization (Kacmar, Bozeman, Carlson, and Anthony, 1999). Gandz and Murray (1980) said a subjective state in which organizational members perceive themselves or other as intentionally seeking selfish ends in an organizational context when such ends are opposed to those of other. Largely research on organizational politics were base on the idea of Lewins (1936) that measure the behavior using individual perception was better than real objective. More than 90 percent employee perceived that office politics is common in any organization (Gandz and Murray, 1980). After 30 years later if this study would be repeated the results would be almost same. Political behavior is an individual perception of what is political (Vredenburgh and Maurer, 1984). In any organization perception of politics is a good measure of the political environment (Ferris and Kacmar, 1992). Vigoda-Gadot, Vinarski-Peretz, and BenZion (2003) defined perception of politics usually individual views about the level of power and influence used by other organizational members to gain advantages and secure their interests in conflicting situations. Valle and Witt (2001) said organizational politics can take on both negative and positive connotation. Organizational effectiveness negatively affected by perception of politics (Byrne, 2005). People view their work environment as political in nature (Kacmar and Carlson, 1997). Firstly Ferris developed perception of organizational politics model (Ferris, Russ, and Fandt, 1989). Ferris, Harrell-Cook, and Dulebohn (2000) defined perception of organizational politics as it involves an individual attribution to behaviors of self-serving intent, and is defined as an individuals subjective evaluation about the extent to which the work environment is characterized by co-workers and supervisors who demonstrate such self-serving behavior. According to Farris et al, (1989), the perception of organizational politics is having three factors which are General political behavior, Go along to get ahead and Pay and promotion. General political behavior includes act in self-serving manner to achieving their individual goals (Kacmar and Carlson, 1997). The second factor go along to get ahead consists of lack of interest and remaining silent action showing by individual in order to secure ones best interest (Byrne, 2005). The third factor pay and promotion which involves politician in organizational promotion policies (Ferris et al, 1989). Thus perception of politics was always influence individual reward structure and when employees work in a political environment, they may not have confidence that their behavior will by contribute to organizational reward structure (Cropanzano et al, 1997). The research on perception of organizational politics shows that it has a negative influence on numbers of job outcome including turnover intention (Byrne, 2005), job stress (Azeem, Mahmood, Ul-Haq, Sharif, Qurashi, and Hijazi, 2010), workplace deviance (), interpersonal conflict (Bhowon, 1999) and contextual performance (Witt et al, 2002).



Political skills is characterized as comprehensive pattern competitive with cognitive, effective and behavior manifestation that have both direct effort on outcome and moderating effect on predictors outcome relationship. Individual processing political skills are observer of other. They understand social interaction well and accurately intemperate their behavior and behavior of others. They are keenly attuned to diverse social settings and have high self awareness. Pfeiffer (1992) referred to this characteristic as being sensitive to others and he argued that the ability to identify with others is critical to obtaining things for oneself. Socially attitude individuals are often seen as ingenious, even clever, in dealing with others. Political skilled individuals have an unassuming and convenience personal style that asserts a powerful influence on others around them. Interpersonal influences allow people to adopt and calibrate their behavior to different situations to elicit the desired responses from others. the interpersonal influence dimensions capture what Pfeiffer (1992), referred to as flexibility, which involves adopting ones behavior to different targets of influence in different contextual settings to achieve ones goals. Individuals with political skills are adopting at identifying and developing diverse contacts and networks of the people. People in these networks tend to hold assets seen as valuable and accessory for successful personal and organizational gains. Because of their typical subtle style, political skilled individuals easily developed friendships and build, beneficial alliances and collisions. Furthermore individuals hi in networking ability ensures they are well optioned on both create and take advantage of opportunities politically skilled individual appeared to other as having high level integrity and as being authentic, sincere and genuine.. Be successful because it focuses on the perceived the intention of the behavior exhibited. Perceived intentions or motive are important and have been argued to modify the interpretation and labeling of behavior. As noted by Jones (1990), influence attempts will be successful when actors are perceived to posses no ulterior motives. Individuals high in patent sincerity inspired trust and confidence in and from those around them because their actions are not interpretive or coercive. The political perspective on organization has become an important one and as such we to be able to appropriately characterize the attitudes behavior and effectiveness of individuals working in such environments. The string between perception, political behavior and some other major factors included turnover of intention, job stress of various organizations studied by multiple scholars to bring out the vital part or collaboration between these all elements for better understanding plus results outcomes (Ferris, Frink, Gilmor and Kacmar, 1994; Bennett and Robinson, 1995). During their research they elaborate some other major factor to enhance the key performance indicators which directly affects the performance & relationship between employer and employee. These key performance indicators constrain different variable to produce some remarkable results. This research has been done back in the era of nineties (Ferris et al, 1994; Bennett and Robinson, 1995). The major reason of this study and investigation correlate perception of politics and job stress which is dominated by some external factors reference to the context of Pakistan. They found out that negative and positive or rational behaviors always persist in every organization having different man powers strengths or variety (Ferris, Russ and fandt, 1989; Drory, 1993; Cropanzano, Howes, Grandey, and Toth, 1997). What brings our scholars to run this investigation & data compilation for getting the statistics to implement better policies, code of conducts, job securities and kicking out negative consequences and irrational behaviors? These statistics brings out better implementations of policies relationship between employer and employees building some bonds to keep the outcomes stream line. These collected effort and results are important contribution to literature since study has been done to investigation this relationship (Vigoda, 2000; Gilmore, Ferris, Dulebohn and Harrell-Cook, 1996). While working in organization either small level or multinational direct or straight element which hits your responses is none as stress, which has been defined differently and some time similar by various scholars (Gilmore at el, 1996). As per investigation of Mattson and Ivancevich (1987) define stress as individual adaptive response influent by some individual this simulates and is consequences of multiple action or event that places extra demand on a person. Job stress arises when demands exceed abilities, while job-related



strains are reactions or outcomes resulting from the experience of stress. Job stress is something we all face as workers, and we all handle it differently. There is no getting around it. But, not all stress is bad, and learning how to deal with and manage stress is critical to our maximizing our job performance, staying safe on the job, and maintaining our physical and mental health. This stress include different personal obligation or thinking from within the box which do not less us go out or stuck us for thinking out of the box such as overload, apathy ,negativism, anxiety, lack awareness for orders ,job descriptions, alienation , sacred from feedback & all the events taking in company Affective commitment is emotional attachment with the organization. A committed employee works for the organization and give his full efforts to his organization. The loyal employee has high level of effective commitment. Effective commitment is negatively related with perception of politics. If any employee who perceive politics in the organization and throughout the politics some specific employees are getting rewards so there will be decrease in effective commitment of that employee. Affective commitment had an indirect effect on turnover through intent to quit.( Meyer 2002) In a human resource context, turnover or staff turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and losses employees. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door. Whereas Farrel and Rusbult (1992) defined turnover as job replacement either within or across organization as well as variety of extra activities which open the door with other the leave. In some places stressor i.e. politics causes taking displeasure and in turn over intent to abscond the organization (McKenna, Oritt and Wolff, 1981). Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors, it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. High turnover can be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers (Tett and Meyer, 1993). Job performance is a degree to which an individual achieves its goals to helps the organization. Borman and Motowidlo (1997) established a two-factor theory of job performance which consists of task performance and contextual performance. Task performance is when employees accomplished special task by using technical skills or produce goods or services that support organization. When employees are for instance involved with helping co-workers, putting their extra effort and extra hours to complete a task on tine, and so forth, the employees are said to be involved in contextual performance (Van Scotter, 2000). Contextual performance is Behaviors supporting organizational social and psychological environment in which the technical core must function (Kiker and Motowidlo, 1999). Contextual performance is employees own judgmental activities that perform outside the core job such as voluntary participate in committees, helping co-workers in and other departments, putting the extra effort above the basic job requirements for promoting the organization. In short, contextual performance is not the core job performance; it is the largely invisible activities that contribute to the organizational performance (Michie and West, 2004). Contextual performance is the outcomes of behaviors that are not unique to a specific job and support the social objectives of the organization (Witt et al, 2002). Contextual performance consists of two types of behaviors, job dedication and interpersonal facilitation. The first behavior interpersonal facilitation contributes to accomplishment of organizational goal and building relationships. The second behavior that is job dedication describes selfdisciplined like working hard, motivated acts, and following polices to support organizational objectives (Van Scotter and Motowidlo, 1996). Perception of Organizational Politics and Job Stress The persons who have the direct authority for executing the policies to generate end results, may face more



or direct attack of stress and show irrational behavior and stress as per their designations from top level till bottom, which holds the control (Vigoda, 2002). They react as per defined designations which includes some their physical problems like headaches, stomach problems, anxiety, frustration and depression (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). Whereas organizational politics is also a direct source of stress in atmospheres which carries out unexpected damages, consequences, disturbances of stress (Ferris, Frink, Galang, Zhou and Kacmar, 1996). H1: Perception of organizational politics is positively related with job stress. Perception of Organizational Politics and Affective Commitment On the other side organizational politics in the organization will reduce the affective commitment of the employess.political environment in the organization will effect the commitment of employees towards the organization.(Greenberg & Scott, 1996). Studies suggest that perception of politics is negatively related with the affective commitment.increase in politics will decrease the affctive commitment.(Meyer 2002) H2: Perception of organizational politics is negatively related with affective commitment . Perception of Organizational Politics and Turnover Intention: There are some suggestions that perception of organizational politics have indirectly proposal effects on turnover intention and shows through more instants outcomes (strain and morale) as which formal studies probing only the straight effects of perception of organization politics on job enrichment and turnover intention. May have miss specified these loopholes, thus biasing the study consequences (Dunham, 1977). Captivatingly the belongings of perceptions of company politics on yield intention an work job fortification via different or parallel path way in picky the psychosomatic strain elicited by perception of company/organizational politics was directly linked with decreased morale which was related or let a higher turnover objective. This format employees that reaction of perception of politics on turnover intention may take extra to unfold and may involve additional rational process. Yield researchers have established or developed the typical voluntary turnover procedure as initialized by decrease self esteem and bringing various conclusion points (Griffeth, Hom, and Gartner, 2000). H3: Perception of organizational politics is positively related with turnover intention. Perceptions of Organizational Politics and Contextual Performance: The employees natural tendency to engage in different behaviors is strongly influenced by the organizational context. If there are highly politics in organization then employees are including in self-promotional activities and these activities are against to behaviors that focus on improving the greater good. This political behavior generally focused on individual rather than group accomplishment (Witt et al, 2002). Employees engage in behavioral self management, reducing their contextual performance when they believe that their economic or social contracts have been violated in the organization (Witt et al, 2002). Some individuals in political environment avoid the political activities and their behaviors are notice by the other persons (Ferris and Kacmar, 1992). Therefore they are not care about political environment and they do not corporate with their coworkers to accomplish the takes. But the changing in schemas that existing in organizational political, no one can ignore them. Individuals who have low contextual performance might not be fulfilling skilled self-management and are unable to fit themselves is this environment. Employees have no sense of how to successfully interact with others with lack of self-management in a political environment (Witt et al, 2002). High level of perceptions of organizational politics effect contextual performance in several ways, firstly in the political environment the employee feels that the social contract has been violating between the employer



and employee (Cropanzano et al, 1997). Secondly, the employee behavior in political organization engaged in self-interest, they are unlike to want to go out to help others (Witt et al, 2002).Based on above literature this research hypothesis that: H4: Perception of organizational politics is negatively related with contextual performance. Political skills and Job Stress: Political skill is ability that increases the amount of employee control or responsibility. A political skill is characterized as comprehensive pattern competitive with cognitive, effective and behavior manifestation that have both direct efforts on outcomes. Talking about political skills and job stress the higher the politcal skills will reduce the job stress of an employee. through efficient political skills any employee must reduce its stress on workplace (layman 2003). H5: A political skill is negatively related with job stress. Political skills and Affective Commitment: Political skill is one of the most important competencies leaders can possess, contributing to effectiveness in organizations. Through political skills any employee can increase his affective commitment towards his organization. Affective commitment is emotional attachment with the organization. A committed employee works for the organization and give his full efforts to his organization. The loyal employee has high level of effective commitment. High political skills will increase the organizational commitment of an employee (Treadway, Ferris, kacmar 2004) H6: Political skills is positively related with Affective Commitment Political skills and turnover intension: Lack of political skills and high politics in the culture of organization will change the mind of employees and force to leave an organization (Miller and Wheeler 1992). Companies were able to improve their employees retention rate by enhancing the political skills in the employees of their organization. political skills and turnover intension are negatively related with each other, increase in political skills will reduce the rate of turnover intension.( Thomas 2010) H7: A political skill is negatively related with turnover intention. Political skills and Contextual Performance: Contextual performance is employees own judgmental activities that perform outside the core job such as voluntary participate in committees, helping co-workers in and other departments, putting the extra effort above the basic job requirements for promoting the organization. In short, contextual performance is not the core job performance; it is the largely invisible activities that contribute to the organizational performance (Michie and West, 2004). There are links between political skills with contextual performance; through political skills employees perform batter (Campion and McClelland, 1993). According Umstot, Mitchell and Bell (1978) the relation between political skills and performance is positive. H8: Political skills is positively related with contextual performance Perception of organizational politics and job stress by political skills:



The persons who have the direct authority for executing the policies to generate end results, may face more or direct attack of stress and show irrational behavior and stress as per their designations from top level till bottom, which holds the control (Vigoda, 2002). Whereas organizational politics is also a direct source of stress in atmospheres which carries out unexpected damages, consequences, disturbances of stress (Ferris, Frink, Galang, Zhou and Kacmar, 1996).In political environment where the politics will increase the job stress of the employees. In such environment a person who has efficient political skills will use its political skills to reduce its job stress effectively. H9: Political skills moderates the relationship between perception of organizational politic and job stress. Perception of organizational politics and Affective Commitment by political skills: Effective commitment is negatively related with perception of politics. If any employee who perceive politics in the organization and throughout the politics some specific employees are getting rewards so there will be decrease in effective commitment of that employee. so if a person who use its political skills in political environment will increase its commitment through the organization.( Chang, Rosen, Levy 2009) H10: Political skills moderates the relationship between perception of organizational politic and Affective Commitment. Perception of organizational politics and turnover by political skills: Concept of organizational politics as environment straight away effect on turn over intentions which can be observe or get studied as quicker results as which regular studies dig out direct effect as perception of politics on job improvement and turnover intentions. Political environment which may include sometimes leg pulling, accusations forces some individuals to get frustrated by not meeting their expected targets and that can causes terrible penalties (Dunham, 1977). Any person who has political skills will survive in the political environment with in the organizations. High political skills will reduce the rate of turnover in the political environment. H11: Political skills moderates the relationship between perception of organizational politic and turnover intension. Perception of Organizational Politics and Contextual Performance by political skills: According to Borman and Motowidlo (1997) organization achieves its goal through employees performance and these goals can achieve through voluntary help of co-workers. In highly political environment individuals act to achieve their own goals (Kacmar and Carlson, 1997). Employees engage in different behaviors due to impact of political environment in organization (Witt et al, 2002). High level of politics in organization affects the social contract between employees and employers (Cropanzano et al, 1997). As a result the employees engaged with their self interest and they are unlikely to help other (Witt et al, 2002) highly political environment a person who posses high political skills then it will help him to increase its contextual performance. H12: Political skills moderates the relationship between perception of organizational politic and contextual performance.



Theoretical Framework

Political Skills

Perception of organizational politics

Job stress Affective Commitment Intention to Quit Contextual performance

Methodology Sample and Data Collection: We take a sample of 300 employees from different public and private sectors in Pakistan. The average age of the respondent was from 22 to 50 years; 50 per cent had Graduation degrees, 28 per cent had Master degrees and 2 per cent had M. Phil / PHD degrees. The data was collected via questionnaire from private sector organizations in Pakistan. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis and work on descriptive correlation and regression and moderation tools for analysis. Measures Perception of Organizational Politics: POP was measured with 15-item scale developed by Kacmar and Carlson (1997). The 15 items were There has always been an influential group in this department that no one ever crosses. It is best not to rock the boat in this organization. Telling others what they want to hear is sometimes better than telling the truth.. A 5-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree is used and the alpha reliability is ( =0.78). Political skills: Political skills were measured with 40 item scale developed by Ferris and Treadway (2005).the 40 items were I size up situations before deciding how to present an idea to others. I am good at reading social situations, and determining the most appropriate behavior to demonstrate the proper impression. I understand people very well. A 7-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree is used and the alpha reliability is ( =0.87). Affective commitment: Affective commitment was measured with 8 item scale developed by Allen and Mayer (1990).the 8 items were I dont think I could become as attached to another organization as I m to this organization. I feel like a part of the family at my organization A 5-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree is used and the alpha reliability is ( =0.87). Turnover Intention: Turnover intention was measured with 3-item scale developed by Cammann et al (1979). The 3 items are I often think about quitting.. A 5-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree is used and the alpha reliability is ( =0.70). Job Stress: JS was measured with 13-item scale developed by Kacmar Parker and Decotiis (1983). The 13 items were I have too much work and too little time to do it. Too many people at my level in the organization



get burned out by job demands.. A 5-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree is used and the Alpha reliability is ( =0.85). Contextual Performance: CP was measured with 15-item scale developed by Motowidlo and Van Scotter (1994). The 15 items were I praise my colleagues when they are successful and I put in extra hours to get work done on time. A 5-point Likert scale 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree is used and the alpha reliability is ( =0.91). Control Variable:

Results Table 1 : Descriptive Statistics Variables Gender Age Qualification Type of organization Position Tenure TEXP POP PS JS AC TOI CP N 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 Mean 1.30 1.36 3.63 1.19 1.92 2.87 1.35 3.26 4.03 3.36 3.29 3.30 3.34 Std. Deviation .459 .661 .573 .393 .673 .898 .768 .438 .633 .406 .438 .423 .692

The results of ONEWAY ANOVA showed that the present study has two control variables which influenced dependent variables significantly. 1.Type of the organization. 2. Position in the organization. Descriptive Statistics: The descriptive statistics are shown in table1 including the means and standard deviations were found in the data. The mean of gender was (M = 1.30) with standard deviation of (S.D = 0.45). The mean for age was (M =1.36) with standard deviation of (S.D = .661) . The mean of qualification was (M = 3.63) with standard deviation of (S.D = 0.57).The mean of type of organization was (M = 1.19) with standard deviation of (S.D = 0.39) .The mean of position was (M = 1.92) with standard deviation of (S.D = .673) .The mean of tenure was (M = 2.87) with standard deviation of (S.D = 0.89). The mean of total experience was (M = 1.35) and



standard deviation of (S.D = 0.76). The mean of perception of organizational politics was (M = 3.26) with standard deviation (S.D = .438), mean of Political skill was (M = 4.03) with standard deviation (S.D = .633), mean of job stress was (M = 3.36) with standard deviation (S.D = .406), mean of affective commitment was (M = 3.29) with standard deviation (S.D = .438). The mean of turnover intension was (M = 3.30) with standard deviation (S.D = .423), contextual performance was (M = 3.34) with standard deviation (S.D = .692). The mean of perception of organizational politics was (M = 3.26) with standard deviation (S.D = .438), mean of Political skill was (M = 4.03) with standard deviation (S.D = .633), mean of job stress was (M = 3.36) with standard deviation (S.D = .406), mean of affective commitment was (M = 3.29) with standard deviation (S.D = .438). The mean of turnover intension was (M = 3.30) with standard deviation (S.D = .423), contextual performance was (M = 3.34) with standard deviation (S.D = .692). Correlations
Table 2 : Correlations S. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Variables Gender Age .021 .176** -.056 .212** .566** .738** .080 .213** -.138 .180** .049 .127* .108 .481** .220** .133* .017 -.131* -.079 .261** .020 .705** .149** .109 .132* .345** (0.78) .113 (0.87) (0.91) .364** .416 (0.87) .274** (0.70) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Qualificati .046 on Type of -.002 organization position .021 Tenure Texp Pop PS CP Ac TOI JS .052 .049 -.023 .261** -.068 -.016 -0.25 -.055

-.171** -.234* -.155* .130* -.021 -.097 -.145* -.193** .037 -.160* -.149* -.146* -.127* -.1.17 .007 -.055 -.029 -.123*

.149** .136* .160** .171** .116* .215** -.017 .128**

.440** .243** .435** .191**

.403*** -.069 .440** .081

.345*** .402** .0349** (0.85)

*** Correlation is significant at the 0.001 level (p < 0.001) ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (p < 0.01) * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (p < 0.05) The correlation results show that POP is positively related with JS, affective commitment, TOI and CP. While thempolitical skills is negatively related with JS and TOI while it is positively related with affective commitment and CP.



Table 3 : Regression JS Predictors POP PS .425*** .006 R2 .197 .031 R2 .167*** .000 AC R2 R2 .167*** .037*** .624*** -0.74 TOI R2 .166 .026 R CP R2 .202 .084 R2 .177*** .063***

.410*** .192 .129*** .062

.144*** .406*** . 0.04 .163***

Note: N = 300, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05.

The regression table shows the variance, change in variance and significant level to test the hypothesis. The table shows regression analysis of POP and political skills with work outcomes. If u look at our first hypothesis that POP is positively related with JS. The table shows that it is highly significant between perception of politics and job stress (beta is .425***, p < 0.001). As our second hypothesis is that POP is negatively related with affective commitment but result shows that it is also highly significant relationship between POP and affective commitment(beta is .410***, p < 0.001,)As our third hypothesis is that POP is positively related with TOI and result also shows that it is also highly significant relationship between perception of politics and TOI (beta is .624***., p < 0.001), As our fourth hypothesis is that POP is negatively related with CP but result shows that it is also highl significant relationship between POP and CP (beta is .406***, p < 0.001,) Now in second step the regression analysis shows the relationship of political skills with job outcomes. Out fifth hypothesis that political skills is negatively related with job stress but result shows that it in significant(beta is .086)as our sixth hypothesis is that political skills is positively related with affective commitment but result shows its opposite and there must be a significant relation between political skills and affective commitment t..(Beta is .129***.*** p < 0.001). Our seventh hypotheses is political skills is negatively related with turnover intention but result shows that it is not much significant as beta value is also in negative. Our eight hypothesis is political skill is positively related with contextual performance and result show it is highly significant and beta value is also positive. Moderation
JS Predictors Step : 1 POP PS Step : 2 POPxPS .175* .213 .015* -.287 .256 .042*** .054 .179 .001 -.092 .25 .005 .425*** .197 .006 .031 .167*** .410*** .192 .000 .129*** .062 .167*** .624*** .037*** -0.74 .166 .026 .144*** .406*** 0.04 .163*** .202 .084 .177*** .063*** R2 R2 AC R2 R2 TOI R2 R CP R2 R2

Our ninth hypothesis is moderating effect of political skills between perception of politics and job stress. In table 4 political skills positively moderate between perception of politics and job stress. Beta is .175*and it is significant. Our tenth hypothesis is moderating effect of political skills between perception of politics and affective commitment. The result shows that political skills positively moderate between perception of politics



and affective commitment and it are highly significant. Our 11th hypothesis is moderating effect of political skills between perception of politics and turnover result shows that political skills not significantly moderate between perception of politics and turnover intension. Our 12h hypothesis is moderating effect of political skills between POP and CP. But result shows that political skills are not significantly moderate between POP and CP even beta are also negative. Discussion The importance of this research is to provide knowledge of human resource management about the relationship of perception of organization politics and different outcomes like job stress, affective commitment, intention to quit and contextual performance. In this research political skills acts as moderator between perception of politics and job outcomes. This research will provide information to employees hat how efficient political skills will reduce job stress, increase affective commitment, and reduce turnover intension and contextual performance. We take 12 hypotheses in which we relate all variables with each other. And after our research and results we will easily understand the relationship of variables with each other. In hypothesis H:1 we analyze the relationship between perception of politics and job stress. The results showed that the relationship is highly significant and positively related. So, Hypothesis H:1 is accepted. The relationship between perception of politics and affective commitment is significant and negative and we accept the hypothesis. The perception of politics and turnover intention showed a positive and significant relationship and the hypothesis H:3 is accepted. The results for hypothesis H:4 showed negative but significant results. So, this hypothesis is accepted. Relationship between political skills and job stress in not significant and the hypothesis H:5 is rejected. The hypothesis H:6 is accepted and it showed that the relationship between political skills and affective commitment is negative. The relationship between political skills and turnover intention is not significant and the hypothesis H:7 is rejected. The hypothesis H:8 is also accepted and showed the negatively relationship between political skills and contextual performance. The political skills act as a moderator between perception of politics and job stress. So, hypothesis H:9 is accepted. The hypothesis H:10 is accepted which showed that political skills moderate between perception of politics and affective commitment. The relationship between variables in H:11 is not significant and the hypothesis is rejected. The political skills not acts as a moderator between perception of politics and contextual performance and the hypothesis H:12 is rejected. Conclusion The purpose of the project is to find out the moderating effect of political skills between perception of politics and job out comes. In order to achieve the purpose the theoretical framework was constructed. This was divided into three parts independent variable, dependent variables and moderator. This study is employee oriented study in which the organizations must learn the attitude of employees towards politics in organization in this research we find the results between independent and depended variables and how our moderator moderates between them. This research shows that politics in the organization will positively related with the job stress and turnover intension employees must overcome on politics wit in the firm by using their efficient political skills. But on the other hand perception of politics will negatively related with affective commitment and contextual performance it means increase in politics wit in the organization will decrease the commitment as well as the contextual performance of the employees. This research also shows that how political skills will effect the job outcomes and how political skills moderates between perception of politics and work outcomes this research shows that political skills will have an moderating effect between perception of politics and job stress and affective commitment but in other



case political skills have not an moderating effect between perception of politics and turnover intension and contextual performance. As for as the managers must take an advantage from this research they will know how politics within the organization will affect the employees overall performance with in the firm and how efficient political skills will overcome the buffer of politics within the firm. Future Research Direction This study is focus on the moderating effect of political skills on perception of organization politics and work outcomes (job stress, affective commitment, intension to quit and contextual performance). This research only focused on public and private sector organizations. This research will give future direction to other scholars to work with different moderator and different work outcomes of the employee. References
Gilmore, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Dulebohn, J. H., & Harrell-Cook, G. (1996). Organizational politics and employee attendance. Group and Organizational Management, 21, 481494.Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perception of organizational politics. Journal of Management, 18 (1), 93-116.. Gilmore( 1996),job stress and work out. journal of management 17. Kacmar, K. M., Bozeman, D.P., Carlson, D.S. & Anthony, W.P. (1999). An examination of the perceptions of organizational politics model: replication and extension. Human Relations, 52, 383416. Kacmar, K. M., & Carlson, D. S. (1997). Further validation of the perceptions of politics scale (POPS): A multiple sample investigation. Journal of Management, 23 (5), 627-658. Kacmar, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational politics: the state of the field, links to related research, and an agenda for future research. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 17, 1-39. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Kacmar, K. M., & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of organizational politics scale (POPS): development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 193-205. Ferris, G. R.,Treadway.D.C,Kachmar.C.A(2005), Development and Validation of the Political Skill Inventory: Journal of Management 2005; 31; 126 Azeem.M.U.Mahmood.B,Haq.I(2010), Perception of Organizational Politics Leads to Job Stress: An Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan European Journal of Social Sciences Volume 18, Number 2 Yousef, D. A. (2000). Organizational commitment: A mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 628. Meyer.J.P, Stanley.D.J,(2002). Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences Journal of vocational behaviorpg 20-52 Bozeman et al.;Cropanzano (1997) ,Perception of organization politics:.,journal of behavior politics volume 12 Eran Vigoda (2000), Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector, Journal of Vocational Behavior 57, 326347 Scotter.v(1994),contextual performance, journal of vocational behavior Vandenberghe.C ,Bentein.k, Stinglhamber.F,(2004) Affective commitment to the organization, supervisor, and work group: Antecedents and outcomes,Journal of Vocational Behavior Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 47-71 Dailey, R. C. and Kirk, D. J. (1992). Distributive and procedural justice as antecedents of job dissatisfaction and intent to turnover. Human Relations, 45(3), 305-317. Deutsch, M. (1990). Sixty years of conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 1, 237-263. Dunham, R. B. (1977). Relationships of perceived job design characteristics to job requirement and job value. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 760-763. Drory, A. (1993). Perceived political climate and job attitudes. Organization Studies, 14, 5971. Dunham, R. B. (1977). Relationships of perceived job design characteristics to job requirement and job value. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 760-763. Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1992). Exploring the exit, voice, loyalty and neglect typology: The influence of job satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 5, 201218. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. O., Gilmore, D. C., and Kacmar, K. M. (1994). Understanding as an antidote for the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics as a stressor. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1204 1220. Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perception of organizational politics. Journal of Management, 18 (1), 93-116.. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Galang, M. C., Zhou, J., Kacmar, K. M. & Howard, J. L. (1996). Perceptions of organizational politics:


prediction, stress-related implications, and outcomes. Human Relations, 49, 233-66. Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1989). Politics in organizations. In R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfield (Eds.). Impression Management in the Organization, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 143170. Ferris, G. R., Harrell-Cook, G., & Dulebohn, J. (2000). Organizational politics: The nature of the relationship between politics perceptions and political behavior. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 17, 89130. Fuller, J. B., Marler, L. E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1089-1120.



Metacognitive Strategies: A Viable Tool for Self Directed Learning

Cecilia O. Okoro
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Eke Kingdom Chukwudi

School of Education, Federal College of Education (Technical),Omoku Rivers State,Nigeria
Abstract Metacognition is an effort of figuring out how to do a particular task or self of tasks are done correctly the use of metacognitive strategies have been associated with successful learning, bought students usually make use of certain strategies that are associated with success in their learning endavour.They engage in self assessment of the level of mastery attained for any lecture attended. In the light of the above, this people is focused in highlighting some of the metacognitive strategies that well develop in students deeper understanding concepts, take their thinking to a higher level and steer them into adulthood. Self-directed learning and steps teachers can use to guide learners will be examine. The paper will be concluded with recommendations.

Introduction Metacognition is an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requires, combined with the agiling to make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategic knowledge to a particular situation and to do so efficiently and reliably (Laylor 1999), Xiaoding (2001) defines metacognition as the ability to understand and monitor ones own thoughts and the assumptions and implications of ones activities, to fry (2008) metacognition is the activities of monitory and controlling ones cognition. In other hand it is the process of monitoring and controlling learner ones cognition . In other hand it is the process of monitroning and controlling learner knowledge, comprehension application, analysis, signthesis and evaluation of the learning or other activities. Though these processes people reflect on their own cognitive and memory process (monitoring), and how they put their metaknowledge to use in regulating their information processes and behaviour (control). Metacognition is regarded as concept concerned with what people think about their thinking and memory process. Teachers, work to guide students to become more strategic thinkers by helping them understand the way they are processing information. Questioning visualizing and synthezing information are all ways readers can examine their thinking process, if a student has gone through a passage. Self-directed Learning Self-directed learning is an approach to both teaching and learning that actively engages students in the learning process to acquire higher order thinking skills. It also helps them to reason, problem solve, and think critically about the content (Burke, 2006, Cost and Kallicks, 2003, Keirn, 1998). Self-directed learning requires a teacher to perform the following sequences of activities. (a) (b) (c) Provide information about when and how to use mental strategies for learning Explicitly illustrate how to use strategies to think through solutions the real world problems Encourage Learners to becomely actively involve in the subject mater by going beyond the




information given to restructure it based on their own ways of thinking and prior understandings. Gradually shift the responsibility for learning to your students through practice exercises question and answer dialogue, and or discussions that engage them in increasingly complex through patterns. The systematic varying of task demands within a unit comprises an activity structure. Activity structures are most effective for self-directed learning when they vary the demands or problems being placed on the learner in ways that gradually require him/her to assume responsibility for learning the content at a higher level of understanding.

Steps in Teaching self-directed Inquiring in Individual Learners (1) (2) (3) Provide a learning task, and observe how the student approaches it (e.g reading a short story selection in a history text that will be basis for a writing assignment) Ask the student to explain how he or she approaches the task of learning the textual information I preparation or the writing assignment (this help the student to analyze his own cognitive approach). Describe and model for the learner a more effective procedure for organizing what he or she reads, for example, explain and demonstrate how to use the study questions at the end of the selection to help focus reading, highlight the main ideas in each paragraph, and write outline notes of key points on a separate sheet as a guide for later review. Provide the student with another similar task Provide another opportunity for the student to practice the skills using self-direct, this time the teacher will reduce his role as monitor Check the result of the learners comprehension and cognitive organization, giving reminders and corrective feedback.

(4) (5) (6)

In order words, to help students understand how to become self-direct learners for most 1st understand both the ednal and motivational psychology blind self-directed learning even though a student can become a sdirected learner understanding its psychological characteristics and the development of these traits, it is more likely to occur when for help foster them on the classroom. Trans administrators, along parents and students, must have an understanding of the fifty characteristic of becoming a self-directed learner, student motivation, goal orientation self efficacy and locus of control, selfregulation and metacogntion. These concepts proude a framework for helping students to truls gain an understudying of themselves as learners and how they can improve their self aware as a learners. Also student motivational level is determine by the source of motivation which differs. A student who is intrinsically motivated undertakes an activity for its own sake, for enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feedings of accomplishment it evokes, but an extrinsically motivated student performs in order to obtain some rewards or avoiding same punishment externally to the activity itself, such as grades, sticks, or for approval, and discovers that he did not understand it re-read it using self-questioning and prediction to ensure comprehension. Metacognitive Strategies for Learning Metacognitive strategies are those strategies which allow students to plan, control and evaluate their learning rather than those that merely maximize interaction and input. Thus metacognition and metacognitive strategies create in the learners the ability to evaluate their learning metacognition is concerned with efforts to asses learning and understanding, strategically speaking therefore if the learner has a learning goal of understanding a text, he could use the cognitive strategy of self-questioning while reading, as means of



obtaining knowledge. In order to ascertain whether the goal has been achieved, the learner can also use the self questioning strategy, this time, as a metacognitive strategy and as a way of monitoring what he has read. No wonder Livingston (1997) acknowledge that metacognitive strategy may not be different from cognitive strategy, the difference can be on how the information is used. The practice of metacognition involves metacognitive skills, which are expressed through metacognitive strategies Brown (1987) percuivers metacognitive skills as the voluntary control learners have over their cognitive processes. He identified for types or meteognitive skills. 1. 2. 3. 4. Prediction to assess task difficulty Planning Things that should be done for task execution Monitoring Things to know to attain objective Evaluation Requirements to grasp fall meaning of problem.

These skills are express through metacogntive strategies which Brown perceive as the sequented processes that a learner uses to control cognitive activities and to ensure that a cognitive goal is met. Veeman (2007) described metacognitive skills as the possession of prxedural knowledge and the ability to perform appropriate metacognitive activities when necessary and in the right manner. He identified the following metal cognitive skills. Analysis of task assignment Activation of prior knowledge Planning activities before hand Monitoring understanding and progress Evaluating outcomes and reflecting upon ones learning activities

Borich (2007) observed that metacognitive skills can be taught, students who have been taught the skills of metecognitive strategies learn better and also develop higher forms of thinking. It is important to note that once learnt, metacognition becomes a habit that can be applied to a wide variety of new situations. Instructions in cognitive strategies are designed to enable learners become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible and productive in their learning efforts unfortunately, Mcheachie (1988) in Pierce (2008) observed that most teachers do not explicitly teach study strategies, thus learners learn through rote memorization. Example of Metacognitve Strategies 1. According to Boyles, 2004, Duffy, Rochler and Herman (1988) Dunlosky and Metcalf (2008), Metecognitive strategies are most easily conveyed to learners through the process of mental modeling. The mental modeling helps the learners internalized problem solutions to different content at a later time mental modeling is particularly important when asking students to engage in complex tasks that require higher-order thinking skills, mental modeling involves three important steps: They are Showing students the reasoning involve Making students conscious of the reasoning involved Socusing students on applying the reason. These steps usually are carried out through verbal statements that walk learners through the process of attaining a correct solution Borich and Tombari (2004) opined that learners can get to completion of a problem when a teacher provides actual live demonstration of mental procedures. Thus, the teacher has to carry out skilled demonstration in the following ways.




Focus learners attention Talk in a conversational language while demonstrating Make the steps simple and obvious Help student internalize, recall and generalize problem solution to different content at a later time. Notemaking and Paraphrasing Students are encouraged and allowed to put down meaningful information during learning, Notemaking makes students to record information from a variety of sources (e.g teacher demonstration, lecture note, tape, practical work and class discussion. Use of Analogies / Metaphors These can be very powerful ways of encouraging student to take a wider and more reflective view of a topic Making Summaries Making of summaries have been known to aid deeper understanding in the process as well encourage cognitive skills, it is a useful way of sorting out the important aspect of a topic. The act of summarizing involves the pupil in making decisions about the topic covered and prioritizing information, sorting it, paraphrasing it and processing it into another form. Understanding and Memorizing New Concept Learning about concepts especially in areas of classification and normenclature involves the memorization of information, understanding by exercising intellectual, motive and metacognitive skills, memory of ideas is linked to understanding in that recall is much easier, if the facts and figures are fit into an understandable framework. Sketches: Sketching is one very good way of learning how to learn effectively. It is a simple executed drawings or rough drafts which present essential feature without details, sketeches, drawing and diagrams are the spark plugs of visual training. If learners develop the skills to produce their own sketches, this will not doubt help them to articulate in their own way, the meaning of concepts and to clarify concepts. Outlining: Outling is the use of key words, phrases and sentences to sequentically organize a topic and at the same time maintain continuity through the application of chronological inductive, deductive and spatial sequence. Other strategies involve in the practice of metacognition are using sensory and emotional images, creating and using schemata, interring, synthesis etc.





The Role of Metacognitive Strategies in self-directed Learning Metacognitive strategies help students to understand how current information fits into a larger and low best to utilize that information to reach a desired end. It helps people figure out how things are done, understand the differences between similar and similarities between apparently different things and how they can deal with them. Mental models and strategies help students to use the current reasoning process to arrive at a solution make them conscious of the steps to arrive independently at answer in similar circumstance. An important aspect of self directed learning is the teachers use of example and illustration to demonstrate to learners, her various cognitive strategies for learning such as metacognition and mental moderling can be applied. Menacognitive stratefies ignite the learners thinking which can lead to more profound learning and improved performance.



Metacognition and metacognitive strategies create in the learners the ability to evaluate their learning. In teaching, the knowledge of metacognitive strategies can help student learn to think about what happens during their instruction classed by drawing inferences from the lesson, and as concept learning skills is enhanced. From the explanations offered so far, metacognition and metacognitive strategies help students in planning how to learn, a given task, how to monitor their learning by assessing themselves for enhanced learning performance. Conclusion One of the main struggles that students face in trying to develop an understanding of metacognation and ways to develop strategies that positively impact themselves is an overall lack of awareness to their own learning process. Teachers over years have failed to teach learners how they van effectively learn or espouse them to some of metecognitive strategies that will enhance performance. This paper has explained the concept of self directed learning, metacognition and also pointed out some of the metacognitive strategies and how they can aid self directed learning. Recommendations There is the need for teachers to expose students to metacognition and strategies, since they are valuable skills that help students become more self, directed learners. There is a need for training on metacognitive strategies for students. Method of training metacognitive strategies should be included in teacher education programmes or course content. It is obvious that students especially new comers into school system may not be aware of metacognetive strategies or how they can effective study on their own it is therefore very important that this metacognitve process should be included during students orientation for further clarification by individual teachers during classroom interaction. References
Alekegu, Adesanya (2009) Education and learn Autonomy in Curriculum Theory and Practice: Journal of Curriculum Organization of Nigeria, Abuja, 1,123-130. Borich, G. (2007) Introduction to the thinking curriculum in Ong. A and Borich (eds) Teaching strategies to prounte thinking, Singapore. Mcgroaw-Hill Brown. A.I (1987) Metacognition, executive control, self regulation and other more serious mectanism in F. Weniert and R Klewe (Eds) Metacognition, Motivation and understanding (pp 65 16), Husdale, New Jersey . Bogles, N (2004) constructing meaning through Kid Friendly Comprehension strategy instruction. Gainesures, Fl. Maupin House Publishing Burke, K. (2006) from student to rubrics in six steps: Tools for assessing students learning K-8 Thousand Oaks, C.A Corwin Chuska, K. (2003), Improving Classroom questions: A teachers Guide to incrasing student motivation, participate and Higher level thinking, Bbowington. N: Phi Delta Kappa Ednal Foundation. Costa A., & Kallieks, B. (2003) Assessment strategies for selfdirected. Thousand Oaks, C.A: Corwin Dawson. T.L (2008) Metacognition and learning in Adulthood Developmental Testing Service, Northampton. Duffy, G, Rochler, L. and Herman, B (1988) Modeling Mental poxesses help poor readers become strategic reader. The reading teacher 41(8) 762-367 Dunbsky J & Metcal, S.J (2008) Metacognition, thousand Oaks C.A Sage Keene, E (2007) Assessing comprehension thinking strategies, Huntingto Beach, C.A: Shell Education. Keirin, J. (1998), Designs for self, instructions: Principles Processes and Issues. Livingstone, I.A (1997) Metacognition: An overview Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http:// www gse buffals edu/fas/shuel/CEP564/metacg .htm


Pierce, N. (2008) Metacognition: Study strategies, monitoring and motivation, Lttp/11. academic Agccc Edu/Wperrco /MCCTR/ Metacognition. Rekriu M. (1999), Using internet in classroom instruction: A Primer for teachers, Journal of Adolsecent and Adult literacy 42 (7) 546-557 Taylor, S. (1999): Betters learning through better thinking: Developing students metacognition in learning and teaching contexts, journal of college of Reading and Learning 30 (1) 34. Veenman. M.J (2007), The assessment of metacognition A matter of metti method Designs. European Assoc of Assoc Psychological Assessment Newletter. Viaodong Lin (2001) Designing Metacogitive activities Educational Research and Development 49 (2) Young, A & Fry, J.D (2008) Metacognitive awareness and Academic Achievement in College students Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8 (2) 1-10.



Financial Resource Management Capacity of Public Secondary School Administractors in Ondo State,Nigeria
Ajileye Evelyn Omokorede Ikegwuru Bridget
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Abstract This study sought to examine the financial resource management capacity of public secondary school principals in Ondo State. Following the purpose of the study, research questions were formulated to guide this study. The sample of this study consisted of 410 experienced and less experienced public secondary school teachers in Ondo State. The sample was drawn through a stratified random sapling techniques. Numerous findings were discussed amongst which are principals capacity for collection of receipts and invoices, principals capacity for fund sourcing etc. recommendation were made to their appropriate quarters. It is hoped that if these recommendation are taken sinuously by those concerned, they will go a long way in improving principals money management skill/capacity of school funds and it will also enhance the reduction of mismanagement of school funds by school principals.

Introduction Education may be broadly defined as a life long learning process, which begins with the birth of a child and terminates at death. It is basically organized on two major components namely; formal and informal setting. Our attention here is on formal setting of education and how its financial resources are being managed by school principals. Educational management is the process of individual coming together as a group with a leader that will control, co-ordinate, articulate the activities of the group and if done properly will achieve tangible results at the end. In support of this Ebong and Agabi in Nnabuo et al (ed 2008: 1). Summit that educational management is the totality of efforts that are brought to bear in the provision and delivery of education to ensure that both the human and material resources allocated to education are used to the best advantage in the pursuit of educational objectives and goals. The school principals, school head or the school administrator as a human resources personnel has numerous areas to effectively and adequately manage if he is to be successful. He has to manage the school environment in such a way that it will be conducive for teaching and learning to take place this is why Adaralegbe (1960) in Abraham (2003: 168) posits that, the right type of atmosphere required for effective learning is that, consisting of better school building, better teaching facilities. In addition, other areas of effective responsibilities includes; maintaining good relationship with for effective organizational development, manage and create good organizational climate as a pro-active leader, he most give his subordinate a sense of belonging by adopting participatory decision making system. Furthermore, the educational manager owes it a point of duty to put the learners first in all things because without the learners the school cannot function effectively. For this reason he has to package the students effectively he most be able to have the ful grasp, full knowledge as well as the full understanding of the different stages of student management including guidance and counseling. It is believed that students are in the formative stage, therefore, the educational manager serve as their parents (surrogate parents) and as such should guide them so that their youthful exuberance will not mislead them. Furthermore, for the job of the principal to be effective, he needs finance to run the affairs of the school. For him to be effective, to manage the students as well as physical facilities, teaching aids, invite resources persons in some areas, sell the schools programmes and ideas to the public he needs money/funds. No one can disputes the fact that money answers all things. Fund is required to maintain school plant and other services that will keep the school going. Money is then regarded as the life were of the school. It is the fuel



and lubricate which propels the school to move on, it is money that provides all the essential purchasing power with which education acquires its human, material resources and physical input. The school administrator needs money to carry out all round maintenance of the school properties, organist in service training, seminars etc for teachers and also provides other essentials that will make teaching and learning to be effective. Every school list their programmes yet these programmes can only be implemented where there is finance. Without finance, schools administrators cannot meet up their responsibilities. Although schools (public) primary secondary are being funded by the federal state and Local governments throughout the federation but because of the inadequacy in the funding system, school administrators generate funds from other sources such as alumni association, donations etc to supplement whatever government is giving them. Though students pay school fees and PTA levies in public schools but the what they pay is just too small compare to the services that is rendered and the means of rendering this services. However, there have been series of allegations levied against school administrators in the area of money management in such a way that school administrators are accused of mismanaging and embezzling money put in their custody. Statement of the Problem There has been a lot of allegations of mismanagement and embezzlement of school fees, PTA funds etc levied against school administrators. Improper use of school resources and embezzlement of school funds are capable of leading to non-achievement of school goals. Most administrators are also seen to have poor capacity for keeping financial records, routine budgeting, fund sourcing etc. hence, the need to investigate the financial resource management capacity of public secondary school administrators. This issue thus led to the problem of this study; which is do school administrators in public secondary schools have the capacity to manage financial resources? Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate the school principals capacity for financial management, specifically as regards their capacity for fund sourcing, capacity for school budgeting and financial control. It was also to investigate the ability of school administrators in utilizing available funds for the achievement of the goals and objectives of schools. Research Questions The following research questions were addressed in this study. 1) What is the school administrators capacity for fund sourcing? 2) What is the school administrators capacity for budget preparation? 3) What is the school principal/administrators capacity for financial accounting? Theoretical Framework This research work is anchored on the prudential theory, propounded by the American economist Arthur B. Laffer (1980) and the efficiency theory also propounded by another American economist Havey Leibenstein (1993). Arthur B. laffer postulated that everybody including school managers must know how to handle and spend money to spend money wisely. To him to be prudent simply means to spend money wisely in order to achieve maximal goal. It is essential to note that prudence implies being careful, acting only after careful thought, forethought or planning and exercising sound judgment in the management of practical affairs. It motives the ability to anticipate, regulate calculate and give due regard to the future in order to prepare to



cope with any eventuality within the organization or school system. In handling financial resources, the school administrator should eliminate wants and reduce unproductive costs in terms of time and money. The theorist Harvey leibrinstun, postulated that the general efficiency of a farm school rests in transforming inputs at minimum costs into maximum profits. Here it is important to note that the achievement of the school using little resources to achieve so much will go a long way to speaker about the school administrators capacity to manage resources and also see him as a manager with good management skill. The prudential as well as the efficiency theory in economics is applicable to education especially when it is discussed under financial management and the handling of public money in the schools. The achievement of the school manager does not depend on the huge amount of money at his disposal, but his ability to make meaningful utilization of the available money at his disposal. Population The population of this study consisted of 277 principals of public secondary schools in all the 18 Local Government areas in Ondo State. The population of the teachers amounted to 10,250 public secondary school teachers the stratum of the teachers are as stated below. Experienced teachers -7,185. less experienced teachers 3,065. Sample and Sampling Techniques The sample of this study consisted of 410 public secondary school teachers. These 410 teachers represented 20% of the total population of 10,250 teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 88 public secondary schools out of the 277 public secondary schools in all the 18 Local government areas in Ondo state. The research used stratified random sampling technique to sample 410 teachers as follows. Research Question One What is the school principals capacity for fund sourcing? The data for answering the above research question were presented in table Table 1: Mean ( ) and standard deviation ( ) scores of experienced teachers and less experienced teachers on their principals capacity for fund sourcing.
Table ITEMS Experienced Less experienced REMARK

2.4 1.93 2.87 1.78 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.88

2.57 2.55 2.02 2.09 0.99 1.03 0.92 0.98


Fencing the school Carry out maintenance of school properties. Improving the school farm. Equipping the science laboratory.




ISSN22400524JournalofEducationalandSocialResearchVol.1(4)November2011 Developing and buying sports equipment beautifying the school compound by planting flowers in the school providing teaching aids r effective teaching and learning organizing seminars for teachers most times 2.67 3.08 2.92 2.32 19.9 7 8 = 2.49 0.74 0.83 0.89 0.68 6.89 8 = 0.86 AGREED 3.03 2.41 2.20 2.50 19.37 8 = 2.42 1.15 0.99 1.12 1.06 8.24 8 = 1.03 AGREED DISAGREED DISAGREED AGREED


The analysis of table 4.1 showed the mean ( ) and standard deviation ( ) of the respondent opinion on principals capacity for fund sourcing. The table above indicated that the mean scores of items 3, 5, 6 and 7 are greater than the criterion mean score of 2.50 which is accepted as the opinion of teacher on their principals fund sourcing capacity. Items 1, 2, 4 and 8 were less than the criterion mean of 2.50 which is rejected under the experienced teachers. Conversely, items 1, 2, and 5 are greater than the criterion mean scores of 2.50 and were therefore accepted as the opinion of less experienced teachers on their principals capacity for fund sourcing. Also, items 3, 4, and 6 are less than the criterion mean score, which is rejected; item 8 mean score is equal to the criterion mean scores. The items that were accepted were the criteria for principals capacity for fund sourcing. Research Question Two What is the school principal capacity for budget preparation? Table 2: Mean ( ) and standard deviation ( ) scores of experienced and less experienced teachers on principals capacity for budget preparation.
Table Experienced Less experienced

ITEMS Raise fund and use it judiciously for what is in the budget Advocate for adequate getting resources for economic programme keep expenditure within income

3.00 0.75


2.50 1.06




3.05 3.09

0.81 0.84


2.89 2.24

1.06 1.12



Implement only the plan/programmes that are provided for in the budget Allow all participants to contribute effectively during the budget preparation Plan, manage and evaluate the uses of available resources Prepare a well accepted budget by all stake holders Met the majority of staff and students Carry staff and students along during budget preparation Allow all participants to contribute effectively during the budget preparation







1.75 1.86 2.36 1.78 2.31 3.05 25.34 10 = 2.53

0.68 0.78 0.81 0.72 0.77 0.77 7.78 10 = 0.78


2.41 2.49 2.56 2.28 2.29 2.64 24.81 10 = 2.48

1.11 1.0.6 1.10 1.03 1.09 1.12 10.84 10 = 1.08


The analysis of table 2 showed the mean ( ) and standard deviation ( ) scores of the respondent opinions on principals capacity for budget preparation. The above table showed that the mean score of items 9, 10, 11, 12 and 18 are greater than the criterion mean scores of 2.50, which is accepted. Items 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 are less than the criterion mean of 2.50, which is rejected. Under less experienced, items 10, 15 and 18 are greater than the criterion mean of 2.50, which is accepted. Items 9, 10, 15 and 18 are less than the criterion mean, which is rejected. Only item 1 is equal to the criterion mean. Those items that were accepted were the criteria or principals capacity for budget preparation. Research Question What is the school principals capacity for financial accounting. Table 3: Mean (
Table ITEMS Collect all receipts and invoices for every item bought/purchased Pay and account for money spent on maintenance Supervise all financial activities of the school Investigate every imbalances of staff found wanting 3.12 2.99 2.96 2.95

) and standard deviation ( ) on principals capacity for financial accounting.

Experienced Less experienced REMARK AGREED AGREED AGREED AGREED 2.54 2.48 2.79 2.49

0.74 0.88 0.86 0.87

1.03 1.04 1.08 0.98



ISSN22400524JournalofEducationalandSocialResearchVol.1(4)November2011 Spend money in the interest of school goals and objectives Monitor every money that comes into the schools purse 2.31 3.40 17.73 6 = 2.96 0.75 0.79 4.89 6 = 0.82 DISAGREE D AGREED 2.41 2.94 15.6 5 6 = 2.61 1.03 1.09 6.25 6 = 1.04 DISAGREED AGREED

The analysis of table 3 above showed the mean ( ) and standard deviation ( ) of the respondents opinion on their principals capacity for financial accounting. The mean score of items 19, 20, 21, 22 and 24 ar0e greater than the criterion mean of 2.50 which is accepted, items 23 mean core is less than the criterion mean of 2.50 which is rejected under the experienced while under less experienced, items 19, 21 and 24 mean scores re greater than the criterion mean scores of 2.50 which is accepted. Items 0, 22, and 23 mean scores are less than the criterion mean scores of 2.50 which is rejected. In other words, those items that were accepted were the criterion for principals capacity for financial accounting. Discussion of Findings The school administration capacity for fund sourcing. The school administrators capacity for budget preparation. The school administrators capacity for financial accounting.

The administrators/principals capacity for fund sourcing:- Based on the result of the findings of the study. The respondents responses indicated that school administrators ability to source for funds to compliment what the government is giving to school has led to the accomplishment of four items namely; improving the school farm, developing and buying sports equipment, etc. The school administrators/principals capacity for budget preparation and execution:- Based on the findings of the study, only five items were agreed by the experienced teachers and four items were agreed by less experienced teachers as a result of this, it can be said that school administrators have succeeded to a great extent in their area of budget preparation and execution. The funding also stated that the school administrator allow all participants to contribute effectively during the budget preparation. The school administrators/principals capacity for financial accounting:- The finding of these items have capacity for financial accounting has helped in accomplishing the collector of receipts invoices for every items bought/purchased his capacity for financial accounting has also helped in the payment of money spent on maintenance. This is supported by the view of Igwe and Nwafor in Okorie et al led (2008: 101) that even if the school has a bursar or account clerk, the administrators should make sure that a good system of accounting is maintained in the school. Conclusion The following contusions were drawn based on the research finding. The study has revealed that school administrators are able to use the funds generated from other sources to achieve the following: improve the school farm, develop and buy sport equipment etc. The study has also shown the school administrators are



counted worthy to some extent in their capacity for preparing and executing the school budget for the running of the schools programmes. Recommendations Based on the research findings and conclusions drawn form the study; the following recommendations were made; The school budget should be prepared by both the senior teaching staff and the administrators but not by the school head alone. There should be regular budget review and auditing in the school. There should be proper control and financial check of mismanagement found wanting of mismanaging school finance should face penalty by as stated by the law. There should be management workshop for re-training school administrators to enhance their performance in financial management. References
Abraham, N.M. (2003): Educational Administration in Nigeria: Port Harcourt; Pam Unique publishing company Limited. Edem, D.A (2003) Introduction to Educational Administration in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited. Gonzales, Kathleen, Bogotch & Ira. (1999): National Association of Secondary School Principals. ( 16/12/07). Nnabuo, P.O.M, Okorie, N.C. Agabi, O.G. (ed) (2008): Introduction to school Management. Ver stile Publisher owerri 5B, Anokwueru Street, Owerri.



Some Considerations in Achieving Effective Teaching and Learning in Science Education

Jacinta A. Opara
Visiting Associate Professor Universidad Azteca Chalco-Mexico
Abstract Three research questions with null hypotheses guided the study with the aid of a quasi experimental research design. These students were randomly assigned to two groups (treatment and control group). Treatment group were those taught biology using the sensitized inquiry teaching method while conventional method (lecture) was used for the control group.(1) Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was developed on the following units in biology, flower pollination, muscle structure and function, and seed germination. All these were drawn from anatomy and physiology of flowering plants and animal physiology in the biology textbook of SS1, to measure the initial and terminal academic achievement of the students. (2) Lesson notes were prepared on the above mentioned units using the inquiry teaching method and the conventional method using a pre test, post test experimental treatment. Thus, it is the contention of the author that the inquiry approach would enhance students achievement in biology,hence the thrust of this study. Keywords: Inquiry teaching method, conventional method, achievement, biology, gender, location.

Introduction The importance of inquiry in the science process can not be overemphasized; the National Research Council (NRC) created the standards around a central theme science standards for all students. This theme emphasizes the importance of inquiring in the science process, allowing students to describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanation test those explanations against current scientific knowledge, and communicate their ideas to others. In teaching science with an inquiry emphasis, the assumptions of the diverse populace are considered, and critical and logical thinking skills are fostered. According to the NSES (National Academy Press, 1996), inquiry-based classrooms should include: A multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations, and predictions; and communicating the results. Inquiry allows students to learn and experience biology firsthand, by taking on the roles of scientists. The students use the inquiry process to develop explanations from their observations (evidence) by integrating what they already know with what they have learned. They learn discrete biology concepts and skills, and how to solve problems using practical approaches. Incorporating inquiry into biology classrooms empowers students. They play an active role in their learning rather than the passive role commonly seen in traditional classrooms. Teachers can foster better experiences with inquiry in various ways and ultimately positively affect students biology process skills and understanding of biology, whether the inquiry activity is structured, guided, or open. To know that inquiry can be challenging for some students and be prepared to provide more guidance to those students when signs of frustration appear (Institute for Inquiry, 1995; Washington Virtual Classroom, 2005) Statement of Problem Despite the emphasizes and importance of inquiring in the science process, there is still a high rate of failure in biology as revealed by the analysis of the May/ June SSCE result of 2006- 2008. Educators are seeking for alternative ways to teach biology so as to change this situation. The problem is, how can inquiry method of



teaching improve students academic achievement in biology? And what are some considerations for implementing inquiry in biology Purpose of the Study The study is concerned with the analysis, comparison and examination of implementing inquiry in biology. Accordingly, the objectives were: (1) To compare the mean achievement scores of students taught through inquiry teaching method and those taught using the conventional method. (2) To compare the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using inquiry teaching method. (3) To compare the mean achievement scores of students taught using inquiry teaching method in the urban and those in the rural schools. Research Questions (1) (2) (3) What are the mean achievement scores of students taught using inquiry teaching method and those taught using the conventional method? What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using inquiry teaching method? What are the mean achievement scores of students taught using inquiry teaching method in the urban and those in the rural schools?

Hypothesis Ho1: There would be no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using inquiry teaching method and those taught using the conventional method Ho2: There would be no significant difference in the mean achievement score of the male and female students taught using inquiry teaching method. Ho3: There would be no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using inquiry teaching method in the urban and those in the rural schools. Methodology Quasi experimental design method was employed for this study using two groups (experimental and control group). The Pre testing, Experimental treatment and Post testing research design was adopted in this study of implementing inquiry in biology using some senior secondary school (SS1) students in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The instruments used were the stratified random sampling technique considering the type of school, urban/rural and gender in which four secondary schools were drawn from the fifteen secondary schools in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of River State (ONELGA). From each of the four schools, fifteen (15) SS1 biology students were picked up randomly into two classes. Therefore the study was made up of thirty (30) Students from each school. This amounted to a total of one hundred and twenty (120) Students from the four schools representing the sample of the study. These students were randomly assigned to two groups (treatment and control group). Treatment group were those taught biology using the sensitized inquiry teaching method while conventional method (lecture) was used for the control group.(1) Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was developed on the following units in biology, flower pollination, muscle structure and function, and seed germination. All these were drawn



from anatomy and physiology of flowering plants and animal physiology in the biology textbook of SS1, to measure the initial and terminal academic achievement of the students. (2) Lesson notes were prepared on the above mentioned units using the inquiry teaching method and the conventional method. Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Results The data collected were analyzed based on the three research questions. The results obtained are as follows. Table 1. The Mean Achievement Score of Students Taught Using Inquiry Teaching Method and Those Taught Using the Conventional Method
Teaching Method Inquiry Method 54.3 Conventional Method 24.3 4.95 60 10.54 60 1.503 19.96 1.96 Mean SD N Standard Error Z-Calculated Z- Critical

From the table above, the mean score of the students taught using inquiry method was 54.3 with a standard deviation of 10.54 while the control group taught with conventional method had a mean achievement score of 24.3 with a standard deviation of 4.95 Since the Z calculated is greater than the Z critical of 1.96, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. In other words, inquiry teaching method is considered to be superior to conventional method. Table 2. The Mean Achievement Score of Male and Female Students Taught Using Inquiry Teaching Method
Inquiry Methods by Sex Male Mean SD N Standard Error Z-Calculated Z- Critical

82.67 57

6.93 11

60 1.68 15.28 1.96 60


From the table above, the mean score of the male students taught using inquiry teaching method was 82.67 with a standard deviation of 6.93 while the female group taught with inquiry teaching method had a mean achievement score of 57 with a standard deviation of 11. Since the Z calculated 15.28 is greater than the Z critical of 1.96, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. This means that, the inquiry teaching method favours the males more than females in biology achievement.



Table 3.The Summary of the Mean Achievement Score of Students Taught using Inquiry Teaching Method in the Urban and those in the Rural Schools
Inquiry Methods by Location Urban Rural Mean SD N Standard Error Z-Calculated Z- Critical

60.3 16.3

11.7 4.12

60 60




From the table above, the mean score of the urban students taught using inquiry teaching method was 60.3 with a standard deviation of 11.7 while the rural students taught with inquiry teaching method had a mean achievement score of 16.3 with a standard deviation of 4.12 Since the Z calculated 26.7 is greater than the Z critical of 1.96, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. This means that, the inquiry teaching method favours the urban students more than those in the rural schools in biology achievement Discussion The study has shown that inquiry teaching method has a significant effect on students achievements in biology. Inquiry teaching method has generally, greater positive effect on student interest, attitudes and achievement in science. With a well designed science laboratory activities focused on inquiry can provide learning opportunities that help students learn to investigate, to construct scientific assertions, and to justify those assertions in classroom community of peer investigators in contact with a more expert scientific community. Students who learned biology in small cooperative groups in the laboratory scored higher in achievement and on several inquiry skills than did students who learned in a large classroom setting. Though, the success or failure of the method will very much depend on the competence, enthusiasm and confidence of the teacher. Also, the relative effectiveness of the approach depends on the student ability and level of conformance. All in all, different approaches were good for different abilities. The study identified that the use of inquiry teaching method favours the males more than the females in biology achievement. Boys schools performed better than girls schools and in co-educational schools, boys generally performed better than girls when teaching classes using the guided discovery method. Most authors of biology textbooks use masculine form of pronouns as sex neutral. Also illustrative diagrams and pictures in science books use male characters more than females as well as male role models than females which females consider science to be preserved of males. The textbooks should not be gender biased in terms to their use of pronouns, illustrative pictures and diagrams, role models etc. sex equity is necessary in our books. In view of the above, to improve interest and participation of girls in science there is need to adopt science books that represent male and female characters on equal bases. In addition, the study has shown that students who were taught using inquiry teaching method in the urban schools had high rate of achievement in biology than those in the rural areas. This finding is in accordance with that of Njoku (2004), this is particularly true in rural areas where there are no science laboratories and public libraries and the schools often do not have their own libraries/laboratories to serve the teachers and the learners; and where such libraries exist, they do not stock journals. The rural schools in Ogba/ Egbema /Ndoni LGA are besieged with poor and potentially health threatening environments. Teachers and students are able to cope in such an environment by only accepting their faith if they do not have an alternative. Unfortunately most rural schools have poor buildings with leaking roofs, poor light, surrounded by bushes and overcrowding by using a variety of open and semi open teaching spaces. Other deficiencies, particularly lack of water and sanitary facilities and inadequate maintenances. The teaching and



learning environments here are far below what is required for comfort. In many cases the available laboratories are not equipped or are inadequately equipped (Ayodele, 2002) teaching resources are not just scare, but no budget is planned to provide some of them. Most times, such schools could only retain unqualified or under qualified teachers. Recommendations Considering the findings of this study, it was recommended that: (1) Science teacher education should be emphasized, since the success or failure of the method will very much depend on the competence, enthusiasm and confidence of the teacher. It has been said that the apprentice or learner can only be as good as his/her master or teacher. (2) The teachers should be trained and retrained on the job to improve on the innovative strategies in inquiry training model in science classrooms. This could be done by the Government or relevant professional bodies like Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) organizing seminars, workshops and conferences (3) There should be proper provisions of facilities/equipment which are necessary for effective inquiry strategies. Inquiry through laboratory work is very necessary because science is best taught in well equipped science laboratories, and students learn science with much ease if taught using activities in the laboratory. (4) The nations biological science curriculum should be made in view to accommodate an inquiry based science program for the students. In this, more time should be allocated to biology in the schools time table to provide for application of biology practical/ laboratory skills. References
Ayodele E.A. (2002). Obstacles to the effective teaching and learning of chemistry at the secondary school level. Curriculum implications for sustainable educational development. In Akale (ed) STAN Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference and Inaugural Conference of CASTME Africa. 539-542. Institute for Inquiry. (1995). Inquiry based science: What does it look like? Connect Magazine, 13. Retrieved August 19, 2009 from National Academy Press. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy Press. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Njoku, Z.C. (2004). Fostering the application of science education research findings in Nigerian classrooms; strategies and need for teachers professional development. STAN proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference .217-222. Njoku, Z.C. (1990)Competences needed and possessed by science laboratory assistants in Anambra State Secondary.Unpublished M.Ed Thesis. Department of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Washington Virtual Classroom. Science inquiryWhat is it and how do you do it? Retrieved August 19, 2007, from



Gender Feminism and the Girl-Child

Nwaji, Ojukwu John
Department of Educational Foundations Federal College of Education (Technical),Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Abstract The issue of girl-child education is a global concern even though its negative impact is much more pronounced in the third world countries. For the past two decades or more, conferences, seminars and workshops have been organized to discuss gender-feminism and girl-child education in national development. The central theme of such discussions centered mostly on the need to raise the status of women and bring them into the developmental process as equal partners with men. This paper examines the role of women in national development, education of girl child, the implication of girl-child education on national development. This paper suggests strategies for maximizing the contributions of women to national development through girlchild education.

Introduction The fact that no nation can develop beyond the level of education of its citizenry has been established at different discussions in and outside Nigeria. As important as education is to national development, it would not fully play its role in development where the women folk have less opportunities to be educated. This is not only based on the numerical strength of the women folk but also because of the socio-cultural and economic roles they play in the society. Since the forth world conference on women held in Beijing in 1995, the place of women education in the promotion of the contributions of women to national development had been brought to the fore. However, women still encounter various limitations that hinder their acquisition of formal education. For instance the UNFPA (2006) noted that (two-third) of the world illiterates are women and that majority of them are from developing countries. All over the world, women had been identified as major elements in the process of development. This is because of the significant role they play in society. For instance, Egunyomi, Fadeyi, Folaranmi and Adelore (2001) noted that women represent half of the worlds population, perform two third of the work and receive one tenth of the total income. Despite the size of work done by the women, they still constitute the largest group among the world poor and are also the most vulnerable in terms of disease. The genesis of these problems had been traced to the low level of education among the women folk. It is based on the problem facing the women and the importance of education that Abanihe (1997) observed that education is the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. She further posited that education is the basic tool to be given to women in order to fulfill their role as full members of society. Furthering the course of women education Okeke (1995) as cited in Egunyomi et al (2001) women empowerment should include education followed by participation in cash economy and review of the laws on status of women. Abanihe (1997) also pointed out that education is the greatest resource for women empowerment. According to her, education influences decisively a womans overall health and access to paid employment and therefore enables her to make informed decision about herself, and to assume a status and identity beyond those that are linked with child rearing and family. The United Nation platform for action (1995) noted that literacy of women is an important key: investing in formal and non-formal education and training for girls and women have proved to be best means of achieving sustainable development and economic growth



Gender and Sex Defined Gender and sex are two different yet closely related terms. Since the 1970s, scholars in the field of sociology have called attention to the fact that a lot of discrimination that women face on the ground of their sex is baseless. Ogbondah (2003) gave a distinction between sex and gender defining sex as biologically determined and gender as socially determined Characteristics of men and women. It therefore means that whereas sex roles are biologically determined, gender roles are roles which a particular society has determined and assigned to each sex. In other words, sex role is a function which a male or female assumes because of the physiological or anatomical differences between the sexes. There are biologically determined roles which can be performed by only one of the sexes. For example the male impregnate the female and the female becomes pregnant, bears children, breast feeds the child. These roles are not exchangeable because they are biologically determined. (Adelore 2001). Sex roles are the same and universal in all societies of the world and can never change with history. Gender on other hand is socially constructed and transmitted during the process of socialization. Gender thus has socio-cultural and psychological rather than biological connotations. Okeke (1995) as cited in Egunyomi et al defined gender in terms of feminity and masculinity. According to him, masculinity characteristics in Africa for example include bread winner and head of family, strong vigilant and adventurous, never crises or displays emotions and engages in males games such as wrestling. Feminine characteristics on the other hand include taking care of domestic chores, very emotional, engages in female games such as dancing. The examples given here can differ from society to society. They may change with history and can be performed by both sexes. In modern Nigerian society there are evidences of the traditional African gender stereotypes for example the husband is regarded as the bread winner and head of family. Men usually control Nigerian politics and thus govern and rule the country. Men are mostly captains of industry, commerce and banking. They work as generals in the army, engineers, pilots, while women work as teachers, nurses, secretaries, caterers etc. At the end of working day, husbands relax to watch the television, listen to radio or read newspapers, while wives look after the home and do all the domestic chores including the preparation of food for the husband. Gender stereotyping also permeates the school system, manifesting in both direct and subtle ways. Some school subjects including Science, Technology and Mathematics are tagged masculine while feminine subjects include Home Economics, Secretarial Duties and Literature. Most Nigerian textbooks and readers betray a gender bias in both language and illustration. Boys are generally portrayed as brave, intelligent, decisive and adventurous while girls are portrayed as shy and timid. Classroom interactions between teachers and pupils also favour boys to the detriment of girls, thus in mixed schools, class monitors and school captains usually appointed by teachers are boys. Most teachers in institutions of higher learning are males leaving girls without role models to inspire female students to achieve. Education of the Girl-Child A child is a boy or girl from birth to the age of full physical development. Within this period the child is dependent on his parents or guardian for all basic needs of his or her life. A girl child is a female child (Ahiakwo, 2000). A girl child of today is a future woman and a mother, a home maker, a leader and a cobuilder of society. Education can be seen as an instrument that shapes an individual and enables him contribute effectively to his development and the development of the society (Eboh, 2001). Maduewusi (2001) sees education as key to development. Education is a very important and potent ingredient for changing a womans life. Women education is acknowledge as the cornerstone of development and economic progress. Despite the above assertions, there seems to be discrimination against female education world wide. Odimegwu and Okemgbo



(2000) observed that in Sub-Sahara Africa, societal and parental discrimination against girls in education is reflected in lower rate of social enrolment for girls. It is estimated that there are about 26 million girls out of schools and over 90% of Africa countries have lower female enrolment rates. (Fadere, 1999). In Nigeria, much effort has been made to improve women access to education. This is confirmed by Ogbondah (2003) who observed that educationally, the women have achieved a lot in the 1990s and the awareness have even extended to the rural women through the Better Life Programme for Rural Women and Family Support Enlightenment Programmes where the adult education programmes played a predominant role in educating the women fold who have been engaged in petty trading, business, subsistence farming, etc. Despite the efforts of the Federal Government to upgrade the rate of female enrolment in formal education and the improvement and achievement made by women, the rate of female enrolment as compared to that of male is still low. Between 1999 and 2005, there had been a steady increase of access in the UBE programme for both sexes, although this continues to be in favour of boys as could be observed in Tables 1-3 below: Table 1: Primary School enrolment by gender 1999-2005.
Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Male 10,058,434 10,738,029 10,583,411 11,015,011 14,366,513 11,824,494 12,189,073 Female 7,848,894 8,413,413 8,457,812 8,791,071 11,338,280 9,571,016 9,926,359 Total 17,907,328 19,151,442 19,041,223 19,806,082 25,704,793 21,395,510 22,115,432 Female 43.8 43.8 44.4 44.4 44.1 44.7 44.9

Source: Federal Ministry of Education Statistics, Abuja 2007. Table 2: Junior Secondary School enrolment by sex 1999-2005
Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Male 1,143,080 1,264,903 1,431,633 1,746,909 2,083,699 1,972,637 1,984,387 Female 1,042,894 1,012,388 1,148,535 1,203,828 1,600,945 1,535,291 1,339,776 Total 2,185,974 2,277,291 2,580,168 2,950,737 3,684,644 3,507,928 3,624,163 Female 47.7 44.5 44.5 40.8 43.4 43.8 45.2

Source: Federal Ministry of Education Statistics, Abuja 2007.



Table 3: Senior Secondary School enrolment by sex 1999-2005

Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Male 903,528 997,227 1,115,360 1,201,219 1,579,165 1,567,011 1,559,038 Female 755,083 829,827 905,577 972,314 1,247,634 1,204,623 1,214,380 Total 1,658,611 1,827,054 2,173,533 2,173,533 2,826,799 2,771,634 2,773,418 Female 1999 45.5 45.4 41.7 41.7 44.1 43.5 43.8

Source: Federal Ministry of Education Statistics, Abuja 2007. If it is a fact that women contribution to national development is indispensable and education is known to be a veritable tool for individual and national development, why the so much disparity in gender enrolment in all levels of education? Barriers to Girl-Child Education Certain factors have been identified to be responsible for this disparity which discriminate against girl-child in education. Eboh (2001) noted that these factors have resulted in lower female enrolment rates at all levels of education and their lower educational achievement. Some of these factors are cultural and traditional practices, home background, religion and poverty. Omolewa (2008) opined that society and its cultural beliefs are not helping matter. She noted that some Nigeria societies believe that women should not be seen or even heard and access to education will make them to be heard or seen. Others believe that educated women do not make good housewives or mothers. Some fear that they may not even get husband to marry them. All these have provided excuses for parents not to invest in their daughters education, instead they are sent out for early marriage. Traditional burden imposed on women and the belief that tradition must be up held also limit females access to education. Amao-Kehinde (2001) observed that girls between the ages of 6-12 years tend to be given more responsibilities than boys. Time spent on household duties reduces study time for young girls. For adult women, being saddle with housework and children find little time or feel too exhausted to attend adult literacy or other education programme (Omolewa, 2006). Some parents also create disparity in the home by saddling the girls with work which will not give them enough time to read all in the name of preparing her for her role in the kitchen (Omolewa, 2008). In some parts of the country where female seclusion is practiced, women have less access to education because many parents feel reluctant to send their daughters to school. In Nwankwos (1999) view, home background can make or mar the child. In some families according to him, preference is still given to the schooling of boys to that of girls. To some families, Nwankwo noted that there is little or no point spending their money educating women since they are often considered as other peoples property. Thus, it is believed that there is no need to make sacrifices to send the girl child to school. This actually affects national development, considering the high population of female in Nigeria (Maduenwusi, 2001). Nwankwo (2007) also noted that sometimes, when parents could not cope with economic pressures in the home women (girls) will be withdrawn from school to give way for the boys who are regarded as the breadwinners. Eboh (2001) observed that the girl-child is used most often to fight poverty in the family by



withdrawing them from school to do street hawking, prostitution or begging or given out in early marriage. Ezema (1999) pointed out that men are ever anxious to get their daughters married off in order to use the bride prize to solve problems. This does not only prevent females from achieving self-fulfillment, it also impedes the progress of the society. For the women to participate and utilize fully their potentials in national development, they should be given more opportunities to have access to education. Implication of Girl-Child Education in National Development The future of the society or nation lies in the hands of mothers who are the first teachers of their children. The girl-child is the future mother who moulds or builds the nation through the children she brings up. Eboh (2001) opined that the way she cares for the child determines what kind of person the child becomes and the kind of person the child becomes (emotionally) is directly related to his or her contribution to societal development. Education has made women to know that health is wealth and for this reason educated mothers strive to bring up healthier children. They make maximum use of medical services available to them for the benefit of their households. Education has made women to take better care of them and to produce the number of children they can take care of spacing them as they want. Education has made women understand the importance of keeping home environment clean. The environments of many homes in the society now are kept very clean and this has contributed to the good health many people are enjoying these days. There is awareness now on some of the cultural practices which denied children and mothers of nourishing foods which likely contributed to some deficiency diseases children were suffering in the past. Such cultural practices that eggs make children steal and therefore children should not be given eggs or that pregnant women should not eat snail because it makes them give birth to children that produce much saliva or that only the head of the family should eat the lion share of meat or fish used in cooking food while the women eats very little or not at all and children to eat without meat or fish is no more upheld. Many decades ago, almost all women were full time house wives except those that were involved in farming activities. In recent times however, educated women are competing with their male counterparts in labour market and are contributing immensely to the economic advancement of their families and the nation. Most educated women are more interested in their children education. They want their children to do better academically than they did. Women are now found in high positions such as managerial positions, administrative positions, politics, lecturing, banking, etc, combining these with their roles as mothers, wives and home makers. In fact, it is education that empowers these women to be able to play all these roles. If a girl-child today is given good education she will be a good mother, a good wife, an important member of the community and a good nation builder. This is why Aloh (1999) noted that educating women is the greatest investment any nation can provide to ensure national development considering the diverse roles women play in the society. This confirms the truth of the saying train a man and you train an individual but train a woman and you train a nation. Ipaye (1986) observed that expansion of educational opportunities be made available for girls. He advised that the magnitude which points to the girls as the inferior sex has to be changed since it had affected peoples opinion about the educational opportunities provided for the females. Nigerias Commitments to Gender Equity in the School System The Federal Government of Nigeria has taken a very strong position on the general principles of equality and human rights. Section 18 of the 1999 Nigeria constitution, dealing with the functional principles of state policy reflects Nigerias commitment to equal educational opportunity and specifies that:



Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy and to this, government shall as and when practicable provide: free, compulsory and universal primary education, free university education and free adult literacy programme. In the same vein, the revised edition of the National Policy on Education (2004) stipulates that Nigerias philosophy of education is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The Nigerian government is signatory to the UNESCO convention against discrimination in education. Article 10 of the convention states that parties should: Take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights with men in the field of education, which includes some curriculum, examination and standards for teaching and scholarship including life long education, equal participation in sports and elimination of stereotypes content. In the year 1980, Nigeria government was signatory to Lagos plan of Action which put particular importance on female education and the role of women in development process. The Federal Government of Nigeria is also party to the convention on the Rights of the child (adopted by UN General Assembly in 1989), and the Declaration of the world summit for all which underscored the principles of equal rights of girls to education (FGN, 2004). The OAU International Conference on Assistance to African child (November, 1992) which the Nigeria government was party to, reaffirmed the commitment of the childrens summit and the World Conference on Education for African Girls. The world summit for children calls for an end to gender apartheid. Nigeria, moreover, took part in the Pan African Conference on Education of Girls and the Ouagadougou Declaration which, among other things, called upon governments to give priority to equity (and equality) and to define a target improving girls education within the framework of national development plans (UNESCO/UNICEF 1993). The Nigerian government has also ratified both the International Conventions of Civil and Political Rights and the International Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination against women, popularly referred to as Womens Convention. By ratifying Womens convention, it implies that Nigeria recognizes that gender inequality exists and it promises to generate the necessary political will to redress all forms of discrimination based on sex. Article 2 of the charter on Womens Convention Commits all parties to: Pursue by all appropriate means without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and to this end undertake: (a) To embody the principles of the equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle; (b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, Including sanctions which are appropriate prohibiting all discrimination against women. (c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on equal basis with men and ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination. Although the signing and ratifying of international instruments do not themselves guarantee gender equality, they never-the-less provide a point of reference for the mobilization of efforts directed towards ensuring the achievement of equality in education. They also reflect a commitment to support womens struggles for ensuring gender equity in all spheres of life.



Conclusion We have established in this presentation that education is a vital force for development and that the uneducated and under-educated girls in Nigeria are robbed of the opportunity to improve their lives and contribute maximally to our national development. The implication is that the uneducated Nigeria women have been denied of their fundamental human rights. Remarkable efforts had however, been made by the Federal Government of Nigeria through its political commitment and educational programmes at ensuring gender equity in the formal school system. The Nigerian government nevertheless, as a matter of urgency should workout large scale educational activities and strategies for the promotion of women education. Recommendation 1) Illiterate fathers should be made to understand other roles of their female children in National development other than bearing and rearing of children. It is believed that the illiterate father have majority of the female population since the illiterates form the majority of Nigerian population. 2) Government should make provision for educational materials, school meals, uniforms, to make free education truly free to girls from poor homes. 3) Empowering NGOs and Local Communities, women organization and PTA for advocacy, programme development and execution in favour of girls. 4) Engaging successful women as role models to organize talk shows, counseling and discussion groups in their localities. 5) Providing gender awareness training for teachers and teacher trainers. 6) Discouraging trafficking and sexual exploitation of girls. 7) Ensuring that girls who dropout of school as a result of pregnancy are provided opportunity to continue with their education after delivery. References
Abanihe, I.M. (1997). Women Education and Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. in Garba, P.K., Akanji, P. and Abanihe, I.M. (eds) Women and Economic Reforms in Nigeria. Ibadan: Women Research and Documentation Centre. Ahiakwo, B.A. (2000). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Family Advancement. JOWICE, (4) 49-52. Aloh, J.N. (1999). Home Economics: A Tool For Effective Participation of Women in National Development. JOWICE Vol. 3, 79-83. Amao-Kehinde, A.O. (2001). Educating the Nigeria Girl-Child for the 21st Century. JOWICE Vol. 5 Pp. 49. Eboh, B.C. (2001). Mothers Contribution, Educational Attainment, And Children Emotional Attainment and Children Emotional Development. In Anyakoha, E.U. (ed) Research Imperative and Challenges for Home Economics in Nigeria. Pp. 347 Egunyomi, D.; Fadeyi, T.; Folaranmi, F. and Adelore, F. (2001). Women Education and Development. In Okedara, J.T, Anyawu, C.N and Omole, M.A. (eds) Rethinking Adult and Non-Formal Education. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers. Ezema, P.N. (1999). Self-Reliance: A Panacea for Women Empowerment. JOWICE Vol. 3 Pp. 75. Fadere, G.M. (1999). Meaningful Vocational Education for Women Active Participation in the Next Millennium. JOWICE, Vol. 3 Pp. 65. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. 4th Edition. Lagos: NERDC Press. Ipaye, T. (1986). Educational and Vocational Guidance: Concepts and Approaches. Ife: University of Ife Press. Maduewusi, E.J. (2001). The Challenges of Childrens Education: The Role fo the 21st Century Women. JOWICE Vol. 5 Pp. 5. Nwankwo, J.N. (1999). Women, Farming and Education: Implication for Participation in Nation Building. JOWICE Vol. 3 Pp. 105. Odimegwu, C.O. and Okemgbo, C.N. (2000). Socio-Cultural Context of the Girl-Child in Abakiliki, Nigeria. African Journal of Social Policy


Studies. 1 (2) Pp. 14. Omolewa, M. (2006). Educating the Native: A Study of the Education Adaptation Strategy in British Colonial Africa. The Journal of African Women History Vol. 91. No. 3 Pp 267-287. Omolewa, M. (2008). Programmes for Failure: The Colonial Factors in the Mass Literacy Campaign in Nigeria. Pedagogical Historica. Vol. XLIV. Nos. 1 and 11. Pp. 107-121. UNESCO Education News (2006). Literacy.



Evaluation of Mathematics Achievement Test: A Comparison Between Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT)
Eluwa, O. Idowu
Department of Educational Foundation, Guidance and Counselling University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Akubuike N. Eluwa
Department of Rural Sociology and Extension Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike-Umuahia, Abia State,Nigeria

Bekom K. Abang
Department of Educational Foundation, Guidance and Counselling University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Abstract Item bias is critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational assessment in terms of reliability and validity. This study applied the Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory to evaluate the quality of an assessment constructed by the researchers to measure National Certificate of Education (NCE) students achievement in Mathematics. The sample for this study consisted of the junior and senior Mathematics and English major teacher-education student from the Abia State College of Education, Arochukwu. A sample of 80 students was drawn for this study. The Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) for College students developed by the authors was used. Data was analyzed in two dimensions. First, the psychometric properties of the instrument were analyzed using CTT and IRT and the detection of item bias was performed using the method for Differential Item Functioning (DIF). The results showed that although Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods are different in so many ways, outcome of data analysis using the two methods in this study did not say so. Items which where found to be bad items in CTT came out not fitting also in the Rasch Model. Keywords: Evaluation, Reliability, Validity, Quality and Test.

Introduction Mathematics achievement is the proficiency of performance in any or all mathematics skills usually designated by performance on a test. After over 20 years of educational research on the issue of mathematics achievement amongst students, deficiencies in the academic subjects of mathematics and science persist. (Thiessen & Blasius, 2008). Between 1970 and 1990, mathematics assessment benefitted from wider techniques and tasks to match broader teaching objectives. With the exception of increasing use of information and communication technology, recent changes have been in purposes rather than techniques. Emphasis on accountability has led to more central testing which is narrowing the curriculum and demanding strategies to reliably assess rich tasks. Formative assessment has become an important element in improving teaching and raising standards, but more practical support for teachers is needed for successful implementation in mathematics classrooms. Students perform differently on measures of achievement in mathematics and science depending on the type of test, its content and the population of students being considered. Students of education have different attitudes towards mathematics and science, which may grow out of their distinct experiences. As such, studying their mathematics achievements continues to be an area of great interest to educational researchers. In order to contribute to the growing interest in mathematics achievement amongst educational



researchers, a mathematics achievement test was developed by the researchers in an effort to study the dismal performance of the teacher-education graduates in the mathematics portion of the National Certificate of Educations examination for teachers (NCE). The developed assessment is in line with the objectives of the mathematics curriculum of the colleges of education and in consonance with the mathematics ability required in the NCE programme. It is hoped that the performance of our students in this achievement test will predict their performance in the mathematics portion of their NCE examination. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) are commonly perceived as representing two very different measurement frameworks. Although CTT has been used for most of the time by the measurement community, in recent decades IRT has been gaining ground, there by becoming a favorite measurement framework. The major arguments against CTT are its rather weak theoretical assumptions which make CTT according to Hambleton & Jones (1993), easy to apply in many testing situations. In their views, the person statistic is item dependent and the item statistics such as item difficulty and item discrimination are sample dependent. On the other hand, IRT is more theory grounded and models the distribution of examinees success at the item level. As its name implies, IRT mainly focuses on the item-level information in contrast to CTTs principal focus on test-level information. The IRT framework includes a group of models, and the applicability of each model in a particular situation depends on the nature of the test items and the practicality of different theoretical assumptions about the test items. Measurement is central to the construction of a quality student assessment even in the case of a classroom-designed or non-standardized assessments instrument. Measuring variables are one of the necessary steps in the research process. Therefore, the main objectives of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the mathematics achievement instrument developed and administered on two different groups of students in order to established the validity and reliability of the instrument using CTT and IRT framework. The study also determined the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) for each item. The test that measured achievement in college mathematics is criterion-referenced so that test scores directly conveyed level of competence in defined mathematics domain. Theoretical Framework Basic Tenets of IRT, CTT, and DIF The tenets of Item Response Theory (IRT) are based on two basic assumptions. First, a more able person should have greater probability of success on assessment items than a less able person. Secondly, any person should always be more likely to do better on an easier item than on a more difficult one. IRT assumes item difficulty is the characteristics influencing a person response, and person ability is the characteristics influencing item difficulty estimates (Linacre, 1999). Thus, careful considerations should be given to the construction of assessments. Items should be written clearly and concisely such that they are not vulnerable to guessing. On the other hand, Classical Test Theory (CTT) emphasizes that item parameter should form the basis of assessing academic achievement. CTT depends largely on the characteristics of the testes and thus item difficulty fluctuates depending on whether the population taking the test possesses certain ability. In evaluating the quality of an assessment tool, a discussion of reliability and validity is essential. The reliability is the degree to which an instrument consistently measures the ability of an individual or group while validity is the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure. The CTT provides a very simple way of determining the validity and reliability of a test. By subjecting the whole test results to simple statistical tests, one can determine the validity and reliability of the test. In the same view, IRT offers a more complex but more reliable way of determining validity and reliability of test. Thus, if the focus of CTT is on the test as a whole, IRT focuses on each item and each individual test taker. Furthermore, latent trait models in test construction are utilized for purposes of constructing equivalent



test forms, developing tests that discriminate between ability levels, and improving customized test system. If a test item has different connotative meanings for different groups, then examinees performance on that item may be subject to sources of variation that are unrelated to ability level. This refers to differential item function and can cause item bias (Crocker & Algina, 1986). IRT can also be used to investigate item bias. A set of items is considered unbiased if all subpopulations are equally affected by the same sources of variance, thus producing similar ICCs for both groups (Cole & Moss, 1985). In order words, set of items is considered unbiased if a source of irrelevant variance does not give an unfair advantage to one group over another (Scheuneman, 1979). Unfortunately, the investigation of item bias is not that clear cut. IRT, as well as chi-square and item difficulty, can flag items as biased even if they are not (Park & Lautenschlager, 1990).More so, multidimensionality can be mistaken for item bias with IRT as a result of differences among ICCs. ICC differences can occur even when item bias does not exist. This distinction can indicate that items are not unidimensional. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) detection procedures can investigate the effects achievement tests have on different sub- populations (Zwick, Thayer, & Mazzeo, 1997). Some research has evaluated DIF analysis methods that involve matching examinees test scores from two groups and then comparing the items performance differences for the matched members (Zwick et al., 1997; Ackerman & Evans, 1994). Such nonparametric detection methods include the Mantel-Haenzsel procedure and Shealy and Stouts simultaneous item bias (SIBTEST) procedure. These procedures, however, lack the power to detect nonuniform DIF which may be even more important when dealing with polytomous items due to the multiple ways in which item scores can interact with the total score (Spray & Miller, 1994). There is also the newer procedure of detecting item bias, the Item Response Theory Likelihood-Ratio Test for Differential Item Function (IRTLRDIF). Of all of the procedures available for DIF detection and measurement, IRT-LR procedure posits several advantages over its rivals. IRT-LR procedures involve direct tests of hypotheses about parameters of item response models, and may detect DIF that arises from differential difficulty, differential relations with the construct being measured, or even differential guessing rates (Thissen, 2001). This is the reason why the researchers used this method in the detection of item bias. Method Participants A total of 80 students (34 mathematics majors, 46 English majors) completed the mathematics achievement test during the ending period of the 2nd semester, school year 2008-2009. Measure The mathematics achievement test, a multiple-choice assessment designed to measure college students mathematics ability was administered. The instrument comprised of 40 multiple choice items with five answer choices. The achievement test was trial tested with two groups of junior and senior teacher-education students who were not participating in the study. Mathematics majors comprised the first group while the second group was all English majors. The items on the achievement test were categorized into five content domains: Patterns and relations, equations and distances, geometric and trigonometric, shapes, areas and volumes and combinatory and probability. For all domains, the underlying construct of teacher-education mathematics remains the same; thus, the theoretical framework of unidimensionality is upheld. The test was content validated by a mathematics professor in the college of education in the same school. Suggestions were taken and the test was revised accordingly.



Procedure The teachers in the colleges administered the test for the senior students while teachers of the junior students were the ones who conducted the test for the junior level. The students were given the test after receiving specific instruction for the test. The test was administered simultaneously for the two groups of students. The students completed the test for two hours under the supervision of their teachers. The purpose of the teacher-proctors monitoring of the test was to minimize measurement errors that could arise during the actual test. Data Analysis Two sections of analysis were done to establish psychometric properties. First is using the classical test theory steps which include the item analysis. Microsoft Excel was used for the analyses and computations involved in the CTT analysis. SPSS software was also used to determine reliability of the test. Secondly, item response theory method was employed to calibrate for item and person difficulties. WINSTEPS Bigsteps software was used for this analysis. The third and last part is the presentation of the Differential Item Functioning as a result of the IRTLRDIF analysis. To detect for item biased with regards to different groups of students, DIF test was conducted using software for the computation of the statistics involved in Item Response Theory Likelihood-Ratio Tests. The software was downloaded from the website of L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory based at University of South Carolina, Chapel Hill. Results This section is divided into three parts. First is the presentation of the psychometric properties of the mathematics achievement test. The validity and reliability analyses presented here were done following both Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). The statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS 15) was used to perform the analyses according to CTT. Secondly, the presentation of IRT analyses, where the software WINSTEPS BIGSTEPS was utilized to estimate students abilities and item difficulty for the test as well as the goodness of fit of the items. What follows are the statistical tools to analyze the data. Thus, the interpretation of data analyses can only be as good as the quality of measures (Bond & Fox, 2001). Although many testing and measurement textbooks present classical test theory as the only way to determine the quality of an assessment, the IRT offers a sound alternative to the classical approach. Because CTT is rooted in a process of dependability rather than measurement, it does not rely on item difficulty variable for precision and calibration or on total score for indicating the measured ability (Sirotnic, 1987). Thus, the weaknesses of CTT have caused IRT to gain the attention of researchers since it makes allowances where CTT does not (De Ayala, 1993; Welch & Hoover, 1993). Reliability The internal consistency of the test was found to be high with a Cronbachs alpha value of .77. This value indicates a good reliability for the achievement test. Aside from internal consistency, Split-half method was also performed resulting to a Guttman coefficient of .72, a value that indicates internal consistencies of the responses in the test. Finally, Kuder-Richardson, KR20 was also used to determine internal consistency with a value of .90. Item Difficulty and Discrimination Each items difficulty and discrimination index were determined using the classical test theory. It shows that



27 (73%) of the items are average items. The remaining 27% belong to difficult and easy items. It could be implied from this result that the achievement test was fairly difficult because more than half of the students got the most of the items correctly. But, considering that the examinees were mathematics and English majors, the result could also mean that they really have the ability to answer even difficult items. English and Mathematics majors have rigid qualifying test to proceed with their field of specialization. Thus, to be able to major in Mathematics or English, the students must have attained an above average score in the university entrance examination test. Of the 37 items considered in the test, only 3 or 8% come up to be poor items. These items were rejected. Only two items (marginal items) need to be improved. Thirty or 81% of the items were either good or very good items. This only means that generally the items for the achievement test truly represent the learning ability of the test takers because most of the items can discriminate well between the high and low performing groups. One Parameter-Rasch Model The Rasch model was applied to the responses of 80 students to the achievement test in its original form of forty multiple-choice items. First, the item and person separation and reliability were examined prior to any interpretations of the data. The person separation and reliability values for the pilot data were 1.84 and 0.77 respectively. This person separation indicates the number of groups the students can be separated into according to their abilities. So, in this case there are approximately two different levels of performance in the sample. Likewise, the item separation and reliability for the trial data was 4.4 and 0.95, respectively as shown in Table 1. Considering the moderate sample size, person and item reliabilities are acceptable for the analysis to continue. Table 1. Summary of Measure Persons
RAW SCORE COUNT MEASURE MODEL ERROR MNSQ MEAN S.D. MAX. MIN. REAL RMSE 18.6 5.4 30.0 7.0 .41 37.0 .0 37.0 37.0 ADJ.SD .01 .83 1.88 -1.88 .40 .02 .47 .38 1.75 1.84 1.00 .20 1.49 .59 INFIT ZSTD .0 1.1 2.5 -2.5 MNSQ .97 .33 2.11 .41 OUTFIT ZSTD -.2 1.0 2.5 -2.2 .75 .77






S.D. MAX. MIN. REAL RMSE 18.4 72.0 6.0 .28 .0 80.0 80.0 ADJ.SD 1.26 2.82 -2.43 .04 .44 .24 4.33 4.40 .07 1.16 .84 ITEM ITEM .7 1.9 -1.3 .15 1.50 .74 .8 1.9 -1.6 .95 .95





MEAN 3.82 3.84



1.88 .94 .94






All items fit the expectations of the Rasch model. In other words, all items had ZSTD infit and/or outfit statistics between -2 and 2 as shown in Table 2. The item map [on which stems are indicated on the left side and students are indicated by their number] was examined for gaps where a number of students were located along the continuum without items targeted at that ability level (see Figure 1 for circles indicating gaps). Inserting items reflecting corresponding levels of difficulty provides more accurate measures of student abilities at these levels. Notice there are gaps between item 27 and item 23 with five students falling in this ability range. Similarly, 12 students fall in the gap between items 31 and 38, and so on. Addition of items at these difficulty levels will provide more precise measures for students at this ability levels. Table 2. Item Statistics Misfits Order
Entry Number 7 5 26 10 35 16 8 11 25 32 12 30 38 20 36 17 34 6 31 23 15 9 Raw score 72 45 11 39 36 67 20 39 52 44 31 54 47 53 39 56 35 25 52 58 17 71 Count 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Measure -2.43 -.29 2.09 .05 .23 -1.84 1.26 .05 -.71 -.23 .53 -.84 -.41 -.77 .05 -.97 .29 .91 -.71 -1.10 1.50 -2.29 Model error .38 .24 .34 .24 .24 .31 .28 .24 .25 .24 .25 .25 .24 .26 .25 .24 .26 .29 .26 .29 .36 Infit Mnsq Zstd 1.10 .3 1.16 1.9 1.12 .5 1.09 1.1 1.09 1.0 1.05 .3 1.10 .7 1.06 .7 1.06 .7 1.06 .8 1.06 .6 1.02 .2 1.04 .5 1.03 .4 1.03 .4 1.01 .3 1.01 .1 1.00 .1 1.00 .0 1.00 .0 .99 .0 .99 .0 Outfit Mnsq Zstd 1.50 1.0 1.22 1.9 1.19 .5 1.14 1.4 1.14 1.3 1.13 .4 .98 -.1 1.09 .9 1.05 .4 1.03 .2 1.05 .4 1.05 .3 1.01 .-.1 1.01 -.1 1.03 -.2 .99 -.3 .99 -.6 .99 -.2 .97 -.3 .94 -.6 .87 -.2 .93 -.3 Ptbis Corr. A-.01 B.08 C.08 D.17 E.18 F.11 G.21 H.21 I.18 J.21 K.22 L.21 M.23 N.21 O.25 P.21 Q.28 R.28 S.26 r.25 q.30 p.16 Items Item 7 ; Item 7 : 7-7 Item 5 ; Item 5 : 5-5 Item 26 ; Item 26 : 26-26 Item 10 ; Item 10: 10-10 Item 35 ; Item 35 : 35-35 Item 16 ; Item 16 : 16-16 Item 8 ; Item 8 : 8-8 Item 11; Item 11 : 11-11 Item 25 ; Item 25 : 25-25 Item 32 ; Item 32 : 32-32 Item 12 ; Item 12: 12-12 Item 30; Item 30 : 30-30 Item 38 ; Item 38 : 38-38 Item 20; Item 20 : 20-20 Item 36 ; Item 36 : 36-36 Item 17 ; Item 17 : 17-17 Item 34 ; Item 34 : 34-34 Item 6 ; Item 6 : 6-6 Item 31 ; Item 31 : 31-31 Item 23 ; Item 23 : 23-23 Item 15 ; Item 15 : 15-15 Item 9 ; Item 9 : 9-9


40 29 14 33 22 27 21 2 3 4 24 19 13 1 37 MEAN S.D. 22 24 47 27 15 64 15 30 15 66 6 52 65 52 22 40. 18. 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80. 0. 1.11 .97 -.41 .78 1.68 -1.56 1.68 .59 1.68 -1.74 2.82 -.71 -1.65 -.71 1.11 .00 1.26 .27 .26 .24 .25 .30 .29 .30 .25 .30 .31 .44 .25 .30 .25 .27 .28 .04 .97 .93 .96 .95 .95 .95 .92 .94 .94 .93 .91 .90 .90 .90 .84 1.00 .07 -.1 -.3 -.9 -.4 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.8 -.3 -.3 -.2 -1.1 -.6 -1.1 -1.3 .1 .7 .94 .90 .97 .95 .83 .89 .85 .94 .77 .75 .80 .84 .76 .81 .74 .97 .15 -.7 -.3 -.3 -.7 -.4 -.4 -.6 -.5 -.9 -.9 -.4 -1.2 -1.0 -1.4 -1.6 -.1 .8 o.30 n.34 m.35 l.33 k.32 j.27 i.33 h.37 g.36 f.30 e.26 d.38 c.34 b.40 a.49 Item 40 ; Item 40 : 40-40 Item 29 ; Item 29 : 29-29 Item 14 : Item 14 : 14-14 Item 33 ; Item 33 : 33-33 Item 22 ; Item 22 : 22-22 Item 27 ; Item 27 : 27-27 Item 21 ; Item 21 : 21-21 Item 2 ; Item 2 : 2-2 Item 3 ; Item 3 : 3-3 Item 4 ; Item 4 : 4-4 Item 24 ; Item 24 : 24-24 Item 19 ; Item 19 : 19-19 Item 13 ; Item 13 : 13-13 Item 1 ; Item 1 : 1-1 Item 37 ; Item 37 : 37-37

The item map was also used to examine whether the difficulty of items were spread across all five content domains: Patterns and relations, equations and distances, geometric and trigonometric, shapes, areas and volumes and combinatory and probability. It can be deduced from the resultant item map that the difficulty of the items are well-distributed across the domains. Differential Item Functioning Analysis The result of the IRTLRDIF procedure for all the achievement test items is shown in Table 2. The significant tests for items 3, 4, 7, 8 11, 36, 38 and 40 indicated DIF. English majors are more likely to respond in the lower score categories of item 3 as evidenced by the chi-square value (2= 5.5, df =3) greater than the critical value of X2 = 3.84. Similar significant values can be observed on items 4, 7, 8, 11, 36, 38 and 40 with computed chi-square values of 6.4, 4.9, 4.6, 3.9, 8.1, 14.11, and 5.5, respectively. This result indicates that the difficulty of the items functions differentially across the two groups, and as a result, the English and Mathematics major examinees may have different probabilities of getting the same scores. On the other hand, upon close examination of the items, it could possibly mean that these particular items concepts were not discussed in depth for the English majors. Nevertheless, all of these items with DIF are flagged for revision or rephrasing in a way that should be balanced for both groups of students. Discussion and Conclusion Based on the test results, the researchers revisited all items flagged for review in the IRT analysis. Item 9 on the achievement test belong to the easiest items, yet, no students were able to answer it. The item will be rejected or it will be revised thoroughly and make it the first item in an effort to place an easier item first on the student assessment. The item will be reworded because the author felt students were overanalyzing the question. The item with the negative item-total correlation (item 7) will be deleted because the item in general was confusing. Overall results of analysis showed that the achievement test in its generality was a good test. Although there are items removed, revised, and rephrased, most of the items came out to be good items. While classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods are different in a so many ways, results of the analyses using these two methods do not say so. Items which were found to be bad items in CTT came out be not fitting also in the Rasch Model. Items 7, 9, 16, 24 and 26 were found to be marginal if not poor items in CTT. These were also the items that turned out to have extreme logit measures qualifying it to be unfitting in the latent trait model.



Surprisingly, some of the items came out to be biased as detected in the DIF analysis. Items 3, 4, 7, 8, 11, 36, 38 and 40 will be subjected to revision to remove its bias that is in favor to Mathematics majors (Table 2). Although it could be said that Mathematics majors have the advantage in taking the test, it should not stop there. The test was made to measure the knowledge that was supposedly acquired by a student regardless of his/her field of specialization. Besides, most of the items were patterned from the Mathematics items in the General Education part of the NCE examination where there is no biasness in its items. References
Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (21). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cole, N. S., & Moss, P. A. (1993). Bias in test use. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational Measurement (3rd ed.) ( 201-219). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Spray, J., & Miller, T. (1994). Identifying nonuniform DIF in polytomously scored test items. (RR 941). Iowa City, IA: American College Testing Program. Hambleton, R. K., & Jones, R. W. (1993). Comparison of classical test theory and item response theory and their applications to test development. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12(3), 535-556. Hambleton, R. K., Swaminathan, H., & Rogers, H. J. (1991). Fundamentals of item response theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Linacre, J.M. (2002) What do Infit and Outfit, Mean-Square and Standardized Mean?, Rasch Measurement Transactions, 16 (2), 878. Spray, J.A., & Miller, T.R. (1992). Performance of the Mantel-Haenszel statistic and the standardized difference in proportions correct when population ability distributions are incongruent. Research Report 921. Iowa City, Iowa: ACT. Thissen, D. (2001). IRTLRDIF users guide: software for the computation of the statistics involved in item response theory likelihood-ratio tests for differential item functioning [computer program]. L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory. University of North Carolina. Thiessen, V. & Blasius, J. (2008). Mathematics achievement and mathematics learning strategies: Cognitive competences and construct differentiation. International Journal of Educational Research, 47(6), 362-371.



Using Information and Communication Technology in a Collaborative Classrooom to Improve Student Achievement
Adesola, S.A.
Department of Computer Science Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, Nigeria
Abstract This paper discusses the fundamentals of cooperating teaching - the role of general subjects teacher as well as the role of the special education teachers in a collaborative classroom. Enhances was laid on two roles of the special education teacher which are - permanent and temporary co-teaching roles. Also discussed were necessary steps needed for effective planning for collaborative teaching. The paper later gave examples of some technology devices that could be used for educational application and steps to follow to improve students achievement through the use of ICT. Finally, conclusion was drawn. Keywords: Cooperating teaching, inclusive classroom, special education, planning, collaboration, ICT.

Introduction Historically, teachers have worked in isolation - one teacher to a classroom. As children with disabilities entered the public schools in the 1970s, they were taught in separate classrooms with their own teachers. Over the past 25 years, these students have slowly moved into the flow of the regular classroom, thus the use of the term "mainstreaming." (Suzan Ripley, 1997). He further stated that students, although they were mainstreamed for selected subjects or parts of the day; they were not considered part of the typical class. Now the philosophy is to include all students in the same class, which has brought about teams of general education and special education teachers working collaboratively or cooperatively to combine their professional knowledge perspectives, and skills. The biggest change for educators is in deciding to share the role that has traditionally been individual: to share the goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management. The teachers must begin to think of it as "our" class. This Digest explores the facets of this new collaboration between general and special education teachers. The biggest change for educators is in deciding to share the role that has traditionally been individual: to share the goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management. The teachers must begin to think of it as "our" class. This write-up explores the facets of this new collaboration between general and special education teachers. What is Cooperating Teaching? Cooperative teaching was described in the late 1980s as "an educational approach in which general and special educators work in co-active and coordinated fashion to jointly teach heterogeneous groups of students in educationally integrated settings (Suzanne Ripley, 1997). In cooperative teaching both general and special educators are simultaneously present in the general classroom, maintaining joint responsibilities for specified education instruction that is to occur within that setting" (Bauwens, Hourcade, & Friend, 1989). This type of co-teaching actually has a number of names. The way this model works is that a content area teacher is in the classroom all the time. The special education teacher comes in and co-teaches one to three times a week. All students are able to benefit by having more face time with their teachers. Co-teaching gives each child that opportunity. For special needs children, this may mean help with reading a paragraph, learning a new language, or solving mathematical problems. Co-teaching brings special educations best



practices, which are really best for all children, into normal classrooms where they can benefit all students. The distinctive feature of cooperative teaching, which differs from earlier approaches, is that it is direct collaboration with the general education and special education teachers working together in the same classroom most of the day. An effective team of teachers will work together as equal partners in interactive relationships, with both involved in all aspects of planning, teaching, and assessment. Areas for this collaboration will include curricula and instruction, assessment and evaluation, and classroom management and behavior. The key to making co- teaching work is joint planning. They must both know the entire curriculum so that they can switch back and forth and support each others efforts. In developing and implementing cooperative teaching, school professionals experience great changes in the way they go about their daily work. To overcome the inevitable fears and stresses associated with change, the educators involved must feel that they are responsible for the change and that its success or failure lies directly with them (Bauwens & Hourcade, 1995). Role Played by each Teachers in a Collaborative Classroom In a collaborative model the general education and special education teachers each bring their skills, training, and perspectives to the team. Resources are combined to strengthen teaching and learning opportunities, methods, and effectiveness. The one point that clearly developed from this relationship was that both of them had expertise in many areas, and combining these skills made both teachers more effective in meeting the needs of all students (Dieker & Barnett, 1996). Typically the primary responsibility of general education teachers is to use their skills to instruct students in curricula dictated by the school system. Also, the primary responsibility of special education teachers is to provide instruction by adapting and developing materials to match the learning styles, strengths, and special needs of each of their students. In special education situations, individual learners' needs often dictate the curricula. General educators bring content specialization, special education teachers bring assessment and adaptation specializations. Both bring training and experience in teaching techniques and learning processes. Their collaborative goal is that all students in their class are provided with appropriate classroom and homework assignments so that each is learning, is challenged, and is participating in the classroom process. A Special Education Teachers Role in an Inclusive Classroom An inclusive classroom is one of the placement options for a student with a learning disability. This is the least restrictive form of education for special needs students and it allows the student to be included in a typical classroom environment with his or her peers. There are two roles a special education teacher may play in an inclusive classroom permanent or temporary co-teaching. Permanent co-teaching Permanent co-teaching offers students many advantages. In a permanent co-teaching arrangement, there is a content teacher, someone who specializes in a specific subject like history, and a special education teacher. The teachers share in the planning, implementing, and grading of lessons. This is great for all the students, not just those that fall under the special education umbrella. The one-on-one teacher to student time is increased because there is literally an extra teacher in the classroom. With an average classroom size of 20 to 30, each teacher could focus her attention on only 10 to 15 students. For a special needs student, this additional individualized contact is invaluable.



Planning for Effective Collaboration Collaboration involves commitment by the teachers who will be working together, by their school administrators, by the school system, and by the community. It involves time, support, resources, monitoring, and, above all, persistence. However, the biggest issue is time - time for planning, time for development, and time for evaluating. Planning should take place at the district and the building levels, as well as at the classroom level. District planning helps ensure that all resources will be available, including time, money, and professional assistance. District-level planning will take into consideration the effect change in one place will have on other settings. Building-level planning will assist the teams in being sure adequate support is in place to sustain new initiatives. Principals play an extremely important leadership role in facilitating collaborative efforts by instructional personnel. Both district and building-level planning should provide staff development opportunities to encourage teachers and administrators to participate in classes, workshops, seminars, and/or professional conferences on cooperative teaching. Motivation is an important ingredient for success, but additional skills will be needed to realize the goals teachers set for themselves and their classes. Planning also is a factor in selecting the students who will be part of the collaborative process. It is important to keep natural proportions of typical students, students identified as being at risk, and students who have been found to have disabilities. Achieving a balanced classroom is easier at the elementary and middle school levels than at the secondary level, where a certain amount of grouping takes place with course selection. A major consideration is in arranging planning times for co-teachers. Co- planning must take place at least once a week, according to studies. Planning sessions were viewed as priorities by both teachers; they refused to let other competing responsibilities interfere with their planning sessions (Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996). The planning must be ongoing to allow teachers to review progress on a regular basis, make adjustments, evaluate students, and develop strategies to address problems either in discipline or learning. Walther-Thomas and her colleagues (1996) found that five planning themes were identified by co-teachers who considered themselves to be effective co- planners: 1. Confidence in partner's skills; 2. Design of learning environments for both the educators and students that require active involvement; 3. Creation of learning and teaching environments in which each person's contributions are valued; 4. Development of effective routines to facilitate in-depth planning; and 5. Increased productivity, creativity, and collaboration over time. Participants in collaborative programs agreed that the time required for planning does not decrease during the year, but the quality of instruction continues to improve. Different Types of Technology and their Educational Applications Many different types of technology can be used to support and enhance learning. Everything from video content and digital moviemaking to laptop computing and handheld technologies (Marshall, 2002) have been used in classrooms, and new uses of technology such as podcasting are constantly emerging. Various technologies deliver different kinds of content and serve different purposes in the classroom. For example, word processing and e-mail promote communication skills; database and spreadsheet programs promote organizational skills; and modeling software promotes the understanding of science and math concepts. It is important to consider how these electronic technologies differ and what characteristics make them



important as vehicles for education (Becker, 1994). Technologies available in classrooms today range from simple tool-based applications (such as word processors) to online repositories of scientific data and primary historical documents, to handheld computers, closed-circuit television channels, and two-way distance learning classrooms. Even the cell phones that many students now carry with them can be used to learn (Prensky, 2005). Each technology is likely to play a different role in students' learning. Rather than trying to describe the impact of all technologies as if they were the same, researchers need to think about what kind of technologies are being used in the classroom and for what purposes. Two general distinctions can be made. Students can learn "from" computerswhere technology used essentially as tutors and serves to increase students basic skills and knowledge; and can learn "with" computerswhere technology is used a tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process and can serve as a resource to help develop higher order thinking, creativity and research skills (Reeves, 1998; Ringstaff & Kelley, 2002). The primary form of student learning "from" computers is what Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak and Whaley (2001) describe as discrete educational software (DES) programs, such as integrated learning systems (ILS), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and computer-based instruction (CBI). These software applications are also among the most widely available applications of educational technology in schools today, along with word-processing software, and have existed in classrooms for more than 20 years (Becker, Ravitz, & Wong, 1999). According to Murphy et al, teachers use DES not only to supplement instruction, as in the past, but also to introduce topics, provide means for self-study, and offer opportunities to learn concepts otherwise inaccessible to students. The software also manifests two key assumptions about how computers can assist learning. First, the user's ability to interact with the software is narrowly defined in ways designed specifically to promote learning with the tools. Second, computers are viewed as a medium for learning, rather than as tools that could support further learning (Murphy et al, 2001). While DES remains the most commonly used approach to computer use in student learning, in more recent years, use of computers in schools has grown more diversified as educators recognize the potential of learning "with" technology as a means for enhancing students' reasoning and problem-solving abilities. In part, this shift has been driven by the plethora of new information and communication devices now increasingly available to students in school and at home, each of which offers new affordances to teachers and students alike for improving student achievement and for meeting the demand for 21st century skills describe earlier. No longer limited to school labs, school hours and specific devices, technology access is increasingly centered on the learner experience. Bruce and Levin (1997), for example, look at ways in which the tools, techniques, and applications of technology can support integrated, inquiry-based learning to "engage children in exploring, thinking, reading, writing, researching, inventing, problem-solving, and experiencing the world." They developed the idea of technology as media with four different focuses: media for inquiry (such as data modeling, spreadsheets, access to online databases, access to online observatories and microscopes, and hypertext), media for communication (such as word processing, e-mail, synchronous conferencing, graphics software, simulations, and tutorials), media for construction (such as robotics, computer-aided design, and control systems), and media for expression (such as interactive video, animation software, and music composition). In a review of existing evidence of technology's impact on learning, Marshall (2002) found strong evidence that educational technology "complements what a great teacher does naturally," extending their reach and broadening their students' experience beyond the classroom. "With ever-expanding content and technology choices, from video to multimedia to the Internet," Marshall suggests "there's an unprecedented need to understand the recipe for success, which involves the learner, the teacher, the content, and the environment in which technology is used." Universal Design for Learning (UDL) takes advantage of the opportunity brought by rapidly evolving communication technologies to create flexible teaching methods and curriculum materials that can reach



diverse learners and improve student access to the general education curriculum (Rose & Meyer, 2002). UDL assumes that students bring different needs and skills to the task of learning, and the learning environment should be designed to both accommodate, and make use of, these differences (Bowe 2000; Rose & Meyer, 2002). To promote improved access to the general curriculum for all learners, including learners with disabilities, Rose & Meyer (2002) have identified three key principles or guidelines for UDL: 1. Presenting information in multiple formats and multiple media. 2. Offering students with multiple ways to express and demonstrate what they have learned. 3. Providing multiple entry points to engage student interest and motivate learning. For example, printed reading materials pose substantial challenges to the learning of students with disabilities (J. Zorfass: personal communication, October 2005). Technology can assist with such difficulties by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text, which Anderson-Inman and Reinking (1998) assert can be modified, enhanced, programmed, linked, searched, collapsed, and collaborative. Text styles and font sizes can be modified as needed by readers with visual disabilities; read aloud by a computer-based text-tospeech translators; and integrated with illustrations, videos, and audio. Electronic text affords alternative formats for reading materials that can be customized to match learner needs, can be structured in ways that scaffold the learning process and expand both physical and cognitive access, and can foster new modes of expression through revision and multimedia (J. Zorfass: personal communication, October 2005). It represents one way that technology can support the achievement of students with disabilities. Steps to Improving Students Achievement through ICT Teachers can take the following steps to improve student achievement through technology. Determine the purpose of using technology in the classroom, as determined by the specified educational goals. Is it used to support inquiry, enhance communication, extend access to resources, guide students to analyze and visualize data, enable product development, or encourage expression of ideas? After the purpose is determined, select the appropriate technology and develop the curricula. Create a plan for evaluating students' work and assessing the impact of the technology. Coordinate technology implementation efforts with core learning goals, such as improving students' writing skills, reading comprehension, mathematical reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Collaborate with colleagues to design curricula that involve students in meaningful learning activities in which technology is used for research, data analysis, synthesis, and communication. Promote the use of learning circles, which offer opportunities for students to exchange ideas with other students, teachers, and professionals across the world. Encourage students to broaden their horizons with technology by means of global connections, electronic visualization, electronic field trips, and online research and publishing. Ensure that students have equitable access to various technologies (such as presentation software, video production, Web page production, word processing, modeling software, and desktop publishing software) to produce projects that demonstrate what they have learned in particular areas of the curriculum. Encourage students to collaborate on projects and to use peer assessment to critique each other's work. In addition to standardized tests, use alternative assessment strategies that are based on students' performance of authentic tasks. One strategy is to help students develop electronic portfolios of their work to be used for assessment purposes. Ensure that technology-rich student products can be evaluated directly in relation to the goals for student outcomes, rather than according to students' level of skill with the technology. Create opportunities for students to share their work publicly--through performances, public service,



open houses, science fairs, and videos. Use these occasions to inform parents and community members of the kinds of learning outcomes the school is providing for students. Learn how various technologies are used today in the world of work, and help students see the value of technology applications. Participate in professional development activities to gain experience with various types of educational technology and learn how to integrate this technology into the curriculum. Use technology (such as an e-mail list) to connect with other teachers outside the school or district and compare successful strategies for teaching with technology (2005).

Conclusion The concepts of individualized instruction, multiple learning styles, team teaching, weekly evaluation, and detailed planning are all of direct benefit to students. The purpose of the collaboration is to combine expertise and meet the needs of all learners. It is important that teachers receive preparation and classroom support. It is also important that planning time continues to be available throughout the school year. "Most important, all students win by being challenged by collaborating teachers who believe that they are responsible for all children in the classroom" (Angle, 1996). References
Angle, B. (1996). Five steps to collaborative teaching and enrichment remediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(1), 8-10. EJ 529 434. Bauwens, J., & Hourcade, J. J. (1995). Cooperative teaching: Rebuilding the schoolhouse for all students. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. ED 383 130 Bauwens, J., Hourcade, J. J., & Friend, M. (1989). Cooperative teaching: A model for general and special education integration. Remedial and Special Education, 10(2), 17-22. EJ 390 640 Becker, H. J., Ravitz, J. L., & Wong, Y. (1999). Teacher and teacher-directed student use of computers and software. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, University of California, Irvine, and University of Minnesota. Dieker, L. A., & Barnett, C. A. (1996). Effective co-teaching. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 29(1), 5-7. EJ 529 433 Friend, M. & Cook, L. (1996). Interactions. White Plains, NY: Longman. Marshall, J.M. (2002). Learning with technology: Evidence that technology can, and does, support learning. San Diego, CA: Cable in the Classroom. Murphy, R., Penuel, W., Means, B., Korbak, C., Whaley, A. (2001). E-DESK: A Review of Recent Evidence on the Effectiveness of Discrete Educational Software. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Prensky, M. (2005). What can you learn from a cell phone? Almost anything! Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1(5). Reeves, T. C. (1998). The impact of media and technology in schools: A research report prepared for The Bertelsmann Foundation. Ringstaff, C., Kelley, L. (2002). The learning return on our educational technology investment. San Francisco: WestEd. Available: Suzanne Ripley (1997). Collaboration Between General and Special Education Teachers Provided in partnership with: The Council for Exceptional Children, From: The ERIC Digests ERIC EC Digest #ED409317 Walther-Thomas, C. S., Bryant, M., & Land, S. (1996). Planning for effective co-teaching: The key to successful inclusion. Remedial and Special Education, 17(4), 255-264. EJ 527 660. (2005). Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.



Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Library Operations Towards Effective Library Services
Afolabi, A.F
College Library ,Adeyemi College of Education Ondo State Nigeria

Abidoye, J.A
Department of Educational Technology Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo State, Nigeria
Abstract This paper examined the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) to library operations for effective library services. The paper also reviewed the need for the effective application of ICT as the best tool for libraries to use in assisting educational researches and students in this age of information explosion, in ensuring effective services. The paper also among other things discusses various ICT resources that can be used for effective library operations and services. Also the paper highlighted benefits and challenges of integrating ICT to library operations. The paper concluded by discussing possible solutions to various challenges to successful integration of ICT to library operations for effective services.

Introduction Libraries have always been repositories of learning resources. From earliest time, they have provided access to information for scholars and researchers. The constantly increasing amount of information been generated and published, the expanding formats of information storage and retrieval, and ever changing education and research needs of library users make it difficult for any library to be an effective learning resources. The primary role of the library is to provide information service to support the educational, recreation, cultural, economic and technological endeavours of members in their respective communities. The National Policy on Education (2004) identified the library as one of the most important aspect of educational support services. They are used as media for disseminating information and enhancing literature search and as tool for the development of intellectual compatibilities and promotion of cultural and social integration. Onohwakpor (2006) stresses library, as a store of knowledge, indispensable to the success of any functional education. He further said that education without the services of library is half-baked education that can only produce narrow minded individual which will not be productive to their community. Efforts are therefore made to acquire, process, preserve and make available the resources to the users. In doing this, type, educational levels, information needs and the objectives of the user community should be taken into cognizance. This is because provision of services in a manner most useful to the librarys chants is the ultimate target of all efforts towards effective and efficient services. With the proliferation of information, information is scattered in many areas and in order to keep track of these information many libraries have started embracing the recent developments in information technology to help them for effective library services. It was for this reason that the role of the information immunization technology for effective library services arose as a distinct area of this paper coupled with a view to ensuring the application of the information technology in library operations for effective library service. Concept of Information and Communication Technology Information and communication technology (ICT) has been defined by various scholars from different



perspectives. Ayodele (2002) defined ICT as electronic based technology generally used to retrieve, store, process and package information as well as provide access to knowledge. Aluko (2004) also described ICT as enabling technologies (both hardware and software) necessary for delivery of voice/audio, data (high speed and low speed) video, fax and internet services from point A to point B (or possibly to multiply B C etc) using wired and wireless media protocol (IP) and non IP networks. To Nwachukwu (2004) information and communication technologies (ICTs) is the application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. However, in this context, information and communication technology is the use of electronic devices such as computers, telephones, internet, satellite system, to store, retrieve and disseminate information in the form of data, text image and others. Types and Characteristics of ICTs Iwu (2003) categorized ICTs into the following: i ii Sensing technologies: these equipments gather data and translate them into form that can be understood by the computer. These include sensors, scanners, keyboard, mouse, electronic pen, touch or digital boards, barcode sensors or readers, voice recognition system, etc. Communication technologies: These are equipment that enable information to be transferred from the source to user. It also tries to overcome natural barriers to information transfer like speed and distance some of these include: facsimile machines (fax), telecommunication system, telephone, electronic mail, teleconferencing, electronic bulleting boards, etc. Display Technologies: These are output devices that form the interface between sensing, communication and analyzing technologies and human user. They include: computer screen, printers, television, etc. Analysis technologies: These are the technologies that help in the investigation or query of data, analysis and indepth query for answers for simple to complex phenomena in research procedures. A complete set of a computer system could be a micro, mini, mainframe or super scamper. Storage Technologies: These technologies facilitate the efficient and effective storage of information in a form that can be easily accessed. They include: magnetic tapes, disks, optical disks cassettes, etc. Cockrane (1992) identified the following reasons for the introduction of ICT in libraries: i ii iii The failure of the existing traditional methods to cope effectively with ever increasing volume in the library. To allow for easy integration of various activities in the library . Increase in library activities, that is organization and services .

iii iv v

Information and Communication Technology Facilities in Library Operations and Services The development and availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in libraries have today not only increased and broadened the impact of information resources at their doorsteps, but also placed more emphasis on effective and efficient services. Their applications in libraries, commonly known as library automation, have in deed continued to ease and promote quick and timely access to and transfer of information resources that are found dispensed round the globe. The following are some of the ICT facilities or resources that can be used for effective library operations and services: a) Computer: Computer can be referred to as the backbone, nucleus or hub of ICT application. In virtually all ICT applications, the computer is interfaced with another devices in order to function effectively. Computer on its own can be used to perform the following function in the library:



i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix

Ordering / acquisition Circulation Library data base Inter library loan by two or many libraries that are connected Documentation and administration Desktop publishing Budgeting Cataloguing and classification Serial management.

b) Internet Facility: Internet is described as a worldwide network of computer and people. Built upon state of the art technology, the internet makes it possible for thousands of dissimilar physical networks that are not connected to one another and that use diverse hardware technologies to connect and operate as a single communication system. There are locations of various types of information on computer system linked to the internet. It is an important tool for global on line services. c) Video Conferencing: Through video conferencing, people at different locations in the world could be allowed to hold meetings. Offorma (2000) describes video conferencing as a means of linking up two or more remote computers, all of which have a small camera attached which enables the participants to see each other, to speak to each other and in some systems, to be able to start, send documents through the linked computer. Some libraries use this medium to source for information that not available in their own libraries and at the same time use this great medium to create awareness to users who are ignorant of the available of information resources in the library. d) Electronic Mail (E-mail): This medium can also be used to send and receive mails. This is commonly and widely used with the internet facilities. E-mail is very useful for sending messages to and from remote areas with enhanced network. e) Networks: This is a system of interconnected computers for sharing information and resources (Olusanya and Oloyede) this may involve two or more computers in a single office or several computers in different units across an organization or across the country. The networks include the local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN). With computer network, libraries can access and share information in different locations and download for users needs. f) Expert System: Vast amounts of information may be gathered, synthesized and manipulated before decisions are made or conclusion arrived at the some of the complex area of human knowledge. According to Burton (1992) expert systems encapsulate the knowledge and experience of the human expert and make them available to a wider audience. Within information work, expert systems have been applied in the area of cataloguing, classification and information retrieval (MCDonald and Wickert, 1991) Services Rendered in the Library The various service provided in the libraries are complimented by available facilities, some of which are technology driven. In modern library, technology application in the provision and performance of library services provided by libraries to patrons. The utilization of emerging technologies in recent times in libraries worldwide has proved beyond reasonable doubt, that a library, whatever its services can perform better when facilities are adequately provided to enhance access to the content of the library. However, the services rendered in a library differ from are library to another, depending on the clientele, the parent body and type of library. Idowu (2011) enumerated the following library services according to the international standard:



Reference services Document delivery service Borrowing, renewing and reserving Computerized interactive search Technical services IT services E-library services Serials services Exhibition and displays User education Selective dissemination of information (SDI) Current awareness (CA) Referral service Reprogprahic Service Counseling service Webliographic service

The Role of Librarians in Delivery of Effective Services Based on clarity in making choices and in concentrating on the main priorities and confidence in talking about teaching and learning issues, the librarian is required to manouvre the library into a strategic position within the school system. Four strategies: 1. 2. 3. 4. Positioning Proactivity Persistence Patience

Positioning: Ensuring library is represented the main curriculum planning committees - seizing opportunities to get involved in college initiatives and into other areas of curriculum management team. Proactivity: Is likely to be college specific, since each college has its own concerns and priorities. A strategic proactivity involves taking overall responsibility for the college internet and educational IT programmes and making this work. So that the college is now a show case for this type of work. Persistence: Pursue issue proposals monitored, reminders sent willing to be a member of several committees. Library development is seldom a smooth and painless process staff cut, finding problems imposed changes on librarians roles etc. Patience: Being ready to wait for the opportunity to become proactive without creating undue resistance by trying to bounce people into change. Librarians are true believers but not necessarily make the best advocates, hence the need for patience or cunning!! Role of ICT in Effective Library Services Nwankwo (2006), opines that ICTs application to library works and services could be seen as the best way that could be used to assist researchers to adequately solve their literature need for effective research activities. This, according to the writer, is because the application of ICT to library operations greatly helps in the provision of efficient reference and information services, the utilization of network operations such as



cataloguing, authority control, inter library loans and co-operation and in the participation of international bibliographic project. Also Dike (2000) claimed that instant access to information from a multiplicity of source is one of the major roles of ICT application to library services. Not only can it help in locating the materials where the required information can be found easily but ICT helps in sorting out what information is relevant from a mass of irrelevant information. The use of ICT has impacted on library services according to Igbeka (2008), Adebisi (2009) and Uwaifo (2010) in the following ways: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC): It is the computer form of library catalogue to access materials in the library. No Physical Boundary: The user of a digital library need not go to the library physically once it is connected to the internet. Storage Capacity: Digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, since it requires very little space to contain it. Indexing and Abstracting Services: With the aid of ICT, database of print and audio-visual materials can be created and indexed. Also, ICT has made it possible for information seekers to conveniently access a wide range of library produced abstracts (indicative or informative). Preservation and Conservation: An exact copy of the original can be made any number of times without any degradation in quality. Inter-Library Loan: Needed materials from other libraries can be received within the shortest time through the email, courier services. Access to Electronic Resources: Electronic resources are internet based resources such as electronic journals, reference sources, books etc. Document Delivery Service: Document can be sent to needed users through e-mail, fax, etc. Library Retrieval Systems: This involves using Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CDROM) technological mechanism of acquisition of specialized CD-ROM databases in various courses such as sciences, law, technology, agriculture, social sciences, medicine, humanities etc. the prominent ones are MEDLINE in medicine, AGRICOLA and AGRINDEX in agriculture, LEXIS and NEXIS in law, INIS and AGRIS in pure sciences and Public Affairs in social sciences. They are available commercially.

Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) is a great relief to users of the library catalogue in the sense that, different users can search for the same information at the same time using different terminals which is impossible through the traditional card catalogue. Also, users can search the online library catalogue through ISSN, ISBN, and combination of title and author etc. Overdue notices are generated and sent to users through their e-mails. Users can reservation and overdue notices in the OPAC system. In the area of reference services, chat technologies, Ask a Librarian, Electronic-mail, fax, telephone, Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) are used to answer users queries by the Reference Librarian in the technological age (Segun, 2003). Students and researchers can search, read through a single CD-ROM the 30 volume Encyclopaedia Bridtannica/Americana in the library and printout needed pages. Adequate security of those materials must be taken care of by the porters and other library staff. It may also be noted that current and relevant information are accessed and downloaded by users through the internet. Some higher institutions libraries in Nigeria are connected to the internet and subscribe to online journals where various databases are searched and used by students and staff in various disciplines. It is a plus to those libraries fin the area of providing current and relevant information to their users



Barriers to ICT Integration in library services Poor infrastructural Facilities: The problem of poor infrastructural facilities especially erratic power supply have been the major cause of set back in the integration of ICT in library services. Government should therefore provide enabling environment that would allow donor agencies to provide investors particularly those in information sector to take full advantage of recent advances in information technology to bring our libraries up-to-date. In this regards, efforts should be made to make the Nigerian technology limited and power Holding services more efficient that what is currently obtained. Low Level of ICT Compliance: Many users and members of the library community require knowledge of ICT. To meet this challenge, libraries and librarians can help make ICT knowledge available by creating electronic learning centre within the libraries. Such creation will go a long way to satisfy knowledge thirsty citizenry whose only handicap is lack of opportunity. E-Library: The library can lose its relevance in ever-changing world of information technology, if nothing concrete is done. E-library could be used to deliver library services and make library facilities available to the reading public in a modern and cost effective way. By so doing, the relevance of the library could be further sustained. Cost: Despite the fact that ICT is applicable to library service, high cost of ICT equipment could not make it to be widely utilized by most libraries. Adidoye, Aderele and Adelokun (2010) stress that most library users and librarians could not afford the cost of common personal computer. Poor Maintenance of ICT Equipment: Most libraries lack conducive environments for keeping and effective functioning of ICT equipment. Besides, most of the ICT equipment are poorly managed by most libraries. In addition, the cost of maintaining ICT equipment are very high. Frequent Change in Technology which Might Lead to Total Overhauling of the Existing System: frequent changes in software upgrading leads to total overhauling of the existing system as we have in some academic libraries in Nigeria. Lack of Sufficient Monetary Allocation/Poor Funding: most libraries do not allocate sufficient money to the building of ICT infrastructure. Lack of ICT Policies: There is a lack of systematic ICT policy in most libraries in developing countries which impedes the deployment of ICTs. Inadequate Technical/Skilled Manpower: There are deaths of technical manpower in the area of ICT in Nigeria. Faulty equipment is abandoned in some libraries because there is no knowledgeable staff to repair them. Inability of the Government to Monitor Effectively the Policy on Information Technology: various polices on ICTs in Nigeria like NUNET, school-net etc are not properly monitored. Also, there is lack of systematic ICT policy in most libraries in developing countries which Nigeria is part of them. Erratic Power Supply: ICT infrastructures depend mostly on electricity to function and access the needed information. Technophobia: the use of ICTs is easier for younger libraries. Several studies, according to Ezeani have shown that older librarians find it difficult to use some of these newer technologies.

Possible Solution to ICT Integration in Library Services 1. 2. Government should endeavour to vote huge amount of money for ICT infrastructural development in libraries. There should be training and retraining for library staff at all level in respect of use of ICT.



3. 4. 5.

The concept of e-library should be revitalized in Nigeria libraries. All taxes on ICT resources should be removed. Also where possible there prices should be subsielized ICT equipment should be service regularly by expert, fault should be promptly connected.

Conclusion Despite the challenges facing the availability and usability of ICTs in Nigerian libraries, librarians and authorities in various institutions must find means of making the facilities and resources discussed in this paper available to their users. It may be noted that if the libraries are provided with the various ICT facilities by the various authorizes with adequate funds cum power supply, users and staff of the libraries will utilize the resources. Staffs that are not ICT comphant may be shown the way out if they refused to change for better. Recommendation This paper therefore suggest and recommends the following; as a means of enhancing and facilitating maximum use of ICT in library service and operations. There must be adequate planning and survey by any library before the introduction of ICT in order to forestall frequent change in the use of the hardware and software; Libraries in their zeal to provide qualitative service should open an electronic library where users and library community who do not have the knowledge of the use of ICT can be trained so as to develop the skill on how to exploit the information available for them in the ICT media. Adequate funds should be provided by the government and all stakeholders in education sector. This is necessary to enable libraries acquire and procure all ICT equipment that can improve the quality of their services. Librarians should equally partake in ICT utilization in the educational enterprise as a developer and not an operative. This he could do by seeking appropriate training, consulting teachers and always considering curricula related educational needs and involvement. However, it is important that in the enthusiastic embracing of the introduction and application of ICT in the library, librarians should not neglect basic tasks like shelf tidying, stock editing and overdue recall. There is need for complementary efforts by different stakeholders (librarians, governments etc) to support effective ICT revolution in Nigeria. Appropriate training should be given to librarians in order to improve the qualities of their services. References
Abidoye, J.A. Aderele, S.O. and Adelokun, A.K. (2011) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Teacher Education Programme in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Teacher Education and Teaching Vol. 9, No 1, pp. 92-99. Burton, P.E. (1992) Information Technology and Society: Implications for Information Professionals, London: Library Association. Dike, V. (2005) More than Computers Information Technology in Library and Information Service Education, Ibadan: NALISE 50-59. Idowu, A. O. (2011) Effective Library Services in the College, A paper deliver at the 1st Library Workshop at Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo. Igbeka (2008), Adebisi (2009) and Uwaifor (2010) Enumerated the Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Library Operations and Services thus: from pp. 2-8 Nwankwo, A.N. (2006) The Need for ICT Education for Effective Library Work and Services, paper presented at the 2006 Department of Library and Information Science Seminar, 5th 10th February. Okoni, E. Ani (2007) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Revolution in African Librarianship: Problems and Prospects.


Gateway Library Journal Vol. 10 No 2, pp. 111-118. Onohwakpor, J.E. (2006) The Role of Library in the Sustenance Functional Library and Community Development. International Journal of Research in Education 3(1) 60-64. Ozioko, R.E. and Eze, S.I. (2007) Application of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in Library Service for Educational Research in University of Lagos, Enugu Timex, pp 144-150. Victor, N. Nwachukwu (2007) Application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to Library Services: An Essential Resources for Educational Research. Nigeria Library Link A Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 5 No 2, pp 31-42. Umebali, C.O. and Nwankwo, C. (2010) The Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Library Operations for Effective Library Services Journal of Educational Media and Technology (JEMT) Vol. 14 No1.



Utterance Technology for Shorthand a Reperception of the Consonant Strokes: for Copping with E-Activity and Ict Changing Environment in Business Education
Ozuruoke, A. A. Ogolo, F. I.
School of Business Education Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria
Abstract Society generally is witnessing a lot of phenomenal development changes in almost every sphere of human endeavors, Information Communication Technology (ICT) taking the lead. In all fact of life concepts, attention on ICT becomes most high. The fact that these new evolutional developmental patterns flow along with verbal communication (talk) calls for more concentrations on the area. A specific focus on utterance and its intricacies will enhance or even elevate the technological perspective of ICT and enhances entrepreneurial living. The proposal here is highly in concordance to ICT compliances. The essential elements in utterances mastery will be fully understood in this presentation and if so passed on to the learners, will definitely result to perfect making of individuals who will be effective and efficient in the field.

Introduction The major course shorthand among education courses in the field of business is now the most unwelcome, unappreciated, dreaded and subsequently most dejected and failed by students among all. Students and most lecturers do not seem to understand why such terrorizing course should be integrated among educational courses more especially even at this present touch button information and communication gadgets are almost every where and can be used by many people too. Actually, the feeling of many people too. Actually, the feeling of many people is that the course shorthand be scraped out of educational system. This feeling seemed to be the reason why the writer among other few are of the view that, and stressing that the course should stay but be well thought. It is hoped that when the advantages and its benefits are fully understood one will really see reasons why even the developed nations of the world are still very much using and still emphasize its acquisition or learning. Limited opportunity here will not permit elaborate expatiations of benefits and opportunities derivable through the processes in undertaking this course. However, some few ones are as follows: The sign formation development habit based on the attentiveness to sound that is built through drill practices develops human capacities on the following: enhance hearing capacity retention of words sequential flow of ideas internalization of facts endurance and perseverance fast reasoning and movement of hands enhance concentration abilities ability to recognize, differentiate and adjust with dexterity and mastery skills Proposal to revisit shorthand consonant sources or rename shorthand Utterance Technology some related literatures shall be reviewed to enhance our reasoning. This should be done with the following in minds:- to understand why the name Utterance Technology is agitated in place of the former; to examine the organ or parts of the body used for the making of sound and get a hint on their formation when producing sounds; to examine the types of utterances we have for real identification; to examine the sources of the signs use to represent corresponding sounds. A brief general description of how the organs are used to utter sound will



also be made. What people say about the benefits or otherwise of the time use in the art will also be examined. Associated benefits in addition to acquiring the skill techniques will also be reviewed. What the society or nation stands to gain through this technique acquisitions will as well be highlighted. A none or lesser user of the skill of utterance techniques may wonder and even argue that these benefits mentioned here cannot all be associated with the course but there are even much more than these. One cannot see them with the kind of the over all negative nations formed about the course hitherto. This is due to the psychological defects set in by some previous mechanical learners through the hardship of cramming and memorizing of passages and their associated outlines or signs used without proper grooming on real background foundation of learning it, and ignoring to know the foundation for uttering sounds or reasons why certain signs should represent certain sound. This lack of foundation always disrupted the natural inclination and joy that is associated with the art in our tertiary institutions. It is the return of this natural inclination and joy that is associated with this course that this work addresses here so as to raise the value classification that were hitherto erupted by conceptual flows exhibited by ignorance of actual facts. A natural perception and appreciation mood should be developed so as to see in essence the reality of what nature offers through the knowledge of this course. This write up starts by offering the course, the name Utterance Technology, instead of the usual shorthand. It will discuss then the utterances organs of human body as provided by nature; the types of sounds by human. It will also discuss and present how through nature, the signs used for representing the sounds (utterances) are derived. It is hoped that with careful understanding of these, effort can be intensified by the learners to practice what they would be made to understand, what they would be taught to do from what they may hear or think to have heard for the development of this special multipurpose skill in our tertiary institutions especially those institutions that are equipped with modern ICT gadgets. The Facts in this Issue It is an acceptable notion that shorthand as a core business subject has no specific support in some nations philosophy of education as in Nigeria. Further the production of specialized trained teacher equipped with the real knowledge and skill in the area of shorthand are still dreadful yet to be ventured. Such nations are founded and managed by those who are negatively biased and had no interest on the subject. Today, the art of making and transcribing shorthand notes is largely based on reflection of activities of development within foreign (English or French Speaking Nations) and not reflecting other culture (Language inclusive). This generated displeasure and dislike which further subjects the art into hatred and unhealthy debating and arguments against, such statements as of what use will it be in the presence of tape recorders and computers? Such people who ask such question fail to realize that most education programmes and process are implied upon other developmental pattern. The need for high motivated, dedicated and qualified teacher in any educational organization cannot be over emphasized. Farrant (1964) in Amaewhule (1990) assert that a lesson is not taught until it has been learned, and it cannot be learned until it is understood. Let it be added that it cannot be understood if it is not well delivered or passed on. It cannot be well passed on if it is not well acquired. Real acquisition therefore depends on the disposition, experience, qualification, and the dexterity of the teacher in the method used. Nolan (1986) stated that business teacher has the responsibilities to help the students develop basic skills and knowledge which is required in a well articulated curriculum. But most teachers in this field instead of devising means and ways of making shorthand appreciable, loving and desiring, go ahead criticizing the subject and displaying open disregard and uninterested even when they are paid to teach it. This paper has it here that, it is high time teachers disposition about a given subject be investigated and proper adjustment implemented to achieving the desired objectives.



Purpose of this Paper This paper is aimed at redesigning shorthand in thoughts, perception, teaching approach and to unfold its numerous benefits. Also recreate the process involved to enhance the understanding of the real techniques involved through redesigning it. It is believe that those much talked about benefits being direct and implied knowledge will be fully acquired and used for the development of information communication technology self reliance and productivity. Recreating Questions This recreating proposal if well executed will provide adequate solutions to the following questions: 1. Is the art involved in learning shorthand a really time wasting useless effort? 2. Are there essential skills other than drawing signs to the acquired in the learning techniques involved? 3. Has the society or nation anything to gain from someone who acquire the techniques other than the teaching of the subjects. Significance of this Paper In the first place teaching is a profession for making useful manpower generally. Economic strength of any nation lie in the world of business, the core of information communication techniques. This goes with talk (utterances) in diverse specifications. Anything contrary or negative in this all important sphere of life teaching and utterance does not profess doom alone but real doom for such a society. In this regard this proposal for the well being of core society life fluids becomes the proposal of all proposals and if carried out becomes the wisest thing every done by any society in the field of utterances. It therefore becomes very significant for the entire human nation and the development of human abilities. Scope of Recreating This recreating proposal implementation should be carried out in every tertiary institutions of the globe. In Nigeria, let it be done in every state of the federation. Especially among these institutions that offers shorthand in the area of business and education. Why Utterance Technology Sounds through the mouth are just part of the totality of sounds in the universe. Sounds occurs when birds sing, or cry, dogs bark, cars or vehicles move, when engines get started, when people sing, claps, cry, shout, etc. When human beings communicate with another they usually do that through speech or talk or writing. Speech or talk involves sounds from the mouth Utterance which are associated with hearing and meaning for understanding to take place. These mouth sounds combine with one another as may be heard to form meaningful utterances. When one speaks, one produces a chain of sounds which are mentally arrange in sequence as heard. In mental recognition from stress and intonation resulting from certain movements from the organ part to give syllable or words. The feature of stress, intonation and sequence of these sounds in speech processes become very necessary in life and constitute producing organ sound system UTTERANCE. The art of having heard it and trying to represent it as actually heard in the briefest (the most brief) form possible (i.e. sign) involves a developed technique hence UTTERANCE TECHNOLOGY.



The Utterance Organs The process of utterance according to Onuigbo (2006), starts from the lungs which acts as power house. As the airstream flows out from lungs through the narrow space of the wind pipe, some sounds are produced. He further said that other organs along the throat in the mouth modify the sounds according to the message which the speaker wants to convey. He added other parts as the vocal cords, the velum, hard palate, alveolar ridge, teeth, lips and the tongue. Among all he described the tongue as the most active articulator because it moves and can, in contact with others create a total or partial obstruction during the production of certain groups of sound (utterance) consonants. Onuigbo (2006) also added that the tongues distance from the top of the oral cavity influences the quality of the other group of sounds call vowel. Even at all these, it should be noted that utterance are produced only when the airstream flows out of the lungs. Larynx is another organ that also modifies the sound depending on the state of yet another known as glottis through the vocal cords vibratin to produce Voiced Sounds or drawn apart not to vibrate to produce Voiceless Sounds. All these organs contribute one way and the other to make sounds, see diagram in fig 1 below. According to Onuigbo (2006) still, the movement of the jaws also influences the shape of the lips in the production of the vowels. The expansion or contraction of these utterances organs produces different types of sounds. Fig. 1: Diagram showing organs of utterance

(Oral English for Schools; Pg.2) Types of Utterances Ozuruoke (2003) offered an explanation of sounds utterances to be sound made with mouth that is heard or idea or impression conveyed through mouth being heard. Shortly put, - utterance from the mouth where the human mouth is the conveying organ. He further categorized mouth sounds (utterance) into 2 groups: for easy follow up of this art. 1. Sounds made with hearable break (CONSONANT) 2. Sounds made without hearable break (VOWELS) Onuigbo (2006) though based his idea of sound system through English Language also said that it is made up of two main features. Further he said the segmental feature are simply the vowels and consonants while the supra-segmental features are stress rhythm, and intonation. He further classified the vowels and consonants as individual sound segments and added that the features of stress, rhythm and intonation affects the quality of the sounds, and acted over longer sequences. This is similar to the group, Ozuruoke (2006) in agreement with pitman (1978) referred to as double consonants, and compound consonants in addition to diaphones and triphones. This presenter agrees also with Onuigbo (2006), to say that although



the relative importance of stress, intonation, etc is generally recognized, efforts made for the teaching and learning of these features are not commensurate with their importance in intelligible communication and the prescribing of art. The reasons for the apparent lack of interest and serious effort by both learners and some teachers especially in Nigeria and other multilingual countries or societies. This proposal if closely followed makes provision to represent exactly what is uttered no matter the language or dialects. This is achieved by careful understanding the nature derivation of the elements of the signs used, as hereafter explained. Natural Insinuation for Derivations of Sound Signs Utterances at this stage should be viewed with this technique of getting subsequent sign representation for actual sound in relation t o nature. Nature provides that one should always and only be thinking of 2 things in every consideration: - Thus male and female, day or night, up or down, front or back, bends or straight, etc. Utterance techniques should also keep one within this frame of mind. Sound utterances should be grouped into 2 only too. We had heard earlier of sounds with hearable break or without hearable break let us also add long short; heavy or light; straight or curve, etc. According to Ozuruoke 2006 as agreed with Pitman (1978) sounds made with hearable break are called consonants while those made without hearable breaks are called vowels. Either consonant or vowel can be made long or short and also be represented with heavy or light sign. The signs used to represent consonant are in form of straight strokes and shallow curves. While those use for representing vowels are in the forms of dots and dashes. Invariably, there can be a light stroke or a heavy stroke for consonant and light or heavy dots and dashes for the vowel sounds. These signs can be derived from Areole et al (2006) put forward as natural look of the earth in globe. The Consonant Signs Associate The sounds made with hearable breaks otherwise known as consonants are identified by Pitman to be 24 in number but represented with 26 signs. The signs for these sounds for this mastery aim can be associated with the imaginary natural line on the Globe base on geographical perspectives as seen in these diagrams. Fig. 2: Pole End Derivation of Straight Strokes
Pole (North) Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricom South Pole 90 120 60 30 0 PB 120 TD 90 60 CH J 30 R 0KG

(Source Certificate Physical & Human Geography Pg. 7 -13)



From the pole point with a distinct consideration from 0 to 120 at angle 30o intervals every other strokes seems to repeat itself. So five strokes at these intervals can be singled out and used as signs representations of some sound in human speeches (utterances) following pitmans discovery or shorthand
1 2 3 4 5

0 120, 5 selected strokes from 30o interval of the Earth Pole. From this diagram it becomes natural to see that some major consonants derived their signs formations from these strokes, as number 1 stroke is sign representation for 1. 2. 3. P T Ch and its corresponding heavy B and its corresponding heavy D and its corresponding heavy J

Same can be said of others for K and G as well as derivatives for R and H. Similarly, the Globe too can be used to deduce the signs for the curved strokes by dividing or bisecting the globe in two different perspectives thus vertical/horizontal cutting, diagonal left-down and right-down cutting. Fig. 3: The Global Derivation of Curved Strokes
a. Vertical/Horizontal Bisecting Longitude Latitude Longitude 2 S Z 1 F/V Sh/Zh 4 L aR 3 Latitude Th 5 ith N/NG 8 or 7 Equator b. Diagonal Bisecting Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricom 6

(Source: Certificate Physical and Human Geography for SSS Pg. 8 -13)



From these diagrams it can also be deduced that some other consonants gets their sign representations from these curves. If being bisected in two forms as 1 Vertical/Horizontal and 2 Diagonal Bisecting resulting to curve as:Number 1. 2. 3. 4. can be used for F light and V heavy can be use for L light can be use for AR light can be use for Sh light and Zh heavy

On these geographical perspectives it could be seen that consonants are represented with straight strokes and shallow curves. Representing consonants are not only ordinary imaginative drawing but derived from natural, relation to geographical natural curve shapes of the glob. The sounds made without hearable breaks also have similar inclination in agreement with nature for dot as small globe and dash strokes as the latitude line. Conceptual Negative View as Affecting Recreating Efforts a Time Consuming Task The diligence required to master the art of shorthand is time consuming and that is what the uninterested students and teachers complained about. It should be forgotten that Any thing worth doing is worth doing well and that nothing good comes easy. Pitman (1978) ascertained this in one of his passages by saying that Gold is not gotten on the surface. The believe of practice makes perfect should not be forgotten. Onwusu Ansah (2004) argued that the course sees obstacles or difficulties as challenges which must be faced squarely and conquered. Igbo (2000) in Ozuruoke (2003) says it makes one abides by ones decisions and accepts responsibilities for them. He further stated that the skill gives one enduring training that is capable to enable one to bear risks and that dexterity and mastery in speed and accuracy are well developed after long term consented efforts. The Benefits of Acquiring Utterance Technology Skill Onwusu-Ausah (2004), Orifa (2005), Davis and Gubb (1991) in their various views affirmed that entrepreneurship which has almost the same zeal and involvement as shorthand in skill acquisition, offers self confidence, self reliance, risk taking and bearing, is result oriented, creativities, initiatives, and leadership quality that ensures success in almost all endeavors. Igbo (2004), specifically designed what he call SWOT analysis membership strength, weakness, opportunities and threat analysis of any on going business assessment as to advantageously maximize the use of available assets. Creativities and innovations resulting from the concentration habit also help the one who acquire such techniques to synthesis extensions of other mind dissatisfaction, bulk of job challenges, delay in payment, unemployment will never be associated with anyone that has acquired a wonderful skill technique as this much more could be reviewed. The Focus of Recreating Proposal Since some of our halls are equipped with computer gadgets for course involving computer such as Computer Appreciation, Computer Application, Word Processing and others. It is hereby proposed that: 1. A good textbook or lecture notes as life packages that is well developed to fully cover all the intricacies of utterances techniques be installed in those computers as Teach Yourself Utterance Technology in a lovely sequential order. 2. Head phones provided for each of them so as to encourage individual practices as a form of



3. 4. 5. 6.

personal learning not to disturb others. Lecturers of this course can be specifically trained to handle this project accordingly. More computers should be provided to make provision for at least 200 students to be accommodated in a given period in separate halls. This self educative programme will be installed into floppy diskettes and offer to students who may wish to go home with it. This programme which will display both visual formations of sounds heard and signs formed out of what is heard, will no doubt be of immense assistance in eliminating terrors pose by this course to students.

Conclusion Recreating shorthand skill for utterance technology is indeed a welcomed idea in the field of school of business education at least to place and have more recognition, love and appreciations of the subject and to harness the numerous benefits associated with the skill and its acquisition method in a global digital society as in this era. References
Amaewhule, W.A. (1990) Learning Principles. A Collections of Notes and Handouts on Methodology of Teaching Business Subjects. UST Port Harcourt. Ania, O. and Beecraft (1982) Towards Adequate Supply Technical Manpower. A Journal of Nigeria Education Research Council (NERL), Vol.1 Anomuoghanra, W.O. (2001) Proficiency Drill Book 1 Soothers Publishers Ltd. P.O. Box 924 Benin City Edo State. Bunnett, B. (1978) Physical and Regional Geography for West African f for Schools and Colleges. 2nd Edition International Publishers. Isaac Pitman (1978) Shorthand Instructor. Pitman Publishing Ltd. Long ACRE London WEZELAN New Zealand Ltd. Wellington. O. Areole, K Alimed, O Iruegba, B.O. Adeleke, G.C. Leong (2006) Certificate Physical and Human Geography for Senior Secondary Schools. New Impression University Press Plc, P.M.B 5055 Ibadan Nigeria. Onyedibia O. Henry (2004) A Complete Guide to English Language (For Junior Secondary 1-3) PEARL Pusihers. Harbour Road, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Ozuruoke, A.A. (2004) Mastering Shorthand. Thompchims Publisher and Computer Services, Omoku, Nigeria. Sam Onuigbo (2006) Oral English for Schools and Colleges. Press Book Ltd., South West Province Cameroon. Saraksah (1983) Management of Learning System. Indian Education Journal of ALFEA. Taylor, J.H. and Alexander W.M. (1966) Planning Curriculum for Schools. New York, Holt. Rinhard and Winstom Inc. The New Webster Dictionary of English Language - International Edition. Lexicon International Publishers Guide Group. New York (2000) Printing.



Designing and Using Intelligence and Memory Activating Boxes (Imabs) As Instructional Materials for Effective Instructions in Science and Technology Classrooms and Laboratories
Pollyn, Ibifiri Blessing, Igbigialabo, J. C.
Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State,Nigeria

Agbuke, E. I.
College of Education, Warri, Delta State, Nigeria.
Abstract The paper explains what Intelligence and Memory Activating Box is (IMAB) and opines that several of such boxes can be employed as Academic Learning Materials (ALMs) buy teachers during their teaching to deliver effective lessons to learners at the primary and secondary levels (Grades 1- 12 levels) who should in turn utilize them to study/learn. These boxes can be designed and utilized by teachers and learners alike to provoke interests and motivated to perform well and achieve better in their academic endeavours. The paper also outlined steps for the preparation of lessons that can be used to feed concept envelops and cards into several of such boxes and went on to outlined steps on how the different IMABs can be designed. It also pointed out how such ALMs should be used by teachers and learners alike. Keywords: Intelligence, Memory, activating, individualized/cooperative learning

Introduction Encyclopaedia Britannica (2011) defines intelligence as mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate ones environment; and memory as the encoding, storage, and retrieval in the human mind of past experiences. According to Okebukola 2002.39, our intelligence therefore is our singular, collective ability to act and react in an ever-changing world. The time to utilize this ability is now, considering the fact that societies of the world are conglomerating to form a global village as a result of the advent of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and other gadgets. For teachers and learners alike to interact effectively to promote good performances and achievements in school science subjects during teaching and learning in this technological age; the activation of their intelligences and memories using effective and viable instructional materials is necessary. Based on the foregoing, teachers can prepare their lessons to accommodate sessions of interactions that should help to develop in learners the abilities to learn science subjects on individual or cooperative bases whether they are in the classrooms or not. These sessions can be in form of teacher and learners interactions in practical or demonstrations in the classrooms and laboratories or playing in small groups outside the classrooms and laboratories among learners. On the other hand, for learning to continue among learners within the school hours or at their homes, Intelligence and Memory Activating Materials (IMAMs) can be designed by teachers and released to them to use either during their study periods or playing sessions. One of such materials is what this paper titles Intelligence and Memory Activating Boxes -IMABs (Pollyn and Teetito 2011. This box can be designed by both teachers and learners and be utilized vice versa during teaching, individualized or cooperative learning/interaction or be kept at the corner of the classroom or laboratory as reference boxes where learners can visit and make references to. Several of such boxes in form of square or rectangle can be designed and used to create science and technology corners in the classrooms or laboratories for learners to visit at their convenience to activate their



intelligences and memories so as to perform well in their assignments, tests and examinations. The contents of IMAB can be prepared based on the main concepts that can pasted on the surfaces of the boxes. It is expected that IMABs when designed properly by teachers and after using them for effective delivery of lessons, learners can utilize these boxes by opening and studying the sub-concepts contained in them; which are systematically arranged to give the formal knowledge they need to perform well in their classroom activities to achieve better in the different subjects they offer in schools. This paper is advocating the designing and use of IMABs by teachers and learners to help them increase their capacities to learn individually or cooperatively within or outside their classrooms and laboratories whether the teacher is there or not. Learning with IMAB Since learning does not have limitation in life but begins from cradle to grave, academic learning has systematized it such that learners can qualitatively, meaningfully and fruitfully acquire scientific knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to proffer solutions to their personal and societal problems of life which are emerging as a result of scientific and technological advancement of societies. Consequently, academic lessons normally are designed systematically according to subjects from the curriculum, syllabi or schemes of work. It is with this notion that this paper is proposing the designing of IMABs by teachers. Learners can utilize these to (empower their capacities) activate their intelligences and memories for the sake of lifelong learning, self improvement and self- reliance. The power to think as well and act intelligently is in every individual where an enabling environment is put in place; in this case provision of Academic Learning Materials ALMs or Intelligence and Memory Activating Materials (IMAMs) and games that are needed to encourage teaching and learning. According to Professor Howard Gardner cited by Okebukola 2002, and Pollyn and Teetito 20011, all humans have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. Gardner believes that each individual has nine intelligences which include: - Verbal-linguistic intelligence. - Mthematical- logical intelligence. - Musical intelligence. - Visual-spatial intelligence. - Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence. - Interpersonal intelligence. - Intrapersonal intelligence. - Naturalist intelligence and - Existential intelligence. Through painstaking efforts which are described in one word as picolizing or picology by Pollyn 2004, teachers can adopt strategies that would enable them to prepare and present effective lessons in their classrooms and laboratories. They can design appropriate learning materials for learners to utilize at their convenience to empower their capacities to achieve in their specific subject areas. IMAB is an academic learning material that depicts a slogan and a plea: Do it yourself in the proper way. This plea goes to both teachers and learners alike. In preparing their lessons therefore, teachers are enjoined to think and reason systematically about the topics to be taught, work hard to design and produce lessons and materials that should be able to invoke learners interests and motivate them to utilize their intellects through active participations within and outside their classrooms or laboratories.



Nature of IMAB Intelligence and Memory Activating Box (IMAB) is a box that can be designed by teachers and used to teach different concepts in art, sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics in ideally organized manners. In the lessons to be learnt with IMABs, there should be opportunities for learners to display their verballinguistic intelligence such as talking and making contributions in the class or playing games in small groups; display their mathematical- logical intelligence by solving problems where necessary; display their musical intelligence where necessary by singing and composing songs with the sub concepts in the lessons; display their visual-spatial intelligence by constructing and drawing objects and so on. Through these ways, the operational word for designing and using IMABs is proposed as picolize (Pollyn 2004). When people picolize, they are performing activities in the right direction based on the topic at hand which will lead to Right Teaching, Right Learning and Right Living; also referred to as 3RTLL (Pollyn and Wokocha 2008). The designing and uses of IMABs are ways of picolizing to bring about proper conceptualization in teachers and learners, innovations into teaching, efficiency and productivity into teaching and learning in the education industries. Picolizing the Lesson to Produce an IMAB The following steps put forward by Pollyn 2000 can be used to bring about activity-based lessons in the classrooms or laboratories. The lessons can be made into concept cards that can be introduced in constructed boxes to be used by learners. 1. Producing a lesson

Get a topic for the lesson Think creatively about the topic Consult persons and texts, look into others sources such as internet, dailies, journals, etc. Put down your ideas in writing (Information to be given).

Get cardboard and cut to sizes, e.g. 90 X 90mm. Write out key pieces of information (not more than one or two sentences) on each card. Divide the class into small groups for discussion Give cards to each group to deliberate upon or construct models, and feedback.

Organize a major practical class and feedback with the concept cards Organize whole class discussion for feedback Evaluate cognitive, affective and psychomotor base on lower and higher order skills.

2. Steps in designing an IMAB based on the particular lesson produced 1. 2. 3. 4. Take measurements of 90mm by 90mm (less or more lengths) and cut out six or two pieces of equal sizes of cardboard. Join the pieces using glue to produce a square or rectangular box. Paste pictures/diagrams (chart) of the concepts under study on the six surfaces of the square box or on the upper surface of the rectangular box produced. Fill the box with instructions/notes on the main concept in three envelops and label them as simple,



5. 6. 7. 8.

medium and hard. Place the box in a corner where it can be viewed and used to teach or learn. Pick up one envelop e.g. simple and teach with it. You may pronounce the word on each card correctly and expect learners to do same or ask individual learners to suggest methods of using each envelop. They can also do this cooperatively both in the school hours and at home. Release the box to learners to use even when you are not in the classroom with them. Finally, ask learners to produce similar boxes on different topics at school or home and use them to learn at their free periods.

Sources of IMABs and Contents The National Policy on Education (NPE 2004) in its philosophy and goals of education in Nigeria outlines the five main national goals for Nigeria upon which education is founded and every lesson delivered in the classroom becomes a building block for such educational foundation. These goals are as follow: (a) a free and democratic society; (b) a just and egalitarian society; (c) a united, strong and egalitarian society; (d) A great and dynamic nation; (e) A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens The same document also has the objectives and subjects for every starter of the education system. With particular reference to the primary and secondary subjects outlined in it (National Policy on Education, NPE 2004), Intelligence and Memory Activating Boxes (IMABs) can be designed and utilized to bring about effective teaching and learning especially at the primary and secondary school levels. Other sources from where IMABs can be prepared from include the national curricula and syllabi, schemes of work and individual textbooks. In the designing and preparing the contents of IMABs, concepts or topics should be broken down to sub-concepts or sub-topics from simple to complex manners. On the other hand, the contents of IMABs can be made up of sub-concepts and sub-topics treated in the previous lessons. This box can then be made available for learners to reach and utilize at their convenience to activate their intelligences and memories based on the lessons they have learnt. A typical scheme of work from where several IMABs can be designed is captured from the science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN 2011) schedule of national workshops as follow: SENIOR SECONDARY BIOLOGY COURSE CODE: STAN BIO 301 MODULE 1: COURS TITLE: BIOLOGY AND LIVING THINGS COURSE UNIT: UNIT 3: ORGANIZATIONS OF LIFE COURSE CONTENT/DESCRIPTION 1. Levels of organization of life. 2. Cell (Euglena, paramecium). 3. Tissue (hydra,). 4. Organ (onion bulb). 5. System (bird, man). NOTE: What is expected to be done with the above scheme has been explained above, BUT STILL, see some examples below.



Producing the Contents of IMABs Formulate statements, questions and tentative answers on concept cards and introduce them into envelops to be placed in the boxes; for instance: A. Levels of organization of life- explaining the main concept of the lesson first. Note: This lesson was prepared and presented at STAN Biology Panel workshop by Pollyn and Teetito 2011. A. 1. Levels of Organisation of Life Organization of life is the manner in which life exists from simple to complex forms within the environment generally called Earth. Life in living things is organised in form of cell, tissue, organs and systems. Living things exist in each of these levels or categories. Living things that exist at the cellular level are called singlecelled-organisms, e.g. Virus, Bacteria, Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena and Chlamydomonas. Those that exist in more than one or more cellular associations are referred to as simple multi-cellular organisms, e.g. Spirogyra, volvox, hydra, jelly fish; While those organisms that contain several cells, tissues, organs and systems are referred to as complex cellular organisms, e.g. plants and animals. Organisms in each of these levels are called living things because they possess life. Biologically speaking, life is described in seven series of events or broad activities which also indicate the presence of life in all living things. These activities also are known as characteristics of living things. They are carried out with corresponding characteristic features present in the living things according to their levels. For instance, organelles make up the characteristic features of single celled and simple multi-cellular organisms. Multi-cellular and complex cellular organisms have tissues, organs and systems as their characteristic features which include internal and external appendages. Level of organization is studies in the categories of cells, tissues, organ and systems (Pollyn 2005). The cell: Cell is the basic, structural and functional unit of life. A cell is a unit of life in all living things because it performs basically all the characteristics of life performed by all living things such as nutrition, irritability, reproduction, growth, excretion, respiration and movement. There are free-living (independent) single-celled organisms such as bacteria, amoeba, paramecium, euglena and chlamydomonas found in stagnant water and watery and dirty environments. There are also non- free (non- independent cells) which are found in all living things, in this case, cells are building blocks of living things that exist as simple multi-cellular or complex cellular organisms. There are basically two types of cells; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Plant and animal cells are examples of eukaryotic cells. They can be studies to find out or describe the differences between prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells or plants and animals. There are differences also between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Information in bits, for instance, differences in the characteristic features of organisms can be described by way of asking and answering questions on concept cards and be introduced into envelops which can be placed in a constructed IMAB for learners to reach and use to study or play games with at their convenience. Labelled examples of free- living single-celled organisms are shown below. The organelles as well as their functions can be used to prepare concept cards.



Amo eba

Ma cronuc leus Pellic le T rychoc yst Ec top la sm End op la sm Anterior c ontra ctile va cuole Cilia Ora l g roove Micronuc leus Gullet Food va cuole Posterior contra c tile va c uole Pa ra m ecium

Euglena Fla gella Eye sp ot Ectop la sm End op la sm Chlorop la st Pellicle Chla myd omona s

Source: Pollyn 2005. A.2. Designing an IMAB with the above diagrams in three stages can be done as follow: 1. Steps for the Simple level 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create envelops with each of the diagrams pasted, e.g. amoeba on their upper surfaces. Write out all the organelles of the particular organism on pieces of cardboard paper (concept cards) and introduce these accordingly into each envelop containing the diagram of the particular organism. Also, write out the characteristics of the organism and introduce into same envelop. Label each envelop as simple or easy level on the opposite surface of the envelop. Introduce these envelops containing the cards into the box. Use this level to present the rudimentary information about the organisms to be presented to the learners about the first level of organization of life; e.g. organelles in Amoeba are pseudopodia, cell membrane, nucleus, etc. See example below.




Cell membrane



Nuclear membrane


Food vacuole

Contractile vacuole

2. Steps for the Medium Level 1. Write out each of the organelles and their functions on pieces of cardboard papers 2. Introduce these concept cards into another envelop bearing the particular diagrams of the organisms. 3. Introduce these also into the box, e.g. pseudopodia/cell membrane Note: In this stage, the sub-concept being presented is briefly explained to allow learners to comprehend the lesson in bits. An example is given below.

Pseudopodia: Pseudopodia are movement appendages in amoeba which the organism uses for movement. These are false feed the organism extends to capture its preys and uses as food. In capturing its prey, amoeba extends two pseudopodia at the direction of the prey and tactically engulfs it with a little drop of water with which it digests it. After capturing the prey as food, amoeba can move away from the scene by extending pseudopodia in another direction. This is why the shape of amoeba is not constant.

Ectoplasm: This is the part of amoeba directly attached to the cell membrane. It is part of the cytoplasm but is very light in nature because none of the organelles is suspended in it.

Endoplasm: this is the part of the organism amoeba that is directly associated with the ectoplasm. This part is very dense because it contains the organelles that perform other functions in the organism. It is the endoplasm and the ectoplasm that form the cytoplasm of the organism.

3. Steps for Hard Level 1. Broaden the explanation of the concepts started at the medium level in relation to other concepts on another concept card, e.g. pseudopodium/cell membrane. 2. Introduce the cards into a different set of envelops labelled hard with diagram of the organism on one of the surfaces. 3. Put these envelops with the cards into a constructed IMAB. 4. Teach with each envelop or leave the box with the learners to operate during their learning process. Note: In this stage, the concept being presented is broadly explained to include some physiology and



mathematical implications where necessary to convey proper understanding of the meaning and structure of the concept under study. An example is given below.
Pseudopodium/cell membrane: a pseudopodium is an extension of the cell membrane which is made up of a single protein layer found in between double lipid layers which contain phospholipid, cholesterol and glycolipid molecules that form chains of fatty acid that determines whether a membrane is formed into a flat sheet or round vesicles. The fatty acid chains allow many small, fat-soluble molecules, such as oxygen, to permeate the membrane, but they repel large, water-soluble molecules, such as a sugar, and electrically charged ions, such as calcium (see cell membrane in Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011). The single protein layer in between the lipid layers allows the transport of ions and water-soluble molecules across the membrane. The presence of both lipid and protein layers contributes to the flexibility of the cell membrane. This can be the reason why amoeba can extend and withdraw its pseudopodia at random.

Conclusion and Recommendations Intelligence and Memory Activating Box (IMAB) is an Academic Learning Material (ALM) necessary for all learners at the primary and secondary school levels. What the learners are expected to do in the utilization of IMABs and their contents is to pick concept cards from the box and read out or study to activate their intelligences and memories in order to perform well in their achievement tests which could be assignments, tests or examinations. Procurement of IMABs is the responsibility of parents and the government, while its designing and utilization are the responsibilities of teachers and learners. Delivery of adequate and effective lessons in the classrooms and laboratories is not in much talking but in the production of interactive materials that will provoke learners intelligences, memories, and interests as well as their motivation to perform well in their academic endeavours, therefore the production of IMABs should be adequately sponsored by government and associations, and be utilized by teachers and learners. References
Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004). National Policy on Education. Fourth Edition. NERDC Press, Yaba, Lagos-Nigeria. Okebukola, P. (2002). Beyond the Stereotype to New Trajectories in Science Teaching. Text of Special Lecture presented at the 43th Annual Conference of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Commonwealth Association of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (CASTME) August 2002. Pollyn, I. B. (2000). IMPROVING Students Learning of Biology Concepts Through Games. Journal of Research in Contemporary Education (JORCED). Volume One, Number One. Pollyn, I. B. (2005). Picology on Biology for SS Students. CAL ENT NIG. Port Harcourt. Pollyn, I. B. and Wokocha, (2008). Recognizing and Promoting Learning Abilities in Basic science through the use of electronics and the concept of Picology: Necessary to national development. Journal of e-learning (JOEL). Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Limited. Pollyn, I. B and Teetito, A. E. (20011). A paper presented at the STAN Biology Panel Workshop held at College of Education, Ilorine, Kwara State from 12th- 18th June. STAN. (2011). Science Teachers Association of Nigeria. Schedule of national workshops.


Printed for MCSER in October 2011 with the tecnology print on demand by Gruppo Srl Via del Lavoro 22, 36040 Grisignano, VI, Italy