Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9


February 1, 2012

Study of PAM generation and detector and observe characteristics of both single and dual pulse amplitude modulation.

COMPONENT REQUIRED:- 9V D.C. at 100 mA -IC regulated power supply internally connected - Variable frequency sampling pulse generator -Sine wave audio frequency modulating signal generator - PAM modulator circuit based on operational amplifier - PAM demodulator circuit based on a point connected diode and operational amplifier -The unit is operative on 230V 10% at 50Hz A.C. Mains,

THEORYModulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with respect to a modulating signal. This is done in a similar fashion as a musician may modulate a tone (a periodic waveform) from a musical instrument by varying itsvolume, timing and pitch. The three key parameters of a periodic waveform are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and

its frequency ("pitch"), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency signal to obtain the modulated signal. Typically a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal, but a square wave pulse train may also occur. In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform is used to transform a baseband message signal into a passband signal, for example low-frequency audio signal into a radio-frequency signal (RF signal). In radio communications, cable TV systems or the public switched telephone 2. 1


February 1, 2012

network for instance, electrical signals can only be transferred over a limited passband frequency spectrum, with specific (non-zero) lower and upper cutoff frequencies. Types of Modulation:-

Analog communication Digital communication

Ana log communication:

An analog or analogue communication consist of any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context; however, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also convey analog signals. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. Electrically, the property most commonly used is voltage followed closely by frequency, current, and charge. Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal; often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, temperature, position, or pressure, and is achieved using a transducer.

Digital communication:
In digital communication the term digital signal is used, to refer a discrete-time signal that have a discrete number of levels, for example a sampled and quantified analog signal, or to the continuous-time waveform signals in a digital system, representing a bit-stream. In the first case, a signal that is generated by means of a digital modulation method which is considered as converted to an analogue signal, while it is considered as a digital signal in the second case.

2. 2

PAM Modulation

February 1, 2012

Continuous wave




Pulse amplitude Phase Pulse position

Pulse time

Pulse code


Pulse width

Need For Modulation

1. Frequency Multiplexing Multiplexing may be achieved by translating each one of the original signal to a different frequency range. Suppose one signal is translated to the frequency range f1 to f2. The second of the range f1 to f2. And so on. If these new frequency ranges do not overlap, then the signal may be separated at the receiving end by appropriate band pass filter. 2. Practicability of Antennas When free space is the communication channel radiate and receive the signal. It turns out that antennas operate effectively only when their dimensions are of the order of magnitude of the wavelength of the signal being transmitted. A signal strength 1 kHz corresponds to a wave length of 300,000m, an entirely impractical length. The required length may be reduced to the point of practicability by translating the audio tone to a higher frequency.

3. Narrow Banding
The process of the frequency translation may be used to change wideband signal into a narrow band signal which may well be more conveniently processed. The term wideband and narrowband are being used here to refer not to an absolute range of frequencies but rather to the fractional change in frequency from one band edge to other.

2. 3


February 1, 2012

4. Common Processing
It may happen that we may have to process, in turn a number of signals similar in general character but occupying different spectral range. It will then be necessary as we go from signal to signal, to adjust frequency range of our processing apparatus to correspondence to the frequency range of the signal to be processed. If processing apparatus is rather elaborate, it may well be wiser to leave the processing apparatus to operate in some fixed frequency range and instead to translate the frequency range of each signal in turn to correspond to fixed frequency.

Advantage of digital communication:1. Digital communication is more rugged then analog communication because it can withstand channel noise and distortion is within limits. 2. We can use regenerative repeaters in the digital communication. The distance over which an analog message can be transmitted is limited by transmitted power. 3. Digital hardware implementation is flexible and permits the use of microprocessor, miniprocessor, digital switching and large scale integrated circuit. 4. Digital signal can be coded to yield extremely low error rate and highly feudality and as well as privacy. 5. Digital signal is inherently more efficient then analog in realizing the exchange of SNR and bandwidth. 6. Digital signal storage is relatively easy and inexpensive.

2. 4


February 1, 2012

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM): This training is concerned with this type of pulse modulation; therefore lets look at it in further detail. Here the amplitude of the pulse is varied according to the modulating signal. This corresponds to amplitude modulation of the continuous wave. The PAM waveform can be two types. DUAL POLARITY PAM If we sample the modulating signal by dual polarity sampling pulses as then resulting PAM waveform is also dual polarity types . SINGLE POLARITY PAM If we sample the modulating single whose DC level has been raised to a positive value say +V1 from 0 volts and sample it with singal polarity pulses Then the resulting waveform is also a single polarity type. In this training board we produce single polarity PAM.

Fig .2.1
The frequency spectrum of the sampling pulsesshowsPAM waveform. The frequency spectrum of PAM signal shows that the modulating frequency fm and various sidebands fcfm maintain their individuality, that is, fm does not spread into the lower sideband region 2. 5


February 1, 2012 fmfc-fm

around fc or fc+fm does not spread into the lower sideband region around 2fc if: or fc2fm.

Fig: 2.2 Demodulation of pulse amplitude modulation

We can conclude that the modulating signal can be extracted from the PAM simply by a diode and a low pass filter with its cut of frequency at Fm.

2. 6


February 1, 2012


FIG: 2.3 circuit diagram of PAM

2. 7


February 1, 2012

Practical circuit of pulse amplitude modulation

V1 0 120 Vrms 60 Hz 0 4 R2 4.7k
A + _

Ext Trig + _ B + _

2 Q1 5 V2 -1 V 1 V 0.5msec 1msec 0
FIG: 2.4 Here V1is modulating signal. V2 is the carrier signal.

R3 3.3k

R1 22k

1 SMBT2222A C1 100nF

The modulating and the demodulated output is obtained on the 1st and 2nd channel of oscilloscope respectively.

WORKING:The block diagram of pulse amplitude modulator based on operational amplifier (ic-741) is show on in fig. we know that the train of pulses corresponding to the samples of each signal are modulated in amplitude in accordance with the signal itself. Accordingly, the scheme of sampling is called pulse amplitude modulation. In this, the modulating signal is feds to pin-3 of op-amp. through sine wave generator. The sampling pulses are feds to pin-6 of op-amp. 10k resistor.+9v supply is feds to pin-7 through 100f capacitor. The pin-2 of 741 connected to two resistor of 2k2 , 4k7 & four diodes (1n4148). The pin-2
2. 8


February 1, 2012

provides trigger pulse to 741 through diode and resistor. The o/p of 741 depends on the amplitude of the external trigger pulse applied to this pin. Thus, we obtained PAM waveform. When we feds the Pam waveform to the i/p of demodulator, we obtained modulating signal. The block diagram of Pam demodulator is shown in fig. The Pam demodulator is low pass filter which passes only low frequency modulating signal shows the effects of the frequency of the frequency of sampling pulses on the recovered modulating signal after flow frequency sampling pulses. RESULT:Hence, I have studied and performed pulse amplitude modulation and demodulation. IMPORANTS POINT: Frequency of carrier must be higher than message. Amplitude of pulse must be varied according to sinusoidal wave, due to some distortions in the negative half change in amplitude of pulse appears less.

2. 9